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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0002, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357126

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a eficácia da trabeculotomia transluminal assistida por gonioscopia correlacionada com a gravidade do glaucoma. Métodos Análise restrospectiva de prontuários de pacientes que foram submetidos à trabeculotomia transluminal assistida por gonioscopia no período de 2019 a 2021 em um hospital privado. Resultados Vinte olhos foram submetidos à trabeculotomia transluminal assistida por gonioscopia (dois olhos) ou facectomia e trabeculotomia transluminal assistida por gonioscopia (18 olhos). Pacientes portadores da doença avançada obtiveram redução de 5mmHg (26,5%) na pressão intraocular, com redução de 2,3 drogas, e olhos com glaucoma leve ou moderado apresentaram redução de 8mmHg (40%) na pressão intraocular média e 2,1 drogas. Metade dos olhos operados teve hifema nos primeiros dias como principal complicação cirúrgica. Conclusão A trabeculotomia transluminal assistida por gonioscopia é um procedimento eficaz na redução da pressão intraocular e na redução da quantidade de drogas em uso, apresentando maior redução da pressão intraocular em olhos com glaucoma leve/moderado.


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate efficacy of gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy and relate to severity of glaucoma. Methods A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients submitted to gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy, at a private hospital, from 2019 to 2021. Results A total of 20 were submitted to gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (2 eyes) or facectomy and gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (18 eyes). Patients with advanced-stage disease achieved a decrease by 5 mmHg (26.5%) in IOP, with a reduction of 2.3 drugs, and eyes with mild or moderate glaucoma showed a drop by 8 mmHg (40%) in mean IOP and of 2.1 drugs. Half of the operated eyes had hyphema in the first days as the main surgical complication. Conclusion Gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy is an effective procedure to reduce IOP and the number of drugs being used, with greater IOP decrease in eyes with mild/moderate glaucoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Trabeculectomy , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/surgery , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Gonioscopy/methods , Intraocular Pressure
2.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0008, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360919

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries are surgical treatment alternatives for glaucoma aimed at reducing intraocular pressure with a better safety profile compared to traditional trabeculectomy. However, in spite of less invasive techniques, complications may develop in any surgical procedure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of anterior uveitis following combined treatment with cataract surgery and iStent inject® which addresses the management of postoperative inflammation.


RESUMO As cirurgias minimamente invasivas para glaucoma consistem em uma opção de tratamento cirúrgico para glaucoma, a qual promove redução da pressão intraocular com melhor perfil de segurança do que a trabeculectomia. Todavia, complicações são inerentes à realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos, apesar do uso de técnicas menos invasivas. Este é o primeiro relato que apresenta um caso de uveíte anterior após cirurgia combinada de catarata e iStent inject®, além de orientações quanto ao manejo do quadro inflamatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Uveitis/drug therapy , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Uveitis, Anterior/etiology , Postoperative Complications , Titanium , Trabecular Meshwork/surgery , Tropicamide/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Stents , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/surgery , Injections, Intraocular , Intraocular Pressure , Acetazolamide/administration & dosage
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 735-741, oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351044

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study assessed the causes of visual impairment over a decade in Buenos Aires City. This is a retrospective case series where we reviewed the database of visual disability certificates issued by the Buenos Aires City Ministry of Health between 2009 and 2017. In Argentina, visual disability is defined as a visual acuity ≤ 20/200 in the better eye, or a corresponding visual field of less than 20 degrees in the less impaired eye. The database included the following variables: year of issue, age, gender, and cause of visual disability. Between 2009 and 2017 a total of 7656 subjects were certified as legally blind. The mean age of the sample was 57 ± 21 years and 52.1% were females. The emission was near 700 certificates per year. The age distribution showed that 62.8% of certificates were from patients older than 50 years and that only 6.6% were given to subjects under 20. The leading causes of visual disability in Buenos Aires City were age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) with a rate of 15.5%, degenerative myopia (14.4%), primary open-angle glaucoma (11.3%) and diabetic retinopathy (6.6%). In subjects younger than 50, degenerative myopia was the first cause of visual disability. Interestingly in Argentina, where the prevalence of myopia is low, degenerative myopia is found to be the major cause of visual disability in middle-aged adult subjects. Population and clinical methods to avoid this preventable disease should need to be implemented as a matter of urgency.


Resumen Este trabajo estudia las causas de la discapacidad visual durante una década en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Se presenta una serie de casos retrospectiva donde se revisó la base de datos de certificados de discapacidad visual emitidos por el Ministerio de Salud de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires entre 2009 y 2017. En Argentina, la discapacidad visual se define como una agudeza visual ≤ 20/200 en el mejor ojo, o un campo visual correspondiente de menos de 20 grados en el ojo menos deteriorado. La base de datos incluyó las siguientes variables: año de emisión, edad, sexo y causa de la discapacidad visual. Entre 2009 y 2017 se certificaron un total de 7656 sujetos con ceguera legal. La edad media de la muestra fue de 57 ± 21 años y el 52.1% fueron mujeres. La distribución por edades mostró que el 62.8% de los certificados fueron dados a pacientes mayores de 50 años y que solo el 6.6% se otorgó a menores de 20 años. Las principales causas de discapacidad visual fueron la degeneración macular asociada a la edad (DMAE) (15.5%), la miopía degenerativa (14.4%), el glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto (11.3%) y la retinopatía diabética (6.6%). En los menores de 50 años, la miopía degenerativa fue la primera causa de discapacidad visual. Resulta interesante que, en Argentina, donde la prevalencia de miopía es baja, la miopía degenerativa sea la principal causa de discapacidad visual en adultos de mediana edad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Myopia/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Vision Disorders , Retrospective Studies
4.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e1025, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352025

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar los hallazgos por eco-Doppler orbitario en pacientes con glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto según factores de riesgo aterosclerótico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y transversal en 300 órbitas de 150 pacientes con diagnóstico de glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto. A todos los casos se les realizó tonometría de contorno dinámico y tomografía de coherencia óptica. Se identificaron mediante interrogatorio y por el laboratorio clínico los factores de riesgo aterosclerótico: hipertensión arterial, tabaquismo, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, dislipidemia, obesidad y consumo excesivo de alcohol. Se les realizó ultrasonido orbitario y Doppler carotídeo, y solo en caso de resultar normales se procedió a evaluar mediante eco-Doppler las arterias oftálmica, central de la retina y ciliares posteriores temporales. Resultados: La edad media de los sujetos estudiados fue de 62,3 años. El 55,3 por ciento correspondió al sexo femenino y el 47,3 por ciento al color blanco de la piel. El número de factores de riesgo mostró una correlación lineal moderada, positiva y significativa con el índice de resistencia, mientras que con las velocidades dicha correlación resultó ser negativa. Todos los factores de riesgo expresaron efectos dañinos sobre la hemodinámica del flujo ocular, la presión intraocular y el grosor de las capas de fibras neurorretinianas temporales. Tras ajustar para la edad, esta negativa influencia continuó siendo relevante en la mayoría de los casos. Conclusiones: Los aspectos vasculares del glaucoma deben integrarse a la práctica clínica de esta afección, lo que ayudará a que el enfoque sea más completo, y redundará en un mejor pronóstico de la enfermedad(AU)


Objective: Determine the orbital echo-Doppler findings in patients with primary open angle glaucoma according to atherosclerotic risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted of 300 orbits of 150 patients diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma. All the cases underwent dynamic contour tonometry and optical coherence tomography. Interrogation and clinical laboratory testing led to identification of the following atherosclerotic risk factors: arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, obesity and excessive alcohol consumption. Orbital and carotid Doppler ultrasounds were performed, and only if they were normal they would be followed by echo-Doppler evaluation of the ophthalmic, central retinal and posterior temporal ciliary arteries. Results: Mean age of the study subjects was 62.3 years. 55.3 percent were female and 47.3 percent had white skin. The number of risk factors showed a moderate, positive and significant linear correlation with the resistive index, and a negative correlation with the velocities. All the risk factors expressed harmful effects on ocular flow hemodynamics, intraocular pressure and the thickness of temporal neuroretinal fibers. After adjusting for age, this negative influence continued to be relevant in most cases. Conclusions: The vascular aspects of glaucoma should be incorporated into the clinical management of this condition. This will make the approach more thorough and help achieve a better diagnosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic , Intraocular Pressure
5.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(2): 91-95, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280107

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados da facotrabeculectomia em seguimento igual ou superior a 5 anos. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, de intervenção e analítico realizado no centro cirúrgico da clínica de olhos de Juazeiro do Norte com pacientes operados no período de 2006 a 2013. Foram envolvidos na investigação 34 olhos de 29 pacientes com catarata senil e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto submetidos à facotrabeculectomia. Foi criado um escore de risco de dano glaucomatoso variando de 0 a 5 ao avaliar pressão intraocular, escavação do disco óptico, número de drogas hipotensoras utilizadas para o tratamento do glaucoma e a idade do paciente em anos. A amostra foi de conveniência e pareada. Foi utilizado o teste de Wilcoxon pareado para a verificação de diferenças entre médias. Foi aceito p< 0,05 para a rejeição da hipótese de nulidade. O estudo foi aprovado pelo comitê de ética da plataforma Brasil e segue a resolução 466 do Conselho Nacional de Saúde. Resultados: A média da acuidade visual foi significantemente maior após o seguimento de 5 anos (média pré-operatória 0,42 +/- 0,23 ver-sus média pós-operatória 0,62 +/- 0,29 - p=0,0031). A média dos escores de risco para dano glaucomatoso após 5 anos de seguimento foi significativamente menor quando comparado ao pré-operatório (media pré-operatória: 9,47 +/- 1,61 versus média pós-operatória 6,55 +/- 2,21) p < 0,0001, considerado extremamente significante. Conclusão: A facotrabeculectomia foi significantemente efetiva na melhora da acuidade visual e na redução do risco de dano glau-comatoso após seguimento pós-operatório igual ou superior a 5 anos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the results of phacotrabeculectomy in a follow-up of five years or more. Methods: Retrospective, interventional and analytical study that was carried out in the surgical center of clínica de olhos do juazeiro with patients operated on from 2006 to 2013. 34 eyes of 29 patients with senile cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma, who underwent phacotrabeculectomy were involved in the investigation. A risk score for glaucomatous dam-age ranging from 0 to 5 when evaluating intraocular pressure, excavation of the optic disc, number of hypotensive drugs used to treat glaucoma and the patient's age in years. The sample was of convenience and paired. The paired Wilcoxon test was used to verify differences be-tween means. P <0.05 was accepted for the rejection of the null hypothesis. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Brazil platform and follows the principles of resolu-tion 466 of the National Health Council. Results: The mean visual acuity was significantly higher after a five-year follow-up (preoperative average 0.42 +/- 0.23 versus postoperative average 0.62 +/- 0.29 - p = 0.0031). The average risk score for glaucomatous damage after five years of follow-up was significantly lower when compared to the preoperative (preoperative mean: 9.47 +/- 1.61 versus postoperative mean 6.55 +/- 2, 21) p <0.0001, considered extremely significant. Conclusion: Phacotrabeculectomy was significantly effective in improving visual acuity and reducing the risk of glaucomatous damage after a five-year postoperative follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cataract/complications , Trabeculectomy/methods , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/surgery , Phacoemulsification/methods , Visual Acuity , Visual Fields , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/complications , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Combined Modality Therapy , Intraocular Pressure
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921534

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the role of ultrasound biomicroscopy(UBM)in two-year post-operative follow-up for primary open-angle glaucoma patients with modified CO


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide , Follow-Up Studies , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/surgery , Humans , Microscopy, Acoustic , Sclera/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1087-1092, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is a less pressure-dependent type of glaucoma with characteristic optic neuropathy. Recently, the biomechanical mechanism has been thought to account for glaucomatous optic neuropathy to some degree. We intended to compare dynamic corneal response parameters (DCRs) among patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with normal tension or hypertension and controls. The correlations between DCRs and known risk factors for glaucoma were also analyzed.@*METHODS@#In this cross-sectional study, 49 NTG subjects, 45 hypertension glaucoma (HTG) subjects, and 50 control subjects were enrolled. We compared the differences in DCRs using corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology among the NTG, HTG, and control groups. We also analyzed the correlations between DCRs and known risk factors for glaucoma (eg, central corneal thickness [CCT], intraocular pressure [IOP], etc).@*RESULTS@#The maximum inverse concave radius (NTG: 0.18 [0.17, 0.20] mm-1; control: 0.17 [0.16, 0.18] mm-1; P = 0.033), deformation amplitude ratio of 2 mm (DAR 2 mm, NTG: 4.87 [4.33, 5.39]; control: 4.37 [4.07, 4.88]; P  0.05). In the univariate and multivariate analyses, some of the DCRs, such as IR, were negatively correlated with CCT and IOP, whereas SP-A1 was positively correlated with CCT and IOP.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The cornea was more deformable in NTG than in HTG or controls. There were no significant differences in corneal deformability between HTG and controls. The cornea was more deformable with the thinner cornea and lower IOP.


Subject(s)
Biomechanical Phenomena , Cornea , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Humans , Hypertension , Intraocular Pressure , Low Tension Glaucoma
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880835

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate accuracy of the currently used strategies for intraocular pressure measurements for reflecting actual 24-hour intraocular pressure fluctuations.@*METHODS@#From September, 2018 to January, 2019, the patients with a suspected diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma at our hospital were prospectively enrolled to receive 24-hour intraocular pressure monitoring using a Goldmann tonometer. With the intraocular pressure measurements at 0:00, 2:00, 5:00, 7:00, 8:00, 10:00, 11:00, 14:00, 16:00, 18:00, 20:00, and 22:00 as the gold standard (strategy 1), we compared the measurements taken at 5:00, 7:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00 (strategy 2) and at 8:00, 11:00, 14:00, and 16:00 (strategy 3) for their accuracy in reflecting 24-h intraocular pressure fluctuations.@*RESULTS@#A total of 41 patients (82 eyes) were enrolled in this study. The peak intraocular pressures measured using the 3 strategies were 21.09±4.15 mmHg, 20.54±4.10 mmHg, and 19.91±4.38 mmHg, respectively, showing significant differences among them (@*CONCLUSIONS@#For suspected cases of glaucoma, intraocular pressure measurements at 4 and 6 time points of a day can not precisely reflect the actual range of intraocular pressure fluctuations, and may lead to a missed diagnosis of glaucoma.


Subject(s)
Glaucoma/diagnosis , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Prospective Studies , Tonometry, Ocular
9.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31103, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291249

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O glaucoma é uma neuropatia óptica progressiva que pode acarretar defeitos progressivos do campo visual e perda da visão. É a principal causa de cegueira irreversível no mundo, sendo o aumento da pressão intraocular (PIO) o principal fator de risco. Objetivos: Identificar o perfil dos usuários do SUS no Estado de Minas Gerais, especificamente do Departamento de Glaucoma do Instituto de Olhos Ciências Médicas (IOCM). Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo clínico observacional, transversal e de caráter retrospectivo com 1484 pacientes. Foram incluídos pacientes do sexo feminino e masculino, acima de 18 anos de idade, encaminhados ao setor de glaucoma do IOCM para o primeiro atendimento, com suspeita ou doença confirmada. Os diagnósticos considerados foram: suspeita de glaucoma; hipertenso ocular; glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto; glaucoma primário de ângulo fechado; glaucoma de pressão normal; glaucoma congênito; glaucoma secundário; glaucoma neovascular e glaucoma maligno. Resultados: Houve predomínio do sexo feminino e o diagnóstico mais frequente foi "glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto". Os fatores de risco mais prevalentes foram idade avançada e hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Conclusões: O perfil clínico demográfico dos pacientes em tratamento de glaucoma em Minas Gerais são semelhantes ao encontrado em alguns trabalhos realizados em outros países do mundo.


Introduction: Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy that can lead to progressive visual field defects and loss of vision. It is the main cause of irreversible blindness in the world, with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) being the main risk factor. Objectives: Identify the profile of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) users, specifically in the Department of Glaucoma at the Instituto de Olhos Ciencias Medicas (IOCM), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study enrolled 1484 patients. Were inclueded female and male patients, over 18 years of age, referred to the glaucoma sector of the IOCM for the first visit, with suspected or confirmed disease. The diagnoses considered were: suspected glaucoma; ocular hypertension; primary open-angle glaucoma; primary closedangle glaucoma; normal-pressure glaucoma; congenital glaucoma; secondary glaucoma; neovascular glaucoma. Results: There was a predominance of females and the most frequent diagnosis was "Primary Open-angle Glaucoma". The most prevalent risk factors were advanced age and hypertension. Conclusions: The demographics and clinical profile of patients undergoing glaucoma treatment at IOCM are similar to those found in some studies performed in other countries.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Profile , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Optic Nerve Diseases , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Ocular Hypertension , Blindness , Intraocular Pressure
10.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(4): e0014, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280126

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess the economic impact of reducing glaucoma progression by using the trabecular micro-bypass implant, iStent inject®, in the Reference Centers for glaucoma treatment within the Brazilian Public Unified Health System (SUS). Methods In a cost-effectiveness analysis, a Markov model was developed, and the costs were obtained from the SUS perspective (medical direct costs). Effectiveness was measured in progression-free life-years. The time horizon was the mean life expectancy of the Brazilian population. The model parameters were obtained through a review and a critical analysis of the literature. The base case comprised a hypothetical cohort of patients with open-angle glaucoma, using anti-glaucoma eye drops and followed up at Reference Centers of SUS. We tested whether the incorporation of iStent inject® as an alternative second-line therapy would be cost-effective. The outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (R$/progression-free life-years). We tested the robustness of the model by univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results The use of iStent inject® led to decreased progression rate of glaucoma, evidenced by the amount of progression-free life-years obtained with each treatment strategy (7.82 progression-free life-years with iStent inject® versus 6.33 progression-free life-years with medical treatment), thereby improving glaucoma control. There was also a reduction in future costs associated with eye drops, filtering surgeries, and treatment complications. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranged from R$ 6,429.30 to R$ 7,550.97/progression-free life-years. The model proved to be robust in the sensitivity analyses. Conclusion This analysis showed that iStent inject®, when used after the failure of the first-line therapy, is able to reduce the rate of glaucoma progression at an acceptable cost.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o impacto econômico da redução da progressão do glaucoma pelo uso do implante de by-pass trabecular iStent inject® no ambiente dos Centros de Referência para tratamento do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Métodos Em uma análise de custo-efetividade, elaborou-se um modelo de Markov, cujos custos foram obtidos a partir da perspectiva do SUS financiador (custos médicos diretos). A efetividade foi medida em anos de vida livres de progressão. O horizonte temporal foi a expectativa de vida média da população brasileira. Os parâmetros do modelo foram obtidos pela revisão e pela análise crítica da literatura. O caso base foi composto de uma coorte hipotética de portadores de glaucoma de ângulo aberto em uso de colírios antiglaucomatosos e em acompanhamento nos Centros de Referência do SUS. Testou-se se a incorporação do iStent inject® como alternativa à segunda linha de tratamento seria custo-efetiva. A medida de desfecho foi a razão de custo-efetividade incremental (R$/anos de vida livres de progressão). A robustez do modelo foi testada por meio de análises de sensibilidade univariada e probabilística. Resultados A utilização do iStent inject® proporcionou uma diminuição da velocidade de progressão do glaucoma, evidenciada pela quantidade de anos de vida livres de progressão obtida com cada estratégia de tratamento (7,82 anos de vida livres de progressão com iStent inject® versus 6,33 anos de vida livres de progressão com tratamento com colírios), melhorando, dessa forma, o controle do glaucoma. Houve ainda redução nos custos futuros associados aos colírios, às cirurgias filtrantes e às complicações do tratamento. A razão de custo-efetividade incremental variou de R$6.429,30 a R$7.550,97/anos de vida livres de progressão. O modelo mostrou-se robusto nas análises de sensibilidade. Conclusão O iStent inject®, quando usado após a falha do primeiro medicamento, é capaz de reduzir a taxa de progressão do glaucoma a um custo aceitável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostheses and Implants/economics , Trabecular Meshwork/surgery , Unified Health System , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/surgery , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Disease Progression
11.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 9(1): 1-5, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362911

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência de glaucoma entre os portadores de patologias tireoidianas, acompanhados na Clínica Escola de Saúde (CES) do núcleo de Medicina do Centro Universitário Christus (UNICHRISTUS), Fortaleza ­ Ceará ­ Brazil. Métodos: estudo transversal e descritivo de prontuários de pacientes diagnosticados com hipotireoidismo ou hipertiroidismo pelo Código Internacional de Doenças (CID-10) no sistema eletrônico da CES, entre 2013 e 2018. Pacientes triados foram convidados a realizar um exame oftalmológico na Fundação Leiria de Andrade (FLA). Resultados: dos 499 prontuários triados, 22,8% (114) possuíam diagnóstico confirmado para tireoidopatias, sendo 85,9% (98) com hipotireoidismo, e 14,0% (16) com hipertireoidismo. Desses, 72,0% (101) eram mulheres e 28,0% (13) homens. A faixa etária mais prevalente foi entre 41 a 60 anos de idade, correspondendo a 46,4% (53), sendo 65,7% (75) de Fortaleza ­ Ceará ­ Brasil. As principais comorbidades associadas às tireoidopatias foram hipertensão arterial sistêmica, representando 43,8% (50), seguida de dislipidemia, 26,3% (30) e diabetes mellitus tipo 2 em 13,1% dos pacientes (15). Do total, 25 pacientes foram encaminhados à FLA, 84,0% (21) relataram doenças oculares prévias, 4,0% (1) diagnosticado com escavação aumentada constitucional e 12,0% (3) com diagnóstico de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto. Conclusão: apesar da hipótese de associação entre o glaucoma e as tireoidopatias, o tamanho amostral não possibilitou inferências sobre o risco aumentado de sua correlação, assim como em outros estudos preexistentes na literatura, sendo necessários mais estudos para elucidar com maior precisão essa associação relevante. Palavras-chave: Glaucoma; Tireoide; Hipotireoidismo; Hipertireoidismo; Pressão Intraocular. Resumo Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of ophthalmological pathologies, between thyroidopathies, for early diagnosis of glaucoma in patients seen at the Clínica Escola de Saúde (CES) of the Medicine Center of the Centro Universitário Christus (UNICHRISTUS), Fortaleza ­ Ceará ­ Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study and descriptive analysis of medical records of patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) on the CES electronic system, between 2013 and 2018. Screened patients were invited to perform an eye examination at Fundação Leiria de Andrade (FLA). Results: Of the 499 medical records screened, 22.8% (114) had a confirmed diagnosis for thyroid disorders, 85.9% (98) with hypothyroidism, and 14.0% (16) with hyperthyroidism. Of these, 72.0% (101) were women and 28.0% (13) men. The most prevalent age group was between 41 and 60 years old, corresponding to 46.4% (53), being 65.7% (75) from Fortaleza - Ceará. The main comorbidities associated with thyroid diseases were systemic arterial hypertension, 43.8% (50), followed by dyslipidemia, 26.3% (30), and type 2 diabetes mellitus in 13.1% of patients (15). Of the total, 25 patients were referred to the FLA, 84.0% (21) reported previous eye diseases, 4.0% (1) diagnosticated with increased constitutional excavation, and 12.0% (3) with a diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma. Conclusion: Despite the hypothesis of an association between glaucoma and thyroidopathy, the sample size didn't allow inferences about the increased risk of its correlation, as well as in other pre-existing studies in the literature, requiring further studies to elucidate this relevant association.


Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência de glaucoma entre os portadores de patologias tireoidianas, acompanhados na Clínica Escola de Saúde (CES) do núcleo de Medicina do Centro Universitário Christus (UNICHRISTUS), Fortaleza ­ Ceará ­ Brazil. Métodos: estudo transversal e descritivo de prontuários de pacientes diagnosticados com hipotireoidismo ou hipertiroidismo pelo Código Internacional de Doenças (CID-10) no sistema eletrônico da CES, entre 2013 e 2018. Pacientes triados foram convidados a realizar um exame oftalmológico na Fundação Leiria de Andrade (FLA). Resultados: dos 499 prontuários triados, 22,8% (114) possuíam diagnóstico confirmado para tireoidopatias, sendo 85,9% (98) com hipotireoidismo, e 14,0% (16) com hipertireoidismo. Desses, 72,0% (101) eram mulheres e 28,0% (13) homens. A faixa etária mais prevalente foi entre 41 a 60 anos de idade, correspondendo a 46,4% (53), sendo 65,7% (75) de Fortaleza ­ Ceará ­ Brasil. As principais comorbidades associadas às tireoidopatias foram hipertensão arterial sistêmica, representando 43,8% (50), seguida de dislipidemia, 26,3% (30) e diabetes mellitus tipo 2 em 13,1% dos pacientes (15). Do total, 25 pacientes foram encaminhados à FLA, 84,0% (21) relataram doenças oculares prévias, 4,0% (1) diagnosticado com escavação aumentada constitucional e 12,0% (3) com diagnóstico de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto. Conclusão: apesar da hipótese de associação entre o glaucoma e as tireoidopatias, o tamanho amostral não possibilitou inferências sobre o risco aumentado de sua correlação, assim como em outros estudos preexistentes na literatura, sendo necessários mais estudos para elucidar com maior precisão essa associação relevante


Subject(s)
Glaucoma , Patients , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Women , Comorbidity , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Early Diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Eye Diseases , Hypothyroidism , Intraocular Pressure , Men
12.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e984, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156583

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El glaucoma es una neuropatía óptica caracterizada por la pérdida de células ganglionares de la retina y sus axones. Se presentan dos casos clínicos, ambos miopes con sospecha de glaucoma, con el objetivo de valorar la importancia del análisis de las células ganglionares en el diagnóstico de estos pacientes. La evaluación de los cambios estructurales glaucomatosos en los ojos miopes es difícil, por las considerables variaciones morfológicas en la cabeza del nervio óptico y otras estructuras del segmento posterior del ojo. La tomografía de coherencia óptica permite el análisis cuantitativo in vivo del disco óptico, la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina y el área macular; pero interpretar los hallazgos en ojos miopes, y especialmente en altos miopes, puede ser un verdadero desafío. Estudios recientes han demostrado que las mediciones maculares tienen ventajas sobre el análisis de la capa de fibras nerviosas de la retina para determinar si los defectos del grosor de la retina se relacionan con el glaucoma o con la miopía. Sin embargo, se deben considerar varios estudios en el intento de emitir un diagnóstico de certeza(AU)


ABSTRACT Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Two cases are presented, both myopic and with suspected glaucoma, with the purpose of assessing the role of ganglion cell analysis in their diagnosis. Evaluation of structural glaucomatous changes in myopic eyes is a difficult task, due to the considerable morphological variations occurring in the optic nerve head and other structures from the posterior segment of the eye. Optical coherence tomography allows in vivo quantitative analysis of the optic disc, the retinal nerve fiber layer, and the macular area, but interpreting the findings in myopic eyes, particularly in highly myopic eyes, may be a real challenge. Recent studies have shown that macular measurements have advantages over retinal nerve fiber layer analysis to determine whether the retinal thickness defects are related to glaucoma or to myopia. However, several studies should be considered in the attempt to reach an accurate diagnosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Myopia/etiology , Evaluation Studies as Topic
14.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(4): 318-322, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131605

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The renin-angiotensin system is involved in the pathogenesis of retinal ischemic conditions and glaucoma. Our objective was to evaluate the renin, angiotensinconverting enzyme 1, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activities in aqueous humor and blood samples of patients with and without primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: We analyzed samples from 56 participants who underwent ocular surgeries. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with cataract alone (n=28) and patients with cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma (n=28). Venous blood (2 ml) and aqueous humor (150 µl, via paracentesis) samples were collected during phacoemulsification (cataract only) or glaucoma surgery (cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma). The serum and aqueous humor renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme 1, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activities of all patients were evaluated by fluorimetric assays, and results were analyzed by using multivariate regression analysis. Results: Both the aqueous humor renin activity and renin activity aqueous humor/serum ratio were significantly lower in patients with cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma than in patients with cataract only [(mean ± SE): 0.018 ± 0.006 ng/ml/h vs 0.045 ± 0.009 ng/ml/h, p<0.001; 0.05 ± 0.02 vs 0.13 ± 0.05, p=0.025]. Multivariate analyses showed a significant relationship between lower aqueous humor renin activity and primary open-angle glaucoma [coefficient (±SE): -0.029 ± 0.013, p=0.026]. Conclusions: Our results showed that patients with primary open-angle glaucoma had lower aqueous humor renin activity. As timolol eye drops were used by most of the primary open-angle glaucoma patients, we propose that a large sample of washed-out patients should be studied in the future to discriminate the involvement of b-blocker treatment in the aqueous humor renin activity.


RESUMO Objetivo: O sistema renina-angiotensina está envolvido na patogênese das condições isquêmicas retinianas e no glaucoma. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a atividade da renina, enzima conversora de angiotensina 1 e 2 no humor aquoso, e amostras de sangue de pacientes com e sem glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto. Métodos: Foram analisadas amostras de 56 participantes submetidos à cirurgia ocular. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: pacientes com catarata apenas (n=28), e pacientes com catarata e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto (n=28). Amostras de sangue venoso (2ml) e humor aquoso (150 µl, via paracentese) foram coletadas durante a facoemulsificação (apenas catarata) ou cirurgia de glaucoma (catarata e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto). As atividades sérica do humor aquoso de renina, enzima conversora de angiotensina 1 e enzima conversora de angiotensina 2 de todos os pacientes foram avaliadas por ensaios fluorimétricos, e os resultados foram analisados por regressão multivariada. Resultados: Tanto a atividade da renina no humor aquoso quanto à razão humor aquoso/soro da atividade da renina foram significativamente menores nos pacientes com catarata e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto do que em pacientes com catarata apenas [(média ± DP): 0,018 ± 0,006 ng/ml/h vs 0,045 ± 0,009 ng/ml/h; p<0,001 e 0,05 ± 0,02 vs 0,13 ± 0,05; p=0,025]. Análises multivariadas mostraram uma releção significativa entre menor atividade de renina no humor aquoso e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto [coeficiente (±erro padrão): -0,029 ± 0,013; p=0,026]. Conclusões: Como a maioria dos pacientes com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto usavam o colírio de timolol, estudos futuros envolvendo um maior número de pacientes e retirada prévia do tratamento são necessários para se discriminar o envolvimento do uso de betabloqueadores na atividade da renina no humor aquoso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aqueous Humor , Cataract , Angiotensin I , Angiotensin II , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Renin
15.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 12(2): 109-120, Agosto/2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1118027

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar se a incorporação do implante trabecular iStent® Trabecular Micro-Bypass é custo- -efetiva para o tratamento do glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto (GPAA) em pacientes que serão submetidos a cirurgia de catarata sob a perspectiva do Sistema de Saúde Suplementar no Brasil. Métodos: Foi elaborado um modelo analítico de Markov, cujos custos foram obtidos a partir da perspectiva da saúde suplementar brasileira (custos médicos diretos). A efetividade foi medida em "anos de vida livres de progressão (PFLY)". O horizonte temporal foi a expectativa de vida média da população brasileira. Os dados foram obtidos por meio da revisão e da análise crítica da literatura. O caso base foi: portadores de GPAA e catarata submetidos a cirurgia de catarata isolada e manutenção do uso de colírios antiglaucomatosos. Testou-se se a incorporação do iStent® Trabecular Micro-Bypass nesse cenário seria custo-efetiva. A medida de desfecho foi a razão de custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI: R$/PFLY). Realizou-se análise de sensibilidade univariada e probabilística para testar a robustez do modelo. Resultados: A incorporação do iStent® Trabecular Micro-Bypass gera um aumento dos custos inicialmente, mas melhora o controle da doença, tornando o glaucoma estável por mais tempo e diminuindo os custos futuros relacionados à progressão da doença. A RCEI foi de R$ 5.491,99/PFLY. O modelo mostrou-se robusto nas análises de sensibilidade. Conclusão: Esta análise sugere que a incorporação do implante iStent® Trabecular Micro-Bypass combinado com a cirurgia de catarata seria custo-efetiva para o tratamento conjunto da catarata e do GPAA no cenário da saúde suplementar no Brasil.


Objective: To evaluate whether the incorporation of the iStent® Trabecular Micro-Bypass implant is cost-effective for the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in patients undergoing cataract surgery from the perspective of the supplementary healthcare system in Brazil. Methods: An analytical Markov model was developed and costs were obtained from the Brazilian supplementary health perspective (direct medical costs). Effectiveness was measured in "progression free life years (PFLY)". The time horizon was the average life expectancy of the Brazilian population. Data were obtained through review and critical analysis of the literature. The base case was: glaucomatous patients with cataract who underwent isolated cataract surgery and continued use of antiglaucomatous eye drops. We tested whether incorporating iStent® Trabecular Micro-Bypass in this scenario would be cost effective. The outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER: R$/PFLY). We performed univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of the model. Results: Incorporating the iStent® Trabecular Micro-Bypass increases initial costs but improves disease control, making glaucoma stable longer and reducing future costs due to disease progression. The ICER was R$ 5,491.99/PFLY. The model was robust in sensitivity analyses. Conclusion: This analysis suggests that the incorporation of the iStent® Trabecular Micro-Bypass combined with cataract surgery would be cost-effective for joint cataract and POAG treatment in the supplementary health setting in Brazil.


Subject(s)
General Surgery , Cataract , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Supplemental Health
16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 132-140, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088966

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the relationships between (i) thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head topography, and visual field parameters and (ii) corneal biomechanical properties in normal controls and patients with ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study included 68 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma, 99 eyes with ocular hypertension and 133 control eyes. Corneal biomechanical properties, optic nerve head topographic features, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and visual fields were assessed in all cases. Corneal biomechanical properties, retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses, and optic nerve head topographic features were compared among the groups. The associations between structural and functional measures of glaucomatous damage and corneal biomechanical factors were also evaluated. Results: Significantly lower corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor values were observed in the primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension groups as compared with the control group, but there were no significant differences between the primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension groups. In the ocular hypertension group, no associations were observed between the corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor with values and the structural and functional parameters. In the primary open-angle glaucoma group, positive correlations were observed between the corneal hysteresis values and the global retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (p<0.01, r=0.27), mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (p<0.01, r=0.33), and mean deviation (p<0.01, r=0.26), and negative correlations were observed between the corneal resistance factor values, and the cup area (p<0.01, r=-0.39), cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.02, r=-0.28), linear cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.02, r=-0.28), and cup shape (p=0.03, r=-0.26). In the control group, weak correlations were detected between the corneal hysteresis and the cup area (p=0.03, r=0.19), cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.01, r=0.21), and linear cup-to-disk ratio (p=0.01, r=0.22). Conclusions: Distinct correlations were identified between the corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor values and the functional and structural parameters in the primary open-angle glaucoma and control groups. Corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor may have different roles in the pathophysiology of glaucoma.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar as relações entre (i) espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina, topografia do nervo óptico e parâmetros do campo visual e (ii) propriedades biomecânicas da córnea, em controles normais e pacientes com hiperten são ocular e glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto. Métodos: Este estudo observacional, transversal, incluiu 68 olhos com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto, 99 olhos com hipertensão ocular e 133 olhos controle. As propriedades biomecânicas da córnea, as características topográficas da cabeça do nervo óptico, a espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e os campos visuais foram avaliados em todos os casos. As propriedades biomecânicas da córnea, a espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e as características topográficas da cabeça do nervo óptico foram comparadas entre os grupos. As associações entre medidas estruturais e funcionais de danos glaucomatosos e fatores biomecânicos da córnea também foram avaliadas. Resultados: Valores de histerese corneana e da resistência corneana foram significativamente menores nos grupos com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e hipertensão ocular em com paração ao grupo controle, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e hipertensão ocular. No grupo com hipertensão ocular, não foram observadas associações entre histerese da córnea e o fator de resistência corneana com os valores e os parâmetros estruturais e funcionais. No grupo com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto foram observadas correlações positivas entre os valores de histerese corneana e a espessura a camada de fibras nervosas da retina (p<0,01, r=0,27), espessura média da camada de fibras nervosas da retina (p<0,01, r=0,33) e desvio médio (p<0,01, r=0,26), e correlações negativas entre o os valores do fator de resistência da córnea e a área de escavação (p<0,01, r=-0,39), a relação escavação/disco (p=0,02, r=-0,28), a relação copo-para-disco linear (p=0,02, r=-0,28) e a forma da escavação (p=0,03, r=-0,26). No grupo controle, correlações foram detectadas entre a histerese da córnea e área de escavação (p=0,03, r=0,19), relação escavação/disco (p=0,01, r=0,21) e relação copo-para-disco linear (p=0,01, r=0,22). Conclusões: Correlações distintas foram identificadas entre histerese da córnea e os valores de resistência da córnea e os parâmetros funcionais e estruturais nos grupos de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto e controle. A histerese da córnea e o fator de resistência da córnea podem ter diferentes papéis na fisiopatologia do glaucoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Retina/pathology , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/pathology , Ocular Hypertension/pathology , Cornea/pathology , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Reference Values , Retina/physiopathology , Biomechanical Phenomena , Visual Fields/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Linear Models , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/physiopathology , Ocular Hypertension/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cornea/physiopathology , Intraocular Pressure
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811309

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the long-term longitudinal changes in axial length (AL), mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP), and choroidal thickness (CT) according to the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) after glaucoma surgery. The potential variables associated with CT changes were also evaluated.METHODS: This was a prospective study for 1 year after glaucoma surgery, which included 71 eyes of 71 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. The subfoveal CT (SFCT) and peripapillary CT (PPCT) were measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography preoperatively and 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. MOPP was calculated from the IOP and blood pressure. The AL was measured using partial coherence interferometry. Regression analysis was conducted to assess the possible association of variables.RESULTS: The AL decreased and the MOPP, SFCT, and PPCT increased significantly with IOP reduction at 1 year post-operatively (all, p < 0.001). The changes in SFCT and PPCT were significantly associated with IOP reduction at 1 year postoperatively (r = −0.519 and r = −0.528, respectively). Importantly, greater increases in SFCT and PPCT were found in patients with IOP reduction more than 30% from baseline, when compared with those with less than 30% reduction (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). The SFCT increased more significantly in patients with AL ≤ 24 mm, compared with patients with AL > 24 mm (p = 0.044).CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in the IOP, increase in the MOPP, decrease in the AL, and increase in the CT after glaucoma surgery persisted for 1 year during a long-term follow-up. These results suggested that glaucoma surgery reduced mechanical compression on the optic nerve fiber and increased intraocular blood flow.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Choroid , Follow-Up Studies , Glaucoma , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Humans , Interferometry , Intraocular Pressure , Optic Nerve , Perfusion , Prospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811308

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of a visual field (VF) test on intraocular pressure (IOP) and relevant parameters in a normal group and an open-angle glaucoma group, and to determine the appropriate time of IOP measurements.METHODS: The IOP was measured by a rebound tonometer before and after a VF test for the normal, normal-tension glaucoma, and high-tension glaucoma groups, and IOP differences after the VF tests were compared among groups. Parameters including age, sex, axial length, central corneal thickness, IOP before the VF test, the VF index, mean deviation, VF test duration, and usage of IOP lowering medications were investigated, and the correlations of these parameters with IOP changes after VF tests were determined using linear regression analyses.RESULTS: A total of 232 participants (232 eyes) included 55 normal subjects, 131 normal-tension glaucoma patients, and 46 high-tension glaucoma patients. The IOP differences after VF tests were not statistically significant in the normal and high-tension glaucoma groups, and the difference was 0.31 mmHg in the normal-tension glaucoma group (p = 0.013). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that axial length (p = 0.005) and IOP before the VF test (p < 0.001) were relevant factors in the total number of patients, and the axial length (p = 0.017), IOP before the VF test (p = 0.001), and duration (p = 0.029) were found to be significantly associated with IOP differences in the normal-tension glaucoma group.CONCLUSIONS: The IOP changes after VF tests using the rebound tonometer were significant in the normal-tension glaucoma group, but were within an acceptable range. The IOP value measured after a VF test is clinically valid in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Glaucoma , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Linear Models , Low Tension Glaucoma , Visual Field Tests , Visual Fields
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