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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0002, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357126

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a eficácia da trabeculotomia transluminal assistida por gonioscopia correlacionada com a gravidade do glaucoma. Métodos Análise restrospectiva de prontuários de pacientes que foram submetidos à trabeculotomia transluminal assistida por gonioscopia no período de 2019 a 2021 em um hospital privado. Resultados Vinte olhos foram submetidos à trabeculotomia transluminal assistida por gonioscopia (dois olhos) ou facectomia e trabeculotomia transluminal assistida por gonioscopia (18 olhos). Pacientes portadores da doença avançada obtiveram redução de 5mmHg (26,5%) na pressão intraocular, com redução de 2,3 drogas, e olhos com glaucoma leve ou moderado apresentaram redução de 8mmHg (40%) na pressão intraocular média e 2,1 drogas. Metade dos olhos operados teve hifema nos primeiros dias como principal complicação cirúrgica. Conclusão A trabeculotomia transluminal assistida por gonioscopia é um procedimento eficaz na redução da pressão intraocular e na redução da quantidade de drogas em uso, apresentando maior redução da pressão intraocular em olhos com glaucoma leve/moderado.


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate efficacy of gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy and relate to severity of glaucoma. Methods A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients submitted to gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy, at a private hospital, from 2019 to 2021. Results A total of 20 were submitted to gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (2 eyes) or facectomy and gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (18 eyes). Patients with advanced-stage disease achieved a decrease by 5 mmHg (26.5%) in IOP, with a reduction of 2.3 drugs, and eyes with mild or moderate glaucoma showed a drop by 8 mmHg (40%) in mean IOP and of 2.1 drugs. Half of the operated eyes had hyphema in the first days as the main surgical complication. Conclusion Gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy is an effective procedure to reduce IOP and the number of drugs being used, with greater IOP decrease in eyes with mild/moderate glaucoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Trabeculectomy , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/surgery , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Gonioscopy/methods , Intraocular Pressure
2.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(3): e1025, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352025

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar los hallazgos por eco-Doppler orbitario en pacientes con glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto según factores de riesgo aterosclerótico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y transversal en 300 órbitas de 150 pacientes con diagnóstico de glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto. A todos los casos se les realizó tonometría de contorno dinámico y tomografía de coherencia óptica. Se identificaron mediante interrogatorio y por el laboratorio clínico los factores de riesgo aterosclerótico: hipertensión arterial, tabaquismo, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, dislipidemia, obesidad y consumo excesivo de alcohol. Se les realizó ultrasonido orbitario y Doppler carotídeo, y solo en caso de resultar normales se procedió a evaluar mediante eco-Doppler las arterias oftálmica, central de la retina y ciliares posteriores temporales. Resultados: La edad media de los sujetos estudiados fue de 62,3 años. El 55,3 por ciento correspondió al sexo femenino y el 47,3 por ciento al color blanco de la piel. El número de factores de riesgo mostró una correlación lineal moderada, positiva y significativa con el índice de resistencia, mientras que con las velocidades dicha correlación resultó ser negativa. Todos los factores de riesgo expresaron efectos dañinos sobre la hemodinámica del flujo ocular, la presión intraocular y el grosor de las capas de fibras neurorretinianas temporales. Tras ajustar para la edad, esta negativa influencia continuó siendo relevante en la mayoría de los casos. Conclusiones: Los aspectos vasculares del glaucoma deben integrarse a la práctica clínica de esta afección, lo que ayudará a que el enfoque sea más completo, y redundará en un mejor pronóstico de la enfermedad(AU)


Objective: Determine the orbital echo-Doppler findings in patients with primary open angle glaucoma according to atherosclerotic risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted of 300 orbits of 150 patients diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma. All the cases underwent dynamic contour tonometry and optical coherence tomography. Interrogation and clinical laboratory testing led to identification of the following atherosclerotic risk factors: arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, obesity and excessive alcohol consumption. Orbital and carotid Doppler ultrasounds were performed, and only if they were normal they would be followed by echo-Doppler evaluation of the ophthalmic, central retinal and posterior temporal ciliary arteries. Results: Mean age of the study subjects was 62.3 years. 55.3 percent were female and 47.3 percent had white skin. The number of risk factors showed a moderate, positive and significant linear correlation with the resistive index, and a negative correlation with the velocities. All the risk factors expressed harmful effects on ocular flow hemodynamics, intraocular pressure and the thickness of temporal neuroretinal fibers. After adjusting for age, this negative influence continued to be relevant in most cases. Conclusions: The vascular aspects of glaucoma should be incorporated into the clinical management of this condition. This will make the approach more thorough and help achieve a better diagnosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic , Intraocular Pressure
4.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 122-126, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003567

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivos: Correlacionar parâmetros oftalmoscópicos e cardiovasculares em pacientes com diagnóstico de insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFER) e avaliar a associação entre ICFER e alterações do nervo óptico sugestivas de glaucoma. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, observacional, prospectivo, composto por amostra 30 pacientes com diagnóstico de ICFER. Os pacientes foram submetidos ao exame oftalmológico, que incluiu biomicroscopia, avaliação da acuidade visual, aferição da PIO (pressão intraocular), gonioscopia e medida de ECC (espessura central corneana). A avaliação de parâmetros cardiovasculares, como PAM (pressão arterial média), FEVE (fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo), comorbidades e tempo de diagnóstico de IC foi realizada a partir de revisão de prontuário médico. Arbitrariamente foi escolhido o olho esquerdo para análise estatística dos dados. A correlação estatística foi realizada através do teste de Spearman, e a comparação através do teste U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: Observou-se uma alta prevalência de atrofia peripapilar (73,3%), além de uma correlação positiva, moderada e estatisticamente significativa entre FEVE e PPO (pressão de perfusão ocular) (r = 0,517; p = 0,004). Apesar da ausência de significância das comparações pelo Teste U de Mann-Whitney, evidenciou-se uma maior prevalência de atrofia peripapilar nos pacientes que apresentavam uma menor PAM, menor FEVE e menor PPO. Conclusão: A ICFER pode ser um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de alterações glaucomatosas no disco do nervo óptico. A atrofia peripapilar e a baixa pressão de perfusão ocular resultantes do déficit contrátil cardíaco podem estar relacionadas com a teoria vascular do desenvolvimento do glaucoma de pressão.


Abstract Objectives: To correlate ophthalmoscopic and cardiovascular parameters in patients diagnosed with low-output heart failure (HFrEF) and to evaluate the association between HFrEF and glaucoma-suggestive alterations in the optic nerve. Methods: Descriptive, observational and prospective study, composed of 30 patients diagnosed with HFrEF. The patients were submitted to ophthalmologic examination, which included biomicroscopy, visual acuity, gonioscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement. Their cardiovascular parameters evaluation, such as mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), comorbidities and diagnosis time of HFrEF was performed upon a review over their medical chart. The left eye was arbitrarily chosen for statistical analysis of the data. Statistical correlation was performed using the Spearman test, while the comparison was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: A high prevalence of peripapillary atrophy (73.3%) was observed, as well as a positive, moderate and statistically significant correlation between LVEF and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) (r = 0.517; p = 0.004). Despite the lack of significance of the Mann-Whitney U-Test comparisons, a higher prevalence of peripapillary atrophy was found in patients with lower MAP, lower LVEF and lower OPP. Conclusion: HFrEF may be a risk factor for the development of glaucomatous changes in the optic nerve disc. The resulting peripapillary atrophy and low OPP from the contractile deficit may be related to the vascular theory about normal-tension glaucoma development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/etiology , Heart Failure/complications , Optic Nerve , Stroke Volume , Optic Nerve Diseases , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Arterial Pressure , Observational Study , Intraocular Pressure/physiology
5.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(1): 15-21, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-990795

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivos: Determinar se a medida do diâmetro horizontal ou refletividade do nervo óptico retrobulbar no modo A apresenta correlação com a relação da escavação pelo diâmetro do nervo óptico no glaucoma, considerando: a correlação das medidas, a sensibilidade e especificidade entre os métodos e qual a medida tem maior sensibilidade e especificidade para discriminar glaucomatosos. Métodos: Estudo mascarado, prospectivo e comparativo de nervos ópticos de 38 pacientes com glaucoma de ângulo primário de ângulo aberto e 37 pacientes controles, que foram examinados para determinação ecográfica retrobulbar de seus diâmetros no modo A (DNA) e das suas refletividades (RNA). Biomicroscopicamente foram estabelecidas as relações do comprimento vertical ou horizontal da escavação pelo diâmetro correspondente dos discos ópticos (EV/DV ou EH/DH). Estas medidas foram avaliadas quanto às suas correlações, consistências, sensibilidades e especificidades. Resultados: A média de DNA foi de 2,93 mm no grupo controle e de 2,72 mm no grupo glaucomatoso (p<0,001) e a do RNA foi de 32,22% no grupo controle e 31,59% no grupo glaucomatoso (p=0,577). DNA correlacionou-se moderada e significativamente com EH/DH (-0,450, p <0,01) e EV/DV (-0,463, p<0,01) e o RNA se correlacionou de forma insignificante com EH/DH e EV/DV. A consistência das medidas de DNA foi de 0,6780(IC95%: 0,5883-0,7561) e de RNA foi de 0,6902(0,6010-0,7640) e a elas foram inferiores às medidas de consistência do disco. A medida de 2,85 mm de DNA foi a de maior sensibilidade (0,757) e especificidade (0,714) para diagnóstico de glaucoma. Conclusão: A ecografia A Estandardizada da medida do diâmetro do nervo óptico retrobulbar foi a mais indicado para diagnóstico do glaucoma.


Abstract Objectives: Determine if retrobulbar optic nerve horizontal diameter measurement or reflectivity correlates with the optic disc excavation diameter relation in glaucoma, considering: measurements correlation, the sensitivity and specificity between the methods and which value has greater sensitivity and specificity to differentiate patients with and without glaucoma. Methods: In a masked study, the optic nerves of 38 patients with open angle primary angle glaucoma and 37 control patients were examined for retrobulbar echographic determination of their A mode (DNA) and their reflectivity (RNA) diameters. Biomicroscopically the relationships of the vertical or horizontal length of the excavation by the corresponding diameter of the optical discs (EV / DV or EH / DH) were estahed. These measures were evaluated for their correlations, consistencies, sensitivities and specificities. Results: Mean DNA was 2.93 mm in the control group and 2.72 mm in the glaucomatous group (p <0.001) and that of the RNA was 32.22% in the control group and 31.59% in the glaucomatous group (p = 0.577). DNA was moderately and significantly correlated with EH / DH (-0.450, p <0.01) and EV / DV (-0.463, p <0.01) and RNA correlated insignificantly with DH / DH and EV / DV. DNA measurements was 0.6780 (95% CI: 0.5883-0.7561) and RNA was 0.6902 (0.6010-0.7640) and were lower than the consistency measurements of the disc. The measurement of 2.85 mm of DNA was the one of greater sensitivity (0.757) and specificity (0.714) for diagnosis of glaucoma. Conclusion: The standard method A of retrobulbar optic nerve diameter measurement was the most suitable for glaucoma diagnostic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Optic Disk , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Ultrasonography/statistics & numerical data , Single-Blind Method , Prospective Studies
6.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(5): 248-254, set.-out. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977861

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To validate the comparative measurements of intraocular pressure performed with IcarePRO tonometer (IPT) in relation to Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) and non-contact tonometer (NCT), as well as to evaluate the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT) on these values. Methods: This was a prospective and comparative study conducted during 6 months in the Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital de Braga, Portugal. The study population comprised two groups: healthy adults and adults with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). The IOP values were obtained by the three tonometers and the order of execution was randomly selected. CCT values were obtained by ultrasonic pachymetry. Results: A total of 168 eyes (74 with diagnosis of POAG and 94 healthy) of 84 patients were included in this study. The mean IOP values obtained by IPT, GAT and NCT were 17.36±3.78 mmHg; 14.59±3.32 mmHg; and 17.04±4.01 mmHg, respectively. The comparison between IPT and NCT did not reveal statistically significant differences in the two groups studied. However, statistically significant differences were obtained between IPT and GAT values (p <0.001). The IOP values, recorded by all the tonometers, were significantly and positivily correlated with the CCT (p <0.001). Conclusion: IOP readings measured by IPT are comparable with those obtained by NCT, but higher than those obtained by the GAT. CCT values are correlated with IOP measurements with IPT, as it does in GAT and NCT, and should be always taken into consideration.


Resumo Objetivo: Validar os valores de pressão intraocular (IOP) realizados com o tonômetro IcarePRO (IPT) em relação ao tonômetro de aplanação de Goldmann (GAT) e tonômetro de sopro (NCP), assim como avaliar a influência da espessura central da córnea (CCT) nesses valores. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo e comparativo realizado durante 6 meses consecutivos no Departamento de Oftalmologia do Hospital de Braga, Portugal. A população estudada compreendeu dois grupos: adultos saudáveis e adultos com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto (POAG). Os valores de IOP foram obtidos pelos três tonômetros e a ordem de execução foi selecionada aleatoriamente. Os valores de CCT foram obtidos por paquimetria ultrassônica. Resultados: Um total de 168 olhos (74 com diagnóstico de POAG e 94 saudáveis) de 84 pacientes foram incluídos neste estudo. Os valores médios de IOP obtidos pelo IPT, GAT e NCT foram de 17.36±3.78 mmHg; 14.59±3.32 mmHg; e 17.04±4.01 mmHg, respectivamente. A comparação entre IPT e NCT não revelou as diferenças estatisticamente significativas nos dois grupos estudados. No entanto, foram obtidas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os valores registados pelo IPT em comparação ao GAT (p <0.001). Os valores de IOP, medidos por todos os tonômetros, foram significativamente correlacionados com a CCT (p <0.001). Conclusão: As leituras de PIO medidas pelo IPT são comparáveis às obtidas pelo NCT, mas superiores às obtidas pelo GAT. Os valores de CCT estão correlacionados com medidas de IOP, tal como acontece com o GAT e NCT, pelo que devem ser levados em considerados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tonometry, Ocular/instrumentation , Tonometry, Ocular/methods , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Comparative Study , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Prospective Studies
7.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(1): 9-13, jan.-fev. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899103

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: This is a quantitative study with cross-sectional and analytical design, which sample consisted of 425 patients treated in an unit of Specialized Care in Ophthalmology, located in the northern state of Minas Gerais, from 2004 to 2015. We collected the data using formularies that addressed demographic and clinical aspects, risk factors and the presence of undercurrent diseases. We conducted an ophthalmological examination to evaluate anatomical and functional changes. We used statistical analysis, and the results are presented by mean, standard deviation and percentiles 25, 50 and 75. Results: Females predominate (56.8%), the age group of 60 years or older (44%) and mixed skin (81.7%). A minority of participants present risk factors such as high myopia (6.3%) and diabetes mellitus (17.9%). Regarding the clinical examination, there is a prevalence of increased optic nerve excavation (≥ 0.8) and low thickness of the corneas (≤ 535 microns). Conclusion: Most people develop advanced glaucoma, with increased optic nerve excavation and changed visual fields. Other common risk factors are: family history of glaucoma, decreased thickness of the cornea and hypertension. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent vision loss. Primary care physicians should consider referring patients who have glaucoma risk factors, for an ophthalmologic examination.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar o perfil clínico-epidemiológico dos indivíduos com glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo quantitativo com desenho transversal e analítico, mediante amostra constituída de 425 pacientes atendidos em uma Unidade de Atenção Especializada em Oftalmologia localizada no norte do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, cadastrados no período de 2004 a 2015. As variáveis analisadas foram: características demográficas e clínicas, fatores de risco e presença de doenças associadas. Foi realizado exame oftalmológico para avaliar alterações anatômicas e funcionais. Para as análises estatísticas foram utilizados os programas Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), versão 19.0. Considerou-se nível de significância p<0,05 para as variáveis categóricas. As variáveis descritivas foram apresentadas pela média, desvio-padrão e percentis 25, 50 e 75. Resultados: Predominou o gênero feminino (56,8%), a faixa etária de 60 anos ou mais (44%), e a cor da pele parda (81,7%). Fatores de risco como alta miopia (6,3%) e diabetes mellitus (17,9%) foram relatados pela minoria dos participantes. Em relação ao exame clínico, houve prevalência de escavação do nervo óptico aumentada (≥ 0,8 mm2) e baixa espessura central das córneas (≤ 535 micras). Conclusão: A maioria dos indivíduos apresenta glaucoma avançado, com escavações do nervo óptico aumentadas e campos visuais alterados. Outros fatores de risco frequentes foram: história familiar positiva para glaucoma, espessura central da córnea diminuída e hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Diagnóstico e tratamento precoces podem prevenir contra a perda de visão no glaucoma. Médicos da atenção primária à saúde devem encaminhar os pacientes que tenham fatores de risco para glaucoma, para a consulta especializada e exames oftalmológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/epidemiology , Optic Disk/pathology , Refraction, Ocular , Tonometry, Ocular , Skin Pigmentation , Sex Factors , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/etiology , Blindness/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Diabetes Complications , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Visual Field Tests , Corneal Pachymetry , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Gonioscopy , Hypertension/complications , Medical History Taking
8.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 30(3): 1-14, jul.-set. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-901386

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo tiene como propósito describir la posible influencia de los factores de riesgo aterosclerótico (tabaquismo, hipertensión arterial y diabetes mellitus) en las enfermedades oftalmológicas: glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto, catarata, retinopatía diabética e hipertensiva, y degeneración macular asociada a la edad. Se realizó una búsqueda sistematizada en las bases de datos Scielo, Sciencedirect y Elsevier. El tabaquismo aumenta el riesgo de padecer, y acelera la progresión, tanto del glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto como de la catarata, la retinopatía diabética e hipertensiva y la degeneración macular asociada a la edad. La hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus, además de conducir a las retinopatías correspondientes, también incrementan la probabilidad de desarrollar glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto, y son considerados factores de mal pronóstico al favorecer su progresión. El control del tabaquismo, de la hipertensión y de la diabetes mellitus mejorará el pronóstico de estas afecciones oftalmológicas, y en algunos casos evitará o retardará su aparición(AU)


The purpose of the present work is to describe the possible influence of the atherosclerotic risk factors (smoking, hypertension and diabetes mellitus) in the ophthalmological illnesses: primary glaucoma of open angle, waterfall, diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy, and macular degeneration associated to the age. Eye diseases such as glaucoma, cataract, diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are closely related to atherosclerotic risk factors: smoking, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Knowing how these factors influence ocular structures will facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. Systematic search was made in Scielo, Sciencedirect and Elsevier databases. Smoking increases the risk of suffering and accelerates the progression of primary open-angle glaucoma, as well as cataract, diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus, in addition to leading to corresponding retinopathies, also increase the likelihood of developing open-angle primary glaucoma; they are even considered poor prognosis factors since they prompt its progression. The control of smoking, hypertension and diabetes mellitus will therefore improve the prognosis of these ophthalmological conditions, and in some cases will prevent or delay their onset(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological/adverse effects , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Databases, Bibliographic
9.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 30(2): 1-14, abr.-jun. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-901367

ABSTRACT

Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de analizar la producción científica publicada por autores cubanos sobre glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto en los últimos 35 años, para lo cual se consultaron artículos científicos de las revistas médicas que aparecen en las bases de datos Medline (PubMed), SciELO Regional, CUMED, IBECS y LILACS. En total se recuperaron 33 artículos, de los cuales 27 fueron originales, 4 revisiones bibliográficas y 1 presentación de caso. Los resultados reportados en dichos estudios evidencian los logros alcanzados por los investigadores cubanos sobre esta importante afección oftalmológica, especialmente en lo que concierne a los tratamientos antiglaucomatosos y al pesquisaje temprano de pacientes con factores de riesgo glaucomatoso. Sin embargo, no se encontró ninguno realizado con el propósito de relacionar esta enfermedad con los factores de riesgo aterosclerótico, lo que podría servir de base para la realización de nuevas investigaciones(AU)


A literature review was made to analyze the scientific production published by Cuban authors on the primary open angle glaucoma in the last 35 years. To this end, the scientific articles from the medical journals included in Medline (PubMed), Regional SciELO, CUMED, IBECS and Lilacs. Thirtty three articles were recovered in total, 27 were original manuscripts, 4 literature reviews and one case report. The reported results of such studies show the achievements attained by the Cuban researchers in the field of this important eye disease, particularly the anti-glaucoma treatments and the early screening of patients with glaucomatous risk factors. However, no paper about the relationship of this disease with atherosclerotic risk factors was found, which would have serve as a basis for the conduction of new research studies(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Databases, Bibliographic/statistics & numerical data , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Review Literature as Topic , Scientific Publication Indicators , Cuba
10.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(3): 407-409, May-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886979

ABSTRACT

Abstract The current report presents the case of a 41-year-old male patient with a two-month history of asthenopia and plaques in the frontotemporal region. Computed tomography revealed bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Ophthalmological examination showed elevated intraocular pressure. Skin biopsy demonstrated aa dermal inflammatory infiltrate composed mainly of epithelioid cells and a few multinucleated giant cells, but no obvious lymphocytes. Findings of thorough physical examinations and auxiliary examinations suggested the presence of cutaneous sarcoidosis and secondary open-angle glaucoma. Treatment consisted mainly of oral methylprednisolone. Skin lesions, bilateral hilar, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy resolved completely. Cutaneous sarcoidosis is often accompanied by extracutaneous organ involvement. Dermatologists must be aware of the disease's extracutaneous manifestations to ensure accurate diagnosis for further treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sarcoidosis/complications , Skin Diseases/complications , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/etiology , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
11.
Health sci. dis ; 18(1): 70-72, 2017. tab
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1262774

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Le glaucome touche environ 67 millions d'individus dans le monde. Il est responsable d'une cécité non curable. C'est la deuxième cause de cécité au Congo-Brazzaville avec une prévalence hospitalière estimée à 13%. Il est admis que cette maladie est plus précoce chez le mélanoderme. Objectif. Décrire les aspects épidémiologiques et cliniques du glaucome au CHU de Brazzaville. Matériels et méthodes. Étude transversale descriptive rétrospective basée sur les dossiers des patients glaucomateux vus entre janvier 2009 et décembre 2010 dans le service d'Ophtalmologie du CHU de Brazzaville. Le glaucome congénital était défini par l'association d'une buphtalmie et d'une dysgénésie de l'angle iridocornéen avec ou sans atteinte du nerf optique. Les autres types de glaucome étaient définis par des altérations papillaires avec ou sans atteinte du champ visuel. Quatre paramètres ont été évalués : âge, sexe, type de glaucome, aspect de la papille. Résultats. Les dossiers de 151 patients (correspondant à 289 yeux glaucomateux) ont été retenus. L'âge moyen était de 47,9 ± 18,7 ans (1 an - 86 ans). Les patients de plus de 40 ans étaient les plus touchés (72,2% des cas). Le sex ratio était de 1,8. Le glaucome primitif à angle ouvert (GPAO) était le type le plus fréquent (90,6% des cas). Le croissant nasal (49,4%) et le ''notch'' temporal étaient les principales atteintes papillaires observées (41,0%). Conclusion : Le glaucomateux type à Brazzaville est un patient de sexe masculin, âgé d'au moins 40 ans, souffrant du GPAO avec déjà des altérations papillaires significatives lors du diagnostic


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Congo , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/epidemiology , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/therapy
12.
Mali méd. (En ligne) ; 32(1): 8-12, 2017. tab
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1265714

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Le glaucome chronique à angle ouvert ou glaucome primitif à angle ouvert (GPAO) est une neuropathie optique antérieure, d'évolution chronique et progressive, caractérisée par des altérations périmétriques et une excavation papillaire pathologique, avec généralement, une élévation de la pression intraoculaire (PIO). Notre étude a pour objet de décrire l'aspect épidémiologique et clinique du GPAO chez les patients de 40 ans et plus au CHU-IOTA. Matériels et méthodes: Il s'agissait d'une étude prospective de type descriptif de 2 mois, portant sur des patients ayant un GPAO et ayant au moins un des trois signes suivants l'hypertonie oculaire >21mmHg, l'excavation papillaire cup/disc vertical ≥0,5 et le champ visuel altéré. Tous les patients glaucomateux ayant consulté pendant la période d'étude ont bénéficié d'un examen ophtalmologique complet. Les variables étudiées étaient : l'âge, les antécédents familiauxde glaucome, d'hypertension artérielle, de diabète, la PIO et la pachymétrie. Résultats:L'étude a porté sur 200 patients âgés de 40 ans et plus avec un âge moyen de 57.6 ans, le sexe ration M/F était de 1,74en faveur du sexe masculin qui était représenté par 63,5%. La baisse d'acuité visuelle était le principal motif de consultation ophtalmologique avec (55,9 %) suivi des céphalées (23,1 %). Plus d'un quart des patients (29,5 %) avaient des antécédents familiaux de glaucome, environ 2/3 des patients (63%) avaient une pachymétrie inférieure à la normale et. l'Hypertension artérielle (HBP) représentait 66,5 % des antécédents médicaux, suivi de diabète (15 %). Conclusion:Le GPAO est caractérisé principalement par des antécédents médicaux surtout l'hypertension et des antécédents familiaux de glaucome pouvant entraîner la cécité si le dépistage n'est pas précoce ou si un traitement est mal conduit. D'où l'intérêt d'une prévention par le dépistage et l'information de la population sur cette pathologie


Subject(s)
Case Reports , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/epidemiology , Mali
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197515

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate and compare the progression of medically treated primary open angle glaucoma according to the baseline intraocular pressure (IOP). METHODS: This study included a total of 345 eyes from 345 patients (mean follow-up period, 4.5 years). Eyes were classified into either conventional normal tension glaucoma (cNTG, 21 mmHg) groups according to the conventional cut-off value of the IOP. Additionally, the median IOP (15 mmHg) was used to create two other groups (median NTG [mNTG] 15 mmHg). Using these values, 306, 39, 153, and 192 eyes were assigned to the cNTG, cHTG, mNTG, and mHTG groups, respectively. Glaucoma progression was determined either by optic disc/retinal nerve fiber layer photographs or serial visual field data. RESULTS: Mean reduction of IOP after medical treatment and of central corneal thickness was lower in the cNTG group, while the prevalence of disc hemorrhage and baseline visual field mean deviation did not differ between the cNTG and cHTG groups. A mean reduction in the IOP was observed after medical treatment, and central corneal thickness was lower in the mNTG group; disc hemorrhage was more frequent in the mNTG than in the mHTG group. Among the 345 analyzed eyes, 100 (29%) showed progression during the follow-up period. In the cHTG group, a higher baseline IOP (hazard ratio, 1.147; p = 0.024) was associated with glaucoma progression. Disc hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 15.533; p < 0.001) was also strongly associated with progression in the mNTG group. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline IOP was a significant risk factor for glaucoma progression in cHTG patients (10% of our total participants), while disc hemorrhage showed the strongest association with progression in the mNTG group, indicating that a cut-off value other than the conventional 21 mmHg is required to define true low-tension glaucoma in populations where NTG predominates among all glaucoma patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Disease Progression , Female , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Gonioscopy , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Low Tension Glaucoma/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Optic Disk/pathology , Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Photography/standards , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Tonometry, Ocular , Vision Disorders/diagnosis , Visual Field Tests/standards , Visual Fields
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65418

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the clinical characteristics of unilaterally progressing glaucoma (UPG) and simultaneously bilaterally progressing glaucoma (BPG) in medically treated cases. METHODS: Primary open angle glaucoma patients were classified as having UPG or BPG according to an assessment of optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer photographs and visual field analysis. Risk factors including the presence of systemic diseases (hypertension, diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, migraine, and dyslipidema) were compared between the UPG and BPG groups. Baseline characteristics and pre- and post-treatment intraocular pressure (IOP) were compared between the progressing eye (PE) and the non-progressing eye (NPE) within the same patient in the UPG group and between the faster progressing eye and the slower progressing eye in the BPG group. RESULTS: Among 343 patients (average follow-up period of 4.2 years), 43 were categorized into the UPG group and 31 into the BPG group. The prevalence of all analyzed systemic diseases did not differ between the two groups. PEs in the UPG group had more severe pathology in terms of baseline visual field parameters than NPEs (mean deviation -6.9 ± 5.7 vs. -2.9 ± 3.9 dB, respectively; p < 0.001). However, baseline IOP, mean follow-up IOP, and other clinical characteristics were not significantly different between the PE and the NPE in the UPG group. The progression rate was significantly higher in the faster progressing eye in patients with BPG than in the PE for patients with UPG (-3.43 ± 3.27 vs. -0.70 ± 1.26 dB/yr, respectively; p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in the prevalence of systemic diseases between the UPG and BPG groups. Simultaneously bilaterally progressing patients showed much faster progression rates than those with a unilaterally progressing eye.


Subject(s)
Disease Progression , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Humans , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Optic Disk/pathology , Retina/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Visual Fields/physiology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219866

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) change and optic nerve head parameters between non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and open angle glaucoma (OAG) with altitudinal visual field defect. METHODS: Seventeen NAION patients and 26 OAG patients were enrolled prospectively. The standard visual field indices (mean deviation, pattern standard deviation) were obtained from the Humphrey visual field test and differences between the two groups were analyzed. Cirrus HD-OCT parameters were used, including optic disc head analysis, average RNFL thickness, and RNFL thickness of each quadrant. RESULTS: The mean deviation and pattern standard deviation were not significantly different between the groups. In the affected eye, although the disc area was similar between the two groups (2.00 +/- 0.32 and 1.99 +/- 0.33 mm2, p = 0.586), the rim area of the OAG group was smaller than that of the NAION group (1.26 +/- 0.56 and 0.61 +/- 0.15 mm2, respectively, p < 0.001). RNFL asymmetry was not different between the two groups (p = 0.265), but the inferior RNFL thickness of both the affected and unaffected eyes were less in the OAG group than in the NAION group. In the analysis of optic disc morphology, both affected and unaffected eyes showed significant differences between two groups. CONCLUSIONS: To differentiate NAION from OAG in eyes with altitudinal visual field defects, optic disc head analysis of not only the affected eye, but also the unaffected eye, by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography may be helpful.


Subject(s)
Aged , Arteritis/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nerve Fibers/pathology , Optic Disk/pathology , Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vision Disorders/diagnosis , Visual Field Tests , Visual Fields
16.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 73(1): 37-39, Jan-Feb/2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-712760

ABSTRACT

Relato de caso de uma paciente, com córnea espessa, por distrofia de Fuchs em fase inicial, ainda com transparência corneana preservada (edema corneano subclínico), associado à pressão intraocular (PIO) normal por tonometria de aplanação de Goldman (TAG), que teve entretanto, o diagnóstico de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto com base em alterações estruturais do nervo óptico. O estudo tomográfico demonstrou padrão de paquimetria espacial compatível com edema subclínico. O estudo biomecânico da córnea com o ORA (Ocular Response Analyzer, ® Reichert), associado à medida corrigida da PIO, possibilitou o entendimento da influência da córnea, que apesar de mais espessa, levava a uma TAG falsamente reduzida (hipoestimada). O estudo da PIO com sistema de tonografia digital de contorno (PASCAL) corroborou com os achados do ORA. Este exemplo ressalta a importância de novas tecnologias na avaliação de pacientes com suspeita de glaucoma, e destaca que a correção da TAG, com base em algoritmos lineares relacionados com a paquimetria central apenas, pode determinar sérios erros de interpretação clínica.


Case report of a patient, with a thick cornea, for Fuchs dystrophy in its early stages, yet with preserved corneal transparency (subclinical corneal edema), associated with normal intraocular pressure (IOP) by Goldman applanation tonometry (GAT), which was however, the diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma on the basis of structural changes of the optic nerve. The tomographic study showed a pattern of spatial pachymetry compatible with subclinical edema. The corneal biomechanical study with ORA (Ocular Response Analyzer, Reichert ®) associated with corrected IOP measurement, allowed the understanding of the corneal influence, which, although thicker, leading to a falsely low TAG (underestimated). The IOP study with tonography system digital (PASCAL) corroborated with the findings of ORA. This example highlights the importance of new technologies in patients' evaluation with suspected glaucoma, and highlights that the correction of TAG, based on linear algorithms related to central corneal thickness alone, can determine serious errors in clinical interpretation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Tonometry, Ocular/methods , Biomechanical Phenomena , Cornea/physiology , Cornea/pathology , Corneal Pachymetry/methods , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Optic Nerve/pathology , Tonometry, Ocular/instrumentation , Tomography , Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy/physiopathology , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Ocular Hypertension/diagnosis , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Gonioscopy
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30320

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of visual field deterioration in contralateral eyes of patients with worsening open-angle glaucoma and to evaluate the spatial concordance of visual field deterioration between both eyes. METHODS: One hundred sixteen open-angle glaucoma patients who underwent 8 or more visual field examinations over > or =6 years of follow-up were included. The rates of the fast and slow components of visual field decay for each of 52 visual field test locations were calculated with point-wise exponential regression analysis. The spatial concordance of visual field deterioration in contralateral eyes was evaluated with a concordance ratio (calculated as the number of overlapping locations divided by the total number of deteriorating locations) and by comparing the rate of decay in corresponding modified glaucoma hemifield test clusters. RESULTS: The average visual field mean deviation (+/-standard deviation [SD]) was -8.5 (+/-6.4) dB and the mean (+/-SD) follow-up time was 9.0 (+/-1.6) years. Sixty-three patients had mild damage, 23 had moderate damage, and 30 had severe damage. The mean concordance ratio (+/-SD) was 0.46 (+/-0.32) for the mild group, 0.33 (+/-0.27) for the moderate group, and 0.35 (+/-0.21) for the severe group. Thirty-one patients (27%) had deterioration in concordant locations (p < 0.05). Visual field deterioration was greater in the superior hemifield than the inferior hemifield (p < 0.05) when evaluated with both the concordance ratio and modified glaucoma hemifield test cluster analysis methods. CONCLUSIONS: There is only fair spatial concordance with regard to visual field deterioration between the both eyes of an individual. We conclude that testing algorithms taking advantage of inter-eye spatial concordance would not be particularly advantageous in the early detection of glaucomatous deterioration.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Space Perception/physiology , Vision Disorders/diagnosis , Visual Field Tests , Visual Fields/physiology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51382

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the characteristics and relationship between peripapillary choroidal thickness (pCT), lamina cribrosa thickness (LCT), and peripapillary outer retinal layer thickness (pORT) as determined using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) enhanced depth imaging (EDI). METHODS: In total, 255 participants were included (87 healthy subjects, 87 glaucoma suspects (GS), and 81 glaucoma cases). The pORT, defined as the thickness between the posterior outer plexiform layer and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) interface, and the pCT, between the outer margin of the RPE and the choroidal-scleral interface, were manually measured using EDI scanning of the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). LCT was determined by EDI scanning of the optic nerve head (ONH). Baseline characteristics, including axial length (AXL) and the SD-OCT measurements of the participants, were compared among the three groups. The correlation between putative factors and pCT was determined using univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. RESULTS: In all three groups, both pORT and pCT were thinnest in the inferior area among the four quadrants. In the healthy group, the mean peripapillary RNFL, pORT, and LCT were significantly greater in comparison with those of the GS and glaucoma groups (p < 0.001, p < 0.038, and p < 0.001, respectively). The pCT demonstrated no significant differences among the three groups (p = 0.083). Only age and AXL were associated with pCT by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The pCT is substantially thinner in the inferior area of the ONH. In addition, the pCT demonstrates the strongest correlation with age and AXL, but was not associated with glaucoma or LCT.


Subject(s)
Choroid/pathology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Retina/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205014

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the clinical and angiographic characteristics of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in glaucomatous and non-glaucomatous eyes with unilateral RVO in the fellow eye. METHODS: Twenty-one glaucomatous eyes (GL group) and 25 age-matched non-glaucomatous eyes (non-GL group) with unilateral RVO in the fellow eye were included in this study. Fluorescein angiographic images were assessed in both groups by 3 retina specialists in order to determine the RVO occlusion site. The occlusion site was divided into 2 types: arteriovenous (AV)-crossing and non-AV-crossing (optic cup or optic nerve sited). The clinical characteristics and prevalence of AV-crossing and non-AV-crossing RVO were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: The mean baseline intraocular pressures of the RVO eye and the fellow eye did not differ between the 2 groups (RVO eye: 14.3 +/- 2.5 mmHg [non-GL group], 15.5 +/- 3.9 mmHg [GL group], p = 0.217; fellow eye: 14.4 +/- 2.5 mmHg [non-GL group], 15.7 +/- 3.7 mmHg [GL group], p = 0.148). The prevalence of systemic disease did not differ between the 2 groups (e.g., diabetes mellitus and hypertension, p = 0.802 and 0.873, respectively). AV-crossing RVO was significantly more frequent in the non-GL group (19 eyes; 76%) than in the GL group (4 eyes, 19%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Non-AV-crossing RVO, i.e., optic cup- or optic nerve-sited RVO, is more frequently associated with glaucomatous changes in the fellow eye. Therefore, this type of RVO should be monitored more carefully for indications of glaucoma in the fellow eye.


Subject(s)
Female , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Fundus Oculi , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Vessels/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2012 Sept-Oct; 60(5): 446-450
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144898

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the background and strategy required for the prevention of blindness from glaucoma in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Extrapolation of existing data and experience in eye care delivery and teaching models in an unequally developed country (India) are used to make recommendations. Results: Parameters like population attributable risk percentage indicate that glaucoma is a public health problem but lack of simple diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions are barriers to any effective plan. Case detection rather than population-based screening is the recommended strategy for detection. Population awareness of the disease is low and most patients attending eye clinics do not receive a routine comprehensive eye examination that is required to detect glaucoma (and other potentially blinding eye diseases). Such a routine is not taught or practiced by the majority of training institutions either. Angle closure can be detected clinically and relatively simple interventions (including well performed cataract surgery) can prevent blindness from this condition. The strategy for open angle glaucoma should focus on those with established functional loss. Outcomes of this proposed strategy are not yet available. Conclusions: Glaucoma cannot be managed in isolation. The objective should be to detect and manage all potential causes of blindness and prevention of blindness from glaucoma should be integrated into existing programs. The original pyramidal model of eye care delivery incorporates this principle and provides an initial starting point. The routine of comprehensive eye examination in every clinic and its teaching (and use) in residency programs is mandatory for the detection and management of potentially preventable blinding pathology from any cause, including glaucoma. Programs for detection of glaucoma should not be initiated unless adequate facilities for diagnosis and surgical intervention are in place and their monitoring requires reporting of functional outcomes rather than number of operations performed.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Glaucoma/epidemiology , Glaucoma/surgery , Glaucoma/therapy , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/epidemiology , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/surgery , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/therapy , Humans
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