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1.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1053, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341464

ABSTRACT

El nanoftalmo es una anomalía del desarrollo, de condición rara, siempre bilateral. Comúnmente se presenta con un patrón hereditario autosómico recesivo. Se presenta una paciente femenina de 49 años de edad, atendida en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", con antecedentes de queratocono, glaucoma y nanoftalmo (16 mm). Se realizó cirugía del cristalino y posteriormente la paciente presentó complicaciones, por lo que tuvo que ser intervenida por los Servicios de Glaucoma y Retina. Describimos el caso con el fin de contribuir a enfrentar futuras situaciones similares(AU)


Nanophthalmos is a rare, always bilateral developmental anomaly. It commonly follows an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. A case is presented of a female 49-year-old patient attending Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology with a history of keratoconus, glaucoma and nanophthalmos (16 mm). Crystalline lens surgery was performed, after which the patient developed complications leading to a new intervention at the Glaucoma and Retina Services. The case is described with the purpose of contributing to the solution of similar future situations(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Cataract Extraction/methods , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Phacoemulsification/methods , Keratoconus/etiology
2.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(2): e3354, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251818

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La conducta ante el glaucoma avanzado es polémica entre los oftalmólogos por sus posibles consecuencias visuales. Objetivo: Evaluar el resultado de la trabeculectomía en el tratamiento de pacientes con glaucoma avanzado. Método: En el Hospital General Docente "Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso" de Santiago de Cuba, durante el periodo de 2015-2018, se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal, de una serie de casos. El universo fue conformado por 57 ojos con glaucoma avanzado operados con la citada técnica. Se describen las variables: edad, sexo, variables en el periodo preoperatorio y posoperatorio (cantidad de fármacos para el control del glaucoma, agudeza visual mejor corregida, campo visual, medición de la presión intraocular, complicaciones posoperatorias). Resultados: La edad promedio fue de 65,4 años, el 55,8 % eran hombres. La agudeza visual posoperatoria fue la misma que la preoperatoria en 54 ojos (96,5 %). La medicación antiglaucoma disminuyó a un valor medio de 1,6 fármacos y la presión intraocular posoperatoria a los 2 años fue de 16,5 mmHg. El índice total de éxito fue del 93,0 %. Conclusiones: La trabeculectomía permite un índice de éxito satisfactorio en el tratamiento del glaucoma avanzado en los pacientes estudiados.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Behavior in advanced stage glaucoma has brought controversies among specialists in ophthalmology due to its possible visual consequences. Objective: To evaluate the outcome of trabeculectomy surgery in patient treated with glaucoma in advanced stage. Method: An observational, descriptive, and longitudinal study of several cases was conducted at the Hospital General Docente "Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso" in Santiago de Cuba, from 2015 through 2018. It was involved as total and selected 57 eyes with glaucoma in advanced stage and associated with a trabeculectomy surgery. Variables used were: age, sex, preoperative and postoperative variables used (number of drugs used for glaucoma management, best corrected visual acuity, visual field, measurement of intraocular pressure, and postoperative complications). Results: Average age was 65.4% and 55.8% were male. Preoperative and postoperative visual acuity in 54 eyes (96.5%) was the same. Antiglaucoma medication decreased to a median value of 1.6 drugs and the postoperative intraocular pressure, 2 years after surgery, was 16.5 mmHg. The overall success rate was 93.0%. Conclusions: Trabeculectomy had a satisfactory success rate in the patients with glaucoma in advanced stage treated.


RESUMO Introdução: O comportamento no glaucoma avançado é controverso entre os oftalmologistas devido às suas possíveis consequências visuais. Objetivo: Avaliar o resultado da trabeculectomia no tratamento de pacientes com glaucoma avançado. Método: No Hospital General Docente "Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso" de Santiago de Cuba, durante o período 2015-2018, foi realizado um estudo observacional, descritivo e longitudinal de uma série de casos. O universo era formado por 57 olhos com glaucoma avançado operados pela técnica citada. As variáveis são descritas: idade, sexo, variáveis no período pré e pós-operatório (quantidade de medicamentos para controle do glaucoma, acuidade visual melhor corrigida, campo visual, medida da pressão intra-ocular, complicações pós-operatórias). Resultados: A média de idade foi de 65,4 anos, 55,8% eram homens. A acuidade visual pós-operatória foi igual à pré-operatória em 54 olhos (96,5%). A medicação antiglaucoma diminuiu para um valor médio de 1,6 medicamentos e a pressão intra-ocular pós-operatória em 2 anos foi de 16,5 mmHg. A taxa de sucesso total foi de 93,0%. Conclusões: A trabeculectomia permite uma taxa de sucesso satisfatória no tratamento do glaucoma avançado nos pacientes estudados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Trabeculectomy , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Study
3.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31103, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291249

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O glaucoma é uma neuropatia óptica progressiva que pode acarretar defeitos progressivos do campo visual e perda da visão. É a principal causa de cegueira irreversível no mundo, sendo o aumento da pressão intraocular (PIO) o principal fator de risco. Objetivos: Identificar o perfil dos usuários do SUS no Estado de Minas Gerais, especificamente do Departamento de Glaucoma do Instituto de Olhos Ciências Médicas (IOCM). Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo clínico observacional, transversal e de caráter retrospectivo com 1484 pacientes. Foram incluídos pacientes do sexo feminino e masculino, acima de 18 anos de idade, encaminhados ao setor de glaucoma do IOCM para o primeiro atendimento, com suspeita ou doença confirmada. Os diagnósticos considerados foram: suspeita de glaucoma; hipertenso ocular; glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto; glaucoma primário de ângulo fechado; glaucoma de pressão normal; glaucoma congênito; glaucoma secundário; glaucoma neovascular e glaucoma maligno. Resultados: Houve predomínio do sexo feminino e o diagnóstico mais frequente foi "glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto". Os fatores de risco mais prevalentes foram idade avançada e hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Conclusões: O perfil clínico demográfico dos pacientes em tratamento de glaucoma em Minas Gerais são semelhantes ao encontrado em alguns trabalhos realizados em outros países do mundo.


Introduction: Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy that can lead to progressive visual field defects and loss of vision. It is the main cause of irreversible blindness in the world, with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) being the main risk factor. Objectives: Identify the profile of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) users, specifically in the Department of Glaucoma at the Instituto de Olhos Ciencias Medicas (IOCM), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study enrolled 1484 patients. Were inclueded female and male patients, over 18 years of age, referred to the glaucoma sector of the IOCM for the first visit, with suspected or confirmed disease. The diagnoses considered were: suspected glaucoma; ocular hypertension; primary open-angle glaucoma; primary closedangle glaucoma; normal-pressure glaucoma; congenital glaucoma; secondary glaucoma; neovascular glaucoma. Results: There was a predominance of females and the most frequent diagnosis was "Primary Open-angle Glaucoma". The most prevalent risk factors were advanced age and hypertension. Conclusions: The demographics and clinical profile of patients undergoing glaucoma treatment at IOCM are similar to those found in some studies performed in other countries.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Profile , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Optic Nerve Diseases , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Ocular Hypertension , Blindness , Intraocular Pressure
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880835

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate accuracy of the currently used strategies for intraocular pressure measurements for reflecting actual 24-hour intraocular pressure fluctuations.@*METHODS@#From September, 2018 to January, 2019, the patients with a suspected diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma at our hospital were prospectively enrolled to receive 24-hour intraocular pressure monitoring using a Goldmann tonometer. With the intraocular pressure measurements at 0:00, 2:00, 5:00, 7:00, 8:00, 10:00, 11:00, 14:00, 16:00, 18:00, 20:00, and 22:00 as the gold standard (strategy 1), we compared the measurements taken at 5:00, 7:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00 (strategy 2) and at 8:00, 11:00, 14:00, and 16:00 (strategy 3) for their accuracy in reflecting 24-h intraocular pressure fluctuations.@*RESULTS@#A total of 41 patients (82 eyes) were enrolled in this study. The peak intraocular pressures measured using the 3 strategies were 21.09±4.15 mmHg, 20.54±4.10 mmHg, and 19.91±4.38 mmHg, respectively, showing significant differences among them (@*CONCLUSIONS@#For suspected cases of glaucoma, intraocular pressure measurements at 4 and 6 time points of a day can not precisely reflect the actual range of intraocular pressure fluctuations, and may lead to a missed diagnosis of glaucoma.


Subject(s)
Glaucoma/diagnosis , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Prospective Studies , Tonometry, Ocular
5.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e955, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156574

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas del síndrome pseudoexfoliativo. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de 109 ojos correspondientes a 55 pacientes atendidos en el Centro de Microcirugía Ocular y en el Servicio de Glaucoma del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" entre julio del año 2016 y septiembre de 2017. Para su caracterización se realizaron determinaciones a través de la gonioscopia, la tonometría, la paquimetría, la microscopia endotelial, el fondo de ojo y la medición de la agudeza visual. Resultados: El promedio de edad fue de 74,6 años, con predominio del sexo masculino (60 por ciento) y la piel blanca (78,2 por ciento), con antecedentes frecuentes de enfermedad vascular, particularmente hipertensión arterial (65,5 por ciento). El 92,7 por ciento presentaba catarata bilateral con predominio nuclear. Todos los pacientes tenían ángulo camerular abierto y la presión intraocular era alta en el 36,4 por ciento de los casos. La presencia de glaucoma fue del 56,4 por ciento, más frecuente el unilateral (38,2 por ciento). En relación con el endotelio corneal, la celularidad estaba disminuida en el 40 por ciento, con polimegatismo (58,2 por ciento) y pleomorfismo (72,7 por ciento). Conclusión: No se encuentra relación entre las alteraciones corneales, la edad, la presión intraocular y la presencia de material pseudoexfoliativo(AU)


Objective: Determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Methods: A study was conducted of 109 eyes of 55 patients attending the Ocular Microsurgery Center and Glaucoma Service at Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from July 2016 to September 2017. Characterization was based on determinations made by gonioscopy, tonometry, pachymetry, endothelial microscopy, funduscopy and visual acuity measurement. Results: Mean age was 74.6 years, with a predominance of the male sex (60 percent), white skin (78.2 percent) and frequent antecedents of vascular disease, particularly arterial hypertension (65.5 percent). All the patients had cataract, which was predominantly bilateral and nuclear in 92.7 percent. In all cases the chamber angle was open, whereas intraocular pressure was high in 36.4 percent. 56.4 percent of the patients had glaucoma, which was more commonly unilateral (38.2 percent). Regarding the corneal endothelium, cellularity was reduced in 40 percent, with polymegethism (58.2 percent) and pleomorphism (72.7 percent). Conclusion: No relationship was found between corneal alterations, age and intraocular pressure, and the presence of pseudoexfoliative material(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Visual Acuity , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Exfoliation Syndrome/epidemiology , Gonioscopy/methods , Intraocular Pressure , Microscopy/methods
6.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e827, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156572

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar los cambios que sufre la presión intraocular en sujetos aparentemente sanos tras la realización de ejercicios físicos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo prospectivo en el Centro Deportivo "Jesús Menéndez", del municipio de Marianao, provincia La Habana, conducido por especialistas del Servicio de Glaucoma del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" entre mayo y agosto del año 2016. Se seleccionó una muestra de sujetos aparentemente sanos, quienes estuvieron de acuerdo con participar en el estudio. Se conformaron dos grupos según el tipo de ejercicio físico: ejercicios de fuerza y ejercicios aerobios. A todos se les midió la presión intraocular basal y después de los ejercicios (inmediatamente, a los 15 y 30 minutos) con tonómetro de Perkins. Resultados: Ambos grupos estuvieron formados por 20 sujetos cada uno, del sexo masculino (grupo fuerza) y del femenino (grupo aerobio). La edad media fue 32,9 y 34,6 años respectivamente. En el grupo fuerza, la presión intraocular media basal fue 15,93 mmHg, la cual se incrementó a 3,71 mmHg inmediatamente después del ejercicio, y descendió a los 30 minutos hasta alcanzar cifras semejantes a la basal. En el grupo aerobio la presión intraocular media basal fue 15,73 mmHg; descendió a 5,13 mmHg inmediatamente después del ejercicio y se incrementó a los 30 minutos hasta alcanzar cifras semejantes a la basal. Conclusiones: La presión intraocular aumenta o disminuye en sujetos sanos en correspondencia con el tipo de ejercicio (de fuerza y aeróbicos respectivamente) y retorna a valores cercanos a los basales a los 30 minutos, como se demostró en ambos grupos(AU)


Objective: Determine the changes undergone by intraocular pressure in seemingly healthy subjects after the practice of physical exercise. Methods: A descriptive prospective study was conducted at Jesús Menéndez Sports Center in the municipality of Marianao, province of Havana from May to August 2016. The study was managed by specialists from the Glaucoma Service at Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology. A sample was selected of seemingly healthy subjects, who agreed to participate in the study. Two groups were formed according to the type of physical exercise: strength training or aerobics. Intraocular pressure was measured at baseline and after the exercises (immediately, at 15 minutes and at 30 minutes) with a Perkins tonometer. Results: The groups were composed of 20 subjects each: male (strength group) and female (aerobics group). Mean age was 32.9 and 34.6 years, respectively. In the strength group, the mean baseline intraocular pressure of 15.93 mmHg rose to 3.71 mmHg immediately after the exercise, and fell at 30 minutes to reach values similar to the baseline. In the aerobics group, the mean baseline intraocular pressure of 15.73 mmHg fell to 5.13 mmHg immediately after the exercise, and rose at 30 minutes to reach values similar to the baseline. Conclusions: Intraocular pressure rises or falls in healthy subjects in keeping with the type of exercise (strength or aerobics, respectively), and returns to values similar to the baseline at 30 minutes in both groups(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Exercise/physiology , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Intraocular Pressure , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Healthy Volunteers
7.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e988, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156571

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir los resultados visuales e hipotensores de la trabeculotomía gonioasistida modificada y determinar sus complicaciones. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico de 30 ojos; 15 de ellos (15 pacientes) recibieron trabeculotomía gonioasistida modificada (grupo caso) y 15 ojos (15 pacientes) recibieron trabeculectomía con mitomicina C (control histórico). Resultados: Predominaron los pacientes masculinos. La edad promedio del grupo con trabeculectomía fue 64,2 ± 7,3 años; mientras la del grupo con trabeculotomía gonioasistida modificada fue 69,9 ± 4,8 años. La agudeza visual mejor corregida media preoperatoria fue menor en el grupo con trabeculectomía (95 VAR/100-80 vs. 97 VAR/100-90) y la presión intraocular media fue 26,0 mmHg/24,5-30,0) y 25,0 mmHg/22,5-27,0 respectivamente. Todos los pacientes con trabeculectomía recibieron 3 colirios hipotensores en el preoperatorio, mientras el 53,3 por ciento de los tratados con trabeculotomía gonioasistida modificada requirieron 3 colirios hipotensores. Al año, la agudeza visual mejor corregida media disminuyó en el grupo con trabeculectomía (90VAR/100-75), y se mantuvo en el grupo con trabeculotomía gonioasistida modificada (97VAR/100-90). En ambos grupos se produjo una caída significativa de la PIO promedio y más del 85 por ciento de los casos requirió uno o ningún colirio para su control. Conclusiones: El resultado visual, el poder hipotensor y las complicaciones quirúrgicas al año muestran la trabeculotomía gonioasistida modificada como una técnica útil y segura. Se requieren estudios a largo plazo para evaluar su efectividad futura(AU)


Objective: Describe results one year after modified gonioscopy-assisted trabeculotomy. Methods: An analytical study was conducted of 30 eyes, 15 of which (15 patients) underwent modified gonioscopy-assisted trabeculotomy (GATTm) (case group), and 15 trabeculotomy with mitomycin C (TBT) (historical control). Results: Male patients prevailed. Mean age was 64.2 ± 7.3 years for the TBT group and 69.9 ± 4.8 years for the GATTm group. In the TBT group mean preoperative best corrected visual acuity was lower (95 VAR/100-80 vs. 97VAR/100-90), whereas mean intraocular pressure was 26.0 mmHg/24.5-30.0 and 25.0 mmHg/22.5-27.0, respectively. All TBT patients received 3 hypotensive collyriums preoperative, while 53.3 percent of the GATTm patients required 3 hypotensive collyriums. At one year, mean best corrected visual acuity was lower in the TBT group (90VAR/100-75) and remained the same in the GATTm group (97VAR/100-90). A significant mean intraocular pressure reduction was observed in both groups and more than 85 percent of the cases required either one or no collyrium for their control. Conclusions: Visual result, hypotensive effect and surgical complications at one year are evidence that modified gonioscopy-assisted trabeculotomy is a safe, useful technique. Long-term studies are required to evaluate its future effectiveness(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Mitomycin/therapeutic use , Intraocular Pressure , Trabeculectomy/methods
9.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(6): 406-408, nov.-dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156171

ABSTRACT

Resumo As alterações congênitas do nervo óptico são raras. A hipoplasia é a forma mais comum de alteração congênita do nervo óptico. Acredita-se que seja correlacionada à interrupção do desenvolvimento fetal e ao baixo peso ao nascer. Apresenta-se como uma anomalia não progressiva com acuidade visual geralmente preservada. Relatamos um caso de uma paciente com hipoplasia segmentar superior com hipertensão ocular após uso de corticoide, cursando com diminuição da camada de fibras nervosas. Os pacientes portadores de hipoplasia devem ser acompanhados com mais rigor caso tenham fatores de risco para glaucoma e deve ser considerada como um diagnóstico diferencial para o glaucoma de pressão normal.


Abstract Introduction: Congenital changes of the optic nerve are rare. Hypoplasia is the most common form of congenital alteration of the optic nerve. It is believed to be correlated with interruption of fetal development and low birth weight. It presents as a non-progressive anomaly with generally preserved visual acuity. We related a case of a patient with superior segmental hypoplasia with ocular hypertension after corticosteroid use, with a decrease in the nerve fiber layer. Patients with hypoplasia should be followed more closely if they have risk factors for glaucoma and should be considered as a differential diagnosis for normal pressure glaucoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Optic Nerve Hypoplasia/diagnosis
10.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e970, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156586

ABSTRACT

Se presenta una paciente femenina, de 52 años de edad, con antecedentes de asma bronquial, miopía y glaucoma juvenil diagnosticado a los 22 años de edad. Le fueron realizadas dos trabeculectomías en el ojo izquierdo y una en el ojo derecho. En el año 2008 se le realizó cirugía de facoemulsificación más implante de lente intraocular en ambos ojos. La paciente acudió a nuestro Servicio hace un año, y refirió disminución progresiva de la visión. El examen oftalmológico reveló agudeza visual mejor corregida de 0,4 y presión intraocular de 30 y 23,5 mm/Hg para los respectivos ojos, con terapia hipotensora máxima tolerable. Al fondo de ojo se observó daño glaucomatoso avanzado, mayor en ojo izquierdo. Como opción de tratamiento se realizó ciclofotocoagulación transescleral en 2 cuadrantes del ojo derecho. A los 6 meses se constató presión intraocular de 30 y 18 mm/Hg, y se decidió el implante de la válvula de Baervelt en el temporal superior del ojo derecho. En el posoperatorio a los 7 días el examen oftalmológico arrojó presión intraocular de 5 mm/Hg, atalamia grado III y agudeza visual mejor corregida de 0,2. Se prescribió tratamiento con midriático ciclopléjico y antinflamatorios tópicos y sistémicos, y se logró a los 15 días mejoría del cuadro ocular. Se obtuvo buena agudeza visual y presión intraocular de 12 mmHg a los 3 meses del posoperatorio. El dispositivo del drenaje de Baerveldt es eficaz para lograr la reducción de la presión intraocular en el glaucoma refractario(AU)


A case is presented of a female 52-year-old patient with a history of bronchial asthma, myopia and juvenile glaucoma diagnosed at age 22. Two trabeculectomies were performed on the left eye and one on the right eye. In the year 2008 the patient underwent phacoemulsification surgery plus intraocular lens implantation in both eyes. She attended our service a year ago, reporting progressive vision reduction. Ophthalmological examination revealed best corrected visual acuity of 0.4 and intraocular pressure of 30 and 23.5 mm/Hg for either eye, with maximum tolerated hypotensive therapy. Funduscopy showed advanced glaucomatous damage, greater in the left eye. The treatment option selected was transcleral cyclophotocoagulation in two quadrants of the right eye. At 6 months intraocular pressure was 30 and 18 mm/Hg, and it was decided to implant a Baerveldt valve in the upper temporal quadrant of the right eye. Ophthalmological examination results at 7 days postoperative were intraocular pressure 5 mm/Hg, grade III athalamia and best corrected visual acuity 0.2. The treatment indicated was a cycloplegic mydriatic and topical and systemic anti-inflammatories. Ocular status improvement was achieved at 15 days. Satisfactory visual acuity and an intraocular pressure of 12 mm/Hg were obtained at 3 months postoperative. The Baerveldt drainage device is effective to achieve intraocular pressure reduction in refractory glaucoma(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Trabeculectomy/methods , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Phacoemulsification/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/adverse effects , Vision, Ocular/physiology
11.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e914, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156584

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento del glaucoma se realiza con el objetivo de disminuir los niveles de presión intraocular, único factor tratable hasta el momento, y debe ser individualizado. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 54 años de edad, de piel mestiza, intelectual, con antecedentes de aparente salud y diagnóstico de glaucoma desde hace 10 años. Se realizó trabeculectomía con antimetabolito (mitomicina C) en el ojo izquierdo en el año 2012 por daño glaucomatoso avanzado. En el año 2016 acudió a nuestra consulta y refirió mala visión y descontrol de la presión intraocular de ambos ojos. Se constataron cifras muy elevadas de presión intraocular en ambos ojos, superiores a 30 mmHg; en el ojo derecho la unidad de visión con su mejor corrección y un daño campimétrico muy avanzado limitado a una isla de visión central con caída hasta los 5° centrales, y el ojo izquierdo no alcanzaba la percepción luminosa. Después de combinar 3 líneas farmacológicas con la dosis máxima, los valores de la presión intraocular no eran protectores. Surgió la disyuntiva entre realizar una cirugía filtrante, temiendo al riesgo quirúrgico elevado y tratándose de un ojo único, o no practicar cirugía alguna y solo continuar con el tratamiento farmacológico a pesar de no conseguirse valores de presión intraocular meta. Se decidió realizar esclerectomía profunda no penetrante con antimetabolito (mitomicina C al 0,02 por ciento). No se presentaron complicaciones asociadas y se consiguió el descenso de la presión intraocular a 24 mmHg, por lo que al mes de la cirugía se realizó goniopuntura. Se obtuvo la presión intraocular objetivo, sin progresión del daño glaucomatoso y hubo conservación de la agudeza visual(AU)


Treatment for glaucoma is aimed at reducing the levels of intraocular pressure. This is the only factor that may be treated so far, and it should be individualized. A case is presented of a male 54-year-old mulatto patient, intellectual, with a history of apparently good health who was diagnosed with glaucoma ten years ago. Trabeculectomy with antimetabolite (mitomycin C) was performed on the patient's left eye in the year 2012 due to advanced glaucomatous damage. In the year 2016 the patient attended our service and reported poor vision and uncontrolled intraocular pressure in both eyes. Very high intraocular pressure values above 30 mmHg were confirmed in both eyes. In the right eye the vision unit with its best correction, and very advanced campimetric damage limited to a central vision island with a fall to 5° central, whereas the left eye did not achieve light perception. After combining 3 drug lines at their maximum dosage, intraocular pressure values were not protective. The dilemma arose whether to perform filtration surgery, fearing the high surgical risk, being as it was a single eye, or not to perform any surgery and just go on with the drug treatment despite not having achieved target intraocular pressure values. It was decided to perform non-penetrating deep sclerectomy with antimetabolite (0.02 percent mitomycin C). No associated complications occurred and intraocular pressured fell to 24 mmHg. Therefore, goniopuncture was performed one month after surgery. The target intraocular pressure was obtained without glaucomatous damage progression and visual acuity was preserved(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Trabeculectomy/methods , Mitomycin/therapeutic use , Intraocular Pressure/drug effects , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Glaucoma/therapy
12.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e981, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156581

ABSTRACT

La cirugía filtrante es una opción de tratamiento encaminada a disminuir la presión intraocular una vez que no hay respuesta a las alternativas no quirúrgicas. En los últimos años ha experimentado una evolución sorprendente. Aparecen nuevos dispositivos que buscan obtener un control tensional con las mínimas complicaciones; entre estos, el implante Ex-PRESS ha demostrado una efectividad similar a la trabeculectomía, mientras que la variante técnica para su implantación, descrita por Richard Hoffmann, posibilita excelentes resultados con menos dificultades. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 51 años de edad, de raza blanca, con antecedente de glaucoma, con agudeza visual mejor corregida de 100 VAR y presión intraocular de 32 mmHg. Se realizó implante de dispositivo Ex-PRESS (modelo P-50) mediante la técnica modificada de Richard Hoffmann, asociada al uso de mitomicina C al 0,2 por ciento en el transoperatorio. A los dos años se lograron tensiones oculares de 17 mmHg y agudeza visual mejor corregida de 100 VAR(AU)


Filtration surgery is a therapeutic option aimed at reducing intraocular pressure when there is no response to non-surgical alternatives. Filtration surgery has developed remarkably in recent years. New devices have emerged geared to achieving pressure control with minimum complications. Among them, Ex-PRESS implantation has shown to be as effective as trabeculectomy, and the technique described by Richard Hoffman provides excellent results with fewer difficulties. A case is presented of a male white 51-year-old patient with a history of glaucoma, best corrected visual acuity 100 VAR, and intraocular pressure 32 mmHg. Implantation was performed of an Ex-PRESS (model P-50) device by modified Richard Hoffman's technique associated to 0.2 percent mitomycin C in the perioperative period. Two years after surgery, ocular tensions of 17 mmHg and a best corrected visual acuity of 100 VAR had been achieved(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Trabeculectomy/methods , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Mitomycin/adverse effects , Filtering Surgery/adverse effects , Intraocular Pressure
13.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e951, oct.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156579

ABSTRACT

La presión intraocular es considerada el único factor causal potencialmente modificable con el propósito de prevenir la ceguera por glaucoma. Esta es una enfermedad multifactorial y, aunque es el factor de riesgo más importante en su desarrollo, la reducción de sus valores no garantiza el cese de la progresión del daño glaucomatoso. El glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto y el glaucoma de presión normal comparten factores de riesgo similares en la patogénesis y se pueden clasificar en categorías mecánicas y vasculares. La evidencia científica actual ha logrado demostrar que existe una importante asociación entre las enfermedades sistémicas con compromiso vascular, como la migraña, la apnea obstructiva del sueño, la hipotensión arterial de diferentes causas, la hipertensión arterial, la enfermedad cerebrovascular, la cardiopatía isquémica y la diabetes mellitus con los hallazgos a nivel ocular en pacientes con neuropatía óptica glaucomatosa. Esta correlación orienta a considerar estas enfermedades en conjunto para que cada profesional dedicado a la salud visual considere siempre imprescindible la evaluación de los aspectos que vinculan estas enfermedades para actuar en consecuencia. Se realiza una búsqueda sobre el glaucoma y las enfermedades sistémicas con compromiso vascular(AU)


Intraocular pressure is considered to be the only potentially modifiable causative factor to prevent glaucoma blindness. However, glaucoma is a multifactorial disease, and true as it is that its main risk factor is intraocular pressure, its reduction does not ensure cessation of the progress of glaucomatous damage. Primary open angle glaucoma and normal pressure glaucoma share similar pathogenetic risk factors, and may be classified as mechanical or vascular. According to current scientific evidence, an important association exists between systemic diseases with vascular involvement, such as migraine, obstructive sleep apnea, arterial hypotension of various causes, arterial hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus, and ocular findings in patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In view of this correlation, these diseases should be considered jointly, so that visual health professionals always bear in mind the evaluation of their common characteristics and act in consequence. A search was carried out on glaucoma and systemic diseases with vascular compromise(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Intraocular Pressure , Review Literature as Topic , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Hypertension/etiology
14.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 33(4): e972, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156578

ABSTRACT

El glaucoma es una neuropatía óptica caracterizada por la pérdida de células ganglionares de la retina y sus axones. Constituye la primera causa de ceguera irreversible a nivel mundial; por lo tanto, la detección oportuna y el monitoreo continuo es de vital importancia. El grosor de la capa de la fibra nerviosa retiniana circumpapilar, medido mediante tomografía de coherencia óptica, es la principal estrategia de evaluación estructural utilizada en el diagnóstico del glaucoma. Sin embargo, considerando que la mácula es el área retiniana relacionada con la visión central y contiene el 50 por ciento de las células ganglionares de la retina, medir el grosor macular parece ser una buena opción para detectar precozmente la muerte de estas células. En esta revisión exponemos los antecedentes, la justificación anatómica, los protocolos y los principales artefactos de la tomografía de coherencia óptica macular en la atención del glaucoma. Además, ofrecemos un enfoque actualizado sobre cómo usar estas exploraciones en la práctica clínica(AU)


Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. It is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, hence the crucial importance of its timely detection and continuous monitoring. Optical coherence tomography measurement of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is the main structural evaluation strategy to diagnose glaucoma. However, in view that the macula is the retinal area related to central vision and contains 50 percent of the retinal ganglion cells, measuring macular thickness seems to be a good option for early detection of the death of these cells. The present review discusses the antecedents, anatomical justification, protocols and main artifacts of macular optical coherence tomography as related to the care of glaucoma. An updated approach is also provided to the way these explorations may be used in clinical practice(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Retinal Ganglion Cells/pathology , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
15.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(1): 53-55, Jan.-Feb. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092660

ABSTRACT

Resumo A reversão da escavação é uma entidade rara que se refere à redução da escavação do disco óptico em resposta à diminuição sustentada dos níveis de pressão intra-ocular (PIO), em cerca de 25% da PIO basal. A ocorrência deste fenômeno apenas com o tratamento clínico é pouco relatada na literatura, Este estudo relata um caso de um paciente com glaucoma juvenil, que apresentou à gonioscopia ângulo aberto e tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT) com uma diminuição significativa na camada de fibras nervosas retinianas em ambos os olhos. Após um ano utilizando análogos de prostaglandina tópica e manutenção de níveis baixos de PIO, ocorreu diminuição da escavação do nervo óptico, que foi confirmada pelos padrões topográficos da OCT. O "reversal of cupping" é um sinal da diminuição da tensão ao nível da lâmina crivosa e está provavelmente associada a uma redução do risco para a progressão do glaucoma a longo prazo, sem melhora da função visual.


Abstract Reversal of cupping is a rare entity, characterized by the reduction of optical disc cupping in response to sustained decrease in intraocular pressure (IOP) levels by 25% of the basal IOP. The occurrence of this phenomenon with clinical treatment is rarely reported in the literature. This study reports a case of a patient with juvenile glaucoma with augmented cupping, significant decrease in the retinal nerve fiber layer in both eyes and altered topografic measures in optical coherence tomography (OCT). After one year using topical prostaglandin analog and keeping low IOP levels, a decrease in optic nerve cupping was detected in rethinography, confirmed by the improvement of OCT topographic measures. Reversal of cupping is a sign of decreased tension at the level of the lamina cribosa and is probably associated with a reduced risk for long-term progression of glaucoma without improvement of visual function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Optic Disk/pathology , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Glaucoma/drug therapy , Intraocular Pressure/drug effects , Ophthalmic Solutions/therapeutic use , Ophthalmoscopy , Prostaglandins, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Timolol/therapeutic use , Tonometry, Ocular , Visual Acuity , Glaucoma/physiopathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Fundus Oculi , Gonioscopy
16.
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 32(3): e778, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099089

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El tratamiento del glaucoma pediátrico es principalmente quirúrgico. En la actualidad se han creado alternativas para mejorar el éxito de las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas relacionadas con el glaucoma pediátrico, donde se exige un tratamiento oportuno para poder controlar las presiones intraoculares y rehabilitar precozmente a estos pacientes, ya que muchos de ellos se encuentran en pleno desarrollo visual. De ahí la importancia de realizar una revisión de las principales técnicas quirúrgicas del glaucoma pediátrico(AU)


ABSTRACT Treatment of childhood glaucoma is mainly surgical. New alternatives are presently available to improve the success of the various surgical techniques for childhood glaucoma, a condition requiring timely treatment aimed at intraocular pressure control and quick rehabilitation of these patients, considering that many of them are in full visual development. Hence the importance of conducting a review of the main surgical techniques used for childhood glaucoma(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Pediatrics , Trabeculectomy/methods , Glaucoma/diagnosis
17.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(3): 162-165, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013675

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar o resultado entre dois tipos de tonômetros, tendo como padrão ouro a tonometria de aplanação, relacionando com a espessura corneana e suas validações como instrumentos de rastreio populacional. Métodos: Estudo transversal comparativo, realizado com 400 olhos do ambulatório de oftalmologia da Adachi Oftalmologia, em Macapá (Amapá), entre os valores médios da pressão ocular medidos pelo tonômetro Icare®, o Tonômetro Pneumático e o Tonômetro de Aplanação de Goldmann em função da espessura corneana. Foram divididos conforme a ECC em 3 grupos. Grupo 1: 260 olhos com ECC< 530µ; grupo 2: 217 olhos com ECC entre 530µ e 590µ; e, grupo 3: 157 olhos com ECC>590µ. Resultados: A ECC média obtida na paquimetria foi de 557µ, variando de 651µ a 477µ (desvio padrão de 32.9). A PIO média obtida pela TP foi de 19,4 mmHg (com desvio padrão de 2,32); pelo Icare® foi de 16,7mmHg (desvio padrão de 2,12); e, na TAG foi de 15.5 mmHg (desvio padrão de 2,02). Para paquimetrias inferiores a 530µ e superiores a 590µ a PIOm não diferiu significativamente entre a TAG e Icare® (p = 0,232), sendo estatisticamente significativa diferença obtida para córneas com ECC entre 530 e 590 µ. A PIOm obtida pelo TP foi significativamente maior do que a pressão ocular média dos TAG e Icare® (p < 0,001 para ambos) em todos os grupos. Conclusões: Os três métodos podem ser utilizados em campanhas de rastreamento, porém o Icare® se mostrou mais confiável que a TP, com valores obtidos estatisticamente mais confiáveis quando comparados à TP. Existe suficiente concordância entre o Icare e a TAG para recomendar o seu uso.


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the result between two types of tonometres, using as gold standard the aplanation tonometry, relating to the corneal thickness and its validations as instruments of population screening. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out with 400 eyes from the ophthalmology clinic of Adachi Ophthalmology, in Macapá (Amapá), between the mean values of ocular pressure measured by the Icare® tonometro, the Pneumatic Tonometer and the Goldmann Flattening Tonometro as a function of corneal thickness. They were divided according to ECC in 3 groups. Group 1: 260 eyes with ECC <530µ; group 2: 217 eyes with ECC between 530µ and 590µ; and, group 3: 157 eyes with ECC> 590µ. Results: The mean ECC obtained in pachymetry was 557µ, ranging from 651µ to 477µ (standard deviation of 32.9). The mean IOP obtained by PT was 19.4 mmHg (with a standard deviation of 2.32); by Icare® was 16.7mmHg (standard deviation of 2.12); and in the TAG it was 15.5 mmHg (standard deviation of 2.02). For pachymetry less than 530µ and greater than 590µ, PIOm did not differ significantly between TAG and Icare® (p = 0.232), and a statistically significant difference was obtained for corneas with ECC between 530 and 590 µ. The IOP obtained by the PT was significantly higher than the mean ocular pressure of the TAG and Icare® (p <0.001 for both) in all groups. Conclusions: All three methods can be used in screening campaigns, but Icare® proved to be more reliable than TP, with values obtained statistically more reliable when compared to TP. There is sufficient agreement between Icare and TAG to recommend its use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tonometry, Ocular/instrumentation , Tonometry, Ocular/methods , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Ocular Hypertension/diagnosis , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Glaucoma/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Air , Equipment Design , Corneal Pachymetry
18.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(3): 179-182, May-June 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013673

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Os AA fazem considerações sobre clínica, diagnóstico e tratamento do Glaucoma Facomórfico, e ilustram com a apresentação e discussão em quatro pacientes.


ABSTRACT The AA present Phacomorphic Glaucoma discussing the clinic presentation, diagnose and treatment of the disease in four patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Glaucoma/surgery , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Glaucoma/physiopathology , Intraocular Pressure , Cataract , Cataract Extraction/methods , Phacoemulsification/methods , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Anterior Chamber
20.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(6): 520-523, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973853

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Trichothiodystrophy belongs to a group of rare genetic diseases characterized by DNA repair anomalies. Ocular manifestations can occur in 50% of cases, including cataract, refractive errors, strabismus, microcornea, microphthalmia, dry eye, and pigmentary macular changes. We report a case of childhood glaucoma in a patient with trichothiodystrophy who underwent trabeculectomy in the left eye. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of childhood glaucoma associated with trichothiodystrophy.


RESUMO A tricotiodistrofia pertence a um grupo de doenças genéticas raras caracterizadas por anomalias da reparação do DNA. Manifestações oculares podem ocorrer em 50% dos casos, incluindo catarata, erros refrativos, estrabismo, microcórnea, microftalmia, olho seco e alterações maculares pigmentares. Relatamos um caso de glaucoma infantil em um paciente com tricotiodistrofia submetido à trabeculectomia no olho esquerdo. No nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro caso descrito de glaucoma infantil associado à tricotiodistrofia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Eye Abnormalities/diagnosis , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Trichothiodystrophy Syndromes/diagnosis , Telangiectasis/diagnosis , Trabeculectomy , Eye Abnormalities/surgery , Glaucoma/surgery , Erythema/diagnosis , Intraocular Pressure
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