Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 361
Filter
1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10107, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142578

ABSTRACT

Ketamine (KET) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist with rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects, but how the drug shows its sustained effects is still a matter of controversy. The objectives were to evaluate the mechanisms for KET rapid (30 min) and long-lasting (15 and 30 days after) antidepressant effects in mice. A single dose of KET (2, 5, or 10 mg/kg, po) was administered to male Swiss mice and the forced swim test (FST) was performed 30 min, 15, or 30 days later. Imipramine (IMI, 30 mg/kg, ip), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, was used as reference. The mice were euthanized, separated into two time-point groups (D1, first day after KET injection; D30, 30 days later), and brain sections were processed for glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), histone deacetylase (HDAC), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical assays. KET (5 and 10 mg/kg) presented rapid and long-lasting antidepressant-like effects. As expected, the immunoreactivities for brain GSK-3 and HDAC decreased compared to control groups in all areas (striatum, DG, CA1, CA3, and mainly pre-frontal cortex, PFC) after KET injection. Increases in BDNF immunostaining were demonstrated in the PFC, DG, CA1, and CA3 areas at D1 and D30 time-points. GFAP immunoreactivity was also increased in the PFC and striatum at both time-points. In conclusion, KET changed brain BDNF and GFAP expressions 30 days after a single administration. Although neuroplasticity could be involved in the observed effects of KET, more studies are needed to explain the mechanisms for the drug's sustained antidepressant-like effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Ketamine/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Astrocytes , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Disease Models, Animal , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Histone Deacetylases
2.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 89(1, supl): 18-22, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247576

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: El Glioblastoma (GB) o astrocitoma grado IV, es un tumor agresivo que se origina de células gliales, con alto grado de malignidad, prevalencia menor al 1% en fosa posterior e incidencia menor al 0.5% de todos los GB. Actualmente se describen alrededor de 75 casos a nivel mundial. Descripción del caso clínico: Femenina, 24 años, referida a emergencia de Neurocirugía del Hospital Escuela Universitario, presentó cefalea holocraneana intensa, vómitos, náuseas, visión borrosa, vértigo y anorexia. Al examen neurológico mostró discreta adiadococinesia derecha y signos de papiledema. La tomografía axial computarizada cerebral evidenció lesión heterogénea en vermis extendido a hemisferio cerebeloso derecho, por lo que se realizó craniectomía suboccipital, abordaje transcerebelar, con citorreducción tumoral, encontrando masa vascularizada con componente quístico. Estudio anatomopatológico evidenció glioblastoma multiforme variante de células gigantes, confirmado con tinción de inmunohistoquímica (PFGA, CD34+ y vimentina). Paciente con buena evolución clínica postquirúrgica, egresada sin déficit neurológico. 16 meses después, presentó síndrome de recidiva tumoral y complicaciones, por lo que se reintervino en 4 ocasiones, posterior a recibir 30 dosis de radioterapia y 12 ciclos de quimioterapia, se reingresó con deterioro neurológico progresivo, signos meníngeos y síndrome de Parinaud, escala de Karnofsky (30 puntos), realizándose derivación ventrículo-peritoneal por compresión del IV ventrículo e hidrocefalia obstructiva secundaria, luego desarrolló neumonía intrahospitalaria, falleciendo a las dos semanas. Conclusiones: Es importante identificar la variante biológica del glioblastoma de forma temprana, para determinar pronóstico y acciones terapéuticas que influirán en la calidad de vida, así como la supervivencia...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Brain Neoplasms/complications , Glioblastoma/diagnosis , Cerebellar Ataxia , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
3.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(2): 157-166, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341979

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A neuroinflamação associada às células gliais é um elemento importante do processo patológico da doença de Alzheimer (DA). Este estudo apresenta uma revisão dos marcadores gliais quitinase 3-like 1 (YKL-40), do receptor desencadeado expresso nas células mieloides 2 (Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 ­ TREM2), da proteína acídica fibrilar glial (GFAP) e da proteína B S100 ligante de cálcio (S100B). Métodos: Nesta revisão são analisados os marcadores gliais YKL-40, TREM2, GFAP e S100B presentes em sangue e/ou líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR), a partir de estudos publicados até 2020 nos bancos de dados do PubMed, Medline e Periódicos Capes. Resultados: Foram recuperados 233 documentos, dentre os quais foram incluídos 60. Todos os marcadores se encontram aumentados na DA em LCR ­ YKL-40 e TREM2 solúvel (sTREM2), já na fase pré-clínica ­, e em sangue, e estão correlacionados ao declínio cognitivo. No entanto, nenhum dos marcadores analisados apresentou grande potencial para o diagnóstico diferencial. Além da proteína TREM2 solúvel no LCR, no sangue também se pode identificar alteração nos níveis do RNAm de TREM2. GFAP sanguíneo mostra ser o melhor em distinguir controles de pacientes com Alzheimer. Há evidências de um efeito protetivo da ativação glial em reação ao acúmulo amiloide. Conclusão: Os marcadores gliais no geral têm pouca utilidade para o diagnóstico diferencial, mas podem auxiliar no prognóstico e como biomarcadores inespecíficos para doenças neurodegenerativas. (AU)


Introduction: Glial cell-associated neuroinflammation is a driving force for the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study is a systematic review aimed to analyze the following glial markers: chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40), triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B). Methods: The PubMed, MEDLINE and CAPES Journals databases were searched for studies published until 2020 that addressed blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of YKL-40, TREM2, GFAP and S100B. Results: A total of 233 articles were retrieved, of which 60 were included in this study. All CSF ­ YKL-40 and soluble TREM2 (sTREM2) in preclinical stage ­ and blood biomarker levels were elevated for AD and were correlated to cognitive decline. None of the analyzed biomarkers showed promising results for differential diagnosis. Besides CSF sTREM2 levels, blood TREM2 mRNA levels were also altered in AD. Blood GFAP levels seem to be the best option for distinguishing controls from AD patients.' There is evidence of a protective role of glial activation in amyloid accumulation. Conclusion: Glial markers in general are of little use for differential diagnosis but can assist in prognosis and as nonspecific biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Neuroglia , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Membrane Glycoproteins , Receptors, Immunologic , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1 , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878318

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Antimony (Sb) has recently been identified as a novel nerve poison, although the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its neurotoxicity remain unclear. This study aimed to assess the effects of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway on antimony-induced astrocyte activation.@*Methods@#Protein expression levels were detected by Western blotting. Immunofluorescence, cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions separation were used to assess the distribution of p65. The expression of protein in brain tissue sections was detected by immunohistochemistry. The levels of mRNAs were detected by Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).@*Results@#Antimony exposure triggered astrocyte proliferation and increased the expression of two critical protein markers of reactive astrogliosis, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), indicating that antimony induced astrocyte activation @*Conclusion@#Antimony activated astrocytes by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimony/toxicity , Astrocytes/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases , Male , Mice, Inbred ICR , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Rats , Signal Transduction/drug effects
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(9): 1174-1180, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041070

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The study aims to explore the relationship between preoperative anxiety and chronic postoperative pain. METHODS A total of forty rats were divided into four groups, control, single-prolonged stress alone, Hysterectomy alone, and SPS+ Hysterectomy. The paw withdrawal mechanical thresholds (PWMT) were examined. qRT-PCR and western blotting assay were performed to detect the GFAP expression in astrocytes isolated from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) region. In addition, the long-term potentiation (LTP) in ACC was examined. RESULTS Rats in the SPS group or the Hysterectomy alone group had no significant effect on chronic pain formation, but SPS can significantly induce chronic pain after surgery. Astrocytes were still active, and the LTP was significantly increased three days after modeling in the SPS+Hysterectomy group. CONCLUSIONS anxiety can induce chronic pain by activating astrocytes in the ACC region.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O objetivo deste estudo é explorar a relação entre a ansiedade no pré-operatório e a dor crônica no pós-operatório. MÉTODOS Um total de 40 ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle, estresse prolongado (SPS), histerectomia e SPS + histerectomia. Os limiares de retirada da pata em resposta a estímulo mecânico (PWMT) foram examinados. Ensaios qRT-PCR e imunoenzimáticos (western blotting) foram realizados para detectar a expressão de GFAP em astrócitos isolados da região do córtex cingulado anterior (CCA). Além disso, a potenciação de longa duração (LTP) no CCA também foi examinada. RESULTADOS Os ratos no grupo de estresse prolongado e no grupo de histerectomia não apresentaram nenhum efeito significativo na formação de dor crônica. Porém, o estresse prolongado foi capaz de induzir dor crônica significativamente após a cirurgia. Três dias após o modelo, o grupo de SPS + histerectomia ainda apresentava astrócitos ativos e LTP significativamente maior. CONCLUSÃO A ansiedade pode provocar dor crônica através da ativação de astrócitos na região do CCA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anxiety/complications , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Astrocytes/metabolism , Chronic Pain/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Pain Threshold/physiology , Long-Term Potentiation/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Preoperative Period , Chronic Pain/psychology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Gyrus Cinguli/metabolism , Hindlimb , Hysterectomy
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(9): 601-608, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038743

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Hypothalamic inflammation and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) overexpression in astrocytes are well described in obese animals, as are some cognitive and memory deficits. As the hippocampus plays important roles in the consolidation of information, this investigation aimed to observe the memory function and the astrocyte expression of GFAP in the hippocampus of rats that received either a hypercaloric or a normocaloric diet. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats received a high-fat (cafeteria) or a standard diet for 60 days. On the 61st day, the rats were submitted to the novel object recognition (NOR) test at three and 24 hours after the first contact with objects, to assess short-term and long-term memory, respectively. Thereafter, the rats were euthanized and their brains were collected for GFAP immunohistochemical investigation in the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3 areas) and hypothalamus (periventricular and arcuate nuclei). Astrocytic reactivity was assessed by morphometry. Different white adipose tissue depots and brown adipose tissue were weighed to calculate the adiposity index. Results: The hypercaloric diet increased body weight gain, adiposity index, white adipose tissue weight (epididymal, subcutaneous and retroperitoneal) and brown adipose tissue weight. Rats fed with the hypercaloric diet showed short-term and long-term memory impairments in the NOR test, as well as increased GFAP expression in astrocytes from all analyzed hypothalamic and hippocampal areas. Conclusion: This astrogliosis suggests that the neuroinflammatory response also occurs in the hippocampus and may be involved in the memory losses observed in obese/overweight animals.


RESUMO Objetivo: A inflamação hipotalâmica e a superexpressão da proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP) em astrócitos são bem descritas em animais obesos, assim como déficits cognitivos e de memória. Como o hipocampo desempenha importante papel na consolidação de informações, esta investigação teve como objetivo observar a função da memória e a expressão astrocitária da GFAP no hipocampo de ratos que receberam dieta hipercalórica ou normocalórica. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos adultos receberam dieta rica em gordura (cafeteria) ou dieta padrão por 60 dias. No 61º dia, os ratos foram submetidos ao teste de reconhecimento de objetos (NOR) 3 e 24 horas após o primeiro contato com os objetos, para avaliação da memória de curto e de longo prazo, respectivamente. Após, os ratos foram eutanasiados e os encéfalos coletados para pesquisa imuno-histoquímica da expressão astrocitária de GFAP no hipocampo (áreas CA1, CA2 e CA3) e no hipotálamo (núcleos periventricular e arqueado). A reatividade astrocitária foi avaliada por morfometria. Diferentes depósitos de tecido adiposo branco e marrom foram pesados para calcular o índice de adiposidade. Resultados: A dieta hipercalórica aumentou o ganho de peso corporal, o índice de adiposidade, o peso do tecido adiposo branco (epididimal, subcutâneo e retroperitoneal) e marrom. Ratos alimentados com dieta hipercalórica apresentaram prejuízos na memória de curto e longo prazo no teste NOR e aumento da expressão de GFAP em astrócitos de todas as áreas hipotalâmicas e hipocampais analisadas. Conclusão: Esta astrogliose sugere que a resposta neuroinflamatória também ocorre no hipocampo, podendo estar envolvida nas perdas de memória observadas em animais obesos/com sobrepeso.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Astrocytes/chemistry , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/analysis , Hippocampus/cytology , Memory Disorders/etiology , Obesity/complications , Reference Values , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Memory Disorders/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773505

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of on the expression of β-tubulin Ⅲ and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the proliferation and differentiation of murine neural stem cells (NSCs) .@*METHODS@#An immortalized murine NSC line was divided into model control (MC) group, 10% drug-containing serum group (NLXT group), and 10% Naoluoxintong drug-containing serum with inhibitor Y27632 group (Y-27632 group) with corresponding treatments. The activity of the NSCs was detected after the treatments using MTT assay, and the migration of the cells was observed with Transwell assay. The expressions of β-tubulin Ⅲ, GFAP and MAP-2 proteins in the cells were detected with immunoblotting, and the expressions of DCX, NEUN, and β-tubulin Ⅲ were also detected with immunofluorescence assay.@*RESULTS@#Compared with that in MC group, the number of migrated cells in NLXT group and Y-27632 group increased significantly at 1 day and 3 days after induction ( < 0.05). The survival rate and the number of migrated cells in NLXT group and Y-27632 group increased significantly on day 7 ( < 0.01). Compared with those in MC group, the expressions of β-tubulin Ⅲ, MAP2 and GFAP protein in NLXT group and Y-27632 group were significantly increased on days 3 ( < 0.01) and 7 ( < 0.05). The numbers of β-tubulinⅢ/ GFAP, BrdU/DCX, and BrdU/NEUN labeled cells in the NLXT group and Y-27632 group were significantly greater than those in the MC group.@*CONCLUSIONS@# promotes the proliferation and differentiation of murine NSCs by regulating the expressions of β-tubulinⅢ/GFAP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Mice , Neural Stem Cells , Tubulin
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776000

ABSTRACT

To compare the biological functions of astrocytes cultured by two methods. Methods The primary astrocytes were cultured from rodent neonatal brain,whereas the differentiated astrocytes were prepared by differentiating neural stem cells with fetal bovine serum.The morphologies of these two different types of astrocytes were observed under microscope and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP),an astrocyte-specific marker,was detected by immunofluorescence staining after treatment with 10 cytokines.Changes in GFAP,glutamate synthetase(GS),glutamate-aspartic acid transporter(xCT),neuregulin-1(NRG),N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor(NMDA),lipoprotein lipase(LPL)were detected and compared. Results The morphologies and GFAP expression differed between these two astrocyte types.Microarray showed that the expressions of GFAP,GS,xCT,NRG,NMDA,and LPL were significantly higher in primary astrocytes than in differentiated astrocytes.None of these 10 cytokines increased the expression of GFAP in primary astrocytes,whereas treatment with transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β)significantly increased the expression of GFAP in the differentiated astrocytes. Conclusion Compared with the differentiated astrocytes,the primary astrocytes are more similar to reactive astrocytes,and TGF-β can promote the transition of differentiated cells to reactive cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Astrocytes , Cell Biology , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Metabolism , Neural Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Rodentia , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Pharmacology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775253

ABSTRACT

To explore the effects of intrauterine infection on early growth and neurobehavioral development in neonatal rats. (E. coli) was inoculated into uterine cervix of pregnant rats with gestation of 15 d to establish the intrauterine infection model, and the effect on the delivery of pregnant rats was observed. The neonatal rat brain tissue was stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and the cerebral white matter damage was assessed. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and neurofilament (NF) in pup brains. Birth weight and early growth development indices were monitored,and neurobehavioral tests were performed to access the change of neurobehavioral development in neonatal rats. The white blood cell count increased significantly in the uterus and placenta of the pregnant rats after intrauterine E. coli infection and no significant impact was observed on the delivery of pregnant rats. Weak staining and focal rarefaction of cerebral white matter from rats at P7 in intrauterine infection group were observed. The expression of GFAP markedly increased (<0.05) in infection group, while the level of CNPase and NF in pup brains at P7 significantly decreased (<0.05 or <0.01). Compared with control group, the neonatal rats in infection group had lower birth weight and slower weight gain during the suckling period (<0.05 or <0.01), and the completion times of ear opening, eye opening, surface righting, negative geotaxis, acoustic startle and swimming test in infection group were significantly delayed (<0.05 or <0.01). Intrauterine infection in pregnant rats can induce cerebral white matter damage and retardation of early growth and neurobehavioral development in neonatal rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Behavior, Animal , Body Weight , Disease Models, Animal , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Infections , Female , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Genetics , Growth Disorders , Leukoencephalopathies , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recombinant amelogenin protein (RAP) was reported to induce soft-tissue regeneration in canine infected endodontically treated permanent teeth with open apices. To characterize identities of the cells found in the RAP regenerated tissues compared to authentic pulp by identifying: 1) stem cells by their expression of Sox2; 2) nerve fibers by distribution of the axonal marker peripherin; 3) axons by their expression of calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP); 4) the presence of astrocytes expressing glial fibrillary acidic proteins (GFAP).METHODS: A total of 240 open-apex root canals in dogs were used. After establishment of oral contamination to the pulp, the canals were cleaned, irrigated, and 120 canals filled with RAP, and the other 120 with calcium hydroxide.RESULTS: After 1, 3, and 6 months, teeth were recovered for immune-detection of protein markers associated with native pulp tissues. Regenerated pulp and apical papilla of RAP group revealed an abundance of stem cells showing intense immunoreactivity to Sox2 antibody, immunoreactivity of peripherin mainly in the A-fibers of the odontoblast layer and immunoreactivity to CGRP fibers in the central pulp region indicative of C-fibres. GFAP immunoreactivity was observed near the odontoblastic, cell-rich regions and throughout the regenerated pulp.CONCLUSIONS: RAP induces pulp regeneration following regenerative endodontic procedures with cells identity by gene expression demonstrating a distribution pattern similar to the authentic pulp innervation. A- and C-fibers, as well as GFAP specific to astrocytic differentiation, are recognized. The origin of the regenerated neural networks may be derived from the Sox2 identified stem cells within the apical papilla.


Subject(s)
Amelogenin , Animals , Astrocytes , Axons , Calcitonin , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Calcium Hydroxide , Dental Pulp Cavity , Dental Pulp Necrosis , Dogs , Gene Expression , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Nerve Fibers , Odontoblasts , Periapical Periodontitis , Regeneration , Stem Cells , Tooth
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a very serious health problem, usually caused by a trauma and accompanied by elevated levels of inflammation indicators. Stem cell-based therapy is promising some valuable strategies for its functional recovery. Nestin-positive progenitor and/or stem cells (SC) isolated from pancreatic islets (PI) show mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics. For this reason, we aimed to analyze the effects of rat pancreatic islet derived stem cell (rPI-SC) delivery on functional recovery, as well as the levels of inflammation factors following SCI. METHODS: rPI-SCs were isolated, cultured and their MSC characteristics were determined through flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis. The experimental rat population was divided into three groups : 1) laminectomy & trauma, 2) laminectomy & trauma & phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and 3) laminectomy+trauma+SCs. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) labelled rPI-SCs were transplanted into the injured rat spinal cord. Their motilities were evaluated with Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) Score. After 4-weeks, spinal cord sections were analyzed for GFP labeled SCs and stained for vimentin, S100β, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 2’,3’-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proinflammatory (interleukin [IL]-6, transforming growth factor [TGF]-β, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-2, myeloperoxidase [MPO]) and anti-inflammatory (IL-1 receptor antagonis) factors. RESULTS: rPI-SCs were revealed to display MSC characteristics and express neural and glial cell markers including BDNF, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), fibronectin, microtubule associated protein-2a,b (MAP2a,b), β3-tubulin and nestin as well as antiinflammatory prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP3. The BBB scores showed significant motor recovery in group 3. GFP-labelled cells were localized on the injury site. In addition, decreased proinflammatory factor levels and increased intensity of anti-inflammatory factors were determined. CONCLUSION: Transplantation of PI-SCs might be an effective strategy to improve functional recovery following spinal cord trauma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Dinoprostone , Fibronectins , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Inflammation , Islets of Langerhans , Laminectomy , Macrophages , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Microtubules , Nestin , Neuroglia , Peroxidase , Rats , Regeneration , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Transforming Growth Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vimentin , Wounds and Injuries
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 212-220, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990029

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: In spinal cord injury, radical treatment is still a persistent hope for patients and clinicians. Our study aimed to determine the different histological changes in central, cranial and caudal sites of compressed spinal cord as a result of neuroectodermal stem cells (NESCs) transplantation in rats. For extraction of NESCs, future brains were extracted from mice embryos (10-days old) and cultured. Eighty, male rats were divided randomly into control, sham (20 rats each); while 40 rats were subjected to compressed spinal cord injury (CSCI). Seven days after spinal cord injury, rats were subdivided into 2 groups (20 rats each); an untreated and treated with NESCs injected cranial and caudal to the site of the spinal cord injury. Rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after transplantations of NESCs and specimens from the spinal cord at the central, cranial and caudal to site of spinal cord injury were proceeded to be stained with haematoxylin & eosin, osmic acid and Immunohistochemistry of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Sections of CSCI revealed areas of hemorrhages, necrosis and cavitation limited by reactive astrocytosis, with upregulation of GFAP expression. Evidence of remyelination and mitigation of histopathological features, reactive astrocytosis in CSCI sections were more pronounced in cranial than in caudal region. NESCs transplantation ameliorated the pathological changes, promoted remyelination.


RESUMEN: En la lesión de la médula espinal, el tratamiento radical aún sigue siendo el tratamiento preferente para los pacientes y los médicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los diferentes cambios histológicos en los sitios centrales, craneales y caudales de la médula espinal comprimida, como resultado del trasplante de células madre neuroectodérmicas (NESCs) en ratas. Para la extracción de NESCs, se extrajeron y cultivaron los cerebros de embriones de ratones de 10 días de edad. Se dividieron 80 ratas macho aleatoriamente en grupos control, simulado (20 ratas cada una); mientras que 40 ratas fueron sometidas a lesión de la médula espinal comprimida (CSCI). Siete días después de la lesión de la médula espinal, las ratas se subdividieron en 2 grupos (20 ratas cada uno); un grupo no tratado y un grupo tratado con NESCs inyectado craneal y caudal en el sitio de la lesión. Las ratas fueron sacrificadas 4 semanas después de los trasplantes de NESCs y las muestras de la médula espinal en el centro, craneal y caudal del sitio de lesión fueron teñidas con hematoxilina y eosina, ácido ósmico e inmunohistoquímica de la proteína ácida fibrilar glial (GFAP). Las secciones de CSCI revelaron áreas de hemorragias, necrosis y cavitación limitadas por astrocitosis reactiva, con una regulación positiva de la expresión de GFAP. Evidencia de remielinización y mitigación de características histopatológicas, astrocitosis reactiva en secciones de CSCI fue más pronunciada en la región craneal que en la caudal. El trasplante de NESC mejoró los cambios patológicos, promoviendo la remielinización.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord Injuries/surgery , Spinal Cord Injuries/pathology , Stem Cell Transplantation , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Ectoderm , Remyelination , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a very serious health problem, usually caused by a trauma and accompanied by elevated levels of inflammation indicators. Stem cell-based therapy is promising some valuable strategies for its functional recovery. Nestin-positive progenitor and/or stem cells (SC) isolated from pancreatic islets (PI) show mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics. For this reason, we aimed to analyze the effects of rat pancreatic islet derived stem cell (rPI-SC) delivery on functional recovery, as well as the levels of inflammation factors following SCI.METHODS: rPI-SCs were isolated, cultured and their MSC characteristics were determined through flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis. The experimental rat population was divided into three groups : 1) laminectomy & trauma, 2) laminectomy & trauma & phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and 3) laminectomy+trauma+SCs. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) labelled rPI-SCs were transplanted into the injured rat spinal cord. Their motilities were evaluated with Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) Score. After 4-weeks, spinal cord sections were analyzed for GFP labeled SCs and stained for vimentin, S100β, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 2’,3’-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proinflammatory (interleukin [IL]-6, transforming growth factor [TGF]-β, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-2, myeloperoxidase [MPO]) and anti-inflammatory (IL-1 receptor antagonis) factors.RESULTS: rPI-SCs were revealed to display MSC characteristics and express neural and glial cell markers including BDNF, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), fibronectin, microtubule associated protein-2a,b (MAP2a,b), β3-tubulin and nestin as well as antiinflammatory prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP3. The BBB scores showed significant motor recovery in group 3. GFP-labelled cells were localized on the injury site. In addition, decreased proinflammatory factor levels and increased intensity of anti-inflammatory factors were determined.CONCLUSION: Transplantation of PI-SCs might be an effective strategy to improve functional recovery following spinal cord trauma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Dinoprostone , Fibronectins , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Inflammation , Islets of Langerhans , Laminectomy , Macrophages , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Microtubules , Nestin , Neuroglia , Peroxidase , Rats , Regeneration , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells , Transforming Growth Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vimentin , Wounds and Injuries
14.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 132-139, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786394

ABSTRACT

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) acts as an endotoxin, releases inflammatory cytokines, and promotes an inflammatory response in various tissues. This study investigated whether LPS modulates neuroglia activation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory factors in the cerebral cortex. Adult male mice were divided into control animals and LPS-treated animals. The mice received LPS (250 µg/kg) or vehicle via an intraperitoneal injection for 5 days. We confirmed a reduction of body weight in LPS-treated animals and observed severe histopathological changes in the cerebral cortex. Moreover, we elucidated increases of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress levels in LPS-treated animals. LPS administration led to increases of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. Iba-1 and GFAP are well accepted as markers of activated microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Moreover, LPS exposure induced increases of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory factors, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Increases of these inflammatory mediators by LPS exposure indicate that LPS leads to inflammatory responses and tissue damage. These results demonstrated that LPS activates neuroglial cells and increases NF-κB-mediated inflammatory factors in the cerebral cortex. Thus, these findings suggest that LPS induces neurotoxicity by increasing oxidative stress and activating neuroglia and inflammatory factors in the cerebral cortex.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Astrocytes , Body Weight , Cerebral Cortex , Cytokines , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Male , Mice , Microglia , Necrosis , Neuroglia , NF-kappa B , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813039

ABSTRACT

To determine expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein in patients of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) and its clinical significance.
 Methods: Patients, admitted to intensive care units and diagnosed as sepsis, were recruited to our study from October 2016 to August 2018 in the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University. SAE is defined as a brain dysfunction secondary to sepsis and without evidence of a primary central nervous system infection or encephalopathy due to other reasons. The SAE group and non-SAE group were classed by Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) score. We measured the levels of serum GFAP, S100β and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) within 24 hours after diagnosis of sepsis, and compared the patients' general clinical data, ICU stay time, 28-day and 180-day mortality.
 Results: Among 152 enrolled patients, 58 and 94 were assigned to the SAE group and the non-SAE group, respectively. There were a significantly higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores, 28-day mortality rate, as well as 180-day mortality rate in the SAE group (all P<0.001). The levels of GFAP, NSE and S100β in the SAE group were significantly higher than those in the non-SAE group (all P<0.001). The diagnostic values of GFAP was 0.67 μg/L, with sensitivity at 75.9% and specificity at 77.7%. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of GFAP, NSE and S100β were 0.803, 0.795 and 0.750, respectively. Pearson analysis showed that serum GFAP level was positively correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, but it was negatively correlated with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, 28-day survival rate and 180-day survival rate.
 Conclusion: The level of serum GFAP is significantly increased in SAE, which shows certain correlation with incidence, severity and prognosis of the disease.


Subject(s)
APACHE , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Blood , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Sepsis , Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy , Diagnosis
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 670-676, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954170

ABSTRACT

There are few studies of infection by rabies virus in the olfactory bulb (OB). This work was carried out with the purpose of establishing the time required to detect rabies antigens in the OB of mouse, after the intramuscular inoculation of the virus and to evaluate the effect of the infection on the expression of three proteins: calbindin (CB), parvalbumin (PV) and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Mice were inoculated with rabies virus intramuscularly in the hind limbs. Every 8 hours, after 72 hours postinoculation (p.i.), animals were sacrificed by perfusion with paraformaldehyde and coronal sections of OB were obtained for immunohistochemical study. These cuts were used to reveal the entry and spread of viral antigens. Tissue sections obtained in the terminal phase of the disease (144 hours p.i.), and controls of the same age were also processed for immunohistochemistry of CB, PV and GFAP. Rabies virus antigens were initially detected at 80 hours p.i. in a few mitral cells. At 88 hours p.i. the antigens had spread through most of these neurons but until the terminal phase of the disease there was little dispersion of the virus towards other cellular layers of the OB. The CB protein was expressed in cells of the glomerular stratum, the PV in cells of the outer plexiform layer and the GFAP was expressed in all the layers of the OB. Viral infection generated loss of CB expression and increase of PV expression. Immunoreactivity to GFAP was increased in the outer plexiform layer of the OB as a response to infection.


Son escasos los estudios de la infección por virus de la rabia en el bulbo olfatorio (OB). Este trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de establecer el tiempo requerido para detectar antígenos de rabia en el OB del ratón, luego de la inoculación intramuscular del virus y evaluar el efecto de la infección en la expresión de tres proteínas: calbindina (CB), parvoalbúmina (PV) y la proteína ácida fibrilar glial (GFAP). Los ratones fueron inoculados con virus de la rabia por vía intramuscular en las extremidades posteriores. Cada 8 horas, después de 72 horas de inoculación (p.i.), los animales se sacrificaron por perfusión con paraformaldehído y se obtuvieron secciones coronales de OB para el estudio inmunohistoquímico. Estos cortes se usaron para revelar la entrada y propagación de antígenos virales. Las secciones de tejido obtenidas en la fase terminal de la enfermedad (144 horas p.i.), y los controles de la misma edad también se procesaron para inmunohistoquímica de CB, PV y GFAP. Los antígenos del virus de la rabia se detectaron inicialmente a las 80 horas p.i. en unas pocas células mitrales. A las 88 horas p.i. los antígenos se habían diseminado a través de la mayoría de estas neuronas, pero hasta la fase terminal de la enfermedad había poca dispersión del virus hacia otras capas celulares del OB. La proteína CB se expresó en las células del estrato glomerular, la PV en células de la capa plexiforme externa y la GFAP se expresó en todas las capas del OB. La infección viral generó pérdida de expresión de CB y aumento en la expresión de PV. La inmunorreactividad a GFAP aumentó en la capa plexiforme externa del OB como respuesta a la infección.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Olfactory Bulb/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/virology , Rabies/metabolism , Parvalbumins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Calbindins/metabolism , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(4): 252-256, Apr. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888375

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Obesity is associated with a chronic and low-grade inflammatory response in the hypothalamus, where astrogliosis occurs with the upregulation of the astrocyte structural protein GFAP. As propentofylline (PPF) has inhibitory effects on astrocyte and microglial activation during inflammation, this study aimed to investigate if this xanthine derivative could decrease the astrocyte reaction induced by a hypercaloric diet (HD). Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: NDS - rats receiving a normocaloric diet (ND) and daily saline solution; NDP - rats receiving ND and daily PPF (12.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal route); HDS - rats receiving HD and saline solution, HDP - rats receiving HD and PPF. On the 21st day, rats were anesthetized, and perfused, and brains were collected for GFAP immunohistochemical study in the hypothalamus. Results showed that HD induced increased weight gain and hypothalamic astrogliosis. Propentofylline decreased the expression of GFAP in the HDP group, although it did not affect the weight gain induced by this diet.


RESUMO A obesidade está associada com uma resposta inflamatória crônica e de baixo grau no hipotálamo, onde ocorre astrogliose com a superexpressão da proteína astrocitária GFAP. Como a propentofilina (PPF) possui efeitos inibitórios sobre a ativação astrocitária e microglial durante a inflamação, este estudo visou a investigar se esta xantina podia diminuir a reação astrocitária induzida pela dieta hipercalórica (HD). Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em 4 grupos: NDS- ratos recebendo dieta normocalórica (ND) e solução salina diária; NDP- ratos recebendo ND e PPF diária (12.5 mg/kg/dia, via intraperitoneal); HDS- ratos recebendo HD e solução salina, HDP- ratos recebendo HD e PPF. No 21° dia, os ratos foram perfundidos e os encéfalos, coletados para estudo imuno-histoquímico para a GFAP no hipotálamo. Os resultados mostram que a HD induziu aumento do ganho de peso e astrogliose no hipotálamo. A PPF diminuiu a expressão de GFAP no grupo HD, embora não tenha afetado o ganho de peso induzido por esta dieta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Xanthines/administration & dosage , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/analysis , Gliosis/etiology , Hypothalamic Diseases/etiology , Rats, Wistar , Gliosis/prevention & control , Hypothalamic Diseases/prevention & control
18.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1093-1097, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of treatment on the ultrastructure of olfactory bulb and the expression of substantia nigra glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in mice with Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and to provide methods and evidence for early prevention and treatment of PD.@*METHODS@#Forty C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, an electroacupuncture (EA) group and a medication group, 10 mice in each one. The mice in the model group, EA group and medication group were treated with 30-day nasal perfusion of LPS to establish PD model. From the first day of model establishment, the mice in the EA group were treated with electroacupuncture at bilateral "Yingxiang" (LI 20) and "Yintang" (GV 29) for 20 min, once a day; 5-day treatment was taken as one session, and 4 sessions were given with an interval of 2 days between sessions. The mice in the medication group were treated with intraperitoneal injection of L-DOPA, 10 mg/mL, once a day; 5-day treatment was taken as one session, and 4 sessions were given with an interval of 2 days between sessions. After treatment, the behavioristics changes were observed by using footprint analysis and swimming test score; the ultrastructure of olfactory bulb was observed by using transmission electron microscopy; the expression of GFAP in substantia nigra was measured by using western blot method.@*RESULTS@#① After model establishment, the mice in the model group, the EA group and medication group showed significant symptoms of quiver and fear of chill, and the BMI was significantly lower than that in the blank group (all 0.05). ③ After treatment, the footprint and swimming time in the model group were significantly lower than that in the blank group (both <0.01); the footprint and swimming time in the EA group and medication group were significantly higher than those in the model group (all <0.01).④ After treatment, compared with the blank group, the organelles and ultrastructure of olfactory bulb in the model group were significantly improved; the ultrastructure of olfactory bulb in the EA group was improved compared with that in the model group. ⑤ After treatment, the expression of substantia nigra GFAP in the model group was significantly higher than that in the blank group (<0.01); the expression of substantia nigra GFAP in the EA group and medication group was significantly lower than that in the model group (both <0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The early treatment of can improve behavioral disorders in LPS-induced early PD mice, and the mechanism may be related to the regulation of olfactory disorders and the expression of GFAP in substantia nigra.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electroacupuncture , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Olfactory Bulb , Parkinson Disease , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
19.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 85-97, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777073

ABSTRACT

Injury to peripheral nerves can lead to neuropathic pain, along with well-studied effects on sensory neurons, including hyperexcitability, abnormal spontaneous activity, and neuroinflammation in the sensory ganglia. Neuropathic pain can be enhanced by sympathetic activity. Peripheral nerve injury may also damage sympathetic axons or expose them to an inflammatory environment. In this study, we examined the lumbar sympathetic ganglion responses to two rat pain models: ligation of the L5 spinal nerve, and local inflammation of the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which does not involve axotomy. Both models resulted in neuroinflammatory changes in the sympathetic ganglia, as indicated by macrophage responses, satellite glia activation, and increased numbers of T cells, along with very modest increases in sympathetic neuron excitability (but not spontaneous activity) measured in ex vivo recordings. The spinal nerve ligation model generally caused larger responses than DRG inflammation. Plasticity of the sympathetic system should be recognized in studies of sympathetic effects on pain.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Physiology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Pathology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Metabolism , Hyperalgesia , Ligation , Macrophages , Pathology , Male , Neurogenic Inflammation , Pain , Pathology , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta , Metabolism
20.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 98-108, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777072

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests that spinal microglia regulate pathological pain in males. In this study, we investigated the effects of several microglial and astroglial modulators on inflammatory and neuropathic pain following intrathecal injection in male and female mice. These modulators were the microglial inhibitors minocycline and ZVEID (a caspase-6 inhibitor) and the astroglial inhibitors L-α-aminoadipate (L-AA, an astroglial toxin) and carbenoxolone (a connexin 43 inhibitor), as well as U0126 (an ERK kinase inhibitor) and D-JNKI-1 (a c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor). We found that spinal administration of minocycline or ZVEID, or Caspase6 deletion, reduced formalin-induced inflammatory and nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain primarily in male mice. In contrast, intrathecal L-AA reduced neuropathic pain but not inflammatory pain in both sexes. Intrathecal U0126 and D-JNKI-1 reduced neuropathic pain in both sexes. Nerve injury caused spinal upregulation of the astroglial markers GFAP and Connexin 43 in both sexes. Collectively, our data confirmed male-dominant microglial signaling but also revealed sex-independent astroglial signaling in the spinal cord in inflammatory and neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
2-Aminoadipic Acid , Toxicity , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Astrocytes , Pathology , Carbenoxolone , Pharmacology , Caspase 6 , Metabolism , Connexin 43 , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Female , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia , Pathology , Minocycline , Therapeutic Uses , Neuralgia , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Pain Measurement , Phenylurea Compounds , Pharmacology , Sex Characteristics , Spinal Cord , Pathology , Time Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL