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1.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 120-129, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971656

ABSTRACT

Globally, it is evident that glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive malignant cancer with a high mortality rate and no effective treatment options. Glioblastoma is classified as the stage-four progression of a glioma tumor, and its diagnosis results in a shortened life expectancy. Treatment options for GBM include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, surgical intervention, and conventional pharmacotherapy; however, at best, they extend the patient's life by a maximum of 5 years. GBMs are considered incurable due to their high recurrence rate, despite various aggressive therapeutic approaches which can have many serious adverse effects. Ceramides, classified as endocannabinoids, offer a promising novel therapeutic approach for GBM. Endocannabinoids may enhance the apoptosis of GBM cells but have no effect on normal healthy neural cells. Cannabinoids promote atypical protein kinase C, deactivate fatty acid amide hydrolase enzymes, and activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRPV2 to induce pro-apoptotic signaling pathways without increasing endogenous cannabinoids. In previous in vivo studies, endocannabinoids, chemically classified as amide formations of oleic and palmitic acids, have been shown to increase the pro-apoptotic activity of human cancer cells and inhibit cell migration and angiogenesis. This review focuses on the biological synthesis and pharmacology of endogenous cannabinoids for the enhancement of cancer cell apoptosis, which have potential as a novel therapy for GBM. Please cite this article as: Duzan A, Reinken D, McGomery TL, Ferencz N, Plummer JM, Basti MM. Endocannabinoids are potential inhibitors of glioblastoma multiforme proliferation. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(2): 120-128.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glioblastoma/pathology , Endocannabinoids/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Cell Line, Tumor , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use
2.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 105-122, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971612

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly malignant and heterogeneous brain tumor, contains various types of tumor and non-tumor cells. Whether GBM cells can trans-differentiate into non-neural cell types, including mural cells or endothelial cells (ECs), to support tumor growth and invasion remains controversial. Here we generated two genetic GBM models de novo in immunocompetent mouse brains, mimicking essential pathological and molecular features of human GBMs. Lineage-tracing and transplantation studies demonstrated that, although blood vessels in GBM brains underwent drastic remodeling, evidence of trans-differentiation of GBM cells into vascular cells was barely detected. Intriguingly, GBM cells could promiscuously express markers for mural cells during gliomagenesis. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing showed that patterns of copy number variations (CNVs) of mural cells and ECs were distinct from those of GBM cells, indicating discrete origins of GBM cells and vascular components. Importantly, single-cell CNV analysis of human GBM specimens also suggested that GBM cells and vascular cells are likely separate lineages. Rather than expansion owing to trans-differentiation, vascular cell expanded by proliferation during tumorigenesis. Therefore, cross-lineage trans-differentiation of GBM cells is very unlikely to occur during gliomagenesis. Our findings advance understanding of cell lineage dynamics during gliomagenesis, and have implications for targeted treatment of GBMs.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Humans , Glioblastoma/pathology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , DNA Copy Number Variations , Brain/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/pathology
3.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 32-49, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971467

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia, as an important hallmark of the tumor microenvironment, is a major cause of oxidative stress and plays a central role in various malignant tumors, including glioblastoma. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a hypoxic microenvironment promote glioblastoma progression; however, the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. Herein, we found that hypoxia promoted ROS production, and the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioblastoma cells, while this promotion was restrained by ROS scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). Hypoxia-induced ROS activated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling, which enhanced cell migration and invasion by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, the induction of serine protease inhibitor family E member 1 (SERPINE1) was ROS-dependent under hypoxia, and HIF-1α mediated SERPINE1 increase induced by ROS via binding to the SERPINE1 promoter region, thereby facilitating glioblastoma migration and invasion. Taken together, our data revealed that hypoxia-induced ROS reinforce the hypoxic adaptation of glioblastoma by driving the HIF-1α-SERPINE1 signaling pathway, and that targeting ROS may be a promising therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Line, Tumor , Glioblastoma/pathology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tumor Microenvironment , Brain Neoplasms/pathology
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 211-219, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970516

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma is the most common primary cranial malignancy, and chemotherapy remains an important tool for its treatment. Sanggenon C(San C), a class of natural flavonoids extracted from Morus plants, is a potential antitumor herbal monomer. In this study, the effect of San C on the growth and proliferation of glioblastoma cells was examined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) assay and 5-bromodeoxyuridinc(BrdU) labeling assay. The effect of San C on the tumor cell cycle was examined by flow cytometry, and the effect of San C on clone formation and self-renewal ability of tumor cells was examined by soft agar assay. Western blot and bioinformatics analysis were used to investigate the mechanism of the antitumor activity of San C. In the presence of San C, the MTT assay showed that San C significantly inhibited the growth and proliferation of tumor cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. BrdU labeling assay showed that San C significantly attenuated the DNA replication activity in the nucleus of tumor cells. Flow cytometry confirmed that San C blocked the cell cycle of tumor cells in G_0/G_1 phase. The soft agar clone formation assay revealed that San C significantly attenuated the clone formation and self-renewal ability of tumor cells. The gene set enrichment analysis(GSEA) implied that San C inhibited the tumor cell division cycle by affecting the myelocytomatosis viral oncogene(MYC) signaling pathway. Western blot assay revealed that San C inhibited the expression of cyclin through the regulation of the MYC signaling pathway by lysine demethylase 4B(KDM4B), which ultimately inhibited the growth and proliferation of glioblastoma cells and self-renewal. In conclusion, San C exhibits the potential antitumor activity by targeting the KDM4B-MYC axis to inhibit glioblastoma cell growth, proliferation, and self-renewal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glioblastoma/genetics , Bromodeoxyuridine/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/metabolism , Agar , Cell Proliferation , Cell Line, Tumor , Apoptosis , Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases/metabolism
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 4-12, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970047

ABSTRACT

Leucine-rich repeats containing 4 ( LRRC4 , also named netrin-G ligand 2 [NGL-2]) is a member of the NetrinGs ligands (NGLs) family. As a gene with relatively high and specific expression in brain, it is a member of the leucine-rich repeat superfamily and has been proven to be a suppressor gene for gliomas, thus being involved in gliomagenesis. LRRC4 is the core of microRNA-dependent multi-phase regulatory loops that inhibit the proliferation and invasion of glioblastoma (GB) cells, including LRRC4/NGL2-activator protein 2 (AP2)-microRNA (miR) 182-LRRC4 and LRRC4-miR185-DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1)-LRRC4/specific protein 1 (SP1)-DNMT1-LRRC4. In this review, we demonstrated LRRC4 as a new member of the partitioning-defective protein (PAR) polarity complex that promotes axon differentiation, mediates the formation and plasticity of synapses, and assists information input to the hippocampus and storage of memory. As an important synapse regulator, aberrant expression of LRRC4 has been detected in autism, spinal injury and GBs. LRRC4 is a candidate susceptibility gene for autism and a neuro-protective factor in spinal nerve damage. In GBs, LRRC4 is a novel inhibitor of autophagy, and an inhibitor of protein-protein interactions involving in temozolomide resistance, tumor immune microenvironment, and formation of circular RNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Line, Tumor , Glioblastoma/metabolism , Leucine , Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins/genetics , MicroRNAs , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1477-1501, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981149

ABSTRACT

Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) generally have a bad prognosis and short overall survival after being treated with surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy due to the histological heterogeneity, strong invasive ability and rapid postoperative recurrence of GBM. The components of GBM cell-derived exosome (GBM-exo) can regulate the proliferation and migration of GBM cell via cytokines, miRNAs, DNA molecules and proteins, promote the angiogenesis via angiogenic proteins and non-coding RNAs, mediate tumor immune evasion by targeting immune checkpoints with regulatory factors, proteins and drugs, and reduce drug resistance of GBM cells through non-coding RNAs. GBM-exo is expected to be an important target for the personalized treatment of GBM and a marker for diagnosis and prognosis of this kind of disease. This review summarizes the preparation methods, biological characteristics, functions and molecular mechanisms of GBM-exo on cell proliferation, angiogenesis, immune evasion and drug resistance of GBM to facilitate developing new strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of GBM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glioblastoma/genetics , Exosomes/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Prognosis , Cell Proliferation , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor
7.
Journal of the Philippine Medical Association ; : 75-81, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006367

ABSTRACT

@#Constitutionalmismatch repair deficiency(CMMRD) is a hereditary predisposition of malignancy evident in childhood leukemias, lymphomas, and malignant tumors of the brain, GI tract. It is a very rare condition that affects 1 per 1 million patients. Patients with CMMRD syndrome may also manifest with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) phenotypic features, and benign masses, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. This is a case of a 12-year old male who presented with phenotypic features of NF1, developed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia at 7 years old and went into remission. He subsequently developed synchronous Glioblastoma and Poorly differentiated Adenocarcinoma of the rectum.This report aims to raise awareness regarding the possibility of a CMMRD syndrome in pediatric patients who present with phenotypic features of NF1, and in those patients who present with two or more malignancies in their lifetime.


Subject(s)
Glioblastoma , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
8.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 37: e51209, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1529647

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: identificar as percepções sobre o bem-estar, apoio social, intensidade dos sintomas e o seu impacto nas atividades diárias de pacientes com cânceres cerebrais e correlacionar os achados com os níveis de adesão aos quimioterápicos antineoplásicos orais. Método: estudo correlacional e transversal, realizado num ambulatório hospitalar universitário de São Paulo, Brasil, entre 2019 e 2020. Utilizou-se instrumento para caracterização da amostra e escalas específicas. Resultados: 26 participantes, mediana de 36,5 anos, 61,5% sexo masculino, 53,9% diagnosticados com glioblastoma; 73,1% apresentaram adesão, rede de apoio social e índice alto de bem-estar. O escore médio de intensidade dos sintomas foi de baixo para médio, com pior pontuação para preocupação no pior estado. A maior adesão relacionou-se ao apoio afetivo, apoio informação, interação social e apoio emocional. Conclusão: a maioria declarou níveis positivos de bem-estar, suporte social e poucos sintomas. A percepção de apoio social e bem-estar influenciaram positivamente na adesão medicamentosa.


Objetivos: identificar las percepciones sobre el bienestar, apoyo social, intensidad de los síntomas y su impacto en las actividades diarias de pacientes con cánceres cerebrales y correlacionar los resultados con los niveles de adhesión a los quimioterápicos antineoplásicos orales. Método: estudio correlacional y transversal, realizado en un ambulatorio hospitalario universitario de São Paulo, Brasil, entre 2019 y 2020. Se utilizó un instrumento para la caracterización de la muestra y escalas específicas. Resultados: 26 participantes, mediana de 36,5 años, 61,5% sexo masculino, 53,9% diagnosticados con glioblastoma; 73,1% presentaron adhesión, red de apoyo social y índice alto de bienestar. El puntaje promedio de intensidad de los síntomas fue de bajo a medio, con peor puntuación para preocupación en el peor estado. La mayor adhesión se relacionó al apoyo afectivo, apoyo información, interacción social y apoyo emocional. Conclusión: la mayoría declaró niveles positivos de bienestar, apoyo social y pocos síntomas. La percepción de apoyo social y bienestar influyó positivamente en la adhesión medicamentosa.


Objectives: to identify perceptions about well-being, social support, intensity of symptoms and their impact on the daily activities of patients with brain cancers and correlate the findings with levels of adherence to oral antineoplastic chemotherapy. Method: correlational and cross-sectional study, conducted in a university hospital outpatient clinic in São Paulo, Brazil, between 2019 and 2020. An instrument was used to characterize the sample, in addition to specific scales. Results: 26 participants, median 36.5 years, 61.5% male, 53.9% diagnosed with glioblastoma; 73.1% showed adherence, social support network and high well-being index. The mean symptom intensity score was low to medium, with a worse score for worry in the worst state. Greater adherence was related to affective support, information support, social interaction and emotional support. Conclusion: most reported positive levels of well-being, social support and few symptoms. The perception of social support and well-being positively influenced drug adherence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Quality of Life , Social Support , Correlation of Data , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glioblastoma/psychology
9.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 14-18, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362068

ABSTRACT

Objectives The present study aims to categorize the prevalence of intracranial tumors surgically treated at the neurosurgery service of Hospital Universitário Evangélico Mackenzie (HUEM) between 2016 and 2018. Material and Methods This survey included patients surgically treated due to primary or metastatic intracranial neoplasia between 2016 and 2018 at a referral center in the city of Curitiba. These patients were analyzed for epidemiological, histopathological, and topographic data, and they underwent an assessment of the outcome at the time of hospital discharge. Results Atotal of 96patientsmet the inclusion criteria. Themost prevalent tumorwas the glioma, with 39.6% of the sample, with glioblastoma being themost prevalent histological type. Brainmetastases andmeningiomas represented, respectively, 21.9%and 18.8%of the total. There was a predominance of supratentorial and intra-axial tumors in our sample. Conclusion Glioma was the most commonly found tumor, directly associated with high morbidity and mortality. The development of new and more effective drugs with action directed at themolecular level of intracranial tumorsmay be the path to a longer survival and improvement in the quality of life of these patients.


Subject(s)
Skull Neoplasms/epidemiology , Supratentorial Neoplasms/epidemiology , Glioblastoma/epidemiology , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnosis , Skull Neoplasms/surgery , Skull Neoplasms/physiopathology , Health Profile , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Glioblastoma/mortality
10.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 276-285, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927876

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the relationship between the expression of glutathione peroxidase(GPX)genes and the clinical prognosis in glioma patients,and to construct and evaluate the model for predicting the prognosis of glioma. Methods The clinical information and GPX expression of 663 patients,including 153 patients of glioblastoma(GBM)and 510 patients of low-grade glioma(LGG),were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas(TCGA)database.The relationship between GPX expression and patient survival was analyzed.The key GPX affecting the prognosis of glioma was screened out by single- and multi-factor Cox's proportional-hazards regression models and validated by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator(Lasso)regression.Finally,we constructed the model for predicting the prognosis of glioma with the screening results and then used concordance index and calibration curve respectively to evaluate the discrimination and calibration of model. Results Compared with those in the control group,the expression levels of GPX1,GPX3,GPX4,GPX7,and GPX8 were up-regulated in glioma patients(all P<0.001).Moreover,the expression levels of other GPX except GPX3 were higher in GBM patients than in LGG patients(all P<0.001).The Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the progression-free survival of GBM with high expression of GPX1(P=0.013)and GPX4(P=0.040),as well as the overall survival,disease-specific survival,and progression-free survival of LGG with high expression of GPX1,GPX7,and GPX8,was shortened(all P<0.001).GPX7 and GPX8 were screened out as the key factors affecting the prognosis of LGG.The results were further used to construct a nomogram model,which suggested GPX7 was the most important variable.The concordance index of the model was 0.843(95%CI=0.809-0.853),and the calibration curve showed that the predicted and actual results had good consistency. Conclusion GPX7 is an independent risk factor affecting the prognosis of LGG,and the nomogram model constructed with it can be used to predict the survival rate of LGG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms , Glioblastoma , Glioma/diagnosis , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Peroxidases , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models
11.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 419-436, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927681

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the function of primary cilia in regulating the cellular response to temozolomide (TMZ) and ionizing radiation (IR) in glioblastoma (GBM).@*Methods@#GBM cells were treated with TMZ or X-ray/carbon ion. The primary cilia were examined by immunostaining with Arl13b and γ-tubulin, and the cellular resistance ability was measured by cell viability assay or survival fraction assay. Combining with cilia ablation by IFT88 depletion or chloral hydrate and induction by lithium chloride, the autophagy was measured by acridine orange staining assay. The DNA damage repair ability was estimated by the kinetic curve of γH2AX foci, and the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activation was detected by immunostaining assay.@*Results@#Primary cilia were frequently preserved in GBM, and the induction of ciliogenesis decreased cell proliferation. TMZ and IR promoted ciliogenesis in dose- and time-dependent manners, and the suppression of ciliogenesis significantly enhanced the cellular sensitivity to TMZ and IR. The inhibition of ciliogenesis elevated the lethal effects of TMZ and IR via the impairment of autophagy and DNA damage repair. The interference of ciliogenesis reduced DNA-PK activation, and the knockdown of DNA-PK led to cilium formation and elongation.@*Conclusion@#Primary cilia play a vital role in regulating the cellular sensitivity to TMZ and IR in GBM cells through mediating autophagy and DNA damage repair.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA/therapeutic use , Glioblastoma/metabolism , Radiation, Ionizing , Temozolomide/therapeutic use
12.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(4): 368-373, 26/11/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362105

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent and most aggressive primary brain tumor in adults,mainly located in the cerebral hemispheres. In the literature, few cases of primary GBM have been reported to have radiographic and intraoperative features of extra-axial lesions, leading to a diagnostic dilemma. Despite the advances in imaging modalities, the diagnosis of GBM can be challenging, and it is mainly based on the histopathologic confirmation of the excised tumor. We describe the case of a 76- year-old previously healthy female patient who presented to our hospital due to speech disturbances and cognitive impairment. The diagnosis of the tumor type on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was difficult, as the findings were suggestive of a malignant meningioma due to the heterogeneous enhancement of a dural-based mass with a dural tail sign. Moreover, the intraoperative findings revealed an extra-axial mass attached to the dura. A histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of glioblastoma with arachnoid infiltration. The patient underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and concomitant temozolomide treatment, she had clinical improvement postoperatively, and was stable during the six months of follow-up. Glioblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of primary extra-axial mass with atypical and malignant features, especially in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Brain Neoplasms/therapy , Glioblastoma/radiotherapy , Glioblastoma/therapy , Arachnoid , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Glioblastoma/pathology , Glioblastoma/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Temozolomide/therapeutic use
13.
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 359-364, 202112.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353578

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico es una lesión glial de bajo grado de malignidad (grado II), puede presentar transformación maligna progresando a xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico anaplásico o glioblastoma multiforme, clasificados en grado III y IV, respectivamente, de acuerdo con la OMS. El glioblastoma epitelioide es un subtipo morfológico poco común del glioblastoma, de comportamiento agresivo, asociado a recurrencia temprana y compromiso leptomeníngeo. Presentación del caso. Se describe un reporte de caso de paciente femenina de 13 años con hallazgos de xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico anaplásico asociado a glioblastoma epitelioide, neoplasia poco frecuente que suele presentarse en la población pediátrica y en los adultos jóvenes. Discusión. El diagnóstico de glioblastoma epitelioide constituye un desafío, solo se han reportado unas pocas series pequeñas en la población adulta y pediátrica. Conclusión. Los hallazgos imagenológicos en las dos entidades son similares y comparten características histopatológicas e incluso algunos hallazgos moleculares superpuestos, lo cual dificulta su diferenciación, por lo que continúa siendo de gran controversia si se presentan conjuntamente o si el xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico anaplásico es un precursor del glioblastoma epitelioide.


Introduction. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma is a glial lesion with low grade of malignancy (grade II), it can present malignant transformation progressing to anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme, classified as grade III and IV, respectively, according to the WHO. Epithelioid glioblastoma is a rare morphological subtype of glioblastoma, with aggressive behavior, associated with early recurrence and leptomeningeal compromise. Case Presentation. Case report of a 13-year-old female patient with findings of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma associated with epithelioid glioblastoma, a rare neoplasm that usually occurs in the pediatric population and in young adults. Discussion. The diagnosis of epithelioid glioblastoma is challenging, only a few small series have been reported in the adult and pediatric population. Conclusion. The imaging findings in the two entities are similar and share histopathological characteristics and even some overlapping molecular findings, which makes their differentiation difficult. For this reason, there is still a great controversy whether these entities are present continuously or whether the anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma is a precursor of epithelioid glioblastoma.


Introdução. O xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico é uma lesão glial de baixo grau de malignidade (grau II), pode apresentar transformação maligna progredindo para xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico anaplásico ou glioblastoma multiforme, classificados como grau III e IV, respectivamente, de acordo com a OMS. O glioblastoma epitelióide é um subtipo morfológico raro de glioblastoma, com comportamento agressivo, associado a recorrência precoce e envolvimento leptomeníngeo. Apresentação do caso. É descrito um relatório de caso de uma paciente feminina de 13 anos com achados de xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico anaplásico associado ao glioblastoma epitelióide, uma neoplasia rara que geralmente ocorre na população pediátrica e em adultos jovens. Discussão. O diagnóstico do glioblastoma epitélioide é desafiador, apenas algumas pequenas séries foram reportadas na população adulta e pediátrica. Conclusão. As descobertas imagiológicas nas duas entidades são semelhantes e compartilham características histopatológicas e, até mesmo, algumas descobertas moleculares sobrepostas, o que dificulta sua diferenciação, portanto permanece controverso se ocorrem juntas ou se o xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico anaplásico é um precursor do glioblastoma epitélioide.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Astrocytoma , Glioblastoma , Diagnosis, Differential , Glioma
14.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(4)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408943

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El glioblastoma multiforme es el tumor cerebral primario más frecuente y agresivo en adultos, representa cerca de 25 por ciento de los tumores intracraneales. Las principales manifestaciones clínicas están dadas por cefalea, convulsiones, cambios de conducta y un síndrome focal más definido (frontal, temporal, parietooccipital o del cuerpo calloso). En algunos pacientes, el comienzo es brusco por hemorragia o crecimiento rápido de un quiste intratumoral. El diagnóstico se realiza por resonancia magnética y se confirma con biopsia cerebral. El tratamiento es multidisciplinario e incluye resección quirúrgica, quimioterapia y radioterapia. No obstante, el pronóstico es desfavorable en la mayor parte de los pacientes. Objetivo: Describir el caso de un paciente con glioblastoma multiforme que se presentó en forma seudovascular. Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 60 años de edad con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial y enfermedad cerebrovascular. Tres días antes de su ingreso comenzó a manifestar dificultad para hablar y alteración en la marcha por pérdida de la fuerza muscular en el hemicuerpo derecho. Por lo anteriormente expuesto fue llevado al Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Julio Trigo López donde fue ingresado y se diagnosticó un tumor cerebral. El paciente evolucionó tórpidamente y falleció. El estudio anatomopatológico arrojó la presencia de un glioblastoma multiforme. Conclusiones: El caso presentado de glioblastoma multiforme forma de defecto motor ofrece información sobre esta afección que en nuestro centro no es habitual(AU)


Introduction: Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, representing about 25percent of intracranial tumors. The main clinical manifestations are given by headache, seizures, behavior changes and a more defined focal syndrome (frontal, temporal, parieto-occipital or corpus callosum). In some patients, the onset is abrupt due to bleeding or rapid growth of an intratumoral cyst. The diagnosis is made by magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed with brain biopsy. Treatment is multidisciplinary and it includes surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. However, the prognosis is poor in most patients. Objective: To describe the case of a patient with glioblastoma multiforme that presented in a pseudovascular form. Clinical report: The case of a 60-year-old male patient with a history of arterial hypertension and cerebrovascular disease is report. Three days before his admission, he began to show difficulty speaking and gait disturbance due to loss of muscle strength in the right half of his body. For the foregoing, he was taken to Julio Trigo López Surgical Clinical Hospital where he was admitted and diagnosed with a brain tumor. The patient evolved torpidly and died. The pathological study revealed the presence of a glioblastoma multiforme. Conclusions: The reported case of glioblastoma multiforme in the form of a motor defect provides information on this condition that is not common in our center(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Biopsy/methods , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Glioblastoma/diagnostic imaging
15.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(3): 284-287, 15/09/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362168

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected a large number of patients in all countries, overwhelming healthcare systems worldwide. In this scenario, surgical procedures became restricted, causing unacceptable delays in the treatment of certain pathologies, such as glioblastoma. Regarding this tumor with high morbidity and mortality, early surgical treatment is essential to increase the survival and quality of life of these patients. Association between COVID-19 and neurosurgical procedures is quite scarce in the literature, with a few reported cases. In the present study, we present a rare case of a patient undergoing surgical resection of glioblastoma with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Glioblastoma/surgery , COVID-19/drug therapy , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Glioblastoma/pathology , Glioblastoma/diagnostic imaging , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods
16.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e600, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280183

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a rare disease with multi-systemic involvement, predominantly neurological. Little evidence exists about the anesthetic management of patients with this disorder, particularly in pregnant women. This article discusses a case of a patient with TSC admitted to our hospital for the delivery of a twin gestation. Twenty-four hours after surgery, the patient presented left-side facial-brachial hypoesthesia and headache. A brain CT revealed a right frontal cortical bleeding tumor, which was diagnosed as glioblastoma multiforme. The patient was discharged 15 days after admission and a neurosurgical approach was suggested.


Resumen La esclerosis tuberosa es una enfermedad poco frecuente asociada con compromiso multisistémico, principalmente neurológico. Es poca la evidencia sobre el manejo anestésico de los pacientes con este trastorno, en particular las mujeres embarazadas. En este artículo presentamos el caso de una paciente con esclerosis tuberosa ingresada en nuestro hospital para el parto de una gestación gemelar. Veinticuatro horas después de la cirugía, la paciente presentó hipoestesia facial y braquial izquierda y cefalea. La tomografía cerebral mostró un tumor cortical sangrante en el lóbulo frontal derecho, diagnosticado como glioblastoma multiforme. La paciente fue dada de alta 15 días después de su ingreso y, con recomendación de manejo por neurocirugía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cesarean Section , Glioblastoma , Headache , Anesthesia, Epidural , Anesthetics , Neurosurgery , Tuberous Sclerosis , Brain , Rare Diseases , Parturition , Hemorrhage , Hospitals , Hypesthesia , Neoplasms , Nervous System Diseases
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(2): 167-172, Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153154

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Cancer patients in general and glioblastoma patients, in particular, have an increased risk of developing complications from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and reaching a balance between the risk of exposure to infection and the clinical benefit of their treatment is ideal. The aggressive behavior of this group of tumors justifies the need for a multidisciplinary team to assist in clinical decisions during the current pandemic. Brazil is now ranked #2 in the number of cases and deaths from COVID-19 pandemic, and existing disparities in the treatment of neuro-oncology patients in Brazil will challenge the clinical and surgical decisions of this population, possibly affecting global survival. Objective: To search the literature about the management of glioblastomas during COVID-19 pandemic to guide surgical and clinical decisions in this population of patients in Brazil. Methods: We performed a systematic search on the PubMed electronic database targeting consensus statements concerning glioblastoma approaches during COVID-19 pandemic up to July 18, 2020. Results: When approaching glioblastoma during the COVID-19 pandemic, important parameters that help in the decision-making process are age, performance status, tumor molecular profile, and patient consent. Younger patients should follow the standard protocol after maximal safe resection, mainly those with MGMT methylated tumors. Aged and underperforming patients should be carefully evaluated, and probably a monotherapy scheme is to be considered. Centers are advised to engage in telemedicine and to elaborate means to reduce local infection. Conclusion: Approaching glioblastoma during the COVID-19 pandemic will be challenging worldwide, but particularly in Brazil, where a significant inequality of healthcare exists.


RESUMO Introdução: Pacientes com câncer, em geral, e particularmente pacientes com glioblastoma estão sob elevado risco de desenvolver síndrome respiratória aguda grave devido à infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2, e alcançar um equilíbrio entre risco de exposição à infecção e benefício clínico do tratamento seria o ideal. O comportamento agressivo desse grupo de tumores justifica a necessidade de equipe multidisciplinar para auxiliar nas decisões clínicas durante a pandemia vigente. O Brasil ocupa hoje o segundo lugar em número de casos e óbitos pela COVID-19, e as atuais disparidades no tratamento de pacientes neuro-oncológicos desafiarão as decisões clínicas e cirúrgicas dessa população, possivelmente afetando a sobrevida global. Objetivo: Guiar decisões clínicas e cirúrgicas relacionadas ao manejo de glioblastoma durante a pandemia pelo COVID-19 no Brasil por meio de pesquisa em literatura. Métodos: Busca sistemática no banco de dados eletrônico da PubMed por estudos ou consensos quanto à abordagem de glioblastoma durante a pandemia por COVID-19 até 18/07/2020. Resultado: Ao abordar o glioblastoma durante a pandemia pela COVID-19, parâmetros importantes que auxiliam no processo de tomada de decisão são idade, desempenho, perfil molecular tumoral e consentimento do paciente. Pacientes jovens devem seguir protocolo padrão após máxima ressecção cirúrgica, principalmente aqueles com metilação do promotor MGMT. Idosos e pacientes debilitados devem ser cuidadosamente avaliados, e monoterapia deve ser provavelmente considerada. Centros de saúde são orientados a utilizar-se da telemedicina e de meios para reduzir infecção local. Conclusão: A abordagem do glioblastoma durante a pandemia por COVID-19 será mundialmente desafiadora, mas particularmente no Brasil, onde ainda existe significativa inequidade no cuidado com a saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Glioblastoma/etiology , Glioblastoma/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 551-561, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888745

ABSTRACT

Glioma is the most common lethal tumor of the human brain. The median survival of patients with primary World Health Organization grade IV glioma is only 14.6 months. The World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system categorized gliomas into lower-grade gliomas and glioblastomas. Unlike primary glioblastoma that usually develop de novo in the elderly, secondary glioblastoma enriched with an isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant typically progresses from lower-grade glioma within 5-10 years from the time of diagnosis. Based on various evolutional trajectories brought on by clonal and subclonal alterations, the evolution patterns of glioma vary according to different theories. Some important features distinguish the normal brain from other tissues, e.g., the composition of the microenvironment around the tumor cells, the presence of the blood-brain barrier, and others. The underlying mechanism of glioma recurrence and evolution patterns of glioma are different from those of other types of cancer. Several studies correlated tumor recurrence with tumor heterogeneity and the immune microenvironment. However, the detailed reasons for the progression and recurrence of glioma remain controversial. In this review, we introduce the different mechanisms involved in glioma progression, including tumor heterogeneity, the tumor microenvironment and drug resistance, and their pre-clinical implements in clinical trials. This review aimed to provide new insights into further clinical strategies for the treatment of patients with recurrent and secondary glioma.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Drug Resistance , Glioblastoma , Glioma/genetics , Mutation , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Tumor Microenvironment
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