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Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(108): 42-58, 20220000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363401


A la fecha, excepto los glucocorticoides, ningún otro tratamiento farmacológico ha demostrado disminución de la mortalidad en pacientes con COVID-19 grave-crítico. Con el objetivo de discutir su utilidad en la terapéutica, se realizó una revisión y lectura crítica de los estudios publicados más significativos sobre el uso de tocilizumab.Se llevó adelante una búsqueda en las principales bases de datos bibliográficas priorizando la inclusión de revisiones sistemáticas y ensayos clínicos aleatorizados controlados (ERC) que analizaran el efecto del tocilizumab en COVID-19 en diferentes puntos de valoración.Se incluyeron 5 ERC y 4 metaanálisis en la evaluación, todos ellos incluyeron pacientes con COVID-19 confirmado y mayoritariamente graves-críticos. El punto de valoración principal (PVP) fue la mortalidad a los 28 días y como resultado secundario de relevancia, la progresión a ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI). Se analizó, además, la seguridad de la intervención, fundamentalmente a nivel de la ocurrencia de infecciones secundarias.Del análisis surge que la mayor posibilidad de beneficio parece estar circunscripta a pacientes con enfermedad grave-crítica, que reciben corticoides, con marcadores de inflamación elevados (PCR >10 mg/dL) y enfermedad rápidamente progresiva. Existe alto grado de certeza respecto del impacto del tocilizumab en evitar la progresión a VMI, con una pequeña magnitud del efecto y moderado grado de certeza respecto de su impacto en la mortalidad; además de que resultó una medicación segura

Up until now, other than corticosteroids, no other pharmacological treatment has shown a decrease in mortality rate in patients with severe-critical COVID-19. In order to discuss its place in therapy, a review and critical reading of the most significant published studies on the use of tocilizumab was carried out.Search was done in the main bibliographic databases, prioritizing the inclusion of systematic reviews and randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs); that analyzed the effect of tocilizumab on COVID-19 at different endpoints.5 RCTs and 4 meta-analysis were considered in the evaluation, all of them including patients with confirmed COVID-19 and predominantly severe-critical illness. The primary endpoint was 28-day all-cause mortality and, as a secondary outcome of relevance, progression to invasive mechanical ventilation. The safety of the intervention was also analyzed, mainly the occurrence of secondary infections.From our analysis it appears that the greatest possibility of benefit seems to be limited to patients with severe-critical illness, who receive corticosteroids, with high markers of inflammation values (CRP> 10 mg/dL) and rapidly progressive disease. There is high certainty regarding the impact of tocilizumab in preventing progression to IMV, with a small effect size and moderate certainty regarding its impact on mortality. Moreover, it was a well-tolerated and safe medication

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Placebos/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Follow-Up Studies , Randomized Controlled Trial , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922535


OBJECTIVE@#In traditional Chinese medicine, the herbal pair, Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae (RAB) and Eucommiae Cortex (EC), is widely used to treat osteoporosis. Herein, we determined whether this herbal pair can be used to ameliorate glucocorticoid (GC)-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) and find its optimal dosage in zebrafish.@*METHODS@#The characteristics of the aqueous extract of RAB and EC were separately characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography. Osteoporosis was induced in 5-day post-fertilization zebrafish larvae by exposing them to 10 μmol/L dexamethasone (Dex) for 96 h. Seven combinations of different ratios of RAB and EC were co-administered. Treatment efficacy was determined by calculating zebrafish vertebral area and sum brightness, via alizarin red staining, and by detecting alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the optimal dosage ratio.@*RESULTS@#According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015), β-ecdysone (β-Ecd) is a major bioactive marker in RAB extract, while pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) is the major marker in EC extract. Both of β-Ecd and PDG content values aligned with the Chinese Pharmacopoeia standards. Treatment with 10 μmol/L Dex reduced zebrafish vertebral area, sum brightness, and ALP activity, but RAB and EC attenuated these effects. Combining 50 µg/mL RAB and 50 µg/mL EC was optimal for preventing GIOP in zebrafish. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the mRNA expression of osteogenesis-related genes. A treatment of 10 μmol/L Dex decreased runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1), bone γ-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGLAP), and β-catenin levels. This effect was counteracted by RAB and EC co-treatment (P < 0.05). Additionally, the effect of using the two herbal extracts together was better than single-herb treatments separately. These results demonstrated that RAB and EC preserve osteoblast function in the presence of GC. The best mass ratio was 1:1.@*CONCLUSION@#RAB and EC herbal pair could ameliorate GC-induced effects in zebrafish, with 1:1 as the optimal dosage ratio.

Animals , Glucocorticoids , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Zebrafish
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 437-442, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350817


ABSTRACT There have been significant improvements in therapeutic options for relapsed multiple myeloma (MM) over the past two decades, with many novel agents including proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents, and more recently monoclonal antibodies demonstrating efficacy in this setting. However, there is a paucity of real-world data comparing outcomes seen in patients treated with novel agents as opposed to older agents. We report a historical single center cohort of patients diagnosed with myeloma between the years 1991-2012 in order to explore possible differences in outcomes. A total of 139 patients who underwent stem cell transplantation were included in our study. In our study, 88 patients were treated with cyclophosphamide and steroids alone at relapse whereas 51 patients were treated with Len-Dex. In the multivariate analysis, TTNT was shorter for patients who received Cyclo compared to Len-Dex (HR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.01-2.99; p = 0.04); however, we could not detect an overall survival benefit (HR = 1.20; 95% CI 0.63-2.29; p = 0.57). Adverse event rates were similar in the two groups. In this retrospective single center analysis, Len-Dex was associated with longer TTNT compared with Cyclo at first relapse following autoSCT in MM; however its effect on overall survival in this setting was less clear.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Lenalidomide/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
Rev. Círc. Argent. Odontol ; 79(230): 21-23, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358320


La PTI es una alteración hemorrágica de instalación súbdita, adquirida, que se manifiesta inicialmente con petequias, equimosis o hematomas en piel y mucosas, sangrado nasal y gingival, sin causa aparente. La mucosa bucal puede ser el sitio donde las lesiones se observen con frecuencia y por primera vez. Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 28 años de edad, con manifestaciones clínicas de un cuadro purpúrico, se describen signos, síntomas, terapéutica y manejo estomatológico (AU)

PTI is a hemorrhagic alteration of sudden installation, acquired, which manifests initially with petechiae, esquimosis or bruises on skin and mucosae, nasal and gingival bleeding without apparent cause. Bucal mucosae can be the site where lesions are observed with frequency, and for the first time. The case of a male patient with 28 years of age with clinical manifestationsofpurpuric syndrome is reported, signs, symptoms, therapeutic and stomatological handling are described (AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Gingival Hemorrhage , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Signs and Symptoms , Immunoglobulins , Ecchymosis , Rituximab , Glucocorticoids
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 846-849, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351059


Resumen La crisis adrenal es la forma más extrema de presentación de la insuficiencia adrenal y representa una urgencia endocrinológica que llega a poner en riesgo la vida. Esta situación puede ser des encadenada por diferentes causas, entre las cuales se incluye el uso de fármacos inductores del CYP3A4, que aceleran la depuración de la hidrocortisona. Describimos el caso de una mujer de 85 años, con antecedentes de insuficiencia adrenal secundaria y enfermedad renal crónica, que presentó síntomas compatibles con crisis adrenal (astenia, adinamia, hiponatremia grave con síntomas neurológicos e hipotensión arterial) luego de nueve días del inicio de tratamiento con modafinilo. El cuadro clínico mejoró rápidamente con la suspensión del modafinilo y la administración de hidrocortisona endovenosa. Luego de descartar las posibles causas desencadenantes (infecciosas, isquémicas, tromboembolismo pulmonar y omisión en la toma de hidrocortisona), se interpretó que el modafinilo precipitó los síntomas de insuficiencia adrenal al aumentar la depuración del corticoide. El modafinilo tiene la capacidad de inducir la actividad del CYP3A4 y, en consecuencia, disminuir la biodisponibilidad de la hidrocortisona. Recalcamos la necesidad de ajustar la dosis de reemplazo de corticoides en sujetos que reciben fármacos inductores del metabolismo.

Abstract Adrenal crisis is the most extreme presentation form of adrenal insufficiency and represents a life-threatening endocrinological emergency. This situation can be triggered by different causes including the use of CYP3A4-inducing drugs, which accelerate hydrocortisone clearance. We describe the case of an 85-year-old woman with secondary adrenal insufficiency and chronic renal disease, who presented symptoms compatible with adrenal crisis (asthenia, adynamia, severe hyponatremia associated with neurological symptoms and hypotension) nine days after the start of modafinil treat ment. The clinical picture improved rapidly with the suspension of modafinil and the administration of intravenous hydrocortisone. After ruling out the possible triggering causes (infectious, ischemic, pulmonary thromboembo lism and failure to take hydrocortisone), it was interpreted that modafinil precipitated the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency by increasing the steroid clearance. Modafinil has the ability to induce the activity of CYP3A4 and consequently decrease the bioavailability of hydrocortisone. We emphasize the need to adjust steroid dose re placement in subjects receiving metabolism-inducing drugs.

Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Hydrocortisone/adverse effects , Acute Disease , Modafinil/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects
Iatreia ; 34(2): 137-150, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250064


RESUMEN Los glucocorticoides son medicamentos ampliamente usados para el manejo de muchas enfermedades crónicas; a pesar de esto, están asociados con múltiples efectos adversos que pueden afectar diferentes órganos. En la presente revisión se hará una descripción de los efectos derivados del uso de estos sobre el eje hipotálamo-hipófisis-adrenales y los diferentes sistemas, haciendo énfasis en el sistema cardiovascular y óseo.

SUMMARY Glucocorticoids are widely used medications for the management of many chronic diseases, but they are associated with multiple adverse effects that can affect different organs. In the present review, a description will be made of the effects derived from the use of these medications on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and other systems, with emphasis on the cardiovascular system and bone.

Humans , Glucocorticoids , Bone and Bones , Chronic Disease , Affect
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 107-110, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287249


Resumen Se presentan los casos clínicos de dos pacientes que ingresaron en la guardia de Emergencias del HIGA San Martín de La Plata con un cuadro clínico compatible con leptospirosis, que evolucionaron con insuficiencia respiratoria y hemorragia alveolar. En ambos se administraron glucocorticoides con buena evolución. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica de artículos publicados desde 2005 en castellano e inglés y la revisión del tema. Basada en la evidencia actual no se puede hacer una clara recomendación para el uso de corticoides en la leptospirosis grave. La bibliografía publicada es escasa y de baja calidad. Aparentemente habría un beneficio en el uso de corticoides en los casos de afectación pulmonar por leptospirosis grave. Se necesitan estudios de alta calidad para realizar recomendaciones con evidencia científica, para verificar la dosis adecuada de corticoides, tiempo de inicio, duración del tratamiento y los casos en los que se debería administrar esta terapéutica.

Abstract We present the clinical cases of two patients who were admitted to the HIGA San Martín de La Plata emergency ward with a clinical picture compatible with leptospirosis, who evolved with respiratory failure and alveolar hemorrhage. In both, glucocorticoids were administered with good evolution. A bibliographic search of articles published since 2005 in Spanish and English and a review of the topic was carried out. Based on the current evidence, no clear recommendation can be made for the use of corticosteroids in severe leptospirosis. The published bibliography is scarce and of low quality. There would appear to be a benefit in the use of corticosteroids in cases of pulmonary involvement due to severe leptospirosis. High-quality studies are needed to make recommendations with scientific evidence, to verify the adequate dose of corticosteroids, time of initiation, duration of treatment and the cases in which this therapy should be administered.

Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency , Leptospira , Leptospirosis/complications , Leptospirosis/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids , Hemorrhage/chemically induced
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(4, suppl 1): 1-9, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1352592


Objective: Glucocorticoids induced osteoporosis and its related fragility fractures represent a costly human and socioeconomic load worldwide. All the current pharmacological therapies possess multiple adverse effects and high cost. Thus, the pesent study aimed to evaluate the bone healing ability of Moringa oleifera (MO) on glucocorticoids induced osteoporosis in the jawbone of Albino rats. Material and Methods: Osteoporosis was prompted by a daily intraperitoneal injection of 200 µg/ 100 g dexamethasone for 30 days. Next,the animals were randomly divided into 2 groups; osteoporotic and MO treated group. The treated group receivd a daily oral dose of 200mg/kg of MO. Rats from the MO group were sacrificed after 4 weeks from the beginning of treatment, and the same sacrifice date was used for the osteoporotic group. Bone regeneration was evaluated by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), histopathological and histomorphometric examination. Results: After the sacrifice, the DEXA analysis revealed a significant upregulation in the BMD in the MO treated group (p <0.001). The RT-PCR test showed a significant decline in RANKL gene expression and a significant rise in OPG gene expression in the MO group (p < 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively). The histopathological examination of the MO group displayed a marked healing of the jawbone micro-anatomy. The histomorphometric analysis also showed that the bone area percentage increased significantly in the MO group (p <0.05). Conclusion: A cheap, easy to get, yet a powerful plant like MO leaves, can be cosidered an effective treatment for osteoporosis (AU).

Objetivos: A osteoporose induzida por glicocorticóides e suas fraturas por fragilidade relacionadas representam um custo humano caro e carga socioeconômica em todo o mundo. Todas as terapias farmacológicas atuais possuem múltiplos efeitos adversos e alto custo. Assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade de cicatrização óssea de Moringa oleifera (MO) em osteoporose induzida na mandíbula de ratos albinos. Material e Métodos: A osteoporose foi induzida por uma injeção intraperitoneal diária de 200 µg / 100 g de dexametasona por 30 dias. A seguir, os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em 2 grupos; grupo tratado com osteoporose e MO. O grupo tratado recebeu uma diária dose oral de 200 mg / kg de MO. Os ratos do grupo MO foram eutanasiados após 4 semanas do início do tratamento, e a mesma data de eutanásia foi usada para o grupo osteoporótico. A regeneração óssea foi avaliada por espectrometria de raio-x de energia dupla (DEXA), reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real (RT-PCR), análise histopatológica e histomorfométrica. Resultados: Após a eutanásia, a análise DEXA revelou uma regulação positiva significativa na DMO no grupo tratado com MO (p <0,001). O teste RT-PCR mostrou um declínio significativo na expressão do gene RANKL e um aumento significativo na expressão do gene OPG no grupo MO (p <0,001, p = 0,002, respectivamente). O exame histopatológico do grupo MO revelou uma cicatrização acentuada da microanatomia do maxilar. A análise histomorfométrica também mostrou aumento significativo na porcentagem de área óssea no grupo MO (p <0,05). Conclusão: A MO é uma planta barata, de fácil obtenção, e suas folhas ainda podem ser consideradas poderosas como tratamento eficaz para a osteoporose. (AU)

Animals , Rats , Osteoporosis , Bone Regeneration , Moringa oleifera , Glucocorticoids
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19156, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350240


Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune inflammatory joint disease with global prevalence of 0.4% to 1.0%. Extra-articular manifestations increase its morbidity and severity, and cardiovascular diseases present the greatest risk. Therapeutic approaches have been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, often involving the use of multiple classes of drugs with different mechanisms and forms of action. Corticosteroid therapy is widely used in this therapeutic combination; however, its use has been widely questioned because of its high toxicity and some negative effects, including the possibility of increased cardiovascular risk, depending on the dosage. Some studies have provided important insights into how glucocorticoids have an impact on cardiac complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Most of these studies have concluded that exposure to these drugs at high or cumulative doses is associated with increased risk of death, as well as possibly being associated with the presence of a positive rheumatoid factor.

Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Patients , Rheumatoid Factor , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Therapeutic Approaches
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(3): e0010, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280122


ABSTRACT Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology that can affect the eye. The most common ocular manifestation related to VKH is bilateral diffuse uveitis associated to exudative retinal detachment. Although these patients respond well to steroid pulse therapy, we report a case of a 44-year-old female patient presenting bilateral exudative retinal detachment and clinical diagnosis of VKH, who did not respond to the first cycle of 3-day pulse therapy with methylprednisolone. The exudation was reabsorbed only after a second cycle of steroid therapy.

RESUMO A doença de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada é inflamatória e de etiologia desconhecida, podendo afetar o olho. A manifestação ocular mais comum relacionada à doença de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada é a uveíte difusa bilateral associada ao descolamento exsudativo da retina. Embora esses pacientes respondam bem à pulsoterapia com esteroides, relatamos um caso de paciente de 44 anos que apresentou descolamento exsudativo bilateral da retina com diagnóstico clínico de doença de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada que não respondeu ao primeiro ciclo de pulsoterapia de 3 dias com metilprednisolona. A exsudação apenas reabsorveu após uma segunda rodada de terapia com esteroides.

Humans , Female , Adult , Retinal Detachment/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Pulse Therapy, Drug/methods , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1355052


Objetivo: descrever as evidências disponíveis na literatura científica sobre eficácia e segurança do rituximabe comparado a diferentes tratamentos. Materiais e métodos: é uma revisão rápida de evidências científicas para tomada de decisão informada por evidências em políticas e práticas de saúde. Conclusão: o Rituximabe tem eficácia e segurança similares à da Ciclofosfamida, para terapia de indução de remissão e para manutenção da remissão e, para pacientes com doença recidivante, o Rituximabe é mais eficaz que a Ciclofosfamida para manter a remissão. Para terapia de manutenção, Rituximabe é mais eficaz que Azatioprina, com perfil de segurança similar. Diferentes regimes de dosagem do Rituximabe tem eficácia e segurança similar para terapia de manutenção. O Infliximabe parece ser superior ao Rituximabe nos desfechos de eficácia (indução e manutenção da remissão).

Objective: to describe the evidence available in the scientific literature on the efficacy and safety of rituximab compared to different treatments. Materials and Methods: is a rapid review of scientific evidence for evidence-informed decision making in health policy and practice. Conclusion: Rituximab has similar efficacy and safety to Cyclophosphamide, for remission induction therapy and for maintenance of remission, and for patients with relapsing disease, Rituximab is more effective than Cyclophosphamide in maintaining remission. For maintenance therapy, Rituximab is more effective than Azathioprine, with a similar safety profile. Different dosing regimens of Rituximab have similar efficacy and safety for maintenance therapy. Infliximab appears to be superior to Rituximab in efficacy outcomes (induction and maintenance of remission).

Humans , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis/drug therapy , Systemic Vasculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Microscopic Polyangiitis/drug therapy , Rituximab/drug effects , Azathioprine , Cyclophosphamide , Infliximab , Glucocorticoids
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922403


OBJECTIVES@#To study the predictive factors for glucocorticoid therapy by analyzing the association between the clinical features and treatment regimens in children with eosinophilic gastroenteritis.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 182 children with eosinophilic gastroenteritis who were admitted to Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from January 2012 to December 2020. According to whether glucocorticoids were used, these children were divided into a glucocorticoid treatment group and a control group. The two groups were compared in terms of age, history of allergy, clinical symptoms, laboratory examination results, endoscopic findings, and pathological results of gastrointestinal mucosa. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for the results with statistical significance.@*RESULTS@#Of the 182 children, 36 (19.8%) received glucocorticoid therapy. The rates of hematochezia, anemia, and mucosal ulceration/luminal stenosis under endoscopy and the mucosal eosinophil infiltration count were significantly higher in the glucocorticoid treatment group than those in the control group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Mucosal ulceration/luminal stenosis under endoscopy or a significant increase in the mucosal eosinophil infiltration count based on pathology suggests that glucocorticoid therapy can be considered in children with eosinophil gastroenteritis.

Child , Enteritis/drug therapy , Eosinophilia/drug therapy , Female , Gastritis , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921353


Objective@#To our knowledge, no definitive conclusion has been reached regarding the relationship between glucocorticoids and hypertension. Here, we aimed to explore the characteristics of glucocorticoids in participants with dysglycemia and hypertension, and to analyze their association with blood pressure indicators.@*Methods@#The participants of this study were from the Henan Rural Cohort study. A total of 1,688 patients 18-79 years of age were included in the matched case control study after application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical methods were used to analyze the association between glucocorticoids and various indices of blood pressure, through approaches such as logistic regression analysis, trend tests, linear regression, and restricted cubic regression.@*Results@#The study population consisted of 552 patients with dysglycemia and hypertension (32.7%). The patients with co-morbidities had higher levels of serum cortisol ( @*Conclusions@#Serum deoxycortisol was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, mean blood pressure, and mean proportional arterial pressure. Glucocorticoids (deoxycortisol and cortisol) increase the risk of hypertension in people with dysglycemia, particularly in those with T2DM.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Pressure , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Glucocorticoids/blood , Glycemic Load , Humans , Hydrocortisone/blood , Hypertension/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Young Adult
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2214-2222, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887598


BACKGROUND@#Accumulating evidence suggests that lithium influences mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. As decreased bone formation in femoral heads is induced by glucocorticoids (GCs), we hypothesized that lithium has a protective effect on GC-induced osteonecrosis of femoral heads (ONFH).@*METHODS@#A rat ONFH model was induced by methylprednisolone (MP) and the effect of lithium chloride on the models was evaluated. Micro-computed tomography (CT)-based angiography and bone scanning were performed to analyze the vessels and bone structure in the femoral heads. Hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining were performed to evaluate the trabecular structure and osteocalcin (OCN) expression, respectively. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated from the models, and their proliferative and osteogenic ability was evaluated. Western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect osteogenic-related proteins including Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, and Collagen I.@*RESULTS@#Micro-CT analysis showed a high degree of osteonecrotic changes in the rats that received only MP injection. Treatment with lithium reduced this significantly in rats that received lithium (MP + Li group); while 18/20 of the femoral heads in the MP showed severe osteonecrosis, only 5/20 in the MP + Li showed mild osteonecrotic changes. The MP + Li group also displayed a higher vessel volume than the MP group (0.2193 mm3vs. 0.0811 mm3, P < 0.05), shown by micro-CT-based angiography. Furthermore, histological analysis showed better trabecular structures and more OCN expression in the femoral heads of the MP + Li group compared with the MP group. The ex vivo investigation indicated higher proliferative and osteogenic ability and upregulated osteogenic-related proteins in MSCs extracted from rats in the MP + Li group than that in the MP group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We concluded that lithium chloride has a significant protective effect on GC-induced ONFH in rats and that lithium also enhances MSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in rats after GC administration.

Animals , Cell Differentiation , Femur Head , Femur Head Necrosis/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids , Lithium Chloride , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteogenesis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , X-Ray Microtomography
Rev. fac. cienc. méd. (Impr.) ; 17(2): 31-36, jul.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1292596


La dermatitis periorificial, es una erupción acneiforme que comúnmente afecta la región perioral y con frecuencia se extiende alrededor de la nariz y los ojos. Los mayores reportes son en mujeres de 20 a 45 años y en menor proporción en menores de 18 años. Su etiología es desconocida, pero se ha asociado al uso de glucocorticoides tópicos, inhalados y sistémicos. Objetivo: presentar una serie de casos de dermatititis periorificial, asociados con el uso indiscriminado de glucocorticoides, que respondieron eficazmente al tratamiento con metronidazol tópico, solo o combinado con doxiciclina. Presentación de casos clínicos: se describen cinco pacientes de sexo femenino, edades comprendidas entre 4 y 18 años, atendidos en la consulta ambulatoria de Dermatología. En cuatro casos, se documentó el uso prolongado de glucocorticoides tópicos/inhalados, de estos, tres presentaron lesiones papulares eritematosas o color piel, escasas pústulas, asintomáticas o prurito leve, localizadas a nivel perioral, perinasal y periocular; perioral y perinasal en uno y solamente perioral en otro. El tratamiento con metronidazol tópico fue exitoso en los cinco pacientes y en uno se combinó con doxiciclina oral. Conclusiones: el manejo de la dermatitis periorificial puede responder eficazmente al metronidazol tópico y dada su asociación al uso de glucocorticoides, se recomienda evitar el uso injustificado y prolongado de los mismos, tanto en forma tópica como inhalada o sistémica...(AU)

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Dermatitis, Perioral , Glucocorticoids , Dermatitis, Atopic , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 354-362, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138502


RESUMO Objetivo: A infecção causada pelo coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disseminou-se por todo o mundo e foi categorizada como pandemia. As manifestações mais comuns da infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2 (doença pelo coronavírus 2019 - COVID-19) se referem a uma pneumonia viral com graus variáveis de comprometimento respiratório e até 40% dos pacientes hospitalizados, que podem desenvolver uma síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Diferentes ensaios clínicos avaliaram o papel dos corticosteroides na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo não relacionada com COVID-19, obtendo resultados conflitantes. Delineamos o presente estudo para avaliar a eficácia da administração endovenosa precoce de dexametasona no número de dias vivo e sem ventilação mecânica nos 28 dias após a randomização, em pacientes adultos com quadro moderado ou grave de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo causada por COVID-19 provável ou confirmada. Métodos: Este é um ensaio pragmático, prospectivo, randomizado, estratificado, multicêntrico, aberto e controlado que incluirá 350 pacientes com quadro inicial (menos de 48 horas antes da randomização) de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo moderada ou grave, definida segundo os critérios de Berlim, causada por COVID-19. Os pacientes elegíveis serão alocados de forma aleatória para tratamento padrão mais dexametasona (Grupo Intervenção) ou tratamento padrão sem dexametasona (Grupo Controle). Os pacientes no Grupo Intervenção receberão dexametasona 20mg por via endovenosa uma vez ao dia, por 5 dias, e, a seguir, dexametasona por via endovenosa 10mg ao dia por mais 5 dias, ou até receber alta da unidade de terapia intensiva, o que ocorrer antes. O desfecho primário será o número de dias livres de ventilação mecânica nos 28 dias após a randomização, definido como o número de dias vivo e livres de ventilação mecânica invasiva. Os desfechos secundários serão a taxa de mortalidade por todas as causas no dia 28, a condição clínica no dia 15 avaliada com utilização de uma escala ordinal de seis níveis, a duração da ventilação mecânica desde a randomização até o dia 28, a avaliação com o Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score após 48 horas, 72 horas e 7 dias, e o número de dias fora da unidade de terapia intensiva nos 28 dias após a randomização.

Abstract Objective: The infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads worldwide and is considered a pandemic. The most common manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection (coronavirus disease 2019 - COVID-19) is viral pneumonia with varying degrees of respiratory compromise and up to 40% of hospitalized patients might develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. Several clinical trials evaluated the role of corticosteroids in non-COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome with conflicting results. We designed a trial to evaluate the effectiveness of early intravenous dexamethasone administration on the number of days alive and free of mechanical ventilation within 28 days after randomization in adult patients with moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to confirmed or probable COVID-19. Methods: This is a pragmatic, prospective, randomized, stratified, multicenter, open-label, controlled trial including 350 patients with early-onset (less than 48 hours before randomization) moderate or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, defined by the Berlin criteria, due to COVID-19. Eligible patients will be randomly allocated to either standard treatment plus dexamethasone (Intervention Group) or standard treatment without dexamethasone (Control Group). Patients in the intervention group will receive dexamethasone 20mg intravenous once daily for 5 days, followed by dexamethasone 10mg IV once daily for additional 5 days or until intensive care unit discharge, whichever occurs first. The primary outcome is ventilator-free days within 28 days after randomization, defined as days alive and free from invasive mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes are all-cause mortality rates at day 28, evaluation of the clinical status at day 15 assessed with a 6-level ordinal scale, mechanical ventilation duration from randomization to day 28, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score evaluation at 48 hours, 72 hours and 7 days and intensive care unit -free days within 28.

Humans , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/virology , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pandemics , Organ Dysfunction Scores , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(3): 75-77, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1130703


Resumen Introducción: el síndrome de Cushing (SC) es un grupo de signos y síntomas causados por la exposición crónica al exceso de glucocorticoides. El uso de fármacos con glucocorticoides es la causa más frecuente, pero algunos productos vendidos como suplementos nutricionales o medicamentos naturistas para el control de los dolores articulares pueden contenerlos de forma oculta, lo cual dificulta el enfoque diagnóstico Presentación del caso: paciente de 40 años con signos clínico típicos de síndrome de Cushing con resultados discordantes en las pruebas diagnósticas para identificar su origen. Finalmente se logra establecer que el paciente consumía de forma crónica un producto "naturista" conocido como artrin®, el cual fue analizado en el laboratorio de la institución con resultados positivos para cortisol. Conclusión: la exposición crónica a glucocorticoides exógenos, ya sea subrepticia, desconocida o prescrita, causa SC y debe distinguirse tempranamente de las formas endógenas para evitar la realización de pruebas diagnósticas y tratamientos inadecuados.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:

Abstract Introduction: Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a group of signs and symptoms caused by chronic exposure to excessive glucocorticoids. The use of medications containing glucocorticoids is the most common cause, but they may be hidden in some products sold as nutritional supplements or naturopathic medications, which makes the diagnostic approach more difficult. Case presentation: this was a 40-year-old patient with typical clinical signs of Cushing's syndrome and discordant results of diagnostic tests to identify its origin. It was ultimately determined that the patient had been chronically taking a "naturopathic" product known as artrin®, which was analyzed in the institution's lab and found to contain cortisol. Conclusion: chronic exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids, whether surreptitious, unknown or prescribed, causes CS and should be promptly distinguished from endogenous forms to avoid inappropriate diagnostic tests and treatments.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:

Humans , Adult , Cushing Syndrome , Syndrome , Dietary Supplements , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Glucocorticoids
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 95-104, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128985


La relación entre inmunidad y cáncer es compleja. Las células tumorales desarrollan mecanismos de evasión a las respuestas del sistema inmunitario. Esta capacidad permite su supervivencia y crecimiento. La inmunoterapia ha transformado el tratamiento oncológico mejorando la respuesta inmunitaria contra la célula tumoral. Esta se basa en el bloqueo de los puntos de control inmunitario mediante anticuerpos monoclonales contra la molécula inhibidora CTLA-4 (antígeno 4 del linfocito T citotóxico [CTLA-4]) y la proteína 1 de muerte celular programada y su ligando (PD-1/PD-L1). Aunque los inhibidores de los puntos de control inmunitario (ICIs) son fármacos bien tolerados, tienen un perfil de efectos adversos conocido como eventos adversos inmunorrelacionados (EAI). Estos afectan varios sistemas, incluyendo las glándulas endocrinas. Los eventos adversos endocrinos más frecuentes son la disfunción tiroidea, la insuficiencia hipofisaria, la diabetes mellitus autoinmune y la insuficiencia suprarrenal primaria. El creciente conocimiento de estos efectos adversos endocrinos ha llevado a estrategias de tratamiento efectivo con el reemplazo hormonal correspondiente. El objetivo de esta revisión es reconocer la incidencia de estas nuevas endocrinopatías, la fisiopatología, su valoración clínica y el manejo terapéutico. (AU)

The relationship between immunity and cancer is complex. Tumor cells develop evasion mechanisms to the immune system responses. This ability allows their survival and progression. Immunotherapy has transformed cancer treatment by improving the immune response against tumor cells. This is achieved by blocking immune checkpoints with monoclonal antibodies against cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 and its ligand (PD-1 / PD-L1). Although the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are well tolerated drugs, they have a profile of adverse effects known as immune-related adverse events (irAES). These involve diverse systems, including the endocrine glands. The most frequent endocrine immune-related adverse events are thyroid and pituitary dysfunction, autoimmune diabetes mellitus and primary adrenal insufficiency. The increasing knowledge of these irAES has led to effective treatment strategies with the corresponding hormonal replacement. The objective of this review is to recognize the incidence of these new endocrinopathies, the physiopathology, their clinical evaluation, and therapeutic management. (AU)

Humans , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Thyroid Diseases/chemically induced , Thyroid Diseases/pathology , Thyroid Diseases/therapy , Thyroxine/administration & dosage , Triiodothyronine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Adrenal Insufficiency/pathology , Adrenal Insufficiency/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Endocrine System Diseases/diagnosis , Endocrine System Diseases/physiopathology , Endocrine System Diseases/therapy , Hypophysitis/diagnosis , Hypophysitis/chemically induced , Hypophysitis/pathology , Hypophysitis/therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Methimazole/therapeutic use , Mineralocorticoids/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/immunology