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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 846-849, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351059

ABSTRACT

Resumen La crisis adrenal es la forma más extrema de presentación de la insuficiencia adrenal y representa una urgencia endocrinológica que llega a poner en riesgo la vida. Esta situación puede ser des encadenada por diferentes causas, entre las cuales se incluye el uso de fármacos inductores del CYP3A4, que aceleran la depuración de la hidrocortisona. Describimos el caso de una mujer de 85 años, con antecedentes de insuficiencia adrenal secundaria y enfermedad renal crónica, que presentó síntomas compatibles con crisis adrenal (astenia, adinamia, hiponatremia grave con síntomas neurológicos e hipotensión arterial) luego de nueve días del inicio de tratamiento con modafinilo. El cuadro clínico mejoró rápidamente con la suspensión del modafinilo y la administración de hidrocortisona endovenosa. Luego de descartar las posibles causas desencadenantes (infecciosas, isquémicas, tromboembolismo pulmonar y omisión en la toma de hidrocortisona), se interpretó que el modafinilo precipitó los síntomas de insuficiencia adrenal al aumentar la depuración del corticoide. El modafinilo tiene la capacidad de inducir la actividad del CYP3A4 y, en consecuencia, disminuir la biodisponibilidad de la hidrocortisona. Recalcamos la necesidad de ajustar la dosis de reemplazo de corticoides en sujetos que reciben fármacos inductores del metabolismo.


Abstract Adrenal crisis is the most extreme presentation form of adrenal insufficiency and represents a life-threatening endocrinological emergency. This situation can be triggered by different causes including the use of CYP3A4-inducing drugs, which accelerate hydrocortisone clearance. We describe the case of an 85-year-old woman with secondary adrenal insufficiency and chronic renal disease, who presented symptoms compatible with adrenal crisis (asthenia, adynamia, severe hyponatremia associated with neurological symptoms and hypotension) nine days after the start of modafinil treat ment. The clinical picture improved rapidly with the suspension of modafinil and the administration of intravenous hydrocortisone. After ruling out the possible triggering causes (infectious, ischemic, pulmonary thromboembo lism and failure to take hydrocortisone), it was interpreted that modafinil precipitated the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency by increasing the steroid clearance. Modafinil has the ability to induce the activity of CYP3A4 and consequently decrease the bioavailability of hydrocortisone. We emphasize the need to adjust steroid dose re placement in subjects receiving metabolism-inducing drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Hydrocortisone/adverse effects , Acute Disease , Modafinil/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19156, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350240

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune inflammatory joint disease with global prevalence of 0.4% to 1.0%. Extra-articular manifestations increase its morbidity and severity, and cardiovascular diseases present the greatest risk. Therapeutic approaches have been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, often involving the use of multiple classes of drugs with different mechanisms and forms of action. Corticosteroid therapy is widely used in this therapeutic combination; however, its use has been widely questioned because of its high toxicity and some negative effects, including the possibility of increased cardiovascular risk, depending on the dosage. Some studies have provided important insights into how glucocorticoids have an impact on cardiac complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Most of these studies have concluded that exposure to these drugs at high or cumulative doses is associated with increased risk of death, as well as possibly being associated with the presence of a positive rheumatoid factor.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Patients , Rheumatoid Factor , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Therapeutic Approaches
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1263-1270, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131508

ABSTRACT

Glicocorticoides são amplamente utilizados na clínica de pequenos animais, entretanto seu uso contínuo pode causar efeitos colaterais. Os gatos são considerados menos susceptíveis a esses efeitos do que outras espécies, mas existem poucos trabalhos abordando os efeitos adversos em felinos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar possíveis alterações laboratoriais, histopatológicas e do grau de atenuação radiográfica do parênquima hepático de gatas submetidas à terapia com prednisolona. Um ensaio clínico foi realizado em quatro gatas hígidas, as quais receberam prednisolona, por via oral, na dose de 3mg/kg, durante 60 dias consecutivos. Nos achados histopatológicos após 60 dias de tratamento, observou-se desorganização dos cordões de hepatócitos e degeneração vacuolar, além de necrose de hepatócitos, porém não foram observados sinais de fibrose no parênquima hepático. Os dados da tomografia computadorizada demonstram aumento do grau de atenuação do parênquima hepático a partir do 30º dia da administração de prednisolona, que persistiu até o final do experimento. No presente estudo, foi possível caracterizar a existência de hepatopatia esteroidal em gatos em estágios precoces da terapia com prednisolona.(AU)


Glucocorticoids are widely used medications in small animal practice; however, its continuous use can have side effects. Cats are considered less susceptible than other species, however, the literature does not usually address adverse effects in felines. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible laboratory and histopathologic changes, as well as changes to the degree of radiographic attenuation of the hepatic parenchyma in cats treated with prednisolone. A clinical trial was done in four healthy cats, who received prednisolone orally at 3mg/kg during 60 consecutive days. In the histopathologic findings at 60 days of treatment, there were disorganized hepatocyte chords and vacuolar degeneration, as well as hepatocyte necrosis, however, there were no signs of fibrosis in the hepatic parenchyma. Data obtained via computed tomography showed increase of the degree of attenuation in the hepatic parenchyma from day 30 of prednisolone therapy, which persisted until the end of the experiment. In the present study, it was possible to characterize the existence of steroidal hepathopathy in cats in the early stages of prednisolone therapy.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cats , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Fibrosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary , Parenchymal Tissue
5.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(3): 95-97, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116916

ABSTRACT

La insuficiencia suprarrenal es un síndrome que se produce por la disminución de niveles séricos de glucocorticoides, la cual se clasifica en primaria o secundaria, según la etiología. El uso prolongado de corticoides exógenos a altas dosis puede producir una inhibición en el eje hipotálamo-hipofisiario-adrenal, y la supresión aguda de éstos produce insuficiencia suprarrenal secundaria. Los glucocorticoides inhalados, usados ampliamente como tratamiento del asma bronquial, pudiesen tener un impacto a nivel del eje adrenal, principalmente en la población pediátrica. Por el momento, si bien hay reportes de casos que evidencian insuficiencia suprarrenal secundaria al uso de corticoides tanto tópicos como inhalatorios, aún es materia de discusión esta interacción a nivel sistémico, con artículos que se contraponen en sus resultados. Se presenta un caso clínico de una paciente usuaria de glucocorticoides inhalatorios por el antecedente de asma bronquial, que desarrolla una clínica de insuficiencia suprarrenal en el periodo de lactancia.


Adrenal insufficiency is a syndrome that is produced by the decrease in serum glucocorticoid levels, which is classified as primary or secondary, according to the etiology. Prolonged use of exogenous corticosteroids at high doses may cause inhibition in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and acute suppression of these results in secondary adrenal insufficiency. Inhaled glucocorticoids, widely used as a treatment for bronchial asthma, could have an impact at the level of the adrenal axis, mainly in the pediatric population. At the moment, although there are reports of cases that show adrenal insufficiency secondary to the use of both topical and inhalation corticosteroids, this interaction at systemic level is still a matter of discussion, with articles that contrast in their results. We present a clinical case of a patient using inhaled glucocorticoids due to a history of bronchial asthma, which develops a clinical of adrenal insufficiency in the period of breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Asthma/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Lactation , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage
6.
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 53, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130783

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are the sixth leading causes of death worldwide; monitoring them is fundamental, especially in patients with disorders like chronic rheumatic diseases (CRDs). The study aimed to describe the ADRs investigating their severity and associated factors and resulting interventions in pediatric patients with CRDs. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive and analytical study was conducted on a cohort of children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). The study evaluated medical records of the patients to determine the causality and the management of ADRs. In order to investigate the risk factors that would increase the risk of ADRs, a logistic regression model was carried out on a group of patients treated with the main used drug. Results: We observed 949 ADRs in 547 patients studied. Methotrexate (MTX) was the most frequently used medication and also the cause of the most ADRs, which occurred in 63.3% of patients, followed by glucocorticoids (GCs). Comparing synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (sDMARDs) vs biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs), the ADRs attributed to the former were by far higher than the latter. In general, the severity of ADRs was moderate and manageable. Drug withdrawal occurred in almost a quarter of the cases. In terms of risk factors, most patients who experienced ADRs due to MTX, were 16 years old or younger and received MTX in doses equal or higher than 0.6 mg/kg/week. Patients with JIA and JDM had a lower risk of ADRs than patients with JSLE. In the multiple regression model, the use of GCs for over 6 months led to an increase of 0.5% in the number of ADRs. Conclusions: Although the ADRs highly likely affect a wide range of children and adolescents with CRDs they were considered moderate and manageable cases mostly. However, triggers of ADRs need further investigations.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Pharmacovigilance
7.
Actual. osteol ; 15(3): 180-191, Sept-Dic. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104226

ABSTRACT

Bone metabolism disorders are characterized by an imbalance of bone resorption and formation in the bone remodeling process. Glucocorticoids that are used to treat kidney diseases exacerbate these disorders. P-selectin and galectin-3 are molecules involved in the sclerotic process in kidney, whereas bone resorption is regulated by the interaction between the nuclear factor activator kappa b receptor (RANK), its ligand (RANKL) and the RANKL decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of disruption of bone remodeling regulation processes, reflected by intercellular mediators (RANKL, OPG, P-selectin and galectin-3) in chronic kidney disease experimental model treated with glucocorticoids. Rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. The first group, the control group, included intact animals. The second group consisted of rats with impaired bone remodeling resulting from chronic kidney disease (experimental group (CKD). The third group was a group of animals with impaired bone remodeling due to exposure to glucocorticoids (experimental group (GCs)). The fourth group consisted of rats with impaired bone remodeling in chronic kidney disease, followed by exposure to glucocorticoids (experimental group (CKD + GCs)). The effects of CKD and glucocorticoid were evaluated biochemically, histologically and by measuring bone density. An enzymelinked immunoassay was used to measure intercellular mediator levels in the serum. The bone density in the experimental groups was reduced compared to the control group. RANKL levels in animals of three experimental groups were higher than in intact animals. Serum levels of OPG were higher in CKD and GCs groups than in intact animals. At the same time, in the animals' blood serum of the CKD + GCs group, the levels of OPG were lower, than those in animals from the control group. The levels of galectin-3 in the serum of the experimental groups GCs and CKD + GCs were lower than in intact animals. The serum levels of galectin-3 in animals of the CKD group were higher than those in animals from the control group. The levels of P-selectin were lower in the serum of the GCs group than in intact animals. At the same time, the levels of P-selectin were higher in the CKD and CKD + GCs groups, than those in animals from the control group. In conclusion, the study of the complex system of bone remodeling regulation, which includes many factors and their interactions, may lead to the development of new methods for treating patients with chronic kidney disease in order to prevent osteoporosis in the future. (AU)


Las enfermedades metabólicas óseas se caracterizan por un desequilibrio en el proceso de remodelación ósea en los que participan mediadores tales como receptor del activador del factor nuclear- kappa- b (RANK), su ligando (RANKL) y la osteoprotegerina (OPG). Los glucocorticoides, recuentemente empleados en el tratamiento de la enfermedad renal crónica, exacerban este desequilibrio. En la enfermedad esclerótica renal, las moléculas de adhesión celular P-selectina and galectina-3 tienen un rol fundamental. El objetivo de esta trabajo fue estudiar las alteraciones en los mediadores de la remodelación ósea (RANKL, OPG, P-selectina and galectina-3) en un modelo de enfermedad renal crónica con tratamiento glucocorticoideo. Ratas Wistar hembras fueron divididos en 4 grupos: control (C); enfermedad renal crónica con afección de la remodelación ósea (ERC); animales con afección de la remodelación ósea expuestos a glucocorticoides (GC); enfermedad renal crónica con afección de la remodelación ósea tratados con glucocorticoides (ERC+GC). Los efectos de la ERC y los GC fueron evaluados bioquímicamente, histológicamente y por medición de la densidad ósea. RANKL, OPG, Pselectina and galectina-3 se cuantificaron en muestras de sangre venosa empleando enzimoinmuno análisis. En los 3 grupos experimentales la densidad ósea se evidenció reducida y los niveles séricos de RANKL elevados respecto al grupo control. Los niveles de OPG en los grupos ERC y GC fueron superiores mientras que en el grupo ERC+GC menores respecto a los animales controles. Galectina 3 plasmática en GC y ERC+GC se encontró reducida y aumentada en los animales ERC, en comparación con los animales controles. La concentración sérica de P-selectina sérica fue mayor en los grupos ERC y ERC+GC, y menor en los animales GC respecto a los niveles plasmáticos de los animales intactos. El avance del conocimiento sobre la regulación de la remodelación ósea a través de la interacción de mediadores sistémicos, en un futuro, puede conducir al desarrollo de nuevas estrategias terapéuticas para la prevención de la osteoporosis en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/chemically induced , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Bone Density/drug effects , Chloroform/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , P-Selectin/drug effects , P-Selectin/blood , Galectin 3/drug effects , Galectin 3/blood , RANK Ligand/drug effects , RANK Ligand/blood , Osteoprotegerin/drug effects , Osteoprotegerin/blood , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Glycerol/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(4): 470-472, July-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038288

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection that occurs in immunocompetent patients and are classified into two forms: the acute-subacute form, predominantly in young patients, and the chronic adult form that may present classic ulcerated lesions to rare sarcoid ones. We present the case of a boy whose infection began with sarcoid lesions but, after being mistakenly diagnosed with cutaneous sarcoidosis and treated (for three years) with prednisone, developed painful ulcerations throughout the body. After the correct diagnosis, with evidence of the fungus in histopathological and mycological examinations, the patient was properly treated with itraconazole for eight months and evolved with total remission of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Paracoccidioidomycosis/etiology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/pathology , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis/pathology , Prednisone/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(1): 4-10, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-985133

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar se houve associação entre a ocorrência de fratura após trauma físico e o uso de glicocorticoides nos 12 meses precedentes ao trauma, em crianças e adolescentes atendidos em uma emergência. Métodos: No período de abril a outubro de 2015 foi conduzido em uma emergência pediátrica um estudo tipo caso controle, em pacientes de 3 a 14 anos incompletos, vitimados por trauma físico, com e sem fratura. Os dados analisados foram obtidos pela consulta dos prontuários, pelo exame físico dos pacientes e por entrevista dos responsáveis, comparando-se uso de glicocorticoides nos últimos 12 meses, características demográficas, índice de massa corpórea, ingesta de leite, intensidade do trauma, prática de exercício físico e tabagismo passivo domiciliar nos dois grupos de pacientes. Resultados: Estudaram-se 104 pacientes com trauma físico, 50 com fratura e 54 sem fratura. O uso de glicocorticoides ocorreu em 15,4% dos pacientes estudados, sem diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos. A faixa etária de 10 a 14 anos incompletos, o trauma grave e a prática de exercício físico predominaram entre os pacientes com fratura. Conclusões: Este estudo não mostrou associação entre o uso prévio de glicocorticoides e a ocorrência de fraturas em crianças e adolescentes. A faixa etária de 10 a 14 anos incompletos, o trauma grave e a prática de exercício físico associaram-se com maior risco para fraturas.


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the association between traumatic fractures and glucocorticoids taken 12 months prior to a trauma, in children and adolescents seen at an emergency room. Methods: A case-control study was conducted from April to October 2015, at a pediatric emergency hospital with patients aged 3- to 14 years-old, who had suffered physical trauma. Some of the patients had a fracture and some did not. The data analyzed were obtained from medical records, physical examination of the patients, and interview with the patients' caregivers. Glucocorticoid use in the past 12 months, demographic variables, body mass index, milk intake, trauma intensity, physical activity and smoking in the household were compared between the two patient groups. Results: A total of 104 patients with physical trauma were studied - 50 had a fracture and 54 did not. Of all the patients, 15.4% had previously used glucocorticoids, and there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. The age range of 10- to 14 years-old, severe trauma and physical activity were more prevalent among patients with a bone fracture. Conclusions: This study did not find an association between previous glucocorticoid use and the occurrence of fractures in children and adolescents. The age range of 10- to 14 years-old, severe trauma, and physical activity were associated with an increased risk for fractures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Exercise/physiology , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Trauma Severity Indices , Risk Factors , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(6): 749-752, dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973690

ABSTRACT

La miocardiopatía hipertrófica en el recién nacido es una entidad poco frecuente y de etiología heterogénea. Se han descrito formas transitorias en hijos de madres con diabetes gestacional y en recién nacidos pretérminos expuestos a corticoides tanto prenatal como posnatalmente. Se presenta un caso de un recién nacido pretérmino, hijo de madre trasplantada renal al que se le detectó una miocardiopatía hipertrófica y que había estado expuesto prenatalmente a corticoides y tacrolimus que recibía la madre como tratamiento inmunosupresor. Ambos fármacos cruzan la barrera placentaria y, al llegar al feto, podrían haber favorecido su desarrollo. La miocardiopatía hipertrófica puede ser un efecto secundario poco común del tratamiento con tacrolimus en adultos y niños, y es reversible al retirarlo. En nuestro conocimiento, es el primer caso publicado de miocardiopatía hipertrófica transitoria tras la exposición fetal tanto a corticoides como a tacrolimus en un hijo de madre trasplantada renal.


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the newborn is a rare entity with heterogeneous etiology. Transient forms have been described in children of mothers with gestational diabetes and in preterm infants exposed both to prenatal and postnatal corticosteroids. We report a case of a preterm infant son of a mother who received renal transplant in whom hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was detected. He had been prenatally exposed to corticosteroids and tacrolimus that received the mother as immunosuppressive therapy. Both drugs cross the placental barrier and, on reaching the fetus, could have favored its development. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may be an uncommon side effect of treatment with tacrolimus in adults and children and it is reversible upon withdrawal. To our knowledge, it is the first published case of transient hypertrophic cardiomyopathy after fetal exposure to both corticosteroids and tacrolimus in the son of a renal transplanted mother.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/chemically induced , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Placenta/metabolism , Infant, Premature , Pregnancy , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/pharmacokinetics , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/pharmacokinetics , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacokinetics , Mothers
12.
Actual. osteol ; 14(2): 125-147, Mayo - Ago. 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116310

ABSTRACT

En consonancia con la orientación tradicional de nuestras investigaciones, la Osteología está incorporando progresivamente el análisis estructural-biomecánico óseo y las interacciones músculo-esqueléticas. En este artículo se sintetizan los aportes originales del CEMFoC a la Osteología moderna en el terreno biomecánico en forma didáctica, para que el lector aprecie sus posibles aplicaciones clínicas. Los hallazgos aportaron evidencias sucesivas en apoyo de dos proposiciones fundamentales: a) los huesos deben interpretarse como estructuras resistivas, biológicamente servocontroladas ("Los huesos tienden siempre a mantener un factor de seguridad que permite al cuerpo trabajar normalmente sin fracturarse" ­ Paradigma de Utah) y b) los huesos interactúan con su entorno mecánico, determinado principalmente por las contracciones musculares, en forma subordinada al entorno metabólico ("Los huesos son lo que los músculos quieren que sean, siempre que las hormonas lo permitan"). Los avances producidos se refieren, tanto cronológica como didácticamente, al conocimiento osteológico en general y al desarrollo de recursos novedosos para el diagnóstico no invasivo de fragilidad ósea, para distinguir entre osteopenias y osteoporosis, y para discriminar entre sus etiologías 'mecánica' y 'sistémica'. Finalmente, el nuevo conocimiento se integra en la proposición de un algoritmo diagnóstico para osteopenias y osteoporosis. El espíritu general de la presentación destaca que la evaluación osteomuscular dinámicamente integrada genera un nuevo espacio de análisis personalizado de los pacientes para la atención de cualquier osteopatía fragilizante con criterio biomecánico. (AU)


In consonance with the traditional spirit of our studies, skeletal research is being progressively focused on the structural-biomechanical analysis of bone and the muscle-bone interactions. In this article, the CEMFoC's members summarize their original findings in bone biomechanics and their potential clinical applications. These findings provided evidence supporting two fundamental hypotheses, namely, A. bones constitute resistive structures, which are biologically servo-controlled ('Bones tend to maintain a safety factor which allows the body to function normally avoiding fractures' ­ the 'Utah paradigm'), and B. the interactions of bones with their mechanical environment mainly are determined by the contraction of local muscles - 'bone-muscle units'), and are subordinated to the control of the metabolic environment ('Bones are what muscles wish them to be, provided that hormones allow for it'). The achievements in the field are presented in a chronological and didactical sequence concerning the general knowledge in Osteology and the development of novel resources for non-invasive diagnosis of bone fragility, aiming to distinguish between osteopenias and osteoporosis and the 'mechanical' and 'metabolic' etiology of these conditions. Finally, the integrated new knowledge is presented as supporting for a proposed diagnostic algorithm for osteopenias and osteoporosis. In general terms, the article highlights the dynamic evaluation of the musculoskeletal system as a whole, opening a new diagnostic field for a personalized evaluation of the patients affected by a boneweakening disease, based on functional and biomechanical criteria. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , Osteology/trends , Musculoskeletal System/diagnostic imaging , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/diagnostic imaging , Osteoporosis/etiology , Osteoporosis/diagnostic imaging , Parathyroid Hormone/administration & dosage , Parathyroid Hormone/therapeutic use , Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone and Bones/anatomy & histology , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnostic imaging , Algorithms , Calcitonin/therapeutic use , Cholecalciferol/pharmacology , Human Growth Hormone/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Musculoskeletal System/anatomy & histology , Musculoskeletal System/metabolism
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(2): 221-226, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887648

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Thyrotoxicosis is established risk factor for osteoporosis due to increased bone turnover. Glucocorticoids often administered for Graves' orbitopathy (GO) have additional negative effect on bone mineral density (BMD). Our aim was to examine the influence of thyroid hormones, TSH, TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) and glucocorticoid treatment on bone in women with Graves' thyrotoxicosis and Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Subjects and methods Forty seven women with Graves' disease, mean age 55.6 ± 12.8 (23 women with thyrotoxicosis and 24 hyperthyroid with concomitant GO and glucocorticoid therapy) and 40 age-matched healthy female controls were enrolled in the study. We analyzed clinical features, TSH, FT4, FT3, TRAb, TPO antibodies. BMD of lumbar spine and hip was measured by DEXA and 10-year fracture risk was calculated with FRAX tool. Results The study showed significantly lower spine and femoral BMD (g/cm2) in patients with and without GO compared to controls, as well as significantly higher fracture risk. Comparison between hyperthyroid patients without and with orbitopathy found out significantly lower spine BMD in the first group (p = 0.0049). Negative correlations between FT3 and femoral neck BMD (p = 0.0001), between FT4 and BMD (p = 0.049) and positive between TSH and BMD (p = 0.0001), TRAb and BMD (p = 0.026) were observed. Fracture risk for major fractures and TRAb were negatively associated (p = 0.05). We found negative correlation of BMD to duration of thyrotoxicosis and cumulative steroid dose. Conclusions Our results confirm the negative effect of hyperthyroid status on BMD. TRAb, often in high titers in patients with GO, may have protective role for the bone, but further research is needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Hormones/physiology , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/physiopathology , Graves Disease/complications , Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating/physiology , Graves Ophthalmopathy/complications , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Reference Values , Thyrotropin/physiology , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density/drug effects , Bone Density/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Graves Disease/physiopathology , Graves Disease/drug therapy , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/physiopathology
14.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(6): 633-639, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889315

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: A combination of antihistamines and oral corticosteroids is often used to treat acute symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Objective: To evaluate safety and efficacy of desloratadine plus prednisolone in the treatment of acute symptoms of children (2-12 years) with allergic rhinitis, and to compare it to dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone. Methods: Children with moderate/severe persistent allergic rhinitis and symptomatic (nasal symptoms score [0-12] ≥ 6) were allocated in a double-blind, randomized fashion to receive dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone (n = 105; three daily doses) or desloratadine plus prednisolone (n = 105; single dose followed by two of placebo) for 7 days. At the beginning and end of the evaluation, the following were obtained: nasal symptoms score, extra nasal symptoms score, peak nasal inspiratory flow, blood biochemistry, and electrocardiogram. Ninety-six children of the dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone group and 98 of the desloratadine plus prednisolone group completed the protocol. Results: The two groups were similar regarding initial and final nasal symptoms scores, extra nasal symptoms scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow. A drop of 76.4% and 79.1% for nasal symptoms score, 86.0% and 79.2% for extra nasal symptoms score, as well as an increase of 25.2% and 24.3% for peak nasal inspiratory flow occurred for those treated with desloratadine plus prednisolone and dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone, respectively. There were no significant changes in blood chemistry. Sinus tachycardia was the most frequent electrocardiogram change, but with no clinical significance. Drowsiness was reported significantly more often among those of dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone group (17.14% × 8.57%, respectively). Conclusion: The desloratadine plus prednisolone combination was able to effectively control acute symptoms of rhinitis in children, improving symptoms and nasal function. Compared to the dexchlorpheniramine plus betamethasone combination, it showed similar clinical action, but with a lower incidence of adverse events and higher dosing convenience.


Resumo Introdução: A associação entre anti-histamínicos e corticosteroides orais é frequentemente empregada no tratamento de sintomas agudos de rinite alérgica. Objetivo: Avaliar a segurança e eficácia da associação desloratadina + prednisolona no tratamento de sintomas agudos de crianças (2-12 anos) com rinite alérgica e compará-las com as da associação dexclorfeniramina + betametasona. Método: Crianças com rinite alérgica persistente moderada/grave e sintomáticas (escore de sintomas nasais [0-12] ≥ 6) foram alocadas de modo duplo-cego e randômico para receber dexclorfeniramina + betametasona (n = 105; três doses diárias) ou desloratadina + prednisolona (n = 105; dose única seguida por duas de placebo) por 7 dias. No início e no fim da avaliação foram obtidos: escore de sintomas nasais, escore de sintomas extranasais, pico de fluxo inspiratório nasal, bioquímica sanguínea e eletrocardiograma. Do total, 96 crianças do grupo dexclorfeniramina + betametasona e 98 do grupo desloratadina + prednisolona concluíram o protocolo. Resultados: Os dois grupos foram iguais com relação ao escore de sintomas nasais, escore de sintomas nasais extranasais e pico de fluxo inspiratório nasal iniciais e finais. Observou-se queda de 76,4% e 79,1% nos escores para escore de sintomas nasais, de 86,0% e 79,2% para escore de sintomas extranasais, assim como incremento de 25,2% e de 24,3% para o pico de fluxo inspiratório nasal para os grupos desloratadina + prednisolona e dexclorfeniramina + betametasona, respectivamente. Não houve alterações significativas da bioquímica sanguínea. Taquicardia sinusal foi a alteração do eletrocardiograma mais encontrada, mas sem significância clínica. Sonolência foi significantemente mais referida entre os tratados com dexclorfeniramina + betametasona do que entre os desloratadina + prednisolona (8,57% × 17,14%, respectivamente). Conclusão: A associação desloratadina + prednisolona foi capaz de controlar efetivamente os sintomas agudos de rinite em crianças, melhorou sintomas e a função nasal. Na comparação com a associação dexclorfeniramina + betametasona, demonstrou ação clínica semelhante, mas com menor incidência de eventos adversos e maior comodidade posológica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Loratadine/analogs & derivatives , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Betamethasone/administration & dosage , Betamethasone/adverse effects , Prednisolone/adverse effects , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Double-Blind Method , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Loratadine/administration & dosage , Loratadine/adverse effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating/administration & dosage , Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects
15.
Actual. osteol ; 13(2): 125-133, Mayo - Ago. 2017. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118076

ABSTRACT

La osteoporosis es un trastorno común en las mujeres posmenopáusicas; sin embargo, también puede afectar a hombres y mujeres jóvenes premenopáusicas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la prevalencia de causas secundarias de baja masa ósea en un grupo de mujeres premenopáusicas que consultaron en una Institución especializada en Osteología. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, de corte transversal, descriptivo y observacional. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 88 pacientes que consultaron por baja masa ósea durante un período de 19 meses, con la finalidad de encontrar posibles causas secundarias. A su vez, se definió como pacientes con diagnóstico de baja masa ósea idiopática aquellas en las cuales no se encontró ninguna causa secundaria de pérdida ósea. Resultados: de las 88 mujeres evaluadas, el 48,9% presentaba al menos una causa secundaria para baja masa ósea (amenorrea secundaria, hipercalciuria, tratamiento con glucorticoides, hipovitaminosis D y enfermedad celíaca) y el 51,1% fueron consideradas idiopáticas. Conclusiones: es esencial evaluar exhaustivamente a las mujeres premenopáusicas con baja masa ósea a fin de descartar posibles causas secundarias y tomar las medidas preventivas necesarias para mejorar esa condición. (AU)


Objective: osteoporosis is a common disorder in postmenopausal women, however it can also affect men and premenopausal young women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of secondary causes of low bone mass in premenopausal women that consulted physicians in an institution specialized in osteology for a period of 19 months. Material and methods: this is a retrospective, transversal, descriptive and observational study. The clinical history of 88 patients who consulted a physician due to low bone mass for a period of 19 months in an institution specialized in osteology. Were analyzed the patient's clinical history in order to find secondary causes. We define as suffering Low Bone Mass those patients who did not have secondary causes. Results: of the 88 women tested, 48,9% had one or more secondary causes or risks factors for low bone mass (secondary amenorrea, hypercalciuria, treatment with glucocorticoids, hypovitamiosis D and celiac disease) and 51,1% patients were considered idiopathic. Conclusions: we conclude that it is essential to exhaustively search for secondary causes of low bone mass in premenopausal women, due to the high prevalence of secondary osteoporosis in this population. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Osteoporosis/chemically induced , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/complications , Premenopause/metabolism , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Avitaminosis/complications , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/blood , Fractures, Stress/prevention & control , Celiac Disease/complications , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Densitometry , Hypercalciuria/complications , Osteoporotic Fractures/prevention & control , Amenorrhea/complications , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects
16.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(4): 294-298, July.-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899428

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Sleep disturbances are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and contribute to loss of life quality. Objective: To study associations of sleep quality with pain, depression and disease activity in RA. Methods: This is a transversal observational study of 112 RA patients submitted to measurement of DAS-28, Epworth scale for daily sleepiness, index of sleep quality by Pittsburg index, risk of sleep apnea by the Berlin questionnaire and degree of depression by the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale) questionnaire. We also collected epidemiological, clinical, serological and treatment data. Results: Only 18.5% of RA patients had sleep of good quality. In univariate analysis a bad sleep measured by Pittsburg index was associated with daily doses of prednisone (p = 0.03), DAS-28 (p = 0.01), CES-D (p = 0.0005) and showed a tendency to be associated with Berlin sleep apnea questionnaire (p = 0.06). In multivariate analysis only depression (p = 0.008) and Berlin sleep apnea questionnaire (p = 0.004) kept this association. Conclusions: Most of RA patients do not have a good sleep quality. Depression and risk of sleep apnea are independently associated with sleep impairment.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Os distúrbios do sono são comuns em pacientes com artrite reumatoide (AR) e contribuem para a perda da qualidade de vida. Objetivo: Estudar as associações entre a qualidade do sono e a dor, depressão e atividade da doença na AR. Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal com 112 pacientes com AR submetidos à avaliação do DAS-28, escala de Epworth para sonolência diurna, qualidade do sono pelo índice de Pittsburg, risco de apneia do sono pelo questionário de Berlim e grau de depressão pelo questionário CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression). Também foram coletados dados epidemiológicos, clínicos, sorológicos e de tratamento. Resultados: Apenas 18,5% dos pacientes com AR tinham uma boa qualidade do sono. Na análise univariada, um sono ruim medido pelo índice de Pittsburg esteve associado à dose diária de prednisona (p = 0,03), DAS-28 (p = 0,01), CES-D (p = 0,0005) e mostrou uma tendência a estar associado à apneia do sono pelo questionário de Berlim (p = 0,06). Na análise multivariada, somente a depressão (p = 0,008) e a apneia do sono pelo questionário de Berlim (p = 0,004) mantiveram essa associação. Conclusões: A maior parte dos pacientes com AR não tem uma boa qualidade de sono. A depressão e o risco de apneia do sono estão independentemente associados ao comprometimento do sono.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Prednisone/adverse effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Middle Aged
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(3): 383-385, May-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886969

ABSTRACT

Abstract Crusted or Norwegian scabies is a parasitic infectious disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis that mainly affects immunocompromised individuals and those with neurological patients. We report a case of crusted scabies in a 4-month-old infant who had been treated erroneously for atopic dermatitis with high doses of corticosteroids. This initial misdiagnosis associated with the abusive use of corticosteroid facilitated the evolution of scabies to crusted scabies and its main complications of secondary infection and sepsis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Adolescent , Scabies/diagnosis , Scabies/drug therapy , Sepsis/etiology , Permethrin/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Scabies/complications , Immunocompromised Host , Fatal Outcome , Diagnostic Errors
18.
Clinics ; 72(6): 386-390, June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840085

ABSTRACT

Rheumatic diseases are very prevalent, affecting about 7 million people in North America; they affect the musculoskeletal system, often with systemic involvement and potential for serious consequences and limitation on quality of life. Clinical treatment is usually long-term and includes drugs that are considered either simple or complex and are occasionally unknown to many health professionals who do not know how to manage these patients in emergency units and surgical wards. Thus, it is important for clinicians, surgeons and anesthesiologists who are involved with rheumatic patients undergoing surgery to know the basic principles of therapy and perioperative management. This study aims to do a review of the perioperative management of the most commonly used drugs in rheumatologic patients. Manuscripts used in this review were identified by surveying MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases and included studies containing i) the perioperative management of commonly used drugs in patients with rheumatic diseases: and ii) rheumatic diseases. They are didactically discussed according to the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics; and perioperative management. In total, 259 articles related to the topic were identified. Every medical professional should be aware of the types of drugs that are appropriate for continuous use and should know the various effects of these drugs before indicating surgery or assisting a rheumatic patient postoperatively. This information could prevent possible complications that could affect a wide range of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Perioperative Care/methods , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
19.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 35(2): 207-215, abr.-jun. 2017. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-902839

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever os mecanismos pelos quais os glicocorticoides provocam osteoporose, com risco consequente de fraturas, integrando esse conhecimento a uma possível mudança de conduta dos profissionais de saúde. Fontes de dados: Foi realizada pesquisa aprofundada nas bases de dados (SciELO, PubMed, Medline e Scopus), buscando consensos, artigos de revisão, incluindo revisões sistemáticas e meta-análises, publicados em inglês, entre 2000 e 2016. As palavras-chaves utilizadas na busca foram glicocorticoides, esteroides, fraturas, osteoporose, saúde óssea, crianças e adolescentes. Síntese dos dados: A revisão foi dividida em quatro tópicos principais: 1) introdução, com breve enfoque nas fraturas em pediatria; 2) osteoporose em crianças e adolescentes, destacando-a como causa silenciosa de fraturas; 3) glicocorticoides e doença óssea secundária, com a descrição dos mecanismos deletérios desse grupo de esteroides na estrutura óssea; 4) efeitos moleculares do excesso de glicocorticoides no osso, com o detalhamento dos mecanismos nocivos a nível molecular do tecido ósseo. Conclusões: Os glicocorticoides em excesso determinam doença óssea precoce, favorecendo a ocorrência de fraturas. Dessa forma, uma criança ou adolescente que requer corticoterapia, sobretudo crônica e sistêmica, mas também em ciclos repetidos com doses cumulativas altas, necessita de cuidados e orientações relacionados à saúde óssea logo ao início do tratamento. Por outro lado, aqueles com fratura, mesmo entrelaçada a um trauma, podem sinalizar fragilidade óssea subjacente e desconhecida, incluindo a secundária ao uso de glicocorticoides e à deficiência de vitamina D.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe mechanisms by which glucocorticoids cause osteoporosis, with fracture risk, combining this learning with a possible professional behavior change. Data sources: A systematic search on SciELO, PubMed, Scopus, and Medline databases was carried out for consensus, review articles, including systematic reviews and meta-analysis, which were published in English, between 2000 and 2016. Keywords used on the search were the following: glucocorticoids, fractures, osteoporosis, bone health, vitamin D, children, and adolescents. Data synthesis: The review was divided into four topics: 1) introduction, with a brief focus on pediatric fractures; 2) osteoporosis in children and adolescents, highlighting it as a silent cause of fractures; 3) glucocorticoids and secondary bone disease, describing deleterious mechanisms of this steroids group on bone structure; 4) molecular effects of glucocorticoids excess on bone, with details about the harmful mechanisms on bone molecular level. Conclusions: Glucocorticoids excess determines early bone disease, favoring the occurrence of fractures. Thus, a child or an adolescent who uses glucocorticoids, especially systemically and chronically, but also repeats cycles at high cumulative doses of the medication, needs care and guidance related to bone health at the onset of treatment. On the other hand, the presence of fractures, even if related to trauma, can be a sign of underlying and unknown bone fragility, which may be secondary to the use of glucocorticoids and/or vitamin D deficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Osteoporosis/chemically induced , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Bone Diseases/chemically induced , Fractures, Spontaneous/chemically induced
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(10): 645-649, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827650

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate metabolic effects in experimental model of glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance. METHODS: Twenty Wistar male rats were randomly divided into two groups, which were treated with intraperitoneally injected dexamethasone 1mg/Kg/day for ten days consecutively (Group D; n=10) and placebo (Group C; n=10). The variables analyzed were: from the first to the 10th day - body weight (before and after treatment); food and water daily consumption; on the 10th day - glycemia, insulinemia, HOMA-beta and HOMA-IR. The blood samples for laboratory analysis were obtained by intracardiac puncture. Also on the 10th day liver fragments were taken for analyzing glycogen and fattty. RESULTS: Group D animals compared to group C had: weight reduction (g), (D=226.5±24.7 vs C=295.0±25.4; p=0.001); increased glycemia (mmol/l) (D=19.5±2.1 vs C=14.2±3.1; p=0.0001); diminished insulinemia (mU/l) (D=0.2±0.1 vs C=2.0±0.4; p=0.0001); reduced HOMA-β (D=0.2±0.1 vs C=4.2±1.7; p=0.0002); diminished HOMA-IR (D=0.2±0.1 vs C=1.3±0.4; p=0.0002). Histological examination of the liver showed that 100% of group D and none of group C had moderate fatty. (p=0.2). CONCLUSION: Animals treated with glucocorticoid, in this experimental model, expressed hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinism and decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Insulin Resistance , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus/chemically induced , Disease Models, Animal , Homeostasis/drug effects , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Liver/drug effects
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