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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879290

ABSTRACT

Because of the unobvious early symptoms and low 5-year survival rate, the early diagnosis and treatment is of great significance for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Glucose transporter-1 is the most widely distributed glucose transporters in various tissue cells in the human body, whose expression in non-small cell lung cancer is closely related to the histological types, lymph node metastasis, degree of differentiation, progression and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose Transporter Type 1 , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals
2.
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 52(1)jan.-mar.,2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024902

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Importância do problema: A Síndrome da Deficiência do Transportador de Glicose tipo 1 (GLUT1DS), descrita pela primeira vez por De Vivo em 1991, é causada por um deficitário transporte de glicose na barreira hematoencefálica e nos astrócitos devido à mutações na maioria das vezes de novo heterozigóticas no gene SLC2A1, responsável pela codificação do transportador de glicose tipo 1 (GLUT-1). Essa mutação limita a disponibilidade de glicose cerebral, levando a sua deficiência energética, sendo o mecanismo gerador de suas manifestações clínicas. Os sintomas sugestivos são convulsões, atraso no desenvolvimento, microcefalia, hipotonia, espasticidade e complexas alterações no movimento, consistindo de ataxia e distonia. Em pacientes GLUT1DS, substratos energéticos alternativos são de fundamental importância. Inúmeros trabalhos recomendam a utilização da dieta cetogênica de maneira imperiosa como mecanismo padrão ouro de tratamento. Esta, nos primeiros anos de vida em pacientes com GLUT1DS, garante um melhor resultado cognitivo e melhora nos aspectos psicomotores. Comentários: A GLUT1DS, por ser uma doença de recente descoberta, ter poucos casos descritos na literatura, características clínicas heterogêneas e falta substancial de casuística é muitas vezes subdiagnosticada. Nesse sentido, critérios de suspeição e algoritmos diagnósticos se fazem necessários. Dessa maneira, o objetivo deste artigo é chamar a atenção da comunidade médica brasileira para essa síndrome, com vistas a incrementar seu diagnóstico e melhorar o prognóstico de epilepsias de difícil controle (AU)


ABSTRACT: Glut-1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS), first described by De Vivo in 1991, is caused by a deficient glucose transport in the blood-brain barrier and astrocytes by heterozygous mutations, mostly de novo, in the gene SLC2A1 encoding the glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1). This mutation limits the availability of cerebral glucose leading to energy deficiency, which is the underlying mechanism of the clinical manifestations. The suggestive symptoms are convulsions, developmental delay, microcephaly, hypotonia, spasticity, and complex changes in movement consisting of ataxia and dystonia. In GLUT1DS patients, altern ative energy substrates are of fundamental importance. Numerous studies recommend the use of a ketogenic diet in an imperative manner as a gold standard therapy method. This diet, in the first years of life in patients with GLUT1DS, guarantees a better cognitive result and improvement in psychomotor aspects. Because GLUT1DS is a disease of recent discovery, with a few cases described in the literature, heterogeneous clinical features and a substantial lack of casuistry is often underdiagnosed. In this sense, suspicion criteria and diagnostic algorithms become necessary. Thus, the purpose of this article is to draw the attention of the Brazilian medical community to this syndrome to increase its diagnosis and improve the prognosis of difficult-to-control epilepsy (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Epilepsy , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Diet, Ketogenic
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 350-360, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777179

ABSTRACT

Facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT) are proteins that mediate glucose transmembrane transport in the form of facilitated diffusion, which play an important role in regulating cell energy metabolism. There are many breakthroughs in researches of facilitative GLUT in recent years. It has been known that there are 14 subtypes of facilitative GLUT with obvious tissue specificity in distribution and physiological function. In the present review, the tissue and cellular distribution, subcellular localization, expression regulation, physiological function and the relationship to diseases of facilitative GLUT subtypes were summarized, in order to further understand their physiological and pathophysiological significances.


Subject(s)
Biological Transport , Disease , Energy Metabolism , Glucose , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Physiology , Humans
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is one of the leading causes of end stage renal failure. In previous studies, the contribution of genetic susceptibility to DN showed inconsistent results. In this study, we investigated the association between the solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (SLC2A1) HaeIII polymorphism and DN in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to disease duration. METHODS: A total of 846 patients with T2DM (mean age, 61.3 ± 12.3 years; mean duration of T2DM, 10.3 ± 7.9 years; 55.3% men) who visited the Chungbuk National University Hospital were investigated. The HaeIII polymorphism of the SLC2A1 gene was determined by the real time polymerase chain reaction method. Genotyping results were presented as GG, AG, or AA. A subgroup analysis was performed according to duration of T2DM (≤ 10 years, < 10 years). RESULTS: The AG + AA genotype showed a significantly higher risk of DN compared with the GG genotype in patients with a type 2 DM duration less than 10 years (12.4% vs. 4.2%; P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in terms of other diabetic complications, including retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral artery disease, according to the genotypes of the SLC2A1 HaeIII polymorphism. CONCLUSION: The SLC2A1 HaeIII polymorphism was associated with DN in Korean patients with T2DM, particularly in the group with a relatively short disease duration.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Humans , Methods , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Renal Insufficiency
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786280

ABSTRACT

Rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma (RICH), a subtype of congenital hemangioma (CH), is fully developed at birth and undergoes rapid involution by 6–14 months of age. Clinically, this vascular lesion differs from both non-involuting CH and infantile hemangiomas. It is important to distinguish between this rare condition and other vascular lesions to ensure appropriate management (active intervention vs. non-intervention). We describe 5 patients diagnosed with RICH based on clinicopathological and/or imaging studies. Three patients showed red-stippled bluish to purplish tense plaques and two showed slightly depressed red-stippled hypopigmented rubbery patches at their initial visit. Spontaneous involution commenced shortly after birth, and complete involution occurred by 16.0±9.9 months of age. Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed for further evaluation. Histopathological examination revealed vascular lobules of various sizes without true arteriovenous microfistulae, and thickened intra- and interlobular vessels were prominent with glucose transporter isoform-1 protein negativity.


Subject(s)
Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Hemangioma , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Parturition , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation , Ultrasonography, Doppler
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(4): 502-510, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961421

ABSTRACT

Stress hyperglycemia is frequently diagnosed in septic patients in critical care units (ICU) and it is associated with greater illness severity and higher morbimortality rates. In response to an acute injury, high levels of counterregulatory hormones such as glucocorticoids and catecholamines are released causing increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and insulin resistance. Furthermore, during sepsis, proinflammatory cytokines also participate in the pathogenesis of this phenomenon. Septic patients represent a subtype of the critical ill patients in the ICU: this metabolic disarrangement management strategies and insulin therapy recommendations had been inconsistent. In this article, we describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of stress hyperglycemia in critical patients including the action of hormones, inflammatory cytokines and tissue resistance to insulin. In addition, we analyzed the main published studies for the treatment of acute hyperglycemia in critical patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sepsis/complications , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Stress, Physiological , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/metabolism , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/physiopathology , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Intensive Care Units
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activator gamma (PPARγ) is a useful therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes, but its role in protecting β-cell function and viability is unclear. METHODS: To identify the potential functions of PPARγ in β-cells, we treated mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone in conditions of lipotoxicity, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and inflammation. RESULTS: Palmitate-treated cells incubated with pioglitazone exhibited significant improvements in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and the repression of apoptosis, as shown by decreased caspase-3 cleavage and poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase activity. Pioglitazone also reversed the palmitate-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6 [IL-6], and IL-1β) and ER stress markers (phosphor-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α, glucose-regulated protein 78 [GRP78], cleaved-activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], and C/EBP homologous protein [CHOP]), and pioglitazone significantly attenuated inflammation and ER stress in lipopolysaccharide- or tunicamycin-treated MIN6 cells. The protective effect of pioglitazone was also tested in pancreatic islets from high-fat-fed KK-Ay mice administered 0.02% (wt/wt) pioglitazone or vehicle for 6 weeks. Pioglitazone remarkably reduced the expression of ATF6α, GRP78, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, prevented α-cell infiltration into the pancreatic islets, and upregulated glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) expression in β-cells. Moreover, the preservation of β-cells by pioglitazone was accompanied by a significant reduction of blood glucose levels. CONCLUSION: Altogether, these results support the proposal that PPARγ agonists not only suppress insulin resistance, but also prevent β-cell impairment via protection against ER stress and inflammation. The activation of PPARγ might be a new therapeutic approach for improving β-cell survival and insulin secretion in patients with diabetes mellitus


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blood Glucose , Caspase 3 , Chemokine CCL2 , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Humans , Inflammation , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Insulinoma , Interleukin-6 , Islets of Langerhans , Mice , Necrosis , Obesity , Peptide Initiation Factors , Peroxisomes , Repression, Psychology , Transcription Factors
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719116

ABSTRACT

My professional journey to understand the glucose homeostasis began in the 1990s, starting from cloning of the promoter region of glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) gene that led us to establish research foundation of my group. When I was a graduate student, I simply thought that hyperglycemia, a typical clinical manifestation of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), could be caused by a defect in the glucose transport system in the body. Thus, if a molecular mechanism controlling glucose transport system could be understood, treatment of T2DM could be possible. In the early 70s, hyperglycemia was thought to develop primarily due to a defect in the muscle and adipose tissue; thus, muscle/adipose tissue type glucose transporter (GLUT4) became a major research interest in the diabetology. However, glucose utilization occurs not only in muscle/adipose tissue but also in liver and brain. Thus, I was interested in the hepatic glucose transport system, where glucose storage and release are the most actively occurring.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis , Adipose Tissue , Animals , Brain , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucokinase , Gluconeogenesis , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose Transporter Type 2 , Glucose , Glycolysis , Homeostasis , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Liver , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Rats , Transcription Factors
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716843

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To characterize the relationship between serum estradiol levels and the expression of glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) in the pubococcygeus and iliococcygeus muscles in female rats. METHODS: The muscles were excised from virgin rats during the metestrus and proestrus stages of the estrous cycle, and from sham and ovariectomized rats implanted with empty or estradiol benzoate–filled capsules. The expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) was inspected in the muscles at metestrus and proestrus. Relative Glut4 expression, glycogen content, and serum glucose levels were measured. Appropriate statistical tests were done to identify significant differences (P≤0.05). RESULTS: The pubococcygeus and iliococcygeus muscles expressed ERα and ERβ. Glut4 expression and glycogen content in the pubococcygeus muscle were higher at proestrus than at metestrus. No significant changes were observed in the iliococcygeus muscle. In ovariectomized rats, the administration of estradiol benzoate increased Glut4 expression and glycogen content in the pubococcygeus muscle alone. CONCLUSIONS: High serum estradiol levels increased Glut4 expression and glycogen content in the pubococcygeus muscle, but not in the iliococcygeus muscle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzoates , Blood Glucose , Capsules , Estradiol , Estrous Cycle , Female , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose Transporter Type 4 , Glucose , Glycogen , Humans , Metabolism , Metestrus , Muscles , Ovariectomy , Pelvic Floor , Proestrus , Rats , Receptors, Estrogen
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 746-753, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716429

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study investigated the dynamics and prognostic role of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression responsible for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and radioactive iodine (131I) uptake in whole-body radioactive iodine scans (WBS) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary and processed data were downloaded from the Genomic Data Commons Data Portal. Expression data for sodium/iodide symporter (solute carrier family 5 member 5, SLC5A5), hexokinase (HK1–3), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and glucose transporter (solute carrier family 2, SLC2A1–4) mRNA were collected. RESULTS: Expression of SLC5A5 mRNA were negatively correlated with SLC2A1 mRNA and positively correlated with SLC2A4 mRNA. In PTC with BRAF mutations, expressions of SLC2A1, SLC2A3, HK2, and HK3 mRNA were higher than those in PTC without BRAF mutations. Expression of SLC5A5, SLC2A4, HK1, and G6PD mRNA was lower in PTC without BRAF mutation. PTCs with higher expression of SLC5A5 mRNA had more favorable disease-free survival, but no association with overall survival. CONCLUSION: Expression of SLC5A5 mRNA was negatively correlated with SLC2A1 mRNA. This finding provides a molecular basis for the management of PTC with negative WBS using 18F-FDG PET scans. In addition, higher expression of SLC5A5 mRNA was associated with less PTC recurrence, but not with deaths.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Genome , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase , Hexokinase , Humans , Iodine , Ion Transport , Positron-Emission Tomography , Recurrence , RNA, Messenger , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715046

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we compared the cell-specific expression and changes protein levels in the glucose transporters (GLUTs) 1 and 3, the major GLUTs in the mouse and gerbil brains using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. In both mouse and gerbils, GLUT1 immunoreactivity was mainly found in the blood vessels in the dentate gyrus, while GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in the subgranular zone and the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. GLUT1-immunoreactivity in blood vessels and GLUT1 protein levels were significantly decreased with age in the mice and gerbils, respectively. In addition, few GLUT3-immunoreactive cells were found in the subgranular zone in aged mice and gerbils, but GLUT3-immunoreactivity was abundantly found in the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus in mice and gerbils with a dot-like pattern. Based on the double immunofluorescence study, GLUT3-immunoreactive structures in gerbils were localized in the glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive astrocytes in the dentate gyrus. Western blot analysis showed that GLUT3 expression in the hippocampal homogenates was slightly, although not significantly, decreased with age in mice and gerbils, respectively. These results indicate that the reduction in GLUT1 in the blood vessels of dentate gyrus and GLUT3 in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus may be associated with the decrease in uptake of glucose into brain and neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus. In addition, the expression of GLUT3 in the astrocytes in polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus may be associated with metabolic changes in glucose in aged hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Astrocytes , Blood Vessels , Blotting, Western , Brain , Dentate Gyrus , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gerbillinae , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose Transporter Type 1 , Glucose , Hippocampus , Immunohistochemistry , Mice
12.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 114-118, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204554

ABSTRACT

Glucose is essential for testicular function; the uptake of carbohydrate-derived glucose by cells is mediated by glucose transporters (GLUTs). In the present study, we investigated the activity of GLUT1 and GLUT3, the two main isoforms of GLUTs found in testes, in the left scrotal and right abdominal testes of a German Shepherd dog. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that GLUT1 immunoreactivity was absent in the scrotal and abdominal testes. In contrast, weak to moderate GLUT3 immunoreactivity was observed in mature spermatocytes as well as spermatids in the scrotal testis. In the abdominal testis, relatively strong GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in Leydig cells only and was absent in mature spermatocytes and spermatids. GLUT3 immunoreactivity was significantly decreased in the tubular region of abdominal testis and significantly increased in the extra-tubular (interstitial) region of abdominal testis compared to observations in the each region of scrotal testis, respectively. These results suggest that GLUT3 is the major glucose transporter in the testes and that abdominal testes may increase the uptake of glucose into interstitial areas, leading to an increased risk of developing cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cryptorchidism , Dogs , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose , Leydig Cells , Male , Protein Isoforms , Spermatids , Spermatocytes , Testis
13.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 214-218, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50230

ABSTRACT

We found the changed distribution of glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins in the skin during rat development. At 15 days of gestation, GLUT1 and 2 proteins were expressed in the stratum corneum of epidermal cells. In postnatal skin, however, GLUT1 and 2 exhibit different expression patterns. While GLUT1 expression becomes more restricted to the stratum basale with development, GLUT2 was found mainly in stratum spinosum and granulosum, but not being localized in the stratum basale at any stages of perinatal skin development. Considering all these, it can be speculated that each GLUT protein plays its specific role in different epidermal layers and that the glucose used in mammalian skin in utero could be originated from the amniotic fluid during skin development.


Subject(s)
Amniotic Fluid , Animals , Epidermis , Female , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose , Immunohistochemistry , Pregnancy , Rats , Skin
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent living condition improvements, changes in dietary habits, and reductions in physical activity are contributing to an increase in metabolic syndrome symptoms including diabetes and obesity. Through such societal developments, humankind is continuously exposed to metabolic diseases such as diabetes, and the number of the victims is increasing. This study investigated Cordyceps militaris water extract (CMW)-induced glucose uptake in HepG2 cells and the effect of CMW treatment on glucose metabolism. MATERIALS/METHODS: Colorimetric assay kits were used to determine the glucokinase (GK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activities, glucose uptake, and glycogen content. Either RT-PCR or western blot analysis was performed for quantitation of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF-1α), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k), protein kinase B (Akt), phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, GK, PDH, and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) expression levels. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of acarbose and CMW were evaluated by absorbance measurement. RESULTS: CMW induced glucose uptake in HepG2 cells by increasing GLUT2 through HNF-1α expression stimulation. Glucose in the cells increased the CMW-induced phosphorylation of AMPK. In turn, glycolysis was stimulated, and glyconeogenesis was inhibited. Furthermore, by studying the mechanism of action of PI3k, Akt, and GSK-3β, and measuring glycogen content, the study confirmed that the glucose was stored in the liver as glycogen. Finally, CMW resulted in a higher level of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than that from acarbose. CONCLUSION: CMW induced the uptake of glucose into HepG2 cells, as well, it induced metabolism of the absorbed glucose. It is concluded that CMW is a candidate or potential use in diabetes prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Acarbose , alpha-Glucosidases , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Blotting, Western , Cordyceps , Feeding Behavior , Glucokinase , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose , Glycogen , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Glycolysis , Hep G2 Cells , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha , Hypoglycemic Agents , Liver , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolism , Motor Activity , Obesity , Oxidoreductases , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphoenolpyruvate , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Pyruvic Acid , Social Conditions , Water
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The anti-diabetic activity of pear through inhibition of α-glucosidase has been demonstrated. However, little has been reported about the effect of pear on insulin signaling pathway in obesity. The aims of this study are to establish pear pomace 50% ethanol extract (PPE)-induced improvement of insulin sensitivity and characterize its action mechanism in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: Lipid accumulation, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion and glucose uptake were measure in 3T3-L1 cells. Mice were fed HFD (60% kcal from fat) and orally ingested PPE once daily for 8 weeks and body weight, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum lipids were measured. The expression of proteins involved in insulin signaling pathway was evaluated by western blot assay in 3T3-L1 cells and adipose tissue of mice. RESULTS: In 3T3-L1 cells, without affecting cell viability and lipid accumulation, PPE inhibited MCP-1 secretion, improved glucose uptake, and increased protein expression of phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 [p-IRS-1, (Tyr⁶³²)], p-Akt, and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4). Additionally, in HFD-fed mice, PPE reduced body weight, HOMA-IR, and serum lipids including triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol. Furthermore, in adipose tissue, PPE up-regulated GLUT4 expression and expression ratio of p-IRS-1 (Tyr⁶³²)/IRS, whereas, down-regulated p-IRS-1 (Ser³⁰⁷)/IRS. CONCLUSIONS: Our results collectively show that PPE improves glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells and insulin sensitivity in mice fed a HFD through stimulation of the insulin signaling pathway. Furthermore, PPE-induced improvement of insulin sensitivity was not accompanied with lipid accumulation.


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Adipose Tissue , Animals , Blotting, Western , Body Weight , Cell Survival , Chemokine CCL2 , Diet, High-Fat , Ethanol , Glucose , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose Transporter Type 4 , Homeostasis , Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Lipid Metabolism , Mice , Obesity , Pyrus , Triglycerides
16.
Korean Journal of Obesity ; : 190-196, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that 17beta-estradiol activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in rodent muscle and C2C12 myotubes and that acute 17beta-estradiol treatment rapidly increases AMPK phosphorylation possibly through non-genomic effects but does not stimulate glucose uptake. Here, we investigated whether 24-hour 17beta-estradiol treatment stimulated glucose uptake and regulated the expression of genes associated with glucose and energy metabolism through the genomic effects of estrogen receptor (ER) in C2C12 myotubes. METHODS: C2C12 myotubes were treated with 17beta-estradiol for 24 hours, and activation of AMPK, uptake of glucose, and expression of genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1β, uncoupling protein 2, and glucose transporter 4 were examined. Furthermore, we investigated whether AMPK inhibitor (compound C) or estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI182.780) treatment reversed 17beta-estradiol-induced changes. RESULTS: We found that 24-hour treatment of C2C12 myotubes with 17beta-estradiol stimulated AMPK activation and glucose uptake and regulated the expression of genes associated with glucose and energy metabolism. Treatment of C2C12 myotubes with the estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI182.780) reversed 17beta-estradiol-induced AMPK activation, glucose uptake, and changes in the expression of target genes. Furthermore, treatment with the AMPK inhibitor (compound C) reversed 17beta-estradiol-induced glucose uptake and changes in the expression of target genes. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that 17beta-estradiol stimulates AMPK activation and glucose uptake and regulates the expression of genes associated with glucose and energy metabolism in C2C12 myotubes through the genomic effects of ER.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase , Energy Metabolism , Estrogens , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Peroxisomes , Phosphorylation , Rodentia
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228469

ABSTRACT

Glucose transport 1 (GLUT-1) deficiency is a rare syndrome caused by mutations in the glucose transporter 1 gene (SLC2A1) and is characterized by early-onset intractable epilepsy, delayed development, and movement disorder. De novo mutations and several hot spots in N34, G91, R126, R153, and R333 of exons 2, 3, 4, and 8 of SLC2A1 are associated with this condition. Seizures, one of the main clinical features of GLUT-1 deficiency, usually develop during infancy. Most patients experience brief and subtle myoclonic jerk and focal seizures that evolve into a mixture of different types of seizures, such as generalized tonic-clonic, absence, myoclonic, and complex partial seizures. Here, we describe the case of a patient with GLUT-1 deficiency who developed infantile spasms and showed delayed development at 6 months of age. She had intractable epilepsy despite receiving aggressive antiepileptic drug therapy, and underwent a metabolic workup. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed CSF-glucose-to-blood-glucose ratio of 0.38, with a normal lactate level. Bidirectional sequencing of SLC2A1 identified a missense mutation (c.1198C>T) at codon 400 (p.Arg400Cys) of exon 9.


Subject(s)
Cerebrospinal Fluid , Codon , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Drug Therapy , Exons , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose Transporter Type 1 , Glucose , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lactic Acid , Movement Disorders , Mutation, Missense , Myoclonus , Seizures , Spasms, Infantile
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder resulting out of T cell mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells may help to regenerate beta cells and/or prevent further destruction of remnant, unaffected beta cells in diabetes. We have assessed the ability of umbilical cord derived MSCs (UCMSCs) to differentiate into functional islet cells in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have isolated UCMSCs and allowed sequential exposure of various inducing agents and growth factors. We characterized these cells for confirmation of the presence of islet cell markers and their functionality. The spindle shaped undifferentiated UCMSCs, change their morphology to become triangular in shape. These cells then come together to form the islet like structures which then grow in size and mature over time. These cells express pancreatic and duodenal homeobox -1 (PDX-1), neurogenin 3 (Ngn-3), glucose transporter 2 (Glut 2) and other pancreatic cell markers like glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide and lose expression of MSC markers like CD73 and CD105. They were functionally active as demonstrated by release of physiological insulin and C-peptide in response to elevated glucose concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic islet like cells with desired functionality can thus be obtained in reasonable numbers from undifferentiated UCMSCs in vitro. This could help in establishing a "very definitive source" of islet like cells for cell therapy. UCMSCs could thus be a game changer in treatment of diabetes.


Subject(s)
C-Peptide , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Genes, Homeobox , Glucagon , Glucose , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Insulin , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Islets of Langerhans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Pancreatic Polypeptide , Somatostatin , Stem Cells , Umbilical Cord
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167822

ABSTRACT

In this study, we observed the ontogenetic changes in glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) immunoreactivity, a major neuronal GLUT, in the dentate gyrus of mouse brains at various ages: postnatal day (P) 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56. At P1, cresyl violet staining showed abundant neurons in the dentate gyrus, whereas the granule cell layer was ill-defined. At P7, the granule cell layer was observed, and cresyl violet-positive cells were dispersed throughout the polymorphic layer. At P14, the granule cell layer was well-defined, and cresyl violet positive cells were detected abundantly in the polymorphic layer. At P28 and P56, cresyl violet-positive cells were observed in the granule cell layer, as well as in the polymorphic layer. At P1, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in the dentate gyrus. At P7, GLUT3 immunoreactive cells were scattered in the polymorphic and molecular layer. However, at P14, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was observed in the polymorphic layer as well as subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. At P28, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. At P56, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was observed predominantly in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. GLUT3 immunoreactive cells were mainly colocalized with doublecortin, which is a marker for differentiated neuroblasts, in the polymorphic layer and subgranular zone of dentate gyrus at P14 and P56. These results suggest that the expression of GLUT3 is closely associated with postnatal development of the dentate gyrus and adult neurogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Brain , Dentate Gyrus , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose , Humans , Mice , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Viola
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-277923

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a Daphnia model of alloxan-induced diabetes. Methods Daphnia were exposed to three different concentrations of alloxan (3, 5, and 10 mmol/L) for 30 minutes. Blood glucose and survival rate were recorded for 72 hours after alloxan insult. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic inference for glucose transporters (GLUT) were clustered with the maximum-likelihood method. Using reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques, we investigated the transcriptional changes of GLUT at 12 hours after alloxan (5 mmol/L) exposure. Results Compared with control, 3 mmol/L, and 5 mmol/L as well as 10 mmol/L alloxan initially induced transient blood glucose decline by 15% for 2 hours and 12 hours respectively. In Daphnia with 5 and 10 mmol/L alloxan, their blood glucose was persistently raised by about 150% since after 24-hour insult. Survival rate of Daphnia exposure to alloxan with concentrations of 3, 5, and 10 mmol/L were 90%, 75%, and 25% respectively. We predicted seven GLUT genes in the Daphnia genome and successfully amplified them using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Two of seven GLUT transcripts were down-regulated in Daphnia with 5 mmol/L alloxan-induced diabetes. Conclusion Alloxan-induced diabetes model was successfully established in the Daphnia pulex, suggesting diabetes-relevant experiments can be conducted using Daphnia.


Subject(s)
Alloxan , Animals , Blood Glucose , Daphnia , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Genetics , Metabolism , Likelihood Functions , Phylogeny , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
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