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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250179, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339372

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.


Resumo O diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença não transmissível em todo o mundo, na qual existe nível glicêmico persistentemente alto em relação à normalidade. O diabetes e a resistência à insulina são os principais responsáveis ​​pelas morbidades e mortalidades de humanos no mundo. Essa doença é regulada principalmente por várias enzimas e hormônios, entre os quais a glicogênio sintase quinase-3 (GSK-3) é uma enzima principal e a insulina é o principal hormônio que a regula. A GSK-3, que é a enzima-chave, normalmente mostra suas ações por vários mecanismos que incluem sua fosforilação, formação de complexos de proteínas e outras distribuições celulares e, portanto, controla e afeta diretamente a morfologia celular, seu crescimento, mobilidade e apoptose do célula. Perturbações na ação da enzima GSK-3 podem levar a várias condições de doença que incluem resistência à insulina que leva ao diabetes, doenças neurológicas como a doença de Alzheimer e câncer. As fluoroquinolonas são a classe mais comum de drogas que apresentam efeitos disglicêmicos por meio da interação com a enzima GSK-3. Portanto, é necessário hoje em dia compreender adequadamente as funções e mecanismos da GSK-3, principalmente seu papel na homeostase da glicose via efeitos na glicogênio sintase.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Glucose , Homeostasis
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18893, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364414

ABSTRACT

Abstract On the increasing prevalence of using mAbs (monoclonal antibodies) in cancer therapy and the severe risk of hyperglycemia, we aimed to analyze the main clinical ADRs of mAbs, with a focus on adverse hyperglycemic events associated with currently clinically used mAbs. mAbs as well as target information were selected from Martinadale book and published articles. Drug approving information was collected from each government website, and ADR statistic data were collected from VigibaseR, comparing with Adverse Event Reporting System of US FDA. Top 10 mAbs were classified within listing in total ADR records, ADRs per year, hyperglycemic ADR records. Vigibase data were updated onto 15 Feb 2019. 20 mAbs were analyzed with 263217 ADR reports, wherein 16751 records on Metabolism and nutrition disorders and 1444 records on Glucose metabolism disorders. The geographic, age, gender distributions and annual ADR report numbers were listed respectively. Of the top 10, Rituximab, Bevacizumab and Nivolumab were on the top 3 in total ADR record and hyperglycemic record. Top 3 record results were similar in Vigibase and FDA database. It is of increasing importance for clinicians to be aware of early detection, patient management, or drug selection strategies when using mAbs, particularly within the high glycemic risk-reported mAbs, to improve the efficacy and tolerability of mAbs regiment and optimize patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Glucose Metabolism Disorders/pathology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Research Report , Rituximab , Glucose/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia , Antibodies, Monoclonal/classification , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Computer Communication Networks/instrumentation , Efficacy/statistics & numerical data , Health Strategies , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Neoplasms
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): e610-e615, dic. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353045

ABSTRACT

La intoxicación por bloqueantes de los canales de calcio es un cuadro poco frecuente en la población pediátrica. Los signos y síntomas pueden progresar de forma rápida y llevar al colapso cardiovascular y muerte. El sostén hemodinámico con inotrópicos y vasopresores no suele ser efectivo. La terapia con insulina y glucosa es un complemento eficaz del tratamiento inicial, que está ampliamente estudiado, y se utiliza en diferentes patologías con compromiso hemodinámico. Se presenta el caso de una paciente pediátrica con antecedente de ingestión de dosis altas de amlodipina con fines suicidas, con descompensación hemodinámica refractaria al tratamiento de soporte inotrópico habitual. A partir del tratamiento con insulina y glucosa, se logró la estabilidad hemodinámica, con evolución favorable de la paciente.


Calcium channel blocker poisoning is a rare condition in the pediatric population. Signs and symptoms can be rapidly progressive and lead to cardiovascular collapse and death. Hemodynamic support with inotropics and vasopressors is usually not effective. The insulin/glucose therapy is an effective complement to the initial treatment, which is widely studied and used in different pathologies with hemodynamic compromise. The case of a pediatric patient with a history of high-dose ingestion of amlodipine for suicidal purposes, with hemodynamic decompensation refractory to usual inotropic support treatment, is presented. From the insulin/glucose treatment, hemodynamic stability was achieved with a favorable evolution


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Suicide, Attempted , Calcium Channel Blockers/poisoning , Amlodipine/poisoning , Drug Overdose/therapy , Glucose/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 517-527, 01-dic-2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357536

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la diabetes mellitus es uno de los problemas más graves de salud pública que enfrenta México. El factor más preocupante es la falta de control de la misma, lo que incide de manera directa, causando daños severos a la salud y la calidad de vida del paciente y familiares, así como una carga económica al país. Por lo tanto, el desarrollo de un método no invasivo para la medición de la glucemia proporcionaría a los pacientes una forma sencilla e indolora de monitoreo y, en consecuencia, un mejor control de la diabetes. Objetivo: investigar, desarrollar y validar un sensor no invasivo por medio de la espectroscopía para la estimación del nivel de glucosa en sangre. Material y métodos: se realizó un análisis de estudio transversal analítico de correlación realizado en las instalaciones del laboratorio de la UMAE No 1, Bajío. Se incluyeron pacientes adultos voluntarios que acudieron al laboratorio de dicha unidad para la toma de niveles de glucosa sérica y de manera simultánea se realizó la medición a través de método no invasivo por espectroscopía y, posteriormente, se compararon ambos resultados para demostrar la validez del dispositivo. Resultados: mediante el análisis de la diferencia de medias de Bland-Altman, se identificó que solamente un paciente tuvo un valor extremo, y que el método para medir la glucosa de manera no invasiva sobreestima hasta un 10.2% del valor de glucosa central. Conclusión: comparando dichos resultados con las normas para glucómetros digitales se concluye que nuestro dispositivo es capaz de proporcionar niveles de glucosa certeros.


Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most serious public health problems in Mexico. The most worrying factor is the lack of control of it, which has a direct impact, causing severe damage to the health and quality of life of the patient and its family, as well as an economic burden to the health system. Therefore, the development of a non-invasive method for measuring blood glucose would provide to patients a simple and painless way of monitoring and consequently better control of diabetes. Objective: Research, development and validation of a non-invasive sensor by means of spectroscopy for the estimation of the blood glucose level. Material and methods: An analysis of a cross-sectional analytical correlation study was carried out in the facilities of the laboratory at the UMAE No. 1, Bajío. Voluntary adult patients who attended the laboratory of the UMAE to take serum glucose levels were included, and simultaneously the measurement was carried out through a non-invasive method by spectroscopy and, later, both results were compared to demonstrate the validity of the device. Results: By the Bland-Altman mean difference analysis, it was identified that only one patient had an extreme value, and that the method to measure glucose non-invasively overestimates up to 10.2% of the central glucose value. Conclusion: Comparing these results with the standards for digital glucometers, it is concluded that our device is capable of providing accurate glucose levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Spectrum Analysis , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus , Mexico , Quality of Life , Clinical Diagnosis , Public Health , Glucose , Glycosuria
5.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(4): 300-309, dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1355226

ABSTRACT

La administración crónica de cafeína evita la alteración de la glucosa postprandial en ratas. El aumento en el consumo de la cafeína alrededor del mundo no es discutible, es así como su investigación se ha vuelto extensa en sus diferentes campos. Objetivo. Analizar los efectos de la administración crónica de cafeína en ratas alimentadas con dieta de cafetería, a través de evaluar índices de consumo, antropométricos y bioquímicos. Materiales y métodos. La dieta de cafetería es un modelo dietético equivalente a las características de la dieta occidental típica que origina síndrome metabólico en humanos. En esta investigación se realizó la administración crónica vía intraperitoneal de cafeína por ocho semanas a ratas adultas macho Wistar alimentadas con dieta de cafetería. Dada la poca evidencia acerca de los efectos biológicos y comportamentales de la administración crónica de dicha sustancia frente a un modelo de dieta de cafetería se evaluaron parámetros de consumo, antropométricos y bioquímicos. Resultados. La dieta de cafetería ocasionó anomalías asociadas al síndrome metabólico; no obstante, la administración de cafeína en las ratas alimentadas con esa dieta resultó ser un factor protector en la glucosa postprandial, más no en la alteración de la tolerancia a la glucosa o perfil lipídico. Conclusiones. La cafeína permitió proteger los niveles de glucosa postprandial al término del experimento y un descenso en el peso corporal y consumo de alimento solo en la primera semana. Sin embargo, no se observaron mejoras significativas en el perfil de lípidos, adiposidad, tolerancia a la glucosa y glucosa plasmática(AU)


Chronic caffeine administration prevents postprandial glucose disturbance in rats. The increase in caffeine consumption is not debatable, this is how his research has become extensive in his different fields. Objective. To analyze the effects of chronic administration of caffeine in rats fed a cafeteria diet, by evaluating consumption, anthropometric and biochemical indices. Previous studies refer to administering caffeine in diets high in carbohydrates and / or in fat that induce obesity or symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Material and methods. The cafeteria diet is a dietary model equivalent to the characteristics of the typical western diet that causes metabolic syndrome in humans. In this research, chronic intraperitoneal administration of caffeine was performed for 8 weeks to adult male Wistar rats fed a cafeteria diet. Given the little evidence about the biological and behavioral effects of the chronic administration of this substance against a cafeteria diet model, consumption, anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results. After eight weeks it was found that the cafeteria diet given to the controls caused abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome; regarding the administration of caffeine in the rats fed this diet, the treatment turned out to be a protective factor in postprandial glucose, but not in the alteration of glucose tolerance or lipid profile. Conclusions. Caffeine allowed to protect postprandial glucose levels at the end of the experiment and a decrease in body weight and food consumption only in the first week. However, no significant improvements were seen in lipid profile, adiposity, glucose tolerance, and plasma glucose(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Body Weight , Caffeine/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Postprandial Period , Reference Parameters , Glucose/analysis , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Adenosine , Rats, Wistar , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Eating , Receptors, Leptin , Obesity
6.
Revista brasileira de ciência e movimento ; 29(1): [1-28], nov. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348230

ABSTRACT

: O exercício físico, em especial a corrida de rua tem sido recomendada para prevenção e tratamento de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. O objetivo desta revisão sistemática foi verificar os efeitos de diferentes métodos de treinamento sobre os indicadores cardiometabólicos de corredores recreacionais. As bases de dados eletrônicas utilizadas na presente pesquisa foram: PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, LILACS e COCHRANE LIBRARY, usando os descritores agrupados segundo o método PICO; População ("adults" OR "young adult" OR "middle aged") AND Intervenção ("endurance training" OR "aerobic training" OR "running") OR Comparação ("recreational runners" OR "jogging") AND Outcome/Desfecho ("cardiovascular risk factors" OR "cardiometabolic risk factors" OR "metabolic syndrome"). Na seleção os artigos foram excluídos por título, resumo e texto. Obteve-se um total de 813 artigos encontrados, no qual nove (9) preencheram os critérios de inclusão e baixo risco de viés de acordo com a Escala Testex. Foram encontrados três métodos de treinamento: Combinado (Contínuo +Intervalado); Contínuo e Intervalado. Considerando a somatória das amostras dos nove estudos, um total de 604 indivíduos (466 homens e 138 mulheres) participaram dos ensaios. Os diferentes métodos de treinamentos resultaram na redução dos níveis de triglicerídeos, insulina e glicose e na redução do colesterol total e LDL, e consequentemente o aumento do HDL. Na composição corporal houve diminuição significativa do peso e da gordura corporal, do IMC, na medida da circunferência da cintura, e no aumento da capacidade aeróbia (VO2). Concluiu-se que os treinamentos combinado, contínuo e intervalado podem ser aplicados para melhora dos indicadores cardiometabólicos, cada um dentro da sua especificidade de frequência, volume e intensidade.(AU)


Physical exercise, especially running, has been recommended for the prevention and treatment of chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this systematic review was to verify the effects of different training methods on the cardiometabolic indicators of recreational runners. The electronic databases used in the present research were: PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, LILACS and COCHRANE LIBRARY, using the descriptors grouped according to the PICO method; Population ("adults" OR "young adult" OR "middle aged") AND Intervention ("endurance training" OR "aerobic training" OR "running") OR Comparison ("recreational runners" OR "jogging") AND Outcome / Outcome ("Cardiovascular risk factors" OR "cardiometabolic risk factors" OR "metabolic syndrome"). In the selection, articles were excluded by title, abstract and text. A total of 813 articles were obtained, in which nine (9) met the inclusion criteria and low risk of bias according to the Testex Scale. Three training methods were found: Combined (Continuous + Interval); Continuous and Interval. Considering the sum of the samples from the nine studies, a total of 604 individuals (466 men and 138 women) participated in the trials. The different training methods resulted in a reduction in the levels of triglycerides, insulin and glucose and in the reduction of total cholesterol and LDL, and consequently an increase in HDL. In body composition, there was a significant decrease in weight and body fat, in BMI, as measured by waist circumference, and in increased aerobic capacity (VO2). It is concluded that combined, continuous and interval training can be applied to improve cardiometabolic indicators, each within its specific frequency, volume and intensity.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Running , Physical Fitness , Endurance Training , Triglycerides , Body Composition , Exercise , Cholesterol , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus , Fats , Arterial Pressure , High-Intensity Interval Training , Noncommunicable Diseases , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Glucose , Insulin , Jogging
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 929-937, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285261

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to investigate the different plasma metabolites between anestrus and estrus postpartum dairy cows and to provide a theoretical basis for prevention of anestrus in dairy farm cows. In the experiment, one hundred and sixty-seven Holstein dairy cows were selected with similar age and parity. According to the concentration of ß-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids and glucose in plasma during 14 to 21 days in milk, all dairy cows were determined as having a status of energy balance. According to the results of clinical symptom, rectal and B ultrasound examination at 60 to 90 days postpartum, these cows were divided into twenty estrus and twenty-four anestrus group, other dairy cows were removed. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance technology was utilized to detect the plasma metabolites changes and screen different plasma metabolites between anestrus and estrus cows. Ten different metabolites including alanine, glutamic acid, asparagine, creatine, choline, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, low-density lipoprotein, and very-low-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased in anestrous cows compared with estrous cows. Metabolic pathway analyses indicated that differential metabolites were primarily involved in amino acid and glycerophospholipid metabolism. These metabolites and their enrichment pathways indicate that reduced steroid hormone synthesis precursors result in lower levels of estradiol and progesterone and cause anestrus in negative energy balance. These data provide a better understanding of the changes that may affect estrus of postpartum dairy cows at NEB status and lay the ground for further research.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os diferentes metabolitos do plasma entre o cio e o cio pós-parto de vacas leiteiras e fornecer uma base teórica para a prevenção do cio de vacas em fazendas de leite. No experimento, foram selecionadas 127 vacas leiteiras Holstein com idade e paridade similares. De acordo com a concentração de ß- ácido hidroxibutírico, ácidos graxos não esterificados e glicose no plasma entre 14 e 21 dias no leite, todas as vacas leiteiras foram determinadas em estado de equilíbrio energético. De acordo com os resultados dos sintomas clínicos, do exame de ultra-som retal e B aos 60 a 90 dias pós-parto, estas vacas foram divididas em vinte cios e vinte e quatro grupos de cio, outras vacas leiteiras foram removidas. A tecnologia de ressonância magnética nuclear 1H foi utilizada para detectar as alterações dos metabólitos plasmáticos e para triar diferentes metabólitos plasmáticos entre as vacas do cio e do cio. Dez diferentes metabólitos incluindo alanina, ácido glutâmico, asparagina, creatina, colina, fosfocholina, glicerofosfocolina, lipoproteína de baixa densidade e lipoproteína de muito baixa densidade foram significativamente diminuídos nas vacas antróficas em comparação com as vacas estro. As análises da via metabólica indicaram que os metabólitos diferenciais estavam principalmente envolvidos no metabolismo de aminoácidos e glicerofosfolipídios. Estes metabólitos e suas vias de enriquecimento indicam que a redução dos precursores da síntese de hormônios esteróides resulta em níveis mais baixos de estradiol e progesterona e causa anestros no balanço energético negativo. Estes dados fornecem uma melhor compreensão das mudanças que podem afetar o cio das vacas leiteiras pós-parto no estado de NEB e preparam o terreno para mais pesquisas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Progesterone/analysis , Anestrus/blood , Estrus/blood , Postpartum Period/blood , Estradiol/analysis , Glycerophospholipids , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , Amino Acids , Glucose , Hematologic Tests/veterinary
8.
Diagn. tratamento ; 26(2): 58-64, abr.-jun. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280725

ABSTRACT

Contexto: A tontura é um sintoma de alta prevalência e as labirintopatias de causas metabólicas destacam-se como uma das mais frequentes em nosso meio. Distúrbios do metabolismo glicêmico, disfunções tireoidianas e dislipidemias são as principais. Objetivos: Os objetivos deste estudo são descrever a porcentagem das principais disfunções metabólicas nos pacientes com vertigem e revisar os métodos diagnósticos. Desenho e local: Estudo observacional de pacientes atendidos no setor de Otoneurologia do Instituto Penido Burnier. Métodos: Avaliação de 506 pacientes com vertigem por meio da análise do hormônio tireoestimulante, glicemia de jejum, hemoglobina glicada, insulina de jejum, curvas glicoinsulinêmica de três horas, colesterol total e suas frações (lipoproteína de alta densidade [HDL] e lipoproteína de baixa densidade [LDL]) e triglicerídeos. Foi feita a comparação entre os sexos e com os dados encontrados na população geral. Resultados: Níveis de HDL, triglicerídeos e glicemia de jejum foram mais alterados no sexo masculino e o colesterol total foi mais elevado no sexo feminino. A elevação do HOMA (homeostatic model assessment) foi a alteração mais significante encontrada no grupo em estudo comparando com a população geral, entretanto as curvas glicoinsulinêmicas mostraram mais alterações em comparação ao HOMA. Discussão: A análise do HOMA e da curva glicoinsulinêmica mostrou que a porcentagem de alteração é diferente entre os métodos, não havendo concordância entre eles. O HOMA não substitui as curvas na investigação dos pacientes com vertigem e suspeita de distúrbios do metabolismo glicêmico. Conclusão: É alta a porcentagem das disfunções metabólicas na população com vertigem, justificando a investigação laboratorial neste grupo de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vertigo , Diabetes Mellitus , Observational Study , Glucose , Ear, Inner , Metabolic Diseases
9.
Iatreia ; 34(2): 161-171, abr.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250067

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave es el tercer betacoronavirus desde el año 2003 capaz de ocasionar una infección del tracto respiratorio inferior, llevando, en casos críticos, al síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda y la muerte. La edad avanzada, la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus son, entre otros, tres factores determinantes en los peores desenlaces clínicos. Múltiples mecanismos pueden explicar la mayor susceptibilidad de las personas diabéticas a las infecciones respiratorias. La hiperglucemia crónica altera tanto a la inmunidad humoral como al celular. Esta enfermedad predispone a la sobreexpresión de la proteína de la membrana celular que sirve como receptora del virus y a una respuesta inflamatoria exacerbada, aumentando el riesgo de una descompensación y de la aparición de crisis hiperglicémicas. Ante la ausencia de un tratamiento efectivo o de una vacuna, todos los esfuerzos deben hacerse para procurar un buen control metabólico de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus con y sin COVID-19. Por lo anterior, se plantean en este artículo de reflexión, diferentes propuestas para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, sin descartar la forma ambulatoria, en donde la telemedicina y otras tecnologías permitirán acortar la distancia y mantener las medidas de aislamiento preventivo.


SUMMARY Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the third beta-coronavirus since 2003 capable of causing lower respiratory tract infection, leading to severe cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. Advanced age, high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus are three predictors of worse clinical outcomes. Multiple mechanisms could explain the greater susceptibility of diabetic people to respiratory infections. Chronic hyperglycemia alters both humoral and cellular immunity. This disease predisposes to virus receptor overexpression and an exaggerated inflammatory response, increasing the risk of decompensation and hyperglycemic crises. In the absence of an effective vaccine or treatment for the virus, this vicious circle should be stopped with an emphasis on controlling glucose. This paper presents different proposals for the treatment of diabetes mellitus both on an outpatient basis where telemedicine and other technologies will make it possible to continue adequate ambulatory care to maintain preventive isolation measures up to care in the intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Pandemics , Glycemic Control , Glucose
10.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 139-144, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, and its prevalence is increasing alongside obesity. In United States, NAFLD is already the second leading cause of liver transplantation. The spectrum of the disease ranges from simple steatosis, which has a benign course, to steatohepatitis, which may progress to cirrhosis and its complications. The rising of noninvasive methods for diagnosing and staging non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis decreases the need of liver biopsy, as well as the costs and the occurrence of complications related to it. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of the triglyceride-glucose index to evaluate steatosis, NASH and liver fibrosis in obese patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Every medical record of patients who were candidates for bariatric surgery at a leading hospital in Southern Brazil were analyzed. The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG Index), a method composed only of two simple laboratory tests (serum triglycerides and fasting glucose levels), was performed prior to surgery. The TyG Index performance regarding the anatomopathological findings was evaluated, and the AUROC curve was calculated to evaluate the best cut-off point for diagnosing steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis grade. Also, the NAFLD fibrosis Score (NFS) was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 423 patients were evaluated. The TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.76 excluded significant simple steatosis (grade 2-3) in obese patients, with 67.6% sensitivity, 65.1% specificity, 46.3% positive predictive value (PPV), 81.8% negative predictive value (NPV), 65.8% accuracy and 0.66 AUROC (P=0.005). In the evaluation of NASH, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.82 excluded significant NASH (grade 2-3) with 57.3% sensitivity, 58.6% specificity, 33.7% PPV, 78.8% NPV, 58.2% accuracy and 0.58 AUROC (P=0.022). When evaluating liver fibrosis, the TyG Index with a cut-off point of 8.91 showed a sensitivity of 61.8%, a specificity of 62.5%, a PPV of 13.8 and a NPV of 94.4% for exclusion of advanced fibrosis (F3-4), with a 62.4% accuracy and 0.69 AUROC (P<0.001). When analyzing the performance of NFS in the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis, the cut-off point <-1.455 excluded advanced fibrosis with sensitivity of 59.4%, specificity of 51%, PPV of 11%, NPV of 92.4% and accuracy of 51.7%. However, the cut-off point of 0.676 to diagnose advanced fibrosis presented sensitivity of 21.9%, specificity of 83%, PPV of 11.7%, NPV of 91.2% and 77.3% accuracy. The AUROC was 0.54 (P=0.480). CONCLUSION: TyG Index did not perform well in the diagnosis of significant steatosis and NASH. However, it was able to exclude advanced fibrosis in obese patients who are candidates for bariatric surgery.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica (DHGNA) é a doença hepática mais prevalente no mundo. Nos Estados Unidos, a DHGNA já é a segunda causa de transplante hepático. O espectro da doença abrange desde a esteatose simples, que apresenta curso benigno, até esteato-hepatite não-alcoólica (EHNA), que pode progredir para cirrose e suas complicações. O desenvolvimento de métodos não invasivos para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da EHNA e da fibrose hepática visa diminuir a necessidade de biópsia hepática, um procedimento invasivo e não raro associado a complicações. OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho do índice triglicerídeo-glicose (TyG Index) para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da DHGNA em pacientes obesos. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal retrospectivo. Foram analisados todos os prontuários de pacientes candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica em um hospital de referência do Sul do Brasil e calculado o TyG Index, um escore composto por dois exames laboratoriais (triglicerídeos e glicose de jejum), realizados previamente à cirurgia. O desempenho do TyG Index em relação aos achados anatomopatológicos hepáticos foi avaliado, e calculada a curva ROC para avaliação de esteatose simples, EHNA e fibrose hepática. O NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS) também foi avaliado. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 423 pacientes. O melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index para a exclusão de esteatose simples significativa (grau 2-3) foi de 8,76, com sensibilidade 67,6%, especificidade 65,1%, valor preditivo positivo (VPP) 46,3%, valor preditivo negativo (VPN) 81,8%, acurácia 65,8% e AUROC 0,66 (P=0,005). Na avaliação de EHNA significativa (grau 2-3), o melhor ponto de corte foi de 8,82 com sensibilidade 57,3%, especificidade 58,6%, VPP 33,7%, VPN 78,8%, acurácia 58,8% e AUROC 0,58 (P=0,022). Em relação à fibrose avançada (grau 3-4), o melhor ponto de corte do TyG Index foi de 8,91 com sensibilidade 61,8%, especificidade 62,5%, VPP 13,8%, VPN 94,4%, acurácia 62,4% e AUROC 0,69 (P<0,001). Ao analisarmos o desempenho do NFS no diagnóstico de fibrose avançada, o ponto de corte de <-1,455 excluiu fibrose avançada com sensibilidade 59,4%, especificidade 51%, VPP 11%, VPN 92,4% e acurácia 51,7%. Entretanto, o ponto de corte de 0,676 para fibrose avançada apresentou sensibilidade de 21,9%, especificidade 83%, VPP 11,7%, VPN 91,2% e acurácia 77,3%. A AUROC foi de 0,54 (P=0,480). CONCLUSÃO: O TyG Index não apresentou bom desempenho para o diagnóstico e estadiamento da esteatose simples e da EHNA. Entretanto, foi capaz de excluir fibrose avançada em pacientes obesos candidatos a cirurgia bariátrica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Triglycerides , Biopsy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Glucose , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Obesity
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 303-314, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343478

ABSTRACT

In this study, against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diapetic nephropathy (DN); it is aimed to investigate the use of thymoquinone (TQ) and ß-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) and to compare the effects of these agents. With random selection of 35 male rats, five groups (seven rats in each group) were constituted as follows: Control, STZ, STZ + TQ, STZ + BAIBA, STZ + TQ + BAIBA. In the STZ group; body weight, glutathione (GSH) and insulin levels decreased, relative kidney weight, malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels were increased. Also, in kidney tissue; histopathological changes (such as thickening of the capsular, glomerular and tubular basement membranes, increased mesangial matrix amount, increased cytoplasmic vacuolization in some of the tubular epithelial cells, increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression, and inflammatory cell infiltrations in interstitial tissue) were detected. It was observed that these changes occurring after diabetes mellitus (DM) reversed significantly in TQ, BAIBA and TQ + BAIBA groups.


En este estudio, contra la nefropatía diapética (ND) inducida por estreptozotocina (STZ); tiene como objetivo investigar el uso de timoquinona (TQ) y ácido ß-aminoisobutírico (BAIBA) y comparar los efectos de estos agentes. Con la selección aleatoria de 35 ratas macho, se constituyeron cinco grupos (siete ratas en cada grupo) como sigue: Control, STZ, STZ + TQ, STZ + BAIBA, STZ + TQ + BAIBA. En el grupo STZ; el peso corporal, los niveles de glutatión (GSH) y de insulina disminuyeron, el peso relativo de los riñones, el malondialdehído (MDA), la glucosa, el nitrógeno ureico en sangre (BUN) y los niveles de creatinina (Cr) aumentaron. Además, en tejido renal; se detectaron cambios histopatológicos (como engrosamiento de las membranas basales capsular, glomerular y tubular, aumento de la cantidad de matriz mesangial, aumento de la vacuolización citoplasmática en algunas de las células epiteliales tubulares, aumento de la expresión del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α) e infiltraciones de células inflamatorias en tejido intersticial). Se observó que estos cambios que ocurren después de la diabetes mellitus (DM) se revirtieron significativamente en los grupos TQ, BAIBA y TQ + BAIBA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Benzoquinones/administration & dosage , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Aminoisobutyric Acids/administration & dosage , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Body Weight , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress , Creatinine/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Glucose/analysis , Glutathione/analysis , Kidney/drug effects
12.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 55(1): 27-34, ene. - abr. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1248277

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la diabetes mellitus (DM) se considera un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de adenocarcinoma ductal de páncreas (ACDP). Objetivos: describir la prevalencia de DM y glucemia en ayuno alterada (GAA) al diagnóstico de ACDP en pacientes asistidos en un centro de referencia gastroenterológico; analizar las diferencias en las características personales y nutricionales en pacientes con ACDP y DM, ACDP y GAA, y ACDP sin DM ni GAA; establecer el tiempo transcurrido desde el diagnóstico de DM hasta diagnosticar ACDP. Materiales y métodos: de octubre de 2019 a marzo de 2020 se revisaron 465 historias clínicas de las Secciones Oncología y Nutrición de pacientes >18 años con diagnóstico de ACDP. Resultados: se registraron 171 historias clínicas (36,7%) con ACDP y DM, y 294 (63,2%) con ACDP sin DM. En el 45,1% de las primeras, el intervalo entre el diagnóstico de DM y el de ACDP fue <1 año, y en el 17,65%, 15,69% y 21,57% los lapsos correspondieron a 1 y 5 años, entre 5 y 10 años y >10 años respectivamente. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de DM en ACDP fue superior a la registrada en la población general (37% vs 12,7%), siendo del 45,10% cuando se presentó dentro del primer año del diagnóstico oncológico. Nuestros resultados concuerdan con la bibliografía internacional que relaciona la DM de reciente diagnóstico como factor asociado a la presencia de ACDP por factores de riesgo compartidos, variables fisiopatológicas de la DM o a consecuencia de la terapéutica farmacológica de la misma.


Introduction: diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be a risk factor for the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Objectives: describe the prevalence of DM and of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) at the diagnosis of PDAC, among patients assisted in a gastroenterological reference center. Analyze differences in personal and nutritional characteristics in patients with both PDAC and DM; with both PDAC and IFG; and with PDAC but neither DM nor IFG. Determine the time lapse between the diagnosis of DM and the diagnosis of PDAC. Materials and methods: between October 2019 and March 2020, we analyzed 465 clinical records of PDAC-diagnosed patients over 18 years, from Oncology and Nutrition Sections. Results: 171 clinical records (36.7%) showed both PDAC and DM; 294 clinical records (63.2%) showed PDAC but not DM. In 45.1% of the former, the interval between the diagnosis of DM and that of PDAC was <1 year, and in 17.65%, 15.69% and 21.57%, the lapses corresponded to 1 and 5 years, between 5 and 10 years y >10 years, respectively. Conclusions: the prevalence of DM in PDAC patients (37%) is higher than that registered in the overall population (12.7%), reaching a 45.10% when detected during the first year of oncological diagnosis. Our results match the international literature relating recently-diagnosed DM with the presence of PDAC, as effect of shared risk factors between both diseases, or DM pathophysiology factors, or DM pharmacological therapeutic


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus , Pancreas , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Blood Glucose , Glucose , Medical Oncology
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(3): 415-422, Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248864

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: É sabido que a resistência à insulina e a hiperglicemia são causas patológicas importantes no desenvolvimento de cardiomiopatia diabética (CMD). Entretanto, seus mecanismos moleculares precisos na patogênese da CMD ainda não estão claros. Objetivos: Estudos recentes revelam que os microRNAs (miRNAs) desempenham papéis essenciais na patogênese da CMD. Este projeto tem o objetivo de determinar os papéis de miR-34a e miR-125b na morte celular de cardiomiócitos causada por hiperglicemia. Métodos: Cardiomiócitos primários de ratos foram isolados e expostos a concentrações de glicose normais e altas. A viabilidade das células foi medida utilizando-se o ensaio MTT. As expressões de miR-34a e miR-125b foram detectadas por qRT-PCR. Alvos potenciais de miR-34a e miR-125b foram previstos pelo www.Targetscan.org, e validados a partir de tecidos cardíacos humanos. Um p<0,05 foi considerado significância estatística. Resultados: Demonstra-se neste estudo que o miR-34a e o miR-125b têm resposta celular reduzida no coração humano diabético. Além disso, os dados in vitro de cardiomiócitos primários de ratos demonstraram que o tratamento com glicose alta em curto prazo estimula a expressão de miR-34a e miR-125b. Demonstrou-se que, em condições de glicose alta, os cardiomiócitos de ratos apresentaram metabolismo de glicose intracelular, e a captação de glicose e a produção de lactato aumentaram significativamente. Foi identificado que as principais enzimas metabólicas da glicose, hexoquinase 2 (HK2) e lactato desidrogenase-A (LDHA) eram alvos diretos de miR-125b e miR-34a, respectivamente. A superexpressão de miR-125b e miR-34a poderia evitar a morte de celular de cardiomiócitos causada por hiperglicemia. Por fim, a recuperação de HK2 e LDHA em cardiomiócitos com superexpressão de miR-125b e miR-34a restaurou a sensibilidade de cardiomiócitos à hiperglicemia. Conclusões: Nossos resultados propõem um mecanismo molecular para proteção cardiovascular diabética mediada por microRNA e contribuirão para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de tratamento de disfunção cardiovascular associada a diabetes.


Abstract Background: It is well-known that insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are important pathological causes for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, its precise molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of DCM remain unclear. Objectives: Recent studies reveal that microRNAs (miRNA) play essential roles in the pathogenesis of DCM. This project aimed to determine the roles of miR-34a and miR-125b in hyperglycemia-induced cardiomyocyte cell death. Methods: Rat primary cardiomyocytes were isolated and exposed to normal and high concentrations of glucose. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. Expressions of miR-34a and miR-125b were detected by qRT-PCR. Potential targets of miR-34a and miR-125b were predicted from www.Targetscan.org and validated from human heart tissues. A statistical significance of p<0.05 was considered. Results: The present study shows that miR-34a and miR-125b are downregulated in a human diabetic heart. Moreover, in vitro data from rat primary cardiomyocytes showed that short-term high glucose treatment stimulates miR-34a and miR-125b expressions. Under high glucose, it was found that rat cardiomyocytes displayed increased intracellular glucose metabolism, and glucose uptake and lactate production were significantly increased. It was also found that the key glucose metabolic enzymes, Hexokinase 2 (HK2) and Lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA), were direct targets of miR-125b and miR-34a, respectively. Overexpression of miR-125b and miR-34a could prevent hyperglycemia-induced cardiomyocyte cell death. Finally, the restoration of HK2 and LDHA in miR-125b and miR-34a overexpressed cardiomyocytes recovered the cardiomyocytes' sensitivity to hyperglycemia. Conclusion: Our results proposed a molecular mechanism for the microRNA-mediated diabetic cardiovascular protection and will contribute to developing treatment strategies for diabetes-associated cardiovascular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , MicroRNAs/genetics , Hyperglycemia , Cell Death , Myocytes, Cardiac , Glucose
14.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe): 28-30, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156142

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In the environment of rapid social and economic development, the reform of medical informatization is constantly advancing, and the residents pay more and more attention to their own health status while improving their living standards. The traditional medical service system has some disadvantages in providing real-time, cross regional, long-term and easy-to-operate health services, which has become increasingly inadequate to meet the health needs of users. In order to solve the problem of difficulty in seeing a doctor caused by limited medical resources, and to carry out real-time health monitoring for a large number of groups suffering from chronic diseases and sub-health groups, this study conducted in-depth analysis and experimental exploration on the human remote mobile medical information collection method based on the Internet of things and intelligent algorithm. It established the information collection section by using KbaC clustering algorithm based on ant colony point system which, combined with a comparative study on the health indicators of related groups, has successfully proved that the Internet of things technology and intelligent algorithm for medical information collection and follow-up medical services are of certain positive significance, based on the Internet of things and other related technologies of human remote medical information collection system that can accurately and timely detect the patient's blood pressure, blood sugar and other health data, and then provide corresponding medical services.


RESUMO No ambiente de rápido desenvolvimento do nível social e econômico, a reforma da informatização médica está constantemente avançando, e os residentes prestam cada vez mais atenção ao seu próprio estado de saúde, melhorando ao Mesmo tempo seu padrão de vida. O sistema tradicional de serviços médicos tem algumas desvantagens em fornecer serviços de saúde em tempo real, transfronteiriços, de longo prazo e fáceis de operar, o que vem se tornando cada vez mais inadequado para satisfazer as necessidades de saúde dos usuários. A fim de resolver o problema a da dificuldade em consultar um médico por devido a recursos médicos limitados, e para realizar a monitorização da saúde em tempo real para um grande número de grupos que sofrem de doenças crônicas e subgrupos de saúde, este estudo conduziu uma análise aprofundada e uma exploração experimental sobre o método de coleta de informações médicas móvel à distância humana baseado na Internet das coisas e algoritmo inteligente. Estabeleceu a seção de coleta de informações utilizando o algoritmo de clustering KbaC baseado no sistema de pontos de colônias de formigas que, juntamente com um estudo comparativo sobre os indicadores de saúde dos Grupos conexos, conseguiu provar que a tecnologia da Internet das coisas e o algoritmo inteligente para a coleta de informações médicas e acompanhamento dos serviços médicos têm certa relevância positiva baseada na Internet das coisas e outras tecnologias relacionadas ao sistema de coleta de informações médicas remotas humanas, podendo detectar com precisão e tempo hábil a pressão arterial do paciente, a glicose e outros dados de saúde, e, em seguida, fornecer o serviço médico correspondente.


RESUMEN En un entorno de rápido desarrollo social y económico, la reforma de la informatización médica avanza constantemente y las personas prestan cada vez más atención a su estado de salud mientras mejoran su nivel de vida. El sistema de servicio médico tradicional tiene deficiencias en la prestación de servicios de salud en tiempo real, transregionales, a largo plazo y fáciles de operar, los que se han vuelto cada vez más inadecuados para satisfacer las necesidades de salud de los usuarios. Este estudio realizó un análisis con el objetivo de resolver la dificultad para consultar al médico debido a la limitación de los recursos, y de realizar un seguimiento de la salud en tiempo real de un gran número de grupos que padecen enfermedades crónicas. Dicho trabajo realizó un análisis en profundidad y de exploración experimental acerca del método de recopilación de información médica humana móvil remoto basado en Internet de las cosas y el algoritmo inteligente. Estableció la sección de recopilación de información utilizando el algoritmo de agrupación KbaC basado en el sistema de puntos de colonia de hormigas. Esto, combinado con un estudio comparativo sobre los indicadores de salud de grupos relacionados, ha demostrado con éxito que la tecnología de Internet de las cosas y el algoritmo inteligente para la recopilación y seguimiento de información médica son de importancia positiva, y que pueden detectar de manera precisa y oportuna la presión arterial, el azúcar en sangre y otros datos de salud del paciente, para luego proporcionar la atención médica correspondiente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , Medical Informatics Applications , Telemedicine/methods , Glucose/analysis , Algorithms
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 82-90, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153042

ABSTRACT

Essential oils (EO) such as carvacrol represent a wide range of mainly volatile aromatic plant compounds which hold antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal potential, in addition to other properties of interest to animal health, such as the ability to modulate the microbiome. Current horse care commonly involves an intensive management system with an excessive use of concentrated feed, which can lead to severe digestive and metabolic disorders. Studies with EO in horses are limited, but the use of carvacrol essential oil (CEO) can promote benefits in microbial fermentation. The objective was to investigate the effect of different quantities of CEO on the apparent total digestibility of nutrients, microbial profile in the feces and postprandial blood glucose and insulin response when added to the equine diet. Eight Mini-Horse geldings were used (42±6 months; 135±15 kg BW) and fed with a proportion of 60% concentrate and 40% grass hay. The treatments were: 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of CEO. The addition of CEO up to 300 ppm did not influence the apparent digestibility of nutrients or the postprandial plasma glucose and insulin response. The use of CEO maintained the fermentative digestive health of horses fed with concentrate diets.(AU)


Os óleos essenciais (EO), como o carvacrol, são descritos por representarem ampla gama de compostos principalmente voláteis de plantas aromáticas, com potencial antioxidante, antibacteriano, antifúngico, entre outras propriedades de interesse para a saúde animal, como a modulação do microbioma. Atualmente, os cavalos são submetidos a manejo intensivo, com uso excessivo de ração concentrada, o que pode causar graves distúrbios digestivos e metabólicos. Em cavalos, estudos com EO são limitados, mas o uso de óleo essencial de carvacrol (CEO) poderia promover benefícios na fermentação microbiana. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar o efeito de diferentes quantidades de óleo essencial de carvacrol, adicionadas à dieta de equinos, sobre a digestibilidade aparente total de nutrientes, o perfil microbiano por meio das fezes e a resposta sanguínea pós-prandial de glicose e insulina. Foram utilizados oito cavalos castrados, da raça Mini-Horse (42±6 meses), 135±15kg PV, alimentados na proporção de 60% concentrado e 40% feno de capim. Os tratamentos foram: 0, 100, 200 e 300ppm de CEO. A adição de CEO até 300ppm não influencia a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e a resposta de glicose e insulina plasmática pós-prandial. O uso de EO demonstra manter a saúde digestiva fermentativa quando os cavalos são alimentados com dieta rica em concentrado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Digestion/drug effects , Glucose , Horses/blood , Insulin/blood , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Monoterpenes
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 162-168, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153064

ABSTRACT

Aedes aegypti is the vector of several viral diseases. The main way to control these diseases is to fight the vector. Thus, it is necessary to breed mosquitoes in the laboratory in order to develop strategies to control these insects. In laboratories, different carbohydrates are used for feeding mosquitoes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the longevity and the weight of Ae. aegypti fed with different carbohydrates diets. As methods, 120 mosquitoes were distributed in insectaries and each group received a different diet, based on honey, dextrose or maltodextrin. To assess the longevity, survival analysis was performed using the Long Rank test and chi square test. To assess the weight, the dead insects were frozen and weighed at the end of the experiment. As results it was observed that mosquitoes fed with the honey, maltodextrin and dextrose diet lived on average 33, 35 and 47 days respectively. When weight was assessed, mosquitoes fed with honey weighed 125 ± (35.3) µg, while those fed with dextrose and maltodextrin weighed 225 ± (35.3) µg and 275 ± (35.3) µg respectively. The results show that the intake of dextrose and maltodextrin by Ae. aegypti adults increases their survival and their weight.(AU)


O Aedes aegypti é vetor de várias doenças virais. A principal maneira de controlar essas doenças é combatendo o seu vetor. Nesse sentido, é necessário criar esses mosquitos em laboratório, visando desenvolver estratégias de controle. Nos laboratórios, diferentes carboidratos são utilizados na alimentação de mosquitos. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar longevidade e peso de Ae. aegypti alimentados com diferentes fontes de carboidratos. Como método, distribuíram-se 120 mosquitos insetários. Cada grupo recebeu uma dieta diferente à base de mel, dextrose ou maltodextrina. Para avaliar a longevidade, a análise de sobrevida foi realizada pelo teste de Logrank e pelo teste de qui quadrado. Para avaliar o peso, os insetos mortos foram congelados e pesados ​​no final do experimento. Como resultado, observou-se que os mosquitos alimentados com a dieta à base de mel, maltodextrina e dextrose viveram em média 33, 35 e 47 dias, respectivamente. Com relação ao peso, os mosquitos alimentados com mel pesavam 125 ± (35,3)µg, enquanto os alimentados com dextrose e maltodextrina pesavam 225 ± (35,3)µg e 275 ± (35,3)µg, respectivamente. Os resultados mostram que a ingestão de dieta à base de dextrose e maltodextrina por Ae. aegypti adultos aumenta sua sobrevivência e seu peso.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Aedes/growth & development , Aedes/metabolism , Dextrins/administration & dosage , Diet, Carbohydrate Loading/methods , Glucose/administration & dosage , Honey , Weight Gain , Survival Analysis
18.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(1): 60-66, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341261

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El síndrome metabólico se conoce como el conjunto de condiciones médicas que incluyen obesidad de distribución central, aumento de los triglicéridos, dislipidemia aterogénica, hiperglucemia e hipertensión arterial. Objetivo: Comparar los principales criterios de diagnóstico usados en la actualidad para el diagnóstico del síndrome metabólico. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica retrospectiva mediante la consulta de bases de datos de los sistemas referativos, como SciELO, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) y ScienceDirect, con el uso de palabras clave validadas en DeCS y Mesh en inglés y español. Resultados: La obesidad abdominal es uno de los puntos más discrepantes en las diferentes organizaciones que describen el diagnóstico para síndrome metabólico. Conclusiones: Los criterios más estudiados para la población latinoamericana son los definidos por la Federación Internacional de Diabetes, a diferencia de los del Adult Treatment Panel III que tienen un punto de corte de perímetro abdominal más amplio, el cual dificulta el diagnóstico del síndrome metabólico.


Abstract Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is referred to as the set of medical conditions that include central distribution obesity, triglyceride elevation, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and arterial hypertension. Objective: To compare the main diagnostic criteria currently used for the diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome. Methodology: A retrospective bibliographic review was carried out by consulting databases of refectory systems, such as SciELO, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ScienceDirect, with the use of validated keywords in DeCS and Mesh in both English and Spanish. Results: Abdominal obesity was found to be one of the most discrepant points in the different organizations that describe the diagnosis for metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: The most studied criteria for the Latin American population are those defined by the International Diabetes Federation, unlike those of the Adult Treatment Panel III that have a wider abdominal perimeter cut-off point, making it difficult to diagnose metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Metabolic Syndrome , Glucose , Hypertension , Obesity
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 67-73, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Diabetic retinopathy is currently considered a chronic inflammatory disease involving NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome activation and retinal microglial pyroptosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome signaling induces pyroptotic death of retinal microglia under high-glucose conditions. Methods: Retinal microglia were stimulated by high glucose levels for 24 h. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, and caspase-1 activity were detected in vitro. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1β, activated microglia marker ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1), NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3, cleaved caspase-1, and cleaved gasdermin D were examined. Subsequently, retinal microglia were pretreated with the inhibitors of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome signaling prior to stimulation with high glucose, and their molecular and functional changes were evaluated. Results: High-glucose (25, 50, or 100 mM) stimulation decreased cell viability, but enhanced lactate dehydrogenase release and caspase-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, high glucose upregulated the protein expression of interleukin-1β, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1, NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3, cleaved caspase-1, and cleaved gasdermin D. However, pretreatment with the inhibitors of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome signaling inhibited high glucose (25 mM)-induced cytotoxicity, NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome activation, and pyroptosis of retinal microglia. Conclusions: NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome signaling may modulate retinal microglia-related inflammation and pyroptosis under high-glucose conditions.


RESUMO Objetivo: Atualmente, a retinopatia diabética é considerada uma doença inflamatória crônica envolvendo a ativação de inflamassomas NLRP3 e piroptose da micróglia da retina. Neste estudo, objetivamos investigar se a sinalização de inflamassomas NLRP3 induz a morte da micróglia da retina sob condições de alta glicose. Métodos: A micróglia da retina foi estimulada por altos níveis de glicose durante 24 horas. A viabilidade celular, a liberação de LDH e a atividade da caspase1 foram analisadas in vitro. Avaliou-se a expressão de citocina pró-inflamatória (IL1β), de marcador de micróglia ativado (Iba1), de NLRP3, de caspase1 clivada e de GSDMD clivada. Subsequentemente, a micróglia da retina foi pré-tratada com inibidores da sinalização de inflamassomas NLRP3 antes da estimulação com altos níveis de glicose e suas alterações moleculares e funcionais foram avaliadas. Resultados: A estimulação com altos níveis de glicose (25 mM, 50 mM ou 100 mM) diminuiu a viabilidade celular, mas aumentou a liberação de LDH e a atividade da caspase1 de forma dependente da dose. Além disso, os altos níveis de glicose aumentaram a expressão das proteínas IL1β, Iba1, NLRP3, caspase1 clivada e GSDMD clivada. No entanto, o pré-tratamento com inibidores da sinalização de inflamassomas NLRP3 e a posterior estimulação com altos níveis de glicose (25 mM) induziu citotoxicidade, a ativação de inflamassomas NLRP3 e a piroptose da micróglia da retina. Conclusão: A sinalização de inflamassomas NLRP3 pode modular a inflamação e a piroptose da micróglia da retina na presença de altos níveis de glicose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammasomes , Pyroptosis , Microglia , Interleukin-1beta , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Glucose
20.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 17-20, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146467

ABSTRACT

Insulinoma es un tumor neuroendocrino que surge de las células ß del páncreas y produce hiperinsulinemia endógena. Son neoplasias raras con una incidencia reportada de 4 casos por millón de habitantes por año. La presentación clínica típicamente cursa con síntomas adrenérgicos y neuroglucopénicos secundarios a hipoglicemia. Requiere estudios de niveles séricos de insulina, pro-insulina y péptido C, además de imágenes diagnosticas que confirmen los hallazgos. La mayoría de los insulinomas son benignos, su sitio primario más común es el páncreas y pueden extirparse quirúrgicamente. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 36 años con déficit cognitivo leve y episodios de diaforesis con deterioro neurológico hasta convulsiones tónico clónicas generalizadas que curiosamente resolvían con uso doméstico de "panela molida". Se ingresó a urgencias por ataques recurrentes de hipoglicemia severa con requerimiento de altas dosis de dextrosa al 50% por acceso central, hasta confirmación diagnóstica, intervención y resección de tumor neuroendocrino pancreático bien diferenciado (G1 según clasificación OMS) tipo insulinoma en la cola del páncreas.


Insulinoma is a neuroendocrine tumor that arises from the ß cells of the pancreas and produces endogenous hyperinsulinemia. They are rare neoplasms with a reported incidence to 4 cases per million inhabitants per year. The clinical presentation typically presents with adrenergic and neuroglycopenic symptoms secondary to hypoglycemia. It requires studies of serum levels of insulin, pro-insulin and C-peptide, in addition to diagnostic images that confirm the findings. Most insulinomas are benign, their most common primary site is the pancreas, and they can be removed surgically. We present the case of a 36-year-old man with mild cognitive deficits and episodes of diaphoresis with neurological deterioration to generalized clonic tonic seizures that curiously resolved with domestic use of "ground brown sugar". He was admitted to the emergency department due to recurrent attacks of severe hypoglycemia with a high-dose requirement for 50% dextrose through central access, until diagnostic confirmation, intervention, and resection of a welldifferentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (G1 according to WHO classification) insulinoma in the tail of pancreas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Insulinoma/diagnosis , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Diagnosis, Differential , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Glucose/therapeutic use , Hyperinsulinism/etiology , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Hypoglycemia/drug therapy , Insulinoma/surgery , Insulinoma/complications
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