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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 197-204, feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528841

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Obesity-related pathophysiologies such as insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome show a markedly increased risk for type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This risk appears to be linked to alterations in adipose tissue function, leading to chronic inflammation and the dysregulation of adipocyte-derived factors. Brassica rapa have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutritional stress induced by a high-fat and high-sucrose diet on the pathophysiology of visceral adipose tissue and the therapeutic effect of Brassica rapa in male Wistar rats. We subjected experimental rats to a high-fat (10 %) high-sucrose (20 %)/per day for 11 months and treated them for 20 days with aqueous extract Br (AEBr) at 200 mg/kg at the end of the experiment. At the time of sacrifice, we monitored plasma and tissue biochemical parameters as well as the morpho-histopathology of visceral adipose tissue. We found AEBr corrected metabolic parameters and inflammatory markers in homogenized visceral adipose tissue and reduced hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and lipid droplets. These results suggest that AEBr enhances anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and a protective effect on adipose tissue morphology in type 2 diabetes and obesity.


La fisiopatología relacionadas con la obesidad, como la resistencia a la insulina y el síndrome metabólico, muestran un riesgo notablemente mayor de diabetes tipo 2 y enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica. Este riesgo parece estar relacionado con alteraciones en la función del tejido adiposo, lo que lleva a una inflamación crónica y a la desregulación de los factores derivados de los adipocitos. Brassica rapa se ha utilizado en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades, incluida la diabetes. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto del estrés nutricional inducido por una dieta rica en grasas y sacarosa sobre la fisiopatología del tejido adiposo visceral y el efecto terapéutico de Brassica rapa en ratas Wistar macho. Sometimos a ratas experimentales a una dieta rica en grasas (10 %) y alta en sacarosa (20 %)/por día durante 11 meses y las tratamos durante 20 días con extracto acuoso de Br (AEBr) a 200 mg/kg al final del experimento. En el momento del sacrificio, monitoreamos los parámetros bioquímicos plasmáticos y tisulares, así como la morfohistopatología del tejido adiposo visceral. Encontramos parámetros metabólicos corregidos por AEBr y marcadores inflamatorios en tejido adiposo visceral homogeneizado y reducción de hipertrofia, hiperplasia y gotitas de lípidos. Estos resultados sugieren que AEBr mejora el efecto antidiabético, antiinflamatorio y protector sobre la morfología del tejido adiposo en la diabetes tipo 2 y la obesidad.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Brassica rapa/chemistry , Insulin Resistance , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Glucose/toxicity , Inflammation , Lipids/toxicity , Obesity/drug therapy
2.
Cienc. act. fís. (Talca, En línea) ; 24(1): 1-13, jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513950

ABSTRACT

El presente artículo busca analizar las evidencias aportadas del entrenamiento de la fuerza comprobando su influencia en la Diabetes Mellitus tipo II utilizando la literatura existente sobre este objeto de estudio. Se realizo una revisión sistemática siguiendo las directrices PRISMA donde el principal contexto fue el entrenamiento de la fuerza en pacientes con Mellitus II, siendo buscados en bases de datos Pubmed, Embase y Scopus donde fueron seleccionados 7 artículos. Los hallazgos señalan consistentemente que el entrenamiento de la fuerza bien programado incide gradualmente en algunos marcadores que identifican la diabetes Mellitus II al realizar intervenciones con sistemas de entrenamiento de la fuerza de forma positiva. Los autores recomiendan estudios con muestras mayores en lo posible de tipo control para verificar la incidencia del entrenamiento en las variables mencionadas en este estudio.


This Article Seeks analyzes the evidence provided by strength training, verifying its influence on Type II Diabetes Mellitus by using the existing literature on this subject of study. A systematic review was carried out following the PRISMA guidelines, where the main context was strength training in patients with Mellitus II. The search was carried out in Pubmed, Embase, and Scopus databases where 7 articles were selected. The findings consistently indicated that a well-structured strength training program gradually affected some markers that identify diabetes Mellitus II when performing interventions with strength training systems in a positive way. The authors recommend control-type studies with larger samples, if possible, to verify the incidence of training in the variables mentioned in this study.


Este artigo procura analisar as evidências fornecidas pelo treinamento de força, verificando sua influência no Diabetes Mellitus tipo II utilizando a literatura existente sobre este objeto de estudo. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática seguindo as diretrizes PRISMA onde o principal contexto foi o treinamento de força em pacientes com Mellitus II, sendo pesquisada nas bases de dados Pubmed, Embase e Scopus onde foram selecionados 7 artigos. Os achados indicam consistentemente que o treinamento de força bem programado afeta gradualmente alguns marcadores que identificam o diabetes Mellitus II ao realizar intervenções com sistemas de treinamento de força de forma positiva. Os autores recomendam estudos do tipo controle com amostras maiores, se possível, para verificar a incidência de treinamento nas variáveis mencionadas neste estudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise/psychology , Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Exercise Therapy
3.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(1): 81-100, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515424

ABSTRACT

Intermittent fasting (IF) has gained increasing scientific and general attention. Most studied forms of IF include alternate-day fasting, modified alternate-day fasting, and time-restricted eating (TRE). Several cardiometabolic effects of IF have been described in animal models and, to a lesser extent, in humans. This review analyzes the impact of IF on weight loss, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and lipid profile in humans. A literature search was conducted in the Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Controlled observational or interventional studies in humans, published between January 2000 and June 2021, were included. Studies comparing IF versus religious fasting were not included. Most studies indicate that the different types of IF have significant benefits on body composition, inducing weight loss and reducing fat mass. Changes in cardiometabolic parameters show more divergent results. In general, a decrease in fasting glucose and insulin levels is observed, together with an improved lipid profile associated with cardiovascular risk. High heterogeneity in study designs was observed, particularly in studies with TRE, small sample sizes, and short-term interventions. Current evidence shows that IF confers a range of cardiometabolic benefits in humans. Weight loss, improvement of glucose homeostasis and lipid profile, are observed in the three types of IF protocols evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Intermittent Fasting , Weight Loss , Fasting/physiology , Glucose/metabolism , Lipids
4.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 516-521, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984766

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the relationship between hemoglobin and serum uric acid in adults with various glucose metabolism status. Methods: The demographic data and biochemical indicators of the adult population who had received physical examination in the Second Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital from January 2018 to December 2021 were collected. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the level of serum uric acid: the normal uric acid group and the hyperuricemia group. The relationship between hemoglobin (stratified into four levels of Q1 to Q4 by the quartile) and serum uric acid was quantified by using Pearson correlation and logistic regression analysis. The effects of age and glucose metabolism status on the relationship between hemoglobin and serum uric acid were analyzed. Results: A total of 33 183 adults were enrolled with age (50.6±10.0) years. The level of hemoglobin in the normal uric acid group (142.61±14.24) g/L was significantly lower than that in the hyperuricemia group [(151.79±11.24) g/L, P<0.001]. Univariate Pearson correlation analysis showed that hemoglobin was positively associated with serum uric acid (r=0.444, P<0.001). After adjusting for related confounding factors, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hemoglobin was associated with serum uric acid, and the OR values (95%CI) of hemoglobin Q2 to Q4 group were 1.29 (1.13-1.48), 1.42 (1.24-1.62) and 1.51 (1.32-1.72), respectively (Ptrend<0.001) when compared with hemoglobin Q1 group. Subgroup analysis and hierarchical interaction analysis suggested that with the increase of hemoglobin, the serum uric acid in the age<60 years subgroup, normal glucose subgroup and prediabetes subgroup increased gradually (Ptrend<0.05 and Pinteraction<0.001). Conclusion: The association between hemoglobin and serum uric acid in adults is affected by age and glucose metabolism status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Uric Acid , Hyperuricemia/epidemiology , Hemoglobins , Prediabetic State , Glucose , Risk Factors
5.
Journal of Medicine University of Santo Tomas ; (2): 1310-1316, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998862

ABSTRACT

@#Higher dietary intake of polyphenols is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. However, these phytochemicals are predominantly present in fruits and vegetables, which are inadequately consumed by some populations, including Filipinos. This narrative mini-review explores the potential role of polyphenol-containing pigmented rice consumption in modulating risk through a range of mechanisms identified in animal studies. Further, human studies have demonstrated promising but inconsistent effects on risk factors associated with the development of CVD, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, overweight and obesity. Therefore, this review identifies the need for more clinical trials to examine the effect of pigmented rice on CVD risk factors.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol , Glucose , Polyphenols
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 197-202, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971124

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the pathogenesis of erythrocytosis by detecting the key enzymes of glucose metabolism and glucose transporter in bone marrow erythrocytes of chronic mountain sickness (CMS), and analyzing its correlation with hemoglobin.@*METHODS@#Twenty CMS patients hospitalized in Qinghai Provincial People's Hospital from January 2019 to December 2020 were selected as CMS group. Twenty males with leukocyte count > 3.5×109/L who had accepted bone marrow aspiration and had normal result were taken as control group. The mRNA and protein expression of key enzymes and glucose transporter in glucose metabolism in bone marrow CD71+ erythrocytes were detected by real time qPCR and Western blot, respectively. Glucose, lactic acid and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in the bone marrow supernatant and serum were tested by ELISA. The mRNA and protein expression of key enzymes and glucose transporter, glucose, lactic acid and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate of the two groups were compared. Pearson correlation was used to analyze the correlation between key enzymes, glucose transporter in glucose metabolism in bone marrow CD71+ erythrocytes and hemoglobin.@*RESULTS@#The expression of HK2, GLUT1 and GLUT2 mRNA in the CMS group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.001), while the expression of HK1, OGDH and COX5B mRNA were not different. The expression of HK2, GLUT1 and GLUT2 protein in the CMS group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The levels of glucose and lactic acid in the bone marrow supernatant and serum in the CMS group were not different from those in the control group, while the level of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate was higher (P<0.001). Both HK2 and GLUT2 proteins were positively correlated with hemoglobin (r=0.511, 0.717).@*CONCLUSION@#CMS patients may increase glycolysis by increasing the expression of HK2, and promote the utilization of glucose through high expression of GLUT1 and GLUT2 to meet the need of energy supply.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Altitude Sickness/metabolism , Glucose Transporter Type 1 , 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate , Hemoglobins , Chronic Disease , RNA, Messenger , Phenotype , Glucose
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 38-44, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971099

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the influence and mechanism of atorvastatin on glycolysis of adriamycin resistant acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line HL-60/ADM.@*METHODS@#HL-60/ADM cells in logarithmic growth phase were treated with different concentrations of atorvastatin, then the cell proliferation activity was measured by CCK-8 assay, the apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, the glycolytic activity was checked by glucose consumption test, and the protein expressions of PTEN, p-mTOR, PKM2, HK2, P-gp and MRP1 were detected by Western blot. After transfection of PTEN-siRNA into HL-60/ADM cells, the effects of low expression of PTEN on atorvastatin regulating the behaviors of apoptosis and glycolytic metabolism in HL-60/ADM cells were further detected.@*RESULTS@#CCK-8 results showed that atorvastatin could inhibit the proliferation of HL-60/ADM cells in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner (r=0.872, r=0.936), and the proliferation activity was inhibited most significantly when treated with 10 μmol/L atorvastatin for 24 h, which was decreased to (32.3±2.18)%. Flow cytometry results showed that atorvastatin induced the apoptosis of HL-60/ADM cells in a concentration-dependent manner (r=0.796), and the apoptosis was induced most notably when treated with 10 μmol/L atorvastatin for 24 h, which reached to (48.78±2.95)%. The results of glucose consumption test showed that atorvastatin significantly inhibited the glycolytic activity of HL-60/ADM cells in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner (r=0.915, r=0.748), and this inhibition was most strikingly when treated with 10 μmol/L atorvastatin for 24 h, reducing the relative glucose consumption to (46.53±1.71)%. Western blot indicated that the expressions of p-mTOR, PKM2, HK2, P-gp and MRP1 protein were decreased in a concentration-dependent manner (r=0.737, r=0.695, r=0.829, r=0.781, r=0.632), while the expression of PTEN protein was increased in a concentration-dependent manner (r=0.531), when treated with different concentrations of atorvastatin for 24 h. After PTEN-siRNA transfected into HL-60/ADM cells, it showed that low expression of PTEN had weakened the promoting effect of atorvastatin on apoptosis and inhibitory effect on glycolysis and multidrug resistance.@*CONCLUSION@#Atorvastatin can inhibit the proliferation, glycolysis, and induce apoptosis of HL-60/ADM cells. It may be related to the mechanism of increasing the expression of PTEN, inhibiting mTOR activation, and decreasing the expressions of PKM2 and HK2, thus reverse drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atorvastatin/pharmacology , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/pharmacology , Sincalide/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Apoptosis , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , Glycolysis , Glucose/therapeutic use , Cell Proliferation
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250179, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339372

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.


Resumo O diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença não transmissível em todo o mundo, na qual existe nível glicêmico persistentemente alto em relação à normalidade. O diabetes e a resistência à insulina são os principais responsáveis ​​pelas morbidades e mortalidades de humanos no mundo. Essa doença é regulada principalmente por várias enzimas e hormônios, entre os quais a glicogênio sintase quinase-3 (GSK-3) é uma enzima principal e a insulina é o principal hormônio que a regula. A GSK-3, que é a enzima-chave, normalmente mostra suas ações por vários mecanismos que incluem sua fosforilação, formação de complexos de proteínas e outras distribuições celulares e, portanto, controla e afeta diretamente a morfologia celular, seu crescimento, mobilidade e apoptose do célula. Perturbações na ação da enzima GSK-3 podem levar a várias condições de doença que incluem resistência à insulina que leva ao diabetes, doenças neurológicas como a doença de Alzheimer e câncer. As fluoroquinolonas são a classe mais comum de drogas que apresentam efeitos disglicêmicos por meio da interação com a enzima GSK-3. Portanto, é necessário hoje em dia compreender adequadamente as funções e mecanismos da GSK-3, principalmente seu papel na homeostase da glicose via efeitos na glicogênio sintase.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Glucose , Homeostasis
9.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 127-135, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971667

ABSTRACT

Stigmasterol is a plant sterol with anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect through multiple mechanisms. In this study, we further assessed whether it exerts protective effect on human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMECs) against ischemia-reperfusion injury and explored the underlying mechanisms. HBMECs were used to establish an in vitro oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) model, while a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of rats were constructed. The interaction between stigmasterol and EPHA2 was detected by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA). The results showed that 10 μmol·L-1 stigmasterol significantly protected cell viability, alleviated the loss of tight junction proteins and attenuated the blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage induced by OGD/R in thein vitro model. Subsequent molecular docking showed that stigmasterol might interact with EPHA2 at multiple sites, including T692, a critical gatekeep residue of this receptor. Exogenous ephrin-A1 (an EPHA2 ligand) exacerbated OGD/R-induced EPHA2 phosphorylation at S897, facilitated ZO-1/claudin-5 loss, and promoted BBB leakage in vitro, which were significantly attenuated after stigmasterol treatment. The rat MCAO model confirmed these protective effects in vivo. In summary, these findings suggest that stigmasterol protects HBMECs against ischemia-reperfusion injury by maintaining cell viability, reducing the loss of tight junction proteins, and attenuating the BBB damage. These protective effects are at least meditated by its interaction with EPHA2 and inhibitory effect on EPHA2 phosphorylation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Stigmasterol , Phosphorylation , Endothelial Cells , Molecular Docking Simulation , Reperfusion Injury , Blood-Brain Barrier , Glucose , Microvessels , Oxygen
10.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 68-74, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971628

ABSTRACT

Most information used to evaluate diabetic statuses is collected at a special time-point, such as taking fasting plasma glucose test and providing a limited view of individual's health and disease risk. As a new parameter for continuously evaluating personal clinical statuses, the newly developed technique "continuous glucose monitoring" (CGM) can characterize glucose dynamics. By calculating the complexity of glucose time series index (CGI) with refined composite multi-scale entropy analysis of the CGM data, the study showed for the first time that the complexity of glucose time series in subjects decreased gradually from normal glucose tolerance to impaired glucose regulation and then to type 2 diabetes (P for trend < 0.01). Furthermore, CGI was significantly associated with various parameters such as insulin sensitivity/secretion (all P < 0.01), and multiple linear stepwise regression showed that the disposition index, which reflects β-cell function after adjusting for insulin sensitivity, was the only independent factor correlated with CGI (P < 0.01). Our findings indicate that the CGI derived from the CGM data may serve as a novel marker to evaluate glucose homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glucose , Blood Glucose , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Time Factors , Insulin
11.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 39-45, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971492

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of teriparatide on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in high-glucose microenvironment and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in normal glucose or high-glucose (25 mmol/L) medium were treated with 10 nmol/L teriparatide with or without co-treatment with H-89 (a PKA inhibitor). CCK-8 assay was used to detect the changes in cell proliferation, and cAMP content in the cells was determined with ELISA. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodules in the cells were detected using ALP kit and Alizarin red staining, respectively. The changes in cell morphology were detected by cytoskeleton staining. Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expressions of PKA, CREB, RUNX2 and Osx in the treated cells.@*RESULTS@#The treatments did not result in significant changes in proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells (P > 0.05). Compared with the cells in routine culture, the cells treated with teriparatide showed significantly increased cAMP levels (P < 0.05) with enhanced ALP activity and increased area of mineralized nodules (P < 0.05). Teriparatide treatment also resulted in more distinct visualization of the cytoskeleton in the cells and obviously up-regulated the mRNA expressions of PKA, CREB, RUNX2 and Osx (P < 0.05). The opposite changes were observed in cells cultured in high glucose. In cells exposed to high glucose, treatment with teriparatide significantly increased cAMP levels (P < 0.05), ALP activity and the area of mineralized nodules (P < 0.05) and enhanced the clarity of the cytoskeleton and mRNA expressions of PKA, CREB, RUNX2 and Osx; the effects of teriparatide was strongly antagonized by co-treatment with H-89 (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Teriparatide can promote osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in high-glucose microenvironment possibly by activating the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cell Differentiation , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit , Glucose/pharmacology , Osteoblasts/drug effects , RNA, Messenger , Signal Transduction , Teriparatide , Cell Line
12.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 78-88, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971470

ABSTRACT

Melatonin receptor 1B (MT2, encoded by the MTNR1B gene), a high-affinity receptor for melatonin, is associated with glucose homeostasis including glucose uptake and transport. The rs10830963 variant in the MTNR1B gene is linked to glucose metabolism disorders including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); however, the relationship between MT2-mediated melatonin signaling and a high birth weight of GDM infants from maternal glucose abnormality remains poorly understood. This article aims to investigate the relationship between rs10830963 variants and GDM development, as well as the effects of MT2 receptor on glucose uptake and transport in trophoblasts. TaqMan-MGB (minor groove binder) probe quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were used for rs10930963 genotyping. MT2 expression in the placenta of GDM and normal pregnant women was detected by immunofluorescence, western blot, and qPCR. The relationship between MT2 and glucose transporters (GLUTs) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) was established by western blot, and glucose consumption of trophoblasts was measured by a glucose assay kit. The results showed that the genotype and allele frequencies of rs10830963 were significantly different between GDM and normal pregnant women (P<0.05). The fasting, 1-h and 2-h plasma glucose levels of G-allele carriers were significantly higher than those of C-allele carriers (P<0.05). Besides, the protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of MT2 in the placenta of GDM was significantly higher than that of normal pregnant women (P<0.05). Melatonin could stimulate glucose uptake and GLUT4 and PPARγ protein expression in trophoblasts, which could be attenuated by MT2 receptor knockdown. In conclusion, the rs10830963 variant was associated with an increased risk of GDM. The MT2 receptor is essential for melatonin to raise glucose uptake and transport, which may be mediated by PPARγ.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes, Gestational/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Melatonin/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic , PPAR gamma , Receptor, Melatonin, MT2/genetics
13.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1093-1101, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Naoluo Xintong Decoction (NLXTD) on pyroptosis and angiogenesis of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and explore the possible mechanisms in rats with oxygen-glucose deprivation/ reperfusion (OGD/R).@*METHODS@#Rat BMECs with or without caspase-1 siRNA transfection were cultured in the presence of 10% medicated serum from NLXTD-treated rats (or blank serum) and exposed to OGD/R. CCK-8 assay, Transwell chamber assay, and tube formation assay were used to assess proliferation, migration, and tube-forming abilities of the cells. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the culture supernatant was determined using a commercial assay kit, and the levels of inflammatory factors IL-1β and IL-18 were detected with ELISA. The cellular expressions of pro-caspase-1, caspase-1, NLRP3, Gasdermin D, and angiogenesis-related proteins VEGF and VEGFR2 were detected using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The BMECs showed obvious injuries after OGD/R exposure. Compared with the blank serum, the medicated serum significantly improved the cell viability, migration ability, and lumen-forming ability (P < 0.01) and lowered the levels of IL-1β and IL-18 and the LDH release (P < 0.01) of the cells with OGD/R exposure. Western blotting showed that in the BMECs exposed to OGD/R, the medicated serum strongly upregulated the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 proteins (P < 0.01) and reduced the protein expressions of pro-caspase-1, caspase-1, NLRP3, and Gasdermin D (P < 0.01), and transfection of the cells with caspase-1 siRNA further promoted the expressions of VEGFR2 protein in the cells (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#NLXTD can improve the proliferation, migration, and tube- forming ability and promote angiogenesis of BMECs with OGD/R injury probably by inhibiting the caspase-1/Gasdermin D pathway in pyroptosis, alleviating cell injury, and upregulating the expressions of VEGF and VEGFR2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Endothelial Cells , Caspase 1 , Gasdermins , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Reperfusion Injury , Brain , Angiogenic Proteins , Glucose
14.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1063-1070, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the prognostic value of death-associated protein 5 (DAP5) in gastric cancer (GC) and its regulatory effect on aerobic glycolysis in GC cells.@*METHODS@#We analyzed DAP5 expression levels in GC and adjacent tissues and its association with survival outcomes of GC patients using public databases. We collected paired samples of GC and adjacent tissues from 102 patients undergoing radical resection of GC in our hospital from June, 2012 to July, 2017, and analyzed the correlation of DAP5 expression level detected immunohistochemically with the clinicopathological parameters of the patients. Cox regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and ROC curves were used to explore the independent risk factors and the predictive value of DAP5 expression for 5-year survival of the patients. In the cell experiments, we observed the changes in aerobic glycolysis in MGC-803 cells following lentivirus-mediated DAP5 knockdown or overexpression by measuring glucose uptake and cellular lactate level and using qRT-PCR and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Analysis using the public databases showed that DAP5 was highly expressed in GC and correlated with tumor progression and poor survival outcomes of the patients (P < 0.05). In the clinical samples, DAP5 expression was significantly higher in GC than in the adjacent tissues (3.19±0.60 vs 1.00±0.12; t=36.863, P < 0.01), and a high expression of DAP5 was associated with a reduced 5-year survival rate of the patients (17.6% vs 72.5%; χ2=29.921, P < 0.05). A high DAP5 expression, T3-4, N2-3, and CEA≥5 ng/mL were identified as independent risk factors affecting 5-year survival outcomes of GC (P < 0.05), for which DAP5 expression showed a prediction sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 73.2%, 80.4% and 79.0%, respectively. In MGC-803 cells, DAP5 knockdown significantly reduced glucose uptake, lactate level and the expressions of GLUT1, HK2 and LDHA, and DAP5 overexpression produced the opposite effects (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#A high expression of DAP5 in GC, which enhances cellular aerobic glycolysis to promote cancer progression, is correlated with a poor survival outcome and may serve as a biomarker for evaluating long-term prognosis of GC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms , Blotting, Western , Databases, Factual , Glucose , Lactates
15.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 852-858, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986997

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the molecular pathological mechanism of liver metabolic disorder in severe spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).@*METHODS@#The transgenic mice with type Ⅰ SMA (Smn-/- SMN20tg/2tg) and littermate control mice (Smn+/- SMN20tg/2tg) were observed for milk suckling behavior and body weight changes after birth. The mice with type Ⅰ SMA mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of 20% glucose solution or saline (15 μL/12 h), and their survival time was recorded. GO enrichment analysis was performed using the RNA-Seq data of the liver of type Ⅰ SMA and littermate control mice, and the results were verified using quantitative real-time PCR. Bisulfite sequencing was performed to examine CpG island methylation level in Fasn gene promoter region in the liver of the neonatal mice.@*RESULTS@#The neonatal mice with type Ⅰ SMA showed normal milk suckling behavior but had lower body weight than the littermate control mice on the second day after birth. Intraperitoneal injection of glucose solution every 12 h significantly improved the median survival time of type Ⅰ SMA mice from 9±1.3 to 11± 1.5 days (P < 0.05). Analysis of the RNA-Seq data of the liver showed that the expression of the target genes of PPARα related to lipid metabolism and mitochondrial β oxidation were down-regulated in the liver of type Ⅰ SMA mice. Type Ⅰ SMA mice had higher methylation level of the Fasn promoter region in the liver than the littermate control mice (76.44% vs 58.67%). In primary cultures of hepatocytes from type Ⅰ SMA mice, treatment with 5-AzaC significantly up-regulated the expressions of the genes related to lipid metabolism by over 1 fold (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Type Ⅰ SMA mice have liver metabolic disorder, and the down-regulation of the target genes of PPARα related to lipid and glucose metabolism due to persistent DNA methylation contributes to the progression of SMA.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , PPAR alpha , Liver Diseases , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal/genetics , Mice, Transgenic , Body Weight , Glucose
16.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 585-589, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986965

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Bo investigate the regulatory relationship between NKD1 and YWHAE and the mechanism of NKD1 for promoting tumor cell proliferation.@*METHODS@#HCT116 cells transfected with pcDNA3.0-NKD1 plasmid, SW620 cells transfected with NKD1 siRNA, HCT116 cells with stable NKD1 overexpression (HCT116-NKD1 cells), SW620 cells with nkd1knockout (SW620-nkd1-/- cells), and SW620-nkd1-/- cells transfected with pcDNA3.0-YWHAE plasmid were examined for changes in mRNA and protein expression levels of YWHAE using qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to detect the binding of NKD1 to the promoter region of YWHAE gene. The regulatory effect of NKD1 on YWHAE gene promoter activity was analyzed by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay, and the interaction between NKD1 and YWHAE was analyzed with immunofluorescence assay. The regulatory effect of NKD1 on glucose uptake was examined in the tumor cells.@*RESULTS@#In HCT116 cells, overexpression of NKD1 significantly enhanced the expression of YWHAE at both the mRNA and protein levels, while NKD1 knockout decreased its expression in SW620 cells (P < 0.001). ChIP assay showed that NKD1 protein was capable of binding to the YWHAE promoter sequence; dual luciferase reporter gene assay showed that NKD1 overexpression (or knockdown) in the colon cancer cells significantly enhanced (or reduced) the transcriptional activity of YWHAE promoter (P < 0.05). Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated the binding of NKD1 and YWHAE proteins in colon cancer cells. NKD1 knockout significantly reduced glucose uptake in colon cancer cells (P < 0.01), while YWHAE overexpression restored the glucose uptake in NKD1-knockout cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#NKD1 protein activates the transcriptional activity of YWHAE gene to promote glucose uptake in colon cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colonic Neoplasms , HCT116 Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , RNA, Messenger , Glucose , Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , 14-3-3 Proteins/metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 681-689, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986945

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate whether tanshinone ⅡA can protect the apoptosis of mice cochlear pericytes induced by high glucose and its specific protective mechanism, so as to provide experimental evidence for the prevention and treatment of diabetic hearing loss. Methods: C57BL/6J male mice were used to prepare type 2 diabetes model, which were divided into normal (NG) group, diabetic (DM) group, diabetic+tanshinone ⅡA (HG+tanshinone ⅡA) group and tanshinone ⅡA group. Each group had 10 animals. Primary cochlear pericytes were divided into NG group, HG group (high glucose 35 mmol/L), HG+tanshinone ⅡA (1, 3, 5 μmol/L) group, HG+Tanshinone ⅡA+LY294002 (PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor) group, LY294002 group, tanshinone ⅡA group and DMSO group. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to measure hearing threshold. Evans blue was used to detect the permeability of blood labyrinth barrier in each group. TBA methods were used to detect oxidative stress levels in various organs of mice. Morphological changes of stria vascularis were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE). Evans blue was used to detect the vascular labyrinth barrier permeability in cochlea. The expression of apoptosis protein in stria vascularis pericytes was observed by immunofluorescence. Pericytes apoptosis rate was observed by flow cytometry. DCFH-DA was combined with flow cytometry to detect intracellular ROS content, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptotic proteins (Cleaved-caspase3, Bax), anti-apoptotic proteins (BCL-2) and pathway proteins (PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT). SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Independent sample t test was performed, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Animal experiments: Tanshinone ⅡA decreased the hearing threshold of DM group [(35.0±3.5) dB SPL vs. (55.3±8.1) dB SPL] (t=4.899, P<0.01), decreased the oxidative stress level in cochlea (t=4.384, P<0.05), improved the structure disorder, atrophy of cochlea vascular lines, vacuole increased phenomenon. Tanshinone ⅡA alleviated the increased permeability of the blood labyrinth barrier [Evans blue leakage (6.84±0.27) AU vs. (8.59±0.85) AU] in the cochlea of DM mice (t=2.770, P<0.05), reversed the apoptotic protein: Caspase3 (t=4.956, P<0.01) and Bax (t=4.388, P<0.05) in cochlear vascularis. Cell experiments: Tanshinone ⅡA decreased intracellular ROS content in a concentration-dependent way (t=3.569, P<0.05; t=4.772, P<0.01; t=7.494, P<0.01); Tanshinone ⅡA decreased apoptosis rate and apoptotic protein, and increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, p-PI3K/PI3K and p-AKT/AKT in concentration-dependent manner (all P values<0.05); LY294002 reversed the protective effect of tanshinone ⅡA on pericytes apoptosis (all P values<0.05). Conclusion: Tanshinone ⅡA can inhibit the apoptosis of cochlear pericytes induced by high glucose by reducing oxidative stress level and activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway under high glucose environment, thus playing a protective role in diabetic hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Apoptosis , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Evans Blue , Glucose , Hearing Loss , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pericytes/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction
18.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 442-449, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986874

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the relationship between stress glucose elevation and the risk of 28 d all-cause mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and to compare the predictive efficacy of different stress glucose elevation indicators.@*METHODS@#ICU patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria in the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care Ⅳ (MIMIC-Ⅳ) database were used as the study subjects, and the stress glucose elevation indicators were divided into Q1 (0-25%), Q2 (>25%- 75%), and Q3 (>75%-100%) groups, with whether death occurred in the ICU and the duration of treatment in the ICU as outcome variables, and demographic characteristics, laboratory indicators, and comorbidities as covariates, Cox regression and restricted cubic splines were used to explore the association between stress glucose elevation and the risk of 28 d all-cause death in ICU patients; and subject work characteristics [receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and the area under curve (AUC)] were used to evaluate the predictive efficacy of different stress glucose elevation indicators, The stress hyperglycemia indexes included: stress hyperglycemia ratio (SHR1, SHR2), glucose gap (GG); and the stress hyperglycemia index was further incorporated into the Oxford acute severity of illness score (OASIS) to investigate the predictive efficacy of the improved scores: the AUC was used to assess the score discrimination, and the larger the AUC indicated, the better score discrimination. The Brier score was used to evaluate the calibration of the score, and a smaller Brier score indicated a better calibration of the score.@*RESULTS@#A total of 5 249 ICU patients were included, of whom 7.56% occurred in ICU death. Cox regression analysis after adjusting for confounders showed that the HR (95%CI) for 28 d all-cause mortality in the ICU patients was 1.545 (1.077-2.217), 1.602 (1.142-2.249) and 1.442 (1.001-2.061) for the highest group Q3 compared with the lowest group Q1 for SHR1, SHR2 and GG, respectively, and The risk of death in the ICU patients increased progressively with increasing indicators of stressful blood glucose elevation (Ptrend < 0.05). Restricted cubic spline analysis showed a linear relationship between SHR and the 28 d all-cause mortality risk (P>0.05). the AUC of SHR2 and GG was significantly higher than that of SHR1: AUCSHR2=0.691 (95%CI: 0.661-0.720), AUCGG=0.685 (95%CI: 0.655-0.714), and AUCSHR1=0.680 (95%CI: 0.650-0.709), P < 0.05. The inclusion of SHR2 in the OASIS scores significantly improved the discrimination and calibration of the scores: AUCOASIS=0.820 (95%CI: 0.791-0.848), AUCOASIS+SHR2=0.832 (95%CI: 0.804-0.859), P < 0.05; Brier scoreOASIS=0.071, Brier scoreOASIS+SHR2=0.069.@*CONCLUSION@#Stressful glucose elevation is strongly associated with 28 d all-cause mortality risk in ICU patients and may inform clinical management and decision making in intensive care patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Critical Care , ROC Curve , Hyperglycemia , Glucose
19.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 42-47, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970944

ABSTRACT

Peritoneal ultrafiltration failure is a common reason for peritoneal dialysis (PD) withdrawal as well as mortality in PD patients. Based on the three-pore system, inter-cellular small pores and trans-cellular ultra-small pores (aquaporin-1) are mainly responsible for water transfer across the peritoneum. Both small and ultra-small pores-dependent water (free water) transport decline accompanied with time on PD, with more significant decrease in free water, resulting in peritoneal ultrafiltration failure. The reduction of free water transport is associated with fast peritoneal solute transfer, reduced crystalloid osmotic gradient due to increased interstitial glucose absorption, and declined osmotic conductance to glucose resulted from impaired aquaporin-1 function and peritoneal interstitial fibrosis. The decline of small pore-based water is mainly because of fast loss of crystalloid osmotic gradient, decrease of hydrostatic pressure mediated by peritoneal vasculopathy, as well as reduced absolute number of small pores. The current review discusses the advance on pathogenesis of acquired peritoneal ultrafiltration failure in long-term PD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritoneum , Ultrafiltration , Dialysis Solutions , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Water , Glucose
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1632-1641, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970635

ABSTRACT

With the improvement of living standards and changes in working style, the prevalence of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in humans is increasing in modern society. Clinically, the related indicators are often improved by changing the lifestyle and/or taking hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering drugs, but there are no therapeutic drugs for disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism at present. Hepatitis C virus core protein binding protein 6(HCBP6) is a newly discovered target that can regulate triglyceride and cholesterol content according to level oscillations in the body, thereby regulating abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. Relevant studies have shown that ginsenoside Rh_2 can significantly up-regulate the expression of HCBP6, but there are few studies on the effect of Chinese herbal medicines on HCBP6. Moreover, the three-dimensional structural information of HCBP6 has not been determined and the discovery of potential active components acting on HCBP6 is not rapidly advanced. Therefore, the total saponins of eight Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to regulate abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism were selected as the research objects to observe their effect on the expression of HCBP6. Then, the three-dimensional structure of HCBP6 was predicted, followed by molecular docking with saponins in eight Chinese herbal medicines to quickly find potential active components. The results showed that all total saponins tended to up-regulate HCBP6 mRNA and protein expression, where gypenosides showed the optimum effect on up-regulating HCBP6 mRNA and ginsenosides showed the optimum effect on up-regulating HCBP6 protein expression. Reliable protein structures were obtained after the prediction of protein structures using the Robetta website and the evaluation of the predicted structures by SAVES. The saponins from the website and literature were also collected and docked with the predicted protein, and the saponin components were found to have good binding activity to the HCBP6 protein. The results of the study are expected to provide ideas and methods for the discovery of new drugs from Chinese herbal medicines to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glucose , Lipid Metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Ginsenosides , Proteins , Saponins , RNA, Messenger
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