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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928186

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrion, as the main energy-supply organelle, is the key target region that determines neuronal survival and death during ischemia. When an ischemic stroke occurs, timely removal of damaged mitochondria is very important for improving mitochondrial function and repairing nerve damage. This study investigated the effect of ligustilide(LIG), an active ingredient of Chinese medicine, on mitochondrial function and mitophagy based on the oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion(OGD/R)-induced injury model in HT22 cells. By OGD/R-induced injury model was induced in vitro, HT22 cells were pre-treated with LIG for 3 h, and the cell viability was detected by the CCK-8 assay. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry were used to detect indicators related to mitochondrial function, such as mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium overload, and reactive oxygen species(ROS). Western blot was used to detect the expression of dynamin-related protein 1(Drp1, mitochondrial fission protein) and cleaved caspase-3(apoptotic protein). Immunofluorescence was used to observe the co-localization of the translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20(TOMM20, mitochondrial marker) and lysosome-associated membrane protein 2(LAMP2, autophagy marker). The results showed that LIG increased the cell viability of HT22 cells as compared with the conditions in the model group. Furthermore, LIG also inhibited the ROS release, calcium overload, and the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in HT22 cells after OGD/R-induced injury, facilitated Drp1 expression, and promoted the co-localization of TOMM20 and LAMP2. The findings indicate that LIG can improve the mitochondrial function after OGD/R-induced injury and promote mitophagy. When mitophagy inhibitor mdivi-1 was administered, the expression of apoptotic protein increased, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of LIG may be related to the promotion of mitophagy.


Subject(s)
4-Butyrolactone/analogs & derivatives , Apoptosis , Calcium/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Mitochondrial Proteins , Mitophagy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/genetics
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 255-264, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927601

ABSTRACT

The synthesis and decomposition of glycogen adjust the blood glucose dynamically to maintain the energy supply required by the cells. As the only hormone that lowers blood sugar in the body, insulin can promote glycogen synthesis by activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway and increasing glucose transporter translocation, and inhibit gluconeogenesis to lower blood glucose. In the endometrium, glycogen metabolism is active, but gluconeogenesis does not occur. The glycogen metabolism in the endometrium is controlled not only by the classical glucose regulating hormones, but also by the ovarian hormones. The functional activities related to implantation of the endometrium during the implantation window require glucose as energy source. A large amount of glucose is used to synthesize glycogen in the endometrium before implantation, which could meet the increased energy demand for embryo implantation. In diabetes, glycogen metabolism in the endometrium is impaired, which frequently leads to implantation failure and early abortion. This article reviews the glycogen metabolism in the endometrium and discusses its role in embryo implantation, which provide new ideas for embryo implantation research and infertility treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , Embryo Implantation , Endometrium , Female , Glucose/metabolism , Glycogen/metabolism , Humans , Insulin/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Pregnancy
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 805-812, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921283

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effects and the underlying mechanism of CD36 gene on glucose and lipid metabolism disorder induced by high-fat diet in mice. Wild type (WT) mice and systemic CD36 knockout (CD36


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Liver , Mice , Triglycerides
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 781-794, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921281

ABSTRACT

The balance of glucose and lipid metabolism is a coordinated result of multiple factors and organs, and is one of the fundamental requirements for the maintenance of human health. As the most important organ for human metabolism, liver plays a key role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. With the advances of researches, the number of publications related to hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism has increased rapidly, which posed a challenge for grasping the hot research topics and developmental trends of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in a short time. To solve such problem, we developed an information analysis method, which systematically analyzes the research status, research techniques, and hot research topics of the hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism research field through Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of related papers and high-throughput experimental data. The results showed that the number of publications related to hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism, especially publications by Chinese scholars, has increased dramatically in this century, along with the remarkable increment of the numbers of authors and affiliations per paper. Such increment is in part positively correlated with the impact of publications. Nowadays, various types of high-throughput experimental techniques have become the main research methods for genetic studies of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), have become the new research hotspots. These results systematically showed the current focuses and developmental trends of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism research, and the data analysis method developed in this work can also be applied to other research fields.


Subject(s)
Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Liver
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 723-733, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921275

ABSTRACT

Amino acids are essential nutrients for humans and have a wide range of biological functions. They are the constituent units of protein and energy metabolites. In addition, they are also widely involved in the maintenance and regulation of various physiological functions, and play a role in transcription, translation, post-translational modification and other levels. The liver is a key metabolic organ, and it acts as a hub that connects the metabolism of various tissues. Amino acid sensing plays a very important role in the regulation of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Therefore, accurately sensing the levels of intracellular and extracellular amino acids is the key to maintaining cell homeostasis. There are several well-known amino acid sensors in eukaryotic cells, such as general control non-derepressible-2 (GCN2), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and taste receptors, which play an important role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. This article gives a detailed introduction to the role and mechanism of amino acids in regulating hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism, laying a foundation for further exploration of amino acid sensing mechanism and treatment of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism disorders.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Glucose/metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Liver
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888017

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus( T2 DM) is a common chronic metabolic disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. In pancreatic β-cells,glucose-stimulated insulin secretion( GSIS) plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of blood glucose level. Previous studies have shown that geniposide,one of the active components of Gardenia jasminoides,could quickly regulate the absorption and metabolism of glucose,and affect glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells,but the specific mechanism needs to be further explored. Emerging evidence indicated that glycosylation of glucose transporter( GLUT) has played a key role in sensing cell microenvironmental changes and regulating glucose homeostasis in eucaryotic cells. In this study,we studied the effects of geniposide on the key molecules of GLUT2 glycosylation in pancreatic β cells. The results showed that geniposide could significantly up-regulate the mRNA and protein levels of Glc NAc T-Ⅳa glycosyltransferase( Gn T-Ⅳa) and galectin-9 but had no signi-ficant effect on the expression of clathrin,and geniposide could distinctively regulate the protein level of Gn T-Ⅳa in a short time( 1 h) under the conditions of low and medium glucose concentrations,but had no significant effect on the protein level of galectin-9. In addition,geniposide could also remarkably affect the protein level of glycosylated GLUT2 in a short-time treatment. The above results suggested that geniposide could quickly regulate the protein level of Gn T-Ⅳa,a key molecule of protein glycosylation in INS-1 rat pancreatic βcells and affect the glycosylation of GLUT2. These findings suggested that the regulation of geniposide on glucose absorption,metabolism and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion might be associated with its efficacy in regulating GLUT2 glycosylation and affecting its distribution on the cell membrane and cytoplasm in pancreatic β cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Glycosylation , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Iridoids , Rats
7.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 657-664, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887700

ABSTRACT

Arachidonic acid (AA) is an ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, which mainly exists in the cell membrane in the form of phospholipid. Three major enzymatic pathways including the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP450) pathways are involved in AA metabolism leading to the generation of a variety of lipid mediators such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and epoxyeicoastrienoic acids (EETs). These bioactive AA metabolites play an important role in the regulation of many physiological processes including the maintenance of liver glucose and lipid homeostasis. As the central metabolic organ, the liver is essential in metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, and its dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This article aims to provide an overview of the enzymatic pathways of AA and discuss the role of AA-derived lipid mediators in the regulation of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism and their associations with the pathogenesis of major metabolic disorders.


Subject(s)
Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose/metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Liver
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922407

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of high-fat diet for maternal Sprague-Dawley rats at different stages on glucose and lipid metabolism in offspring and related mechanisms.@*METHODS@#According to the diet before pregnancy and during pregnancy and lactation, maternal rats were randomly divided into four groups (@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control diet groups (CC and CH groups), the groups with high-fat diet before pregnancy (HC and HH groups) had a significant increase in body weight (@*CONCLUSIONS@#High-fat diet for rats at different stages before and after pregnancy has different effects on glucose and lipid metabolism of offspring rats, and high-fat diet before pregnancy and during pregnancy and lactation has the greatest effect. The effect of high-fat diet on glucose and lipid metabolism of offspring rats is considered associated with the changes in the expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Female , Glucose/metabolism , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Male , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878541

ABSTRACT

In recent years, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been proved to be involved in the regulation of biological processes at various levels, attracting research interests in life science. LncRNA possesses the unique capability and exert discrete effects on transcription, translation and post-translational modification of the target genes through interacting with DNA, RNA and protein. Current studies have revealed that lncRNA plays an important role in hepatic metabolism via diverse pathways. This review focuses on the function of lncRNA and its relationship with hepatic energy metabolism and the correlated diseases, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and prospects of lncRNA researches.


Subject(s)
Glucose/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Liver/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 392-399, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056453

ABSTRACT

The exercise could play a central role to the fat management and glucose metabolism what can be a critical role in the health status of diabetic people, but the high intense exercise remains with controversial data about their effects. To identify the effect of the multimodal high-intensity interval training on body composition, lipid profile, and glucose metabolism in elderly diabetics. Methods: Elderly diabetic individuals (n = 48) were randomly divided in a Sedentary Control (SC) group, a Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training (MICT) group, and a High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) group. MICT and HITT were conducted over 60 days, 3x per week, with 40 minutes of exercise. Blood was collected prior to intervention, at four, and at eight weeks subsequently to assess glucose metabolism and lipid profiles. Body composition was determined before and after the intervention period. To verify the normality Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test was performed, followed by student "t" test or two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test with significance of 5 % the Cohen's f test to indicate the magnitude of the differences. HIIT significantly lowered cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and significantly lowered blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels (p<0.05). MICT and HIIT significantly increased levels of high-density lipoprotein, decreased total body mass and body mass index. HIIT resulted in significantly smaller waist circumferences, waist-to-hip ratios, and weight-to-height ratios over 60 days of training. HIIT is more effective than MICT for improving lipid and glycaemic profiles, decreasing body fat, and improving fat distribution elderly diabetics.


El ejercicio podría desempeñar un papel central en el manejo de la grasa y el metabolismo de la glucosa, lo que puede ser un papel crítico en el estado de salud de las personas diabéticas, pero el ejercicio intenso intenso sigue teniendo datos controvertidos sobre sus efectos. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar el efecto del entrenamiento multimodal de intervalos de alta intensidad sobre la composición corporal, el perfil lipídico y el metabolismo de la glucosa en diabéticos de edad avanzada. Los individuos diabéticos de edad avanzada (n = 48) se dividieron aleatoriamente en un grupo de control sedentario (SC), un grupo de entrenamiento continuo de intensidad moderada (MICT) y un grupo de entrenamiento de intervalos de alta intensidad (HIIT). MICT y HITT se realizaron durante 60 días, 3 veces por semana, con 40 minutos de ejercicio. Se recogió sangre antes de la intervención, a las cuatro y a las ocho semanas posteriormente para evaluar el metabolismo de la glucosa y los perfiles de lípidos. La composición corporal se determinó antes y después del período de intervención. Para verificar la normalidad se realizó la prueba estadística de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, seguida de la prueba "t" de Student o ANOVA de dos vías con la prueba post hoc de Bonferroni con una significancia del 5 % de la prueba f de Cohen, indicando las diferencias. HIIT redujo significativamente los niveles de colesterol y triglicéridos, además de reducir de manera importante los niveles de glucosa en la sangre y la hemoglobina glicosilada (p <0.05). MICT y HIIT aumentaron significativamente los niveles de lipoproteína de alta densidad, disminuyeron la masa corporal total y el índice de masa corporal. HIIT resultó en circunferencias de cintura significativamente más pequeñas, relaciones cintura-cadera y relaciones peso-altura durante 60 días de entrenamiento. HIIT es más efectivo que MICT para mejorar los perfiles de lípidos y glucémicos, disminuir la grasa corporal y mejorar la distribución de grasa en los diabéticos de edad avanzada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Body Composition , Diabetes Mellitus , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Longitudinal Studies , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s17-s24, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057108

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an important public health problem, with a significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and an important risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Various hypoglycemic therapies have proved to be beneficial to clinical outcomes, while others have failed to provide an improvement in cardiovascular and renal failure, only reducing blood glucose levels. Recently, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, represented by the empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and canagliflozin, have been showing satisfactory and strong results in several clinical trials, especially regarding the reduction of cardiovascular mortality, reduction of hospitalization due to heart failure, reduction of albuminuria, and long-term maintenance of the glomerular filtration rate. The benefit from SGLT2 inhibitors stems from its main mechanism of action, which occurs in the proximal tubule of the nephron, causing glycosuria, and a consequent increase in natriuresis. This leads to increased sodium intake by the juxtaglomerular apparatus, activating the tubule glomerular-feedback and, finally, reducing intraglomerular hypertension, a frequent physiopathological condition in kidney disease caused by diabetes. In addition, this class of medication presents an appropriate safety profile, and its most frequently reported complication is an increase in the incidence of genital infections. Thus, these hypoglycemic agents gained space in practical recommendations for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and should be part of the initial therapeutic approach to provide, in addition to glycemic control, cardiovascular outcomes, and the renoprotection in the long term.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/therapeutic use , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Glucose/metabolism , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Diseases/metabolism
12.
Biol. Res ; 53: 27, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Circular RNA (circRNA) is highly expressed in the brain tissue, but its molecular mechanism in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion remains unclear. Here, we explored the role and underlying mechanisms of circRNA antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (circ_ANRIL) in oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced cell injury. RESULTS: The expression of circ_ANRIL in OGD/R-induced human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) was significantly up-regulated, while that of miR-622 was significantly down-regulated. Overexpression of circ_ANRIL significantly inhibited the proliferation of OGD/R-induced HBMECs and aggravated OGD/R-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, circ_ANRIL overexpression further increased the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-a, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in OGD/R-treated HBMECs. The results of bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay indicated that circ_ANRIL served as an miR-622 sponge to negatively regulate the expression of miR-622 in OGD/R-treated HBMECs. Additionally, circ_ANRIL silencing exerted anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects by positively regulating the expression of miR-622. Furthermore, inhibition of OGD/R-induced activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-kB pathway by circ_ANRIL silencing was significantly reversed by treatment with miR-622 inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: Knockdown of circ_ANRIL improved OGD/R-induced cell damage, apoptosis, and inflammatory responses by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway through sponging miR-622.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Hypoxia, Brain/metabolism , MicroRNAs/physiology , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Circular , Oxygen , Brain , Apoptosis , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 , Endothelial Cells , RNA, Long Noncoding , Glucose/metabolism , Inflammation
13.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 32(6): 608-616, Nov.-Dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1054620

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Analisar as alterações clínicas, metabólicas e sua relação com a resistência à insulina entre adolescentes. Métodos Estudo analítico, realizado com 357 adolescentes de escolas públicas estaduais de um município do Nordeste brasileiro. O formulário aplicado continha as variáveis Índice de Massa Corporal, Circunferência da Cintura, Circunferência do Pescoço, Índice de Conicidade, Pressão Arterial Média; Triglicerídeos, Glicemia, High — Density Lipoprotein Coiesteroi, Insulina e Índice Homeostasis Model Assessment, analisadas por medidas descritivas para variáveis quantitativas; e frequências para variáveis qualitativas. Foram realizados testes de associações através do Qui-quadrado e do teste Odds Ratio. Resultados A prevalência de resistência à insulina foi de 33,9%. As médias da circunferência da cintura, circunferência do pescoço, índice de conicidade, pressão arterial sistólica média e pressão arterial diastólica média estiveram elevadas respectivamente em 4,2%; 30%; 10,9%; 4,2% e 14% dos adolescentes. Os níveis de High - Density Lipoprotein colesterol estiveram diminuídos em 30,5% da amostra, ao passo que os triglicerídeos estavam elevados em 18,8%. Não foi identificada alteração na glicemia. Aqueles que apresentaram índice de massa corporal, circunferência da cintura, circunferência do pescoço, índice de conicidade e triglicerídeos com valores alterados possuíam maiores chances de apresentar resistência à insulina (OD: 3,62; 11,54; 3,50; 4,49; 3,05, respectivamente). De maneira oposta, os adolescentes com pressão arterial sistólica média, pressão arterial diastólica média e High — Density Lipoprotein colesterol alterados não apresentaram significância estatística (p<0,05). Conclusão A resistência à insulina está presente entre os adolescentes, com associações positivas e significativas com alterações clínicas e metabólicas.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar las alteraciones clínicas, metabólicas y la relación con la resistencia a la insulina en adolescentes. Métodos Estudio analítico, realizado con 357 adolescentes de escuelas públicas provinciales/departamentales de un municipio del Nordeste brasileñ?o. El formulario aplicado contenía las variables: índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, circunferencia del cuello, índice de conicidad, presión arterial promedio, triglicéridos, glucemia, colesterol High-Density Lipoprotein, insulina e índice Homeostasis Model Assessment Las variables cuantitativas fueron analizadas mediante medidas descriptivas, y las variables cualitativas mediante frecuencias. Se realizaron pruebas de relaciones a través de la prueba ?2 de Pearson y Odds Ratio. Resultados La prevalencia de resistencia a la insulina fue de 33,9%. Los promedios de circunferencia de la cintura, circunferencia del cuello, índice de conicidad, presión arterial sistólica promedio y presión arterial diastólica promedio fueron altos respectivamente en el 4,2%; 30%; 10,9%; 4,2% y 14% de los adolescentes. Los niveles de colesterol High-Density Lipoprotein fueron bajos en el 30,5% de la muestra, mientras que los triglicéridos fueron altos en el 18,8%. No se identificó alteración en la glucemia. Los que presentaron índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, circunferencia del cuello, índice de conicidad y triglicéridos con valores alterados tenían mayores chances de presentar resistencia a la insulina (OD: 3,62; 11,54; 3,50; 4,49; 3,05, respectivamente). De forma contraria, los adolescentes con presión arterial sistólica promedio, presión arterial diastólica promedio y colesterol High-Density Lipoprotein alterados no presentaron significación estadística. Conclusión La resistencia a la insulina está presente en los adolescentes, con una relación positiva y significativa respecto a alteraciones clínicas y metabólicas.


Abstract Objective Analyzing the clinical and metabolic alterations and their relation to insulin resistance among adolescents. Methods Analytic study, carried out with 357 adolescents of state public schools in a municipality in Northeastern Brazil. The applied form contained the variables Body Mass index, Waist Circumference, Neck Circumference, Taper index, Average Blood Pressure, Triglycerides, Blood Sugar Level, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Index, analyzed through descriptive measures for quantitative variables; and through frequency for qualitative variables. Association tests were made through Chi-Square test and through Odds Ratio. Results Prevalence of insulin resistance was 33.9%. The average values of waist circumference, neck circumference, taper index, average systolic blood pressure and average diastolic blood pressure were high in, respectively, 4.2%, 30%, 10.9%, 4.2% and 14% of adolescents. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol levels were decreased in 30.5% of the sample, whereas triglycerides were high in 18.8%. No blood sugar alteration was identified. Those who presented altered values for body mass index, waist circumference, neck circumference, taper index, and triglycerides had higher chances to present insulin resistance (OD: 3.62, 11.54, 3.50, 4.49, 3.05, respectively). On the other hand, adolescents with altered average systolic blood pressure, average diastolic blood pressure and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol did not present statistical significance (p<0.05). Conclusion Insulin resistance is present among adolescents, with positive and significant association to clinical and metabolic alterations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Insulin Resistance , Anthropometry , Risk Factors , Obesity , Triglycerides/metabolism , Epidemiologic Studies , Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods , Chronic Disease , Lipid Metabolism , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Glucose/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 582-591, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055018

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT GH is one of the insulin counterregulatory hormones which acts in the opposite way to insulin, increasing the glucose production by the liver and kidneys and decreasing glucose uptake from peripheral tissues, thus being a hyperglycemic hormone. When in excess, as in acromegaly, it induces glucose intolerance and diabetes. As expected, patients with GH deficiency (GHD) have hypoglycemia, especially in early childhood, but as GH is also a lipolytic hormone, these patients are becoming obese with higher percentages of body fat. Although obesity in general is directly related to insulin resistance, in patients with GH secretion disorders this relationship may be altered. In acromegaly there is a decrease in fat mass with worsening insulin sensitivity and mice with isolated GHD are characterized by greater insulin sensitivity despite excess fat mass. In humans with GHD, body composition shows increased body fat and decreased free fat mass, but the results regarding insulin sensitivity are still controversial in these patients. These discrepant results regarding insulin sensitivity in patients with GHD suggest the existence of other variables influencing these results. In the present review, we will try to follow the path of the different researches conducted on this subject, both in animal and human models, with the goal of understanding the current knowledge of insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of GHD. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):582-91


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Human Growth Hormone/deficiency , Human Growth Hormone/physiology , Glucose/physiology , Glucose/metabolism
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 376-384, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019349

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To test the influence of oral fructose and glucose dose-response solutions in blood glucose (BG), glucagon, triglycerides, uricaemia, and malondialdehyde in postprandial states in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Subjects and methods The study had a simple-blind, randomized, two-way crossover design in which T1DM patients were selected to receive fructose and glucose solutions (75g of sugars dissolved in 200 mL of mineral-water) in two separate study days, with 2-7 weeks washout period. In each day, blood samples were drawn after 8h fasting and at 180 min postprandial to obtain glucose, glucagon, triglycerides, uric acid, lactate, and malondialdehyde levels. Results Sixteen T1DM patients (seven men) were evaluated, with a mean age of 25.19 ± 8.8 years, a mean duration of disease of 14.88 ± 4.73 years, and glycated hemoglobin of 8.13 ± 1.84%. Fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG levels than glucose (4.4 ± 5.5 mmol/L; and 12.9 ± 4.1 mmol/L, respectively; p < 0.01). Uric acid levels increased after fructose (26.1 ± 49.9 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and reduced after glucose (-13.6 ± 9.5 µmol/L; p < 0.01). The malondialdehyde increased after fructose (1.4 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and did not change after glucose solution (-0.2 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p = 0.40). Other variables did not change. Conclusions Fructose and glucose had similar sweetness, flavor and aftertaste characteristics and did not change triglycerides, lactate or glucagon levels. Although fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG than glucose, it increased uric acid and malondialdehyde levels in T1DM patients. Therefore it should be used with caution. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT01713023.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Postprandial Period/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Cross-Over Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Tolerance
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(2): 137-143, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002619

ABSTRACT

La cocción de los alimentos a altas temperaturas en calor seco, produce ciertas modificaciones organolépticas que los hace especialmente apetecibles y objetos de adicción. Esto es resultado de la reacción de Maillard, o glicación, que se produce por unión no enzimática del grupo carbonilo, de azúcares reductores como glucosa y fructosa, con el grupo amino de proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Junto a los cambios físicos, cambia la estructura química y la función de estos aductos, denominados también glicotoxinas. Además de la glicación exógena, generada durante la cocción de los alimentos, recientemente ha sido referida la glicación in situ, en la luz intestinal, durante la digestión, cuando determinados alimentos no glicados se combinan en el momento de su ingestión. A esto se agrega la glicación endógena extracelular relacionada con la glucosa sanguínea y la intracelular, con metabolitos de la glucólisis y de la fructosa. Desde la década del 70, con el remplazo en gran medida de la sacarosa por fructosa, significativamente más reactiva que la glucosa, aumentó la presencia de productos de glicación en alimentos procesados y bebidas gaseosas. Están documentados sus efectos patogénicos como contribuyentes al estrés oxidativo y a la inflamación, especialmente en diabetes, insuficiencia renal y enfermedad cardiovascular y están siendo explorados en otras enfermedades crónicas, como procesos neurodegenerativos y envejecimiento temprano. Se describen medidas para preservar la salud, atendiendo medios de cocción y procesamiento de los alimentos y recomendaciones sobre hábitos de vida e ingesta de antioxidantes para acción inhibitoria o antagónica sobre las glicotoxinas.


Certain organoleptic modifications by way of processing and cooking foods at high temperatures in dry heat, make them especially appetizing and objects of addiction. It results from Maillard reaction, or glycation, consisting of the non-enzymatic union between carbonyl groups, mainly from reducing sugars as glucose and fructose, with the amino group of proteins and nucleic acids. In addition to physical changes, also the chemical structure and function of these compounds are changed. Besides exogenous glycation generated during the cooking of foods, recently in situ glycation has been reported in the intestinal lumen during digestion, when certain non-glycated foods are combined with fructose at the time of ingestion. In addition, endogenous glycation, which correlates in the extracellular mainly with blood glucose and in the intracellular with glycolysis metabolites and fructose, is specially significant. Since the 70s, with the frequent sucrose replacement by fructose, much more reactive than glucose, the presence of glycation products in processed foods and soft drinks increased.Pathogenic effects of these compounds, also called glycotoxins, are known to contribute to oxidative stress and inflammation. This increases progression of chronic diseases, well documented in diabetes, renal insuficiency, cardiovascular disease and aging process, and are being explore d in many other chronic diseases as neurodegenerative disorders and early aging. Based on the knowledge achieved so far, measures to preserve health are described by attending ways of cooking and processing foods, besides recommendations for life habits and antioxidants dietary intakes for inhibition or antagonism on glycotoxins.


Subject(s)
Humans , Maillard Reaction , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Food , Risk Factors , Glycation End Products, Advanced/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(2): e7637, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984028

ABSTRACT

Non-diabetic individuals use hormones like insulin to improve muscle strength and performance. However, as insulin also leads the liver and the adipose tissue to an anabolic state, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of insulin on liver metabolism in trained non-diabetic Swiss mice. The mice were divided into four groups: sedentary treated with saline (SS) or insulin (SI) and trained treated with saline (TS) or insulin (TI). Training was made in a vertical stair, at 90% of the maximum load, three times per week. Insulin (0.3 U/kg body weight) or saline were given intraperitoneally five times per week. After eight weeks, tissue and blood were collected and in situ liver perfusion with glycerol+lactate or alanine+glutamine (4 mM each) was carried out. The trained animals increased their muscle strength (+100%) and decreased body weight gain (-11%), subcutaneous fat (-42%), mesenteric fat (-45%), and peritoneal adipocyte size (-33%) compared with the sedentary groups. Insulin prevented the adipose effects of training (TI). The gastrocnemius muscle had greater density of muscle fibers (+60%) and less connective tissue in the trained groups. Liver glycogen was increased by insulin (SI +40% and TI +117%), as well as liver basal glucose release (TI +40%). Lactate and pyruvate release were reduced to a half by training. The greater gluconeogenesis from alanine+glutamine induced by training (TS +50%) was reversed by insulin (TI). Insulin administration had no additional effect on muscle strength and reversed some of the lipolytic and gluconeogenic effects of the resistance training. Therefore, insulin administration does not complement training in improving liver glucose metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Muscle Strength , Glucose/administration & dosage , Glucose/adverse effects , Liver/drug effects , Exercise Test , Resistance Training , Glucose/metabolism , Liver/metabolism
18.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(4): 208-215, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088029

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Si bien, los edulcorantes no nutritivos (ENN) estevia y D-tagatosa han sido reportados como seguros, han demostrado tener algunos efectos metabólicos tras su ingesta. OBJETIVO: Describir los efectos de la ingesta de estevia y D-tagatosa sobre el metabolismo de la glucosa y ácido úrico, y del apetito-saciedad, a partir de la evidencia disponible. MÉTODOS: Revisión descriptiva. Se realizó búsqueda en PubMed utilizando los siguientes términos y palabras clave: "stevia rebaudiana", "tagatose", "D-tagatose", "blood glucose", "insulin", "metabolic processes", "uric acid", "hyperuricemia", "appetite" o "satiety". El análisis de los estudios seleccionados fue discrecional. RESULTADOS: Existen estudios que demuestran efectos beneficiosos tras el consumo de estevia o D-tagatosa sobre el control glicémico, apetito y saciedad tanto en sujetos sanos como con alteraciones en el metabolismo de la glucosa. Por otra parte, un número importante de estudios que evalúan la ingesta de estevia reportan efectos nulos sobre dichos parámetros. En relación al ácido úrico, solo un estudio en sujetos con enfermedad renal crónica reporta aumento en la concentración de ácido úrico plasmático tras la ingesta de 500 mg/día de estevia. Pocos estudios han evaluado el efecto de la ingesta de D-tagatosa sobre uricemia, en sujetos sanos y diabéticos, reportando un aumento transitorio y significativo en los niveles de ácido úrico sérico, sin embargo, no se ha logrado demostrar un efecto hiperuricémico asociado. Es importante destacar que la metodología de los estudios revisados es heterogénea, especialmente en relación al tamaño muestral, tiempo, dosis y vía de adminitración del edulcorante. CONCLUSIÓN: La ingesta de estevia y D-tagatosa ha demostrado efectos beneficiosos sobre el metabolismo de la glucosa, el apetito y la saciedad. El efecto del consumo de D-tagatosa sobre ácido úrico sérico requiere mayor evidencia para demostrar su significancia clínica.


INTRODUCTION: No-nutritive sweeteners stevia and D-tagatose have been reported as safe according to their acceptable daily intake, however, they have been shown to have metabolic effects after their ingestion. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of stevia and D-tagatose intake on parameters associated to glucose, uric acid metabolism and on appetite-satiety, considering the available evidence. METHODS: Descriptive review. PubMed search was carried out to identify the totality of the published articles. The following terms and key words were used: "stevia rebaudiana", "tagatose", "D-tagatose", "blood glucose", "insulin", "metabolic processes", "uric acid", "hyperuricemia", "appetite" o "satiety". The analysis of the selected studies was discretionary. RESULTS: studies have shown beneficial effects of stevia and D-tagatose consumption on glycemic control, appetite and satiety in healthy subjects as well as subjects with impairment glucose metabolism. On the other hand, a significant number of studies evaluating estevia intake report null effects on these parameters. In relation to uric acid, only one study in subjects with chronic kidney disease reported an increase in plasmatic uric acid concentration after the intake of 500 mg/day of stevia. Several studies have evaluated the effect of D-tagatose intake on plasmatic uric acid, in healthy and diabetic subjects, reporting a transient and significant increase in serum uric acid levels, however, has not been able to demonstrate an associated hyperuricemic effect. It is important to highlight that the methodology of the studies reviewed is heterogeneous, especially in relation to sample size, dose administered, time and route of exposure to the sweetener. CONCLUSION: Stevia and D-tagatose intake has shown beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, appetite and satiety. The effects of the consumption of both sweeteners on uric acid require further study to demonstrate their clinic significance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sweetening Agents/pharmacology , Uric Acid/metabolism , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Appetite/drug effects , Satiation/drug effects , Stevia/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Hexoses/pharmacology , Insulin/metabolism
19.
Clinics ; 74: e1273, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate several methods to estimate glucose consumption in the male Wister rat brain as measured by PET. METHODS: Fourteen male Wistar normoglycemic rats were studied. The input function consisted of seventeen blood samples drawn manually from the femoral artery. Glucose uptake values were calculated using the input function resulting from the arterial blood samples and the tissue time-activity curve derived from the PET images. The estimated glucose consumption rate (Ki) based on the 2-tissue compartment model (2TCM) served as the standard for comparisons with the values calculated by the Patlak analysis and with the fractional uptake rate (FUR), standardized uptake value (SUV) and glucose corrected SUV (SUVglu). RESULTS: No significant difference between the standard Ki and the Patlak Ki was observed. The standard Ki was also found to have strong correlations and concordance with the Ki value estimated by the Patlak analysis. The FUR method presented an excellent correlation with the Ki value obtained by the 2TCM/Patlak analyses, in contrast to the SUV or SUVglu. CONCLUSIONS: From a methodological point of view, the present findings confirm the theoretical limitations of the cerebral SUV and SUVglu as a substitute for Ki in the estimation of glucose consumption in the brain. Our data suggest that the FUR is the surrogate to Ki.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain/metabolism , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/administration & dosage , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Glucose/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 865-871, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974297

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The ability of four Aspergillus strains for biosynthesis of kojic acid was evaluated among which Aspergillus terreus represented the highest level (2.21 g/L) of kojic acid production. Improvement kojic acid production ability of A. terreus by random mutagenesis using different exposure time to ultraviolet light (5-40 min) was then performed to obtain a suitable mutant of kojic acid production (designated as C5-10, 7.63 g/L). Thereafter, design of experiment protocol was employed to find medium components (glucose, yeast extract, KH2PO4 (NH4)2SO4, and pH) influences on kojic acid production by the C5-10 mutant. A 25-1 fractional factorial design augmented to central composite design showed that glucose, yeast extract, and KH2PO4 were the most considerable factors within the tested levels (p < 0.05). The optimum medium composition for the kojic acid production by the C5-10 mutant was found to be glucose, 98.4 g/L; yeast extract, 1.0 g/L; and KH2PO4, 10.3 mM which was theoretically able to produce 120.2 g/L of kojic acid based on the obtained response surface model for medium optimization. Using these medium compositions an experimental maximum Kojic acid production (109.0 ± 10 g/L) was acquired which verified the efficiency of the applied method.


Subject(s)
Pyrones/metabolism , Aspergillus/radiation effects , Aspergillus/metabolism , Aspergillus/growth & development , Aspergillus/genetics , Ultraviolet Rays , Mutagenesis , Culture Media/metabolism , Fermentation , Glucose/metabolism
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