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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(2): 246-252, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990338


SUMMARY Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are drugs that act by maintaining glycosuria. Recent studies have shown promising effects of these in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). However, there may be an increased risk of developing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients treated with these. Our study aims to analyze the association between the risk of UTI in patients treated with SGLT2i. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by randomized clinical trials, totalizing at the end of the selection 23 articles that were statistically evaluated. The incidence of UTI was generally demonstrated in articles and in different subgroups: patients on SGLT2i monotherapy or on combination therapy; according to specific comorbidities of each sample or according to the drug used. They noticed an increase in the chance of UTI in the SGLT2i groups compared to the control groups on placebo or other oral antidiabetic agents. This increased chance was found predominantly with the use of Dapagliflozin, Canagliflozin, and Tofogliflozin, regardless of the dosing. Lastly, stands out that the dimension of UTI chances for DM2 patients who use SGLT2i remains to be more strictly determined.

RESUMO Os inibidores do cotransportador de sódio-glicose do tipo 2 (SGLT2i) são medicamentos que atuam mantendo a glicosúria. Estudos recentes têm demonstrado efeitos promissores desses no tratamento de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). No entanto, pode haver um risco aumentado de desenvolver infecções do trato urinário (UTI) em pacientes tratados com essa classe de medicação. Nosso estudo tem como objetivo analisar a associação entre o risco de desenvolver UTI em pacientes tratados com SGLT2i. Uma revisão sistemática da literatura foi realizada por ensaios clínicos randomizados, totalizando, ao final da seleção, 23 artigos que foram avaliados estatisticamente. A incidência de UTI foi demonstrada genericamente de acordo com os dados dos artigos e em diferentes subgrupos: pacientes em monoterapia com SGLT2i ou em terapia combinada, de acordo com as comorbidades específicas de cada amostra ou de acordo com a droga utilizada. Verificou-se um aumento na chance de UTI nos grupos SGLT2i em comparação com os grupos de controle em placebo ou outros agentes antidiabéticos orais. Essa chance aumentada foi encontrada predominantemente com uso de Dapagliflozina, Canagliflozina e Tofoglifozina, independentemente da dosagem. Por fim, ressaltou-se que as chances de UTI em pacientes com DM2 em uso de SGLT2i ainda precisam ser mais bem determinadas.

Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Canagliflozin/adverse effects , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glucosides/adverse effects , Glucosides/therapeutic use
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(3): 404-410, jun. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899995


Dapaglifozina, un inhibidor del cotransportador de sodio-glucosa 2 (I-SGLT2) induce glucosuria y reduce la glicemia en adultos con diabetes tipo 2. Objetivo: Presentar una cetosis diabética “normoglicémica” en una adolescente con diabetes tipo 1 (DM1) que recibía dapaglifozina y alertar sobre el riesgo del uso I-SGLT2 que parece promisorio, pero no está aprobado en niños ni en DM1. Caso clínico: Paciente de 17 años sin cetosis durante 9 años con DM1, inició dapaglifozina 10 mg/día para reducir la insulina y el peso. Durante 11 meses de tratamiento tuvo cetonas capilares indetectables, redujo el índice de masa corporal 23,9 a 21,1 kg/m², la insulina basal 40 a 17 U, la hemoglobina glicosilada 8,3 a 7,5%, la glicemia capilar 175 a 161 mg/dl y la variabilidad de la glucosa (desvío estándar 85 a 77). Inesperadamente aparecieron náuseas y vómitos. La paciente portaba bomba de insulina con monitorización continua de glucosa, bien calibrada (glucosas intersticiales concordantes con glicemias), que mostraba glucosa estable bajo 200 mg/dl. Recibió insulina pero los vómitos persistieron; en tres horas, aparecieron deshidratación y desmayos, con cetonas 4,6 nmol/l y glicemia 224 mg/dl. Recibió suero fisiológico, ondansetrón, carbohidratos y varias dosis de insulina con pronta recuperación del estado general e hidratación, sin embargo, la cetosis continuó durante 24 horas. Cabe destacar que la bomba estaba funcionando bien y no se cambió la cánula. Al superar la cetosis, continuó con la misma cánula con buen control metabólico. Conclusión: Es importante sospechar la cetosis diabética normoglicémica por ser de riesgo vital.

Dapagliflozin, an insulin-independent sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2-I) induces glycosuria and reduces hyperglycemia in adults with type 2 diabetes. Objective: To present an “euglycemic” diabetic ketosis in an adolescent with type 1 diabetes (T1D) receiving dapagliflozin, to alert about the risk of a drug not approved in children nor in T1D. Case report: A 17 years old adolescent with T1D during 9 years, was started on dapagliflozin 10 mg / day to reduce insulin dose and weight. During 11 months on treatment, capillaries ketones were undetectable and she exhibited a reduction in body mass index 23.9 to 21.1 kg/m2, basal insulin 40 to 17 U, glycated hemoglobin 8.3 to 7.5%, capillary glucose 175 to 161 mg/dl and glucose variability (standard deviation) 85 to 77. Suddenly nausea and vomits appeared. The patient was on an insulin pump and well calibrated continuous glucose monitoring, showing stable glucose levels under 200 mg/dl, and an insulin bolus was delivered. Vomiting without hyperglycemia persisted; three hours later, she was severely dehydrated and fainting, with ketones 4.6 nmol/l and glucose 224 mg/dl. She received IV saline fluids, ondansetron, carbohydrates and several insulin boluses. Hydration and general condition improved soon, however despite several insulin doses, ketosis continued for 24 hours. It is remarkable that the pump was working well and the cannula was not changed. After the ketosis was resolved, she continued using the same cannula with good metabolic control. Conclusion: Euglycemic ketosis is a life-threatening condition that must be suspected.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glucosides/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Insulin/therapeutic use , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
Ann. hepatol ; 16(2): 308-311, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887237


ABSTRACT A 75-year old male patient had been regularly visiting our hospital for the management of his type 2 diabetes mellitus since he was diagnosed at age 64 years. When he developed hypoglycemic episodes with sulfonylurea, ipragliflozin (50 mg/day) was started to replace the sulfonylurea therapy. However, 49 days after starting ipragliflozin, his AST increased from 13 to 622 U/L, ALT increased from 9 to 266 U/L, ALP increased from 239 to 752 U/L, and γ-GTP increased from 19 to 176 U/L. ZTT was 3.5 U, TTT was 0.4 U, and total bilirubin was 0.7 mg/dL. IgM hepatitis A antibody, hepatitis B antigen, hepatitis C virus antibody, IgM CMV antibody, and IgM EB VCA antibody were negative, whereas a lymphocyte transformation test for ipragliflozin was positive. Abdominal CT scan showed mild fatty liver but no sign of nodular lesions. Following admission to our hospital, he received liver supportive therapy with the discontinuation of ipragliflozin therapy. He was discharged from the hospital 18 days later with AST and ALT levels reduced to 20 U/L and 13 U/L, respectively. Based on the clinical presentation of this patient, it is highly important to monitor liver function along with other possible clinical complications (e.g., dehydration, ketosis, and urinary tract infection) associated with SGLT2 inhibitor therapy.

Humans , Male , Aged , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/immunology , Glucosides/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Thiophenes/adverse effects , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/therapy , Liver Function Tests
J Cancer Res Ther ; 2005 Jan-Mar; 1(1): 38-40
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111401


PURPOSE: To evaluate Tocoferol monoglucoside (TMG), a water soluble vit. E. in a phase I trial, as a radiation protector in those undergoing hemi-body radiation for disseminated disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients scheduled to receive modified hemi-body radiation were accrued for the study. Patients not only had disseminated skeletal disease but, were heavily pretreated Seven patients were accrued for the study. Patients received 1 and 2 gms of TMG. 30-40 minutes before hemibody radiation. A dose of 600 cGy was delivered on telecobalt equipment at mid plane. Immediate Toxicities were evaluated as well as response to pain. RESULTS: All the seven patients underwent radiation uneventfully. There was no drug related toxicity. Pain relief was adequate. CONCLUSION: Tocoferol monoglucoside an effective antioxidant with no significant acute toxicity, when administered in a dose of 1 or 2 gms per oral route. TMG being water-soluble can have global antioxidant and radio protective effects. This needs further clinical evaluation.

Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Glucosides/adverse effects , Hemibody Irradiation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiation-Protective Agents/adverse effects , Tocopherols/adverse effects
Actas cardiovasc ; 6(2): 141-4, 1995. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-231025


El déficit circulatorio de este cuadro se ubica en la microcirculación intestinal por falla de bomba, shock o uso de digital. Dolor abdominal repentino, distensión, enterorragia y los antecedentes llevan a la sospecha clínica y al diagnóstico. El tratamiento es en principio médico, con el esquema de Boley (Tolazolina y papaverina), controlado por arteriografía; si no cede, el intestino necrótico debe ser removido quirúrgicamente. Se consideran 22 casos. Todos consultaron por dolor abdominal repentino, distensión y enterorragia. Sólo tres carecían de antecedentes, los 19 restantes provenían de terapia intensiva, unidad coronaria o tenían tratamiento con digital. Se utilizó el análisis univariable de variables cualitativas. Se operaron 18 (81,8 por ciento), falleciendo sin operar 4 (18 por ciento). La mortalidad global fue de 15 (68,1 por ciento). Siete (31,8 por ciento) tuvieron buena evolución, ellos presentaron sólo lesiones de intestino delgado

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Glucosides/adverse effects , Intestines/blood supply , Ischemia/etiology , Microcirculation/pathology , Intestine, Small/injuries , Intestines/surgery , Ischemia/drug therapy , Ischemia/therapy , Papaverine/therapeutic use , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/mortality , Shock, Cardiogenic/complications , Shock/complications , Tolazoline/therapeutic use