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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1321-1328, July-Aug. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131480

ABSTRACT

Fifteen New Zealand adult rabbits were randomly allocated into three groups: Sham-operated (group A), Ischemia and Reperfusion (group B) and Carolina Rinse Solution (CRS) (group C). Groups B and C were subjected to one hour of ischemia and two hours of reperfusion. In group C, ten minutes before reperfusion, the bowel lumen was filled with CRS, and the segment immersed in CRS. Necrosis and loss of integrity of the villi were visible in groups B and C. Edema of the submucosa and circular muscle was observed in all groups. Hemorrhage was observed in different layers for groups B and C, but group C showed more severe hemorrhage in different layers during reperfusion. All groups showed polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration on the base of the mucosa, submucosa, and longitudinal muscle, in addition to polymorphonuclear leukocytes margination in the mucosal and submucosal vessels. Necrosis of enterocytes, muscles, crypts of Lieberkühn and myenteric plexus was observed in groups B and C during reperfusion. Topical and intraluminal Carolina Rinse Solution did not attenuate the effects of ischemia and reperfusion in the small intestine of rabbits.(AU)


Quinze coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia foram alocados em três grupos: instrumentado (grupo A), isquemia e reperfusão (grupo B) e solução de Carolina rinse (CRS) (grupo C). Os grupos B e C foram submetidos a uma hora de isquemia e a duas horas de reperfusão. No grupo C, 10 minutos antes da reperfusão, o segmento isolado foi imerso e teve seu lúmen preenchido com CRS. Os grupos B e C apresentaram necrose e perda progressiva da integridade das vilosidades. Foi observado edema na submucosa e na camada muscular circular em todos os grupos. Nos grupos B e C, foi observada hemorragia em diferentes camadas, mas, no grupo C, a hemorragia foi mais intensa durante a reperfusão. Todos os grupos apresentaram infiltrado de PMN na base da mucosa, na submucosa e na camada muscular longitudinal e marginação de PMN nos vasos da mucosa e da submucosa. Durante a reperfusão, foi observada necrose dos enterócitos, das camadas musculares, das criptas de Lieberkühn e do plexo mioentérico nos grupos B e C. O uso tópico e intraluminal de CRS não atenuou os efeitos da isquemia e da reperfusão no intestino delgado de coelhos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Reperfusion/veterinary , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Deferoxamine/administration & dosage , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Ischemia/veterinary , Jejunum/surgery
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 145-152, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088907

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the addition of Vitamin C, reduced Glutathione and trolox on sperm characteristics of pork refrigerated semen. Six pigs were collected through the technique of gloved hand (10 ejaculates/animals). The semen was diluted in MR-A®. After the previous evaluations, the treatments were added: Control group: diluent only; Vitamin C Group: 200µM/mL Vitamin C; Trolox Group: 200µM/mL Trolox; Glutathione group: 2.5mM/ml Reduced glutathione. The semen was stored in thermal boxes and placed inside the refrigerator at 15oC and evaluated at D0, 12, 48, 72 hours. After 30 hours of incubation, each treatment was divided into two equal fractions and the same concentration of antioxidants was added in one of the parts. The results show that reduced glutathione supplementation preserves sperm motility after 24 hours but also has a higher percentage of acrosome intact in the presence of this antioxidant. There was no effect of adding a second dose of the antioxidants. In conclusion, the addition of reduced Glutathione to the swine semen diluent is a promising alternative for better preservation of sperm characteristics and the addition of the second dose of antioxidants during storage is detrimental to semen.(AU)


Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a adição da vitamina C, da glutationa reduzida e do trolox sobre características espermáticas do sêmen refrigerado de suínos. Seis cachaços foram coletados pela técnica de mão enluvada (10 coletas/animal). O sêmen foi diluído em MR-A®. Após as avaliações prévias, os tratamentos foram adicionados: grupo controle: apenas diluidor; grupo vitamina C: 200µM/mL de vitamina C; grupo trolox: 200µM/mL de trolox; grupo glutationa: 2.5mM/mL de glutationa reduzida. O sêmen foi armazenado em caixas térmicas e alocado dentro do refrigerador a 15oC e avaliado nos tempos zero, 12, 48 e 72 horas . Após 30 horas de incubação, cada tratamento foi dividido em duas frações iguais e adicionou-se a mesma concentração de antioxidantes em uma das partes. Os resultados demonstram que a suplementação de glutationa reduzida preserva a motilidade espermática após 24 horas, bem como tem maior percentual de acrossoma intacto na presença desse antioxidante. Não houve efeito ao se adicionar uma segunda dose dos antioxidantes. Em conclusão, o acréscimo da glutationa reduzida ao diluidor de sêmen suíno é uma alternativa promissora para melhor preservação das características espermáticas, e a adição da segunda dose dos antioxidantes durante o armazenamento é prejudicial ao sêmen.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Semen Preservation/methods , Spermatozoa , Swine , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Semen Preservation/veterinary , Antioxidants/analysis
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(2): 419-428, mar.-abr. 2018. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-910397

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with different concentrations of reduced glutathione GSH (0; 5; 7.5; 10mM) in the extender for cryopreservation in dogs with evaluations performed after glycerolization (chilled) and thawing (thawed). For this purpose, we used 8 dogs and two semen collections were performed in a weekly interval, totaling 16 semen samples. The sperm were analyzed by automatic sperm motility (CASA) and flow cytometry analysis of mitochondrial potential (JC1 dye) and membrane/acrosome integrity (FITC-PI dyes). We evaluated subjectively the membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity and DNA integrity. Seminal plasma was evaluated for lipid peroxidation (TBARS concentration). Chilled and thawed samples supplemented with 7.5 and 10mM of GSH had lower percentage of sperm with high (DAB - Class I) and medium (DAB - Class II) mitochondrial activity. And 10mM of GSH had higher percentage of low mitochondrial activity (DAB - Class III). Moreover, thawed samples of 10mM of GSH had high DNA fragmentation rates. Probably by a reductive stress effect on mitochondria which lead to an increase in reactive oxygen species, and a mitochondrial malfunction.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação com diferentes concentrações de glutationa reduzida (GSH - 0; 5; 7,5; 10mM) para criopreservação em cães com avaliações realizadas após glicerolização (refrigeração) e descongelação. Para tal, foram utilizados oito cães e foram realizadas duas coletas de sêmen em intervalo semanal, totalizando 16 amostras de sêmen. Foram avaliadas a motilidade espermática computadorizada (CASA) e a análise de citometria de fluxo do potencial mitocondrial (sonda JC-1) e integridade da membrana/acrossomal (sonda FITC-PI). Subjetivamente foi avaliada a integridade da membrana plasmática e do acrossomal, atividade mitocondrial e integridade do DNA. O plasma seminal foi avaliado quanto à peroxidação lipídica (concentração de TBARS). As amostras refrigeradas e descongeladas suplementadas com 7,5 e 10mM de GSH apresentaram menor porcentagem de espermatozoides com alta atividade mitocondrial (DAB - Classe I) e média (DAB - Classe II). Na concentração de 10mM de GSH, apresentaram maior porcentagem de baixa atividade mitocondrial (DAB - Classe III). Além disso, amostras descongeladas de 10mM de GSH apresentaram taxas de fragmentação de DNA elevadas, provavelmente por efeito de estresse redutivo sobre as mitocôndrias que elevam as espécies reativas de oxigênio e disfunção mitocondrial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dogs , Cryopreservation/methods , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Reactive Oxygen Species/administration & dosage , Antioxidants
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(9): 839-842, Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-756399

ABSTRACT

Coronary angiography can be a high-risk condition for the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in elderly patients. Reduced glutathione, under a variety of mechanisms, may prevent CIN in this procedure. We prospectively examined whether hydration with reduced glutathione is superior to hydration alone for prevention of CIN in an elderly Han Chinese population. A total of 505 patients (271 males and 234 females) aged 75 years or older who underwent non-emergency coronary angiography or an intervention were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group received hydration with reduced glutathione (n=262) and the control group received hydration alone (n=243). Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were measured prior to coronary angiography and 48 h after this procedure. The primary endpoint was occurrence of CIN, which was defined as 25% or 44.2 µmol/L above baseline serum creatinine levels 48 h after the procedure. The overall incidence of CIN was 6.49% in the treatment group and 7.41% in the control group, with no significant difference between the groups (P=0.68). In subgroup analysis by percutaneous coronary intervention, no significant differences were found between the two groups. In summary, reduced glutathione added to optimal hydration does not further decrease the risk of CIN in elderly patients undergoing coronary angiography or an intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Coronary Angiography/methods , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Coronary Angiography/adverse effects , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Prospective Studies
5.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 10(3): 661-665, Sept. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-653605

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the addition of antioxidants vitamin E and reduced glutathione on curimba (Prochilodus lineatus) semen cryopreservation and compared sodium bicarbonate solution and distilled water as activators. The experiment was conducted at the environmental station of CEMIG, in Itutinga-MG, Brazil, between December/2009 and January/2010. Semen samples (n = 7) with semen motility above 80% were diluted in cryoprotectant solutions composed of 10% methanol, 15% lactose and containing different concentrations of antioxidants: 50 (VE50), 100 (VE100) and 250 (VE250) µM of vitamin E, and 0.5 (RG0.5), 1.0 (RG1.0) and 1.5 (RG1.5) mM of reduced glutathione. A solution without antioxidants was used as a control. The semen was diluted at a ratio of 1:4 (100 ìL semen:400 ∝L cryoprotectant solution). The toxicity of the solutions was evaluated by investigating semen motility after 10 min in the solution. The rest of the diluted semen was placed into 0.5 mL straws maintained in nitrogen vapour for 24 hours and packed into a nitrogen liquid cylinder for four days. The samples were thawed in a water bath at 60°C for 8 s and the rate (%) and duration (s) of semen activation with distilled water or sodium bicarbonate was evaluated. In the toxicity test, we found that vitamin E and reduced glutathione were not toxic to curimba semen at any of the tested concentrations (P>0.05). The duration of motility was longer (P<0.05) in semen activated with sodium bicarbonate 1% (163 ± 11 s), which was considered the best activator for semen under these conditions. No significant differences were found between the cryoprotectant solutions used after freezing (P>0.05). Thus, the antioxidants vitamin E and reduced glutathione did not improve the quality of cryopreserved curimba semen, but they did not cause toxic effects to the semen in natura and they did not decrease its quality during cryopreservation.


Este estudo avaliou a adição de antioxidantes vitamina E e glutationa reduzida no sêmen criopreservado de curimba (Prochilodus lineatus) e comparou solução de bicarbonato de sódio e água destilada como ativadores. O experimento foi conduzido na estação ambiental da CEMIG, em Itutinga-MG, entre Dezembro/2009 e Janeiro/2010. Sêmen de sete animais, com motilidade espermática acima de 80%, foi diluído em soluções crioprotetoras compostas por metanol 10% e lactose 15% em diferentes concentrações de antioxidantes: 50 (VE50), 100 (VE100) e 250 (VE250) µM de vitamina E, 0,5 (RG5.5), 1,0 (RG1.0) e 1,5 (RG1.5) mM glutationa reduzida e uma solução controle sem antioxidante. O sêmen foi diluído na proporção de 1:4 (100 µL de sêmen: 400 µL de solução crioprotetora). A toxicidade das soluções foi avaliada pela motilidade espermática após de 10 minutos em solução. O restante do sêmen diluído foi armazenado em palhetas de 0,5 mL mantidos em vapor de nitrogênio por 24 horas e estocado em cilindro de nitrogênio líquido por quatro dias. As amostras foram descongeladas em banho-maria a 60°C por 8 segundos e avaliada a taxa (%) e duração (s) pela ativação do sêmen com água destilada e bicarbonato de sódio a 1%. No teste de toxicidade, observamos que os antioxidantes da vitamina E e glutationa, nas diferentes concentrações, não foram tóxicos para o sêmen do curimba (P>0,05). A duração da motilidade foi maior (P<0,05) no sêmen ativado com bicarbonato de sódio, sendo o melhor ativador para o sêmen nestas condições. Não houve diferenças significativas entre as soluções crioprotetoras utilizadas para sêmen antes e após congelamento (P>0,05). Assim, os antioxidantes vitamina E e glutationa reduzida não melhoram a qualidade do sêmen criopreservado de curimba, mas não causam efeitos tóxicos para o sêmen in natura e criopreservados por não diminuir sua qualidade durante a criopreservação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Characiformes/growth & development , Cryopreservation/methods , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Semen Preservation/veterinary , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Oxidants/adverse effects
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Based on preliminary in vitro data from a previous study, we proposed that 50 mg/kg glutathione (GSH) would be adequate for suppressing reactive oxygen species in patients with acute paraquat (PQ) intoxication. METHODS: Serum levels of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) were measured before and after the administration of 50 mg/kg GSH to each of five patients with acute PQ intoxication. RESULTS: In one patient, extremely high pretreatment ROM levels began to decrease prior to GSH administration. However, in the remaining four cases, ROM levels did not change significantly prior to GSH administration. ROM levels decreased significantly after GSH administration in all cases. In two cases, ROM levels decreased below that observed in the general population; one of these patients died after a cardiac arrest at 3 hours after PQ ingestion, while the other represented the sole survivor of PQ intoxication observed in this study. In the survivor, ROM levels decreased during the first 8 hours of GSH treatment, and finally dropped below the mean ROM level observed in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with 50 mg/kg GSH significantly suppressed serum ROM levels in PQ-intoxicated patients. However, this dose was not sufficient to suppress ROM levels when the PQ concentration was extremely high.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Fatal Outcome , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Herbicides/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paraquat/administration & dosage , Pilot Projects , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2009 May-Jun; 57(3): 175-83
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-72464

ABSTRACT

Cataractous-opacification of the lens is one of the leading causes of blindness in India. The situation can be managed by surgical removal of the cataractous lens. Various pharmacological strategies have been proposed for the prevention and treatment of cataract. Information on possible benefits of putative anticataract agents comes from a variety of approaches, ranging from laboratory experiments, both in vitro and in vivo , to epidemiological studies in patients. This review deals with the various mechanisms, and possible pharmacological interventions for the prevention of cataract. The article also reviews research on potential anticataractous agents, including aldose reductase inhibitors, glutathione boosters, antiglycating agents, vitamins and various drugs from indigenous sources.


Subject(s)
Aldehyde Reductase/antagonists & inhibitors , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Cataract/etiology , Cataract/prevention & control , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Risk Factors , Vitamins/administration & dosage
8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2009 Mar-Apr; 57(2): 99-103
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-71490

ABSTRACT

AIM: We conducted this study to evaluate and compare corneal endothelial cell loss between phacoemulsification with continuous anterior chamber infusion using anterior chamber maintainer (ACM) and phacoemulsification using ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Fifty eyes of 47 patients of senile cataract undergoing phacoemulsification were included. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups of 25 eyes each. Cataract surgery was performed by phacoemulsification with anterior chamber (AC) continuous infusion with balanced salt solution (BSS) plus and ACM without OVD in Group A, and in Group B, phacoemulsification was performed using OVD with BSS plus. Corneal endothelial cell count and pachymetry were performed preoperatively and postoperatively on day 1, day 7, and day 30. The mean increase in pachymetry was 4.86%, 2.94%, and 1.94%, (Group A) and 5.95%, 3.94%, and 0.51%, (Group B) on first, seventh, and 30 th postoperative day respectively. The difference between the percentage increase in pachymetry between the two groups was not significant at day 1 ( P = 0.441), day 7 ( P = 0.298), and day 30 ( P =0.174) postoperatively. The density of endothelial cells decreased postoperatively (day 30) by 7.38% (Group A) and 7.47% (Group B) without any significant statistical difference ( P = 0.983) between two groups. CONCLUSION: Use of ACM for continuous AC infusion and omission of OVD during phacoemulsification did not cause significant difference in corneal swelling or endothelial cell loss in the immediate postoperative period up to one month.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anterior Chamber/drug effects , Bicarbonates/administration & dosage , Cell Count , Corneal Diseases/etiology , Drug Combinations , Endothelium, Corneal/pathology , Female , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid/administration & dosage , Intraoperative Complications , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Male , Middle Aged , Phacoemulsification/methods , Prospective Studies , Viscosupplements/administration & dosage
9.
Noise Health ; 2005 Oct-Dec; 7(29): 24-30
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-121986

ABSTRACT

Both the antioxidant, n-l-acetyl cysteine (L-NAC) and the Src inhibitor, KX1-004, have been used to protect the cochlea from hazardous noise. To date, KX1-004 has only been used locally on the round window. In the current study, the two drugs were administered systemically. LNAC was delivered intraperitoneally at a dose of 325 mg/kg while KX1-004 was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The noise exposure consisted of a 4 kHz octave band of noise at 100 dB SPL for 6 hours/day for 4 days. The drugs were administered once each day, 30 minutes prior to the onset of the noise exposure. The animals' hearing was estimated using the evoked response records from surgically-implanted chronic electrodes in the inferior colliculi. Animals treated with LNAC and KX1-004 had from 10 to 20 dB less temporary threshold shift at day 1 and an average 10 dB less permanent threshold shift by day 21 when compared to control saline treated animals. There were no significant side effects (i.e.: appetite loss, weight loss, lethargy, etc.) related to either of the drug treatments. KX1-004 produced at least as much protection as L-NAC, but at a significantly lower concentration.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Auditory Threshold/drug effects , Chinchilla , Disease Models, Animal , Electrodes , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Evoked Potentials, Auditory/drug effects , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/drug therapy , Inferior Colliculi/physiology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Noise/adverse effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Reactive Oxygen Species/adverse effects , Time Factors , src-Family Kinases/administration & dosage
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48092

ABSTRACT

To determine the loading and maintenance dosage of glutathione (GSH) for patients suffering from reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury such as acute paraquat intoxication, a kinetic study of reduced GSH was performed in synchrony with that of cysteine (Cys), cystine (Cys2), and methionine (Met). Human subject's porticipitation was voluntary. The effective dose of Cys, Cys2, and Met against ROS in fibroblast cells generated by paraquat was assessed using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Both Cys and Met suppressed ROS in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 1-1,000 micrometer; the concentration required to suppress ROS by 50% was 10 micrometer for Cys and 50 micrometer for Met. Using metabolite kinetics with the assumption that Cys and Met are the metabolites of GSH, expected concentrations of Cys and Met of above 20 and 50 micrometer were estimated when GSH was administered at 50 mg/kg body weights every 205.4 min for Cys and 427.4 min for Met.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amino Acids/blood , Animals , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Metabolic Clearance Rate/drug effects , Mice , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Swiss 3T3 Cells
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Aug; 42(8): 798-802
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-58997

ABSTRACT

Efforts have been made to minimize the toxic effect caused by beryllium. Adult cyclic rats of Sprague Dawley strain were administered a bolus dose of 50mg/kg beryllium nitrate intramuscularly. The chelation therapy with glutathione (GSH), dimercapto propane sulfonic acid (DMPS)+ selenium (Se) and D-Penicillamine (DPA) + Se was given for 3 days followed by a rest of 1,3 and 7 days respectively. The results revealed a significant fall in the blood sugar level, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum proteins. A significant rise in the transaminases i.e. aspartate aminotranferase and alanine aminotranferase pattern is indicative of leakage of enzymes from liver resulting in alterations in the cell permeability. A rise in the hepatic lipid peroxidation activity is a direct indication of oxidative damage resulting in free radical generation. Results of the distribution studies by atomic absorption spectrophotometry reveal an increased concentration of beryllium in liver and kidney followed by lung and uterus. The relative ability of 3 chelating agents to act as antagonists for acute beryllium poisoning have been examined in liver, kidney, lungs and uterus. The appreciable change in the beryllium concentration in various organs is duration-dependent during the entire period being highly significant after 7 days rest. From the biochemical assays, and distribution studies it can be assumed that DPA+Se was the most effective therapeutic agent followed by DMPS+Se and GSH. Thus it can be concluded that DPA+Se is a better therapeutic agent as compared to DMPS+Se and GSH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Beryllium/toxicity , Chelation Therapy , Female , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Penicillamine/administration & dosage , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Selenium/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Unithiol/administration & dosage
12.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2003 Sep; 51(3): 237-42
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-71343

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the effect of Balanced Salt Solution Plus (BSS Plus, Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA) and fortified regular BSS on the cornea and lens, when used for continuous irrigation in pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) surgery. METHODS: Prospective, investigator masked, randomised study. Forty patients were randomly assigned to undergo PPV using BSS Plus (n=20) or fortified BSS (n=20) [regular BSS, fortified with 10.5 cc. of dextrose in water (D5W) and 13.1 cc. of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate]. Intraoperative features of the corneal epithelium, postoperative changes in the corneal endothelial cell denstiy (ECD) at 3 months, and clarity of the lens during surgery and postoperatively were evaluated. RESULTS: Intraoperative epithelial changes were similar in both groups with 7 (35%) of the cases having the epithelium removed in the BSS Plus group and 8 (40%) in the BSS fortified group (P=0.23). The mean differences in ECD (3 months versus preoperative) in the operated eyes when adjusted for changes in the control eye showed no difference with the type of BSS (P=0.98). Intraoperative lens changes were more significant (P=0.018) in the BSS fortified group. Postoperative lens status at 3 months was similar for both groups. Though there was a trend towards worse postoperative nuclear sclerosis change in the BSS fortified group, it was not significant (P=0.160). CONCLUSION: Standard BSS fortified with dextrose and bicarbonate is an efficacious infusion fluid during pars plana vitrectomy. Both solutions showed comparable effects on postoperative corneal endothelial cell density and corneal epithelial changes intraoperatively. BSS fortified has more lenticular changes intraoperatively than BSS Plus although no lens had to be removed in either group. The study implications are important since BSS fortified is significantly less expensive than BSS Plus.


Subject(s)
Acetates/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Bicarbonates/administration & dosage , Cell Count , Cornea/drug effects , Drug Combinations , Female , Glucose/administration & dosage , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Humans , Intraoperative Period , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods , Isotonic Solutions/administration & dosage , Lens Implantation, Intraocular/methods , Lens, Crystalline/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Minerals/administration & dosage , Ophthalmic Solutions/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications , Prospective Studies , Sodium Chloride/administration & dosage , Vitrectomy/methods
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2002 Nov; 40(11): 1260-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60865

ABSTRACT

Effect of photoinhibition of sorghum leaves and isolated chloroplasts on chlorophyll fluorescence, peroxidation of thylakoid lipids and activity of antioxidant enzymes were studied. Photoinhibition of intact leaves and isolated chloroplasts decreased Fv/Fm ratio and qP, while qN increased. Photoinhibitory damage was more at 5 degrees C than at 30 degrees or 50 degrees C. Peroxidation of thylakoid lipids was 5 times greater when photoinhibited at 50 degrees C compared to control. Photoinhibition of chloroplasts under low oxygen condition or when supplemented with anti-oxidants (beta-carotene, ascorbate and GSH) resulted in significantly less damage to photosynthesis (Fv/Fm ratio) and peroxidation level. Photoinhibition also resulted in many fold increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and decrease in catalase. Data presented here suggest that photoinhibition resulted in production of oxygen radicals and photoinhibition of chloroplasts in the presence of low oxygen level or when supplemented with antioxidants decreased the damage to Fv/Fm ratio and peroxidation level to a great extent since former prevented the formation of oxygen radicals and later could scavenge the oxygen radicals thus the protection. Increase activity of SOD and APX may also be to metabolise the oxygen radicals produced during photoinhibition treatment, thereby, protecting the seedlings against photooxidative damage.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Catalase/metabolism , Chloroplasts/drug effects , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Light/adverse effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Peroxidases/metabolism , Poaceae/enzymology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Seedlings/chemistry , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , beta Carotene/administration & dosage
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