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Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 38-44, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969740


Objective: To investigate the predictive value of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c/apolipoprotein A-1 (HbA1c/ApoA-1) ratio for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: The present study is a retrospective cohort study. ACS patients who were hospitalized and underwent coronary angiography at Beijing Hospital from March 2017 to March 2019 were enrolled. Baseline information such as sex, age, previous history, Gensini score, HbA1c and ApoA-1 were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to presence or absence of MACEs and the difference on HbA1c/ApoA-1 ratio was compared between the two groups. According to the tertiles of HbA1c/ApoA-1 levels, patients were divided into high (5.87-16.12), medium (4.50-5.83) and low (2.11-4.48) HbA1c/ApoA-1 groups. Cox proportional risk model was used to evaluate the differences in MACEs and all-cause mortality among the three groups. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare the differences of MACEs between the various HbA1c/ApoA-1 groups. Results: A total of 366 ACS patients were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was (65.9±10.3) years. There were 59 MACEs and 10 all-cause deaths during the mean of (22.3±4.4) months follow-up. After adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes and Gensini score, the incidence of MACEs was 2.45 times higher in the high HbA1c/ApoA-1 group than in the low HbA1c/ApoA-1 group (95%CI 1.16-5.18, P=0.019). There was no significant difference in all-cause mortality between the high and low HbA1c/ApoA-1 groups (P=1.000). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients in the high HbA1c/ApoA-1 group had the highest risk of MACEs, while patients in the low HbA1c/ApoA-1 group had the lowest risk of MACEs (P<0.01). Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that HbA1/ApoA-1 ratio was positively correlated with Gensini score in ACS patients (r=0.274, P<0.01). Conclusion: High HbA1c/ApoA-1 ratio was an independent risk factor for MACEs in ACS patients. Patients with high HbA1c/ApoA-1 ratio had more severe coronary artery disease lesions. HbA1c/ApoA-1 ratio may be used as a potential risk stratification biomarker for ACS patients, it might be useful for the early identification of high-risk population and for predicting the incidence of MACEs among ACS patients.

Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Apolipoprotein A-I/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Predictive Value of Tests
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 16(1): 10-16, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1438514


La diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) es una enfermedad autoinmune que genera dependencia exógena de insulina de forma permanente, presenta inflamación subclínica crónica lo que conlleva a una elevación de marcadores de inflamación como factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α), proteína C reactiva (PCR) e interleuquina 6 (IL-6). OBJETIVO: determinar la relación entre el IMC sobre los marcadores de inflamación y el control metabólico en niños y jóvenes con DM1 entre 5 a 15 años de edad. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó un estudio clínico, observacional, exploratorio. A partir de La recolección de datos de fichas clínicas y muestras de sangre en el Instituto de Investigaciones Materno Infantil (IDIMI) del Hospital San Borja Arriarán de la Universidad de Chile. Clasificación del estado nutricional utilizando datos registrados en ficha clínica. Marcadores de inflamación por medio de ELISA, hemoglobina glicosilada mediante métodos estándares. El análisis estadístico incluyó correlaciones mediante test de Spearman y diferencia de medias mediante test de Kruskal-Wallis seguido de post hoc Dunns. RESULTADOS: Un 30% de los pacientes con DM1 presentaron malnutrición por exceso. Al analizar la relación entre los niveles de marcadores inflamatorios y Hb glicosilada se observó la existencia de asociacion positiva entre usPCR y HbA1c (r= 0,30; p=0,0352) y entre IL-6 y HbA1c (r= - 0,038; p=0,0352). CONCLUSIONES: este estudio describe una posible asociación entre parámetros clásicos de inflamación con la hemoglobina glicosilada en las categorias de sobrepeso y obesidad en pacientes con DM1.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that generates permanent exogenous insulin dependence, accompanied by chronic subclinical inflammation that leads to an elevation of inflammation markers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between BMI on markers of inflammation and metabolic control in children and young people with T1D between 5 and 15 years of age. METHODOLOGY: A clinical, observational and exploratory study was carried out, based on the collection of data from clinical records and blood samples of children and adolescents with DM1 at the Instituto de Investigaciones Materno Infantil (IDIMI) of the Hospital San Borja Arriarán of the Universidad de Chile. Nutritional status, levels of inflammation markers and glycosylated hemoglobin were determined by standardized methods. Statistical analysis included correlations by Spearman test and mean difference by Kruskal-Wallis test followed by post hoc Dunns test. RESULTS: A total of 56 patients with T1D were analyzed, 30% of whom presented excess malnutrition. Those children or adolescents with obesity presented significantly higher usPCR levels compared to underweight patients or patients at risk of malnutrition (p=0.039). In addition, HbA1c levels were determined which were negatively associated with usPCR (r= 0.30; p=0.0352) and IL-6 (r= - 0.038; p=0.0352) levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study points out that nutritional status is associated with usPCR levels, in agreement with what is described in the literature and shows a possible association between classical parameters of inflammation with glycosylated hemoglobin in children and adolescents with nutritional diagnosis of overweight or obesity.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Nutritional Status , Interleukin-6/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Inflammation
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 68-76, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364297


ABSTRACT The lowest dosage of empagliflozin (10 mg) showed similar benefits on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, body weight, blood pressure, and total and cardiovascular mortality in comparison with the highest available dose (25 mg) in the EMPAREG trial. These findings have not been clearly demonstrated for canagliflozin and dapagliflozin. The objective was to compare the effect of different doses of SGLT2 inhibitors commercially available in Brazil on HbA1c and body weight of patients with type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, Cochrane and Embase databases were searched from inception until 11th October 2021 for randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes patients, lasting at least 12 weeks. HbA1c and body weight variations were described using standard mean difference. We performed direct and indirect meta-analysis, as well as a meta-regression with medication doses as covariates. Eighteen studies were included, comprising 16,095 patients. In the direct meta-analysis, SGLT2 inhibitors reduced HbA1c by 0.62% (95% CI −0.66 to −0.59) and body weight by 0.60 kg (95% CI −0.64 to −0.55). In the indirect meta-analysis, canagliflozin 300 mg ranked the highest regarding reductions in HbA1c and body weight. The remaining medications and dosages were clinically similar, despite some statistically significant differences among them. Canagliflozin 300 mg seems to be more potent in reducing HbA1c and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes. The remaining SGLT2 inhibitors at different doses lead to similar effects for both outcomes. Whether these glycemic and weight effects are reflected in lower mortality and cardiovascular events is still uncertain and may be a topic for further studies.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood , Body Weight , Brazil , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 126-138, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929192


This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the quality of care of diabetes in Shanghai, China. A total of 173 235 patients with type 2 diabetes in 2017 were included in the analysis. Profiles of risk factors and intermediate outcomes were determined. The patients had a mean age of 66.43 ± 8.12 (standard deviation (SD)) years and a mean diabetes duration of 7.95 ± 5.53 (SD) years. The percentage of patients who achieved the target level for HbA1c (< 7.0%) was 48.6%. Patients who achieved the target levels for blood pressure (BP) < 130/80 mmHg and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) < 2.6 mmol/L reached 17.5% and 34.0%, respectively. A total of 3.8% achieved all three target levels, and the value increased to 6.8% with an adaptation of the BP target level (< 140/90 mmHg) for those over 65 years. Multivariable analysis identified the factors associated with a great likelihood of achieving all three target levels: male, young age, short diabetes duration, low body mass index, macrovascular complications, no microvascular complications, prescribed with lipid-lowering medication, and no prescription of antihypertensive medication. In conclusion, nearly 50% and one-third of the patients with diabetes met the target levels for HbA1c and LDL-c, respectively, with a low percentage achieving the BP target level. The percentage of patients who achieved all three target levels needs significant improvement.

Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blood Pressure , China/epidemiology , Cholesterol, LDL/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928990


OBJECTIVES@#Patients with classical type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) require lifelong dependence on exogenous insulin therapy due to pancreatic beta-cell destruction and absolute insulin deficiency. T1DM accounts for about 90% of children with diabetes in China, with a rapid increase in incidence and a younger-age trend. Epidemiological studies have shown that the overall glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and compliance rate are low in Chinese children with T1DM. Optimal glucose control is the key for diabetes treatment, and maintaining blood glucose within the target range can prevent or delay chronic vascular complications in patients with T1DM. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the glycemic control of children with T1DM from Hunan and Henan Province with flash glucose monitoring system (FGMS), and to explore factors associated with glycemic variability.@*METHODS@#A total of 215 children with T1DM under 14 years old were enrolled continuously in 16 hospitals from August 2017 to August 2020. All subjects wore a FGMS device to collect glucose data. Correlation of HbA1c, duration of diabetes, or glucose scan rates with glycemic variability was analyzed. Glucose variability was compared according to the duration of diabetes, HbA1c, glucose scan rates and insulin schema.@*RESULTS@#HbA1c and duration of diabetes were positively correlated with mean blood glucose, standard deviation of glucose, mean amplitude of glucose excursions (MAGE), and coefficient of variation (CV) of glucose (all P<0.01). The glucose scan rates during FGMS wearing was significantly positively correlated with time in range (TIR) (P=0.001) and negatively correlated with MAGE and mean duration of hypoglycemia (all P<0.01). Children with duration ≤1 year had lower time below range (TBR) and MAGE when compared with those with duration >1 year (all P<0.05). TIR and TBR in patients with HbA1c ≤7.5% were higher (TIR: 65% vs 45%, TBR: 5% vs 4%, P<0.05), MAGE was lower (7.0 mmol/L vs 9.4 mmol/L, P<0.001) than those in HbA1c >7.5% group. Compared to the multiple daily insulin injections group, TIR was higher (60% vs 52%, P=0.006), MAGE was lower (P=0.006) in the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion group. HbA1c was lower in the high scan rates (≥14 times/d) group (7.4% vs 8.0%, P=0.046), TIR was significantly higher (58% vs 47%, P<0.001), and MAGE was lower (P<0.001) than those in the low scan rate (<14 times/d) group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The overall glycemic control of T1DM patients under 14 years old in Hunan and Henan Province is under a high risk of hypoglycemia and great glycemic variability. Shorter duration of diabetes, targeted HbA1c, higher glucose scan rates, and CSII are associated with less glycemic variability.

Adolescent , Child , Humans , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936111


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy of initial periodontal therapy in periodontitis patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus and its correlation with white blood cell counts.@*METHODS@#In this study, 32 chronic periodontitis patients without systemic disease (CP group) and 27 chronic periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (CP+DM group) were enrolled. At admission, all the patients went through periodontal examination and fasting blood examination(baseline). Probing depth (PD), attachment loss (AL), bleeding index (BI), plaque index (PLI), white blood cells (WBC) counts and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were recorded respectively, while hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was recorded only in CP+DM group. After that, initial periodontal therapy was performed. All the tests were repeated 3 and 6 months after treatment. The changes of periodontal clinical indexes and WBC levels were compared between the two groups before and after treatment, and the correlation between WBC and periodontal clinical indexes and glucose metabolism indexes were analyzed by generalized linear mixed model.@*RESULTS@#At baseline, the periodontal inflammation and destruction were similar in CP and CP+DM group, but the WBC level was significantly higher in CP+DM groups [(6.01±1.26)×109/L vs. (7.14±1.99)×109/L, P=0.01]. After 3 and 6 months of initial periodontal therapy, the mean PD, AL, BI, and PLI in CP+DM and CP groups were significantly lower than the baseline, and the PD in CP+DM group was further decreased by 6 months compared with 3 months [(3.33±0.62) mm vs. (3.61±0.60) mm, P < 0.05]. However, none of these periodontal indexes showed significant difference between the two groups by 3 or 6 months. In CP+DM group, HbA1c at 3 months and 6 months were significantly lower than the baseline [(7.09±0.79)% vs. (7.64±1.16)%, P < 0.05; (7.06±0.78)% vs. (7.64±1.16)%, P < 0.05], and FBG was significantly lower than the baseline by 6 months [(7.35±1.14) mmol/L vs. (8.40±1.43) mmol/L, P < 0.05]. The WBC level in CP group was significantly lower than the baseline level by 3 months [(5.35±1.37)×109/L vs. (6.01±1.26)×109/L, P < 0.05], while that in CP+DM group was significantly lower than the baseline level by 6 months [(6.00±1.37)×109/L vs. (7.14±1.99)×109/L, P < 0.05]. The analysis of genera-lized linear mixed model showed that WBC level was significantly positively correlated with PD and FBG (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Initial periodontal therapy can effectively improve the periodontal clinical status of patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus, and have benefits on glycemic control in diabetic patients. However, the response of periodontal indexes and WBC level to initial therapy were relatively delayed in diabetic patients. WBC plays an important role in the correlation between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis.

Humans , Chronic Periodontitis/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Leukocytes/chemistry , Periodontal Index
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(3): 311-314, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288589


ABSTRACT Introduction Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. It is a metabolic syndrome in which blood sugar levels increase due to defects in insulin secretion or impaired function, or even both defects. Object To understand the effect of diabetic patients in controlling blood sugar through physical exercise, the paper analyzes the correlation between the exercise status and physiological indicators of diabetic patients in our hospital. Methods We randomly selected 41 diabetic patients and monitored their exercise. At the same time, we check the physiological indicators of the patients after the exercise is completed and analyze the control of blood sugar by sports. Results After healthy physical exercise, the blood sugar level of diabetic patients tended to stabilize, and the glycosylated hemoglobin level decreased. The blood sugar levels of patients who did not participate in healthy physical exercises were not stable, and their glycosylated hemoglobin levels did not improve. Conclusion Healthy sports is a simple, easy, safe and effective adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of diabetes, and it is worthy of clinical promotion. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

RESUMO Introdução O diabetes é uma doença metabólica caracterizada por hiperglicemia. É uma síndrome metabólica em que os níveis de açúcar no sangue aumentam devido a defeitos na secreção de insulina ou função prejudicada, ou mesmo ambos os defeitos. Objetivo Para compreender os pacientes diabéticos no controle da glicemia por meio do exercício físico, o artigo analisa a correlação entre o estado de exercício e os indicadores fisiológicos de pacientes diabéticos em nosso hospital. Métodos Selecionamos aleatoriamente 41 pacientes diabéticos e monitoramos seus exercícios. Ao mesmo tempo, verificamos os indicadores fisiológicos dos pacientes após a realização do exercício e analisamos o controle da glicemia pelo esporte. Resultados Após exercícios físicos saudáveis, o nível de açúcar no sangue de pacientes diabéticos tendeu a se estabilizar e o nível de hemoglobina glicosilada diminuiu. Os níveis de açúcar no sangue dos pacientes que não praticavam exercícios físicos saudáveis não foram estáveis e os níveis de hemoglobina glicosilada não melhoraram. Conclusão O esporte saudável é uma terapia adjuvante simples, fácil, segura e eficaz para a prevenção e tratamento do diabetes e merece divulgação clínica. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

RESUMEN Introducción la diabetes es una enfermedad metabólica caracterizada por hiperglucemia. Es un síndrome metabólico en el que los niveles de azúcar en sangre aumentan debido a defectos en la secreción de insulina o función alterada, o incluso a ambos defectos. Objeto Para comprender a los pacientes diabéticos en el control de la glucemia a través del ejercicio físico, el trabajo analiza la correlación entre el estado de ejercicio y los indicadores fisiológicos de los pacientes diabéticos en nuestro hospital. Métodos Seleccionamos aleatoriamente a 41 pacientes diabéticos y monitoreamos su ejercicio. Al mismo tiempo, verificamos los indicadores fisiológicos de los pacientes una vez finalizado el ejercicio y analizamos el control del azúcar en sangre mediante los deportes. Resultados Después de un ejercicio físico saludable, el nivel de azúcar en sangre de los pacientes diabéticos tendió a estabilizarse y el nivel de hemoglobina glicosilada disminuyó. Los niveles de azúcar en sangre de los pacientes que no participaron en ejercicios físicos saludables no fueron estables y sus niveles de hemoglobina glicosilada no mejoraron. Conclusión El deporte saludable es una terapia adyuvante simple, fácil, segura y eficaz para la prevención y el tratamiento de la diabetes y es digno de promoción clínica. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Exercise/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood
Rev. invest. clín ; 73(4): 222-230, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347568


Background: Information regarding diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with type 1 diabetes (PWT1D) in Mexico is limited. We developed an on-line platform Registro Nacional de Pacientes con Diabetes Tipo 1 (RENACED-DT1). Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the characteristics and healthcare of PWT1D registered in RENACED-DT1. Methods: Analyses of 965 PWT1D from July 2014 to January 2018 in different endocrinology clinics around Mexico. Results: Sixty-one percent were female with median age of 21 years, age at diagnosis 11 years, and disease duration at inclusion 8.2 years. Treatment regimen was basal-bolus in 61% and insulin-pumps in 21% (mainly in the private sector); 33.3% with self-monitoring of blood-glucose (SMBG) ≥4 times/day. Mean HbA1c at last follow-up was 8.7 ± 2.1% (72±23 mmol/mol), 18% had HbA1c < 7% (53 mmol/mol), and 35% > 9% (75 mmol/mol). SMBG ≥ 4 times/day was associated with HbA1c < 7%. Time since diagnosis > 10 years, female sex, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, SMBG < 4 times/day, and any hypoglycemia were associated with microvascular complications (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Percentage of patients achieving HbA1c < 7% is low; increased blood glucose monitoring is associated with better glycemic control. The achievement of optimal glycemic control must be increased to reduce the incidence of chronic complications and improve quality of life in PWT1D.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Registries , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Mexico/epidemiology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 328-335, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285149


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association between HbA1c levels measured in the third trimester and the risk for large for gestational age (LGA) in neonates of mothers affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Secondarily, we aimed to identify an ideal cut-off for increased risk of LGA amongst pregnant women with GDM. Materials and methods: Observational retrospective review of singleton pregnant women with GDM evaluated in a diabetes and pregnancy clinic of a tertiary and academic hospital. From January/2011 to December/2017, 1,085 pregnant women underwent evaluation due to GDM, of which 665 had an HbA1c test in the third trimester. A logistic regression model was performed to evaluate predictors of LGA. A receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the predictive ability of third trimester HbA1c for LGA identification. Results: A total of 1,085 singleton pregnant women were evaluated during the study period, with a mean age of 32.9 ± 5.3 years. In the multivariate analysis, OGTT at 0 minutes (OR: 1.040; CI 95% 1.006-1.076, p = 0.022) and third trimester HbA1c (OR: 4.680; CI 95% 1.210-18.107, p = 0.025) were associated with LGA newborns. Using a ROC curve to evaluate the predictive ability of third trimester HbA1c for LGA identification, the optimal HbA1c cut-off point was 5.4% where the sensitivity was 77.4% and the specificity was 71.7% (AUC 0.782; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Few studies in the Mediterranean population have evaluated the role of HbA1c in predicting neonatal complications in women with GDM. A third trimester HbA1c > 5.4% was found to have good sensitivity and specificity for identifying the risk of LGA.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Birth Weight , Fetal Macrosomia , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Gestational Age
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 185-197, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248805


ABSTRACT Objective: The main aim of the study was to evaluate the patients' glycemic control and adherence to self-care tasks. Materials and methods: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA) using a multiple daily injection (MDI) regimen with carbohydrate counting (n = 25, Subgroup B) or fixed insulin dose (n = 25, Subgroup C) were allocated to use the application (app) for 12 weeks. Both subgroups were compared with each other and against a control group (n = 25, Group A) comprising patients with T1DM or LADA treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in a parallel-group, open-label, clinical treatment trial. All patients had glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels measured and were asked to fill out the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP) questionnaire at study start and end. The patients were instructed to measure capillary glucose six times daily in study weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results: Mean A1C levels decreased 0.725% in Subgroup C in intragroup analysis (p = 0.0063), and had a mean variation of 0.834% compared with Group A (p = 0.003). Mean DSMP scores increased 5.77 points in Subgroup B in intragroup analysis (p = 0.0004) and increased by a mean of 6.815 points in relation to Group A (p = 0.002). Conclusion: OneTouch Reveal improved both A1C levels and DSMP scores in patients with T1DM or LADA compared with standard treatment (CSII).

Humans , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Mobile Applications , Self Care , Blood Glucose/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Insulin Infusion Systems , Glycemic Control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 164-171, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248819


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of hypoglycemia and the treatment satisfaction in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using insulin analogues. Subjects and methods: This observational retrospective study included 516 adult patients with T1D from 38 cities in Southern Brazil. Demographics and clinical data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Hypoglycemia was defined as an event based on either symptoms or self-monitored blood glucose < 70 mg/dL. Treatment satisfaction was evaluated using the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire status version (DTSQs) and with a specific question with scores ranging from 0-10. Common mental disorders were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results: Overall, the mean age was 38 ± 14 years and 52% of the participants were women. The median diabetes duration was 18 years. The scores for insulin analogue treatment satisfaction were higher than those for previous treatments. DTSQ scores had a median value of 32 (interquartile range 29-35) and remained unchanged over time. The percentage of patients with hypoglycemia (including severe and nocturnal) was comparable across groups divided according to duration of use of insulin analogues. Most patients (n=395, 77%) screened positive for common mental disorders. Conclusions: Patient satisfaction with insulin analogue treatment was high and remained unchanged with time. Episodes of hypoglycemia also remained unchanged over time among patients using insulin analogues.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Insulins/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Patient Satisfaction , Middle Aged
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 50-54, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279073


Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) constituye la principal causa de mortalidad en mujeres; la preeclampsia (PE) y la diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) están asociadas a incremento en el riesgo de ECV. Objetivo: Evaluar el conocimiento de los médicos generales (MG) sobre complicaciones obstétricas asociadas a ECV. Métodos: Se envió a los MG un cuestionario electrónico anónimo basado en casos, diseñado para evaluar el entendimiento de la influencia de la historia obstétrica en el riesgo cardiovascular a largo plazo y el conocimiento general sobre riesgo de ECV. Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue de 35 % (161/465). Los participantes reconocieron que la PE y la DMG son factores de riesgo para ECV (98 y 83 %, respectivamente) y reportaron las siguientes estrategias de tamizaje de ECV en mujeres con historial de PE y DMG: monitoreo de presión arterial (PE 100 %, DMG 46 %), cálculo de índice de masa corporal (PE 68 %, DMG 57 %), evaluación del perfil de lípidos (PE 71 %, DMG 57 %), hemoglobina glucosilada (PE 26 %, DMG 92 %) y glucosa en ayuno (PE 28 %, DMG 91 %). Conclusión: Las estrategias de tamizaje para identificar ECV en mujeres con antecedentes de PE y DMG reportadas por los MG fueron variables.

Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in women; preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are associated with an increased risk of CVD. Objective: To evaluate general practitioners (GP) knowledge about complicated pregnancies and their association with CVD. Methods: An anonymous case-based electronic questionnaire designed to assess the level of understanding on the influence of a history of pregnancy complications on long-term cardiovascular risk and general knowledge about CVD risk was sent to GPs. Results: The response rate was 35 % (161/465). The participants recognized that PE and GDM are risk factors for CVD (98 and 83 %, respectively), and reported the following CVD screening strategies in women with a history of PE and GDM: blood pressure monitoring (PE 100 %, GDM 46 %), body mass index calculation (PE 68 %, GDM 57 %), lipid profile evaluation (PE 71 %, GDM 57 %), glycated hemoglobin (PE 26 %, GDM 92 %), and fasting glucose (PE 28 %, GDM 91 %). Conclusion: GP-reported screening strategies to identify CVD in women with a history of PE and GDM were variable.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/etiology , Clinical Competence , Diabetes, Gestational , General Practitioners , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/diagnosis , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Pressure Determination , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Fasting/blood , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Lipids/blood
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 29(1): 27-34, Ene-Mar 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1284101


Introducción: en la actualidad, la diabetes se considera una emergencia mundial debido al aumento de su prevalencia, posibles complicaciones y elevada mortalidad. Algunos factores culturales, como las creencias fatalistas, pueden representar una barrera para su control. Objetivo: revisar la evidencia científica disponible de la relación entre el fatalismo y el control glucémico en adultos con diabetes tipo 2. Metodología: se realizó una búsqueda en EBSCO Academic Search Complete, Science Direct, Web of Science, Pubmed, Springer, Redalyc, Latindex, Mediclatina y Fuente Académica vía EBSCO, delimitada a 10 años (2008-2018). Se utilizaron los descriptores DeCS y MeHS y la búsqueda de los estudios se efectuó en español e inglés. Los estudios se evaluaron para su validez a través de la guía para estudios analíticos transversales del Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal. Resultados: de 275 resultados que arrojó la búsqueda, se seleccionaron cinco estudios correlacionales-transversales, publicados en inglés en Estados Unidos, Líbano, Turquía e Israel, que incluyeron entre 130 y 615 pacientes con diagnóstico (5-14.4 años) de diabetes tipo 2. La evidencia disponible sugiere que existe una relación entre el fatalismo y el control glucémico. Conclusión: la relación entre el fatalismo y el control glucé-mico en adultos con diabetes tipo 2 es compleja y represen- ta en pacientes fatalistas una barrera para el control de la enfermedad.

Introduction: Diabetes is currently considered a worldwide emergency due to its increased prevalence, possible complications, and high mortality. Some cultural factors, such as fatalistic beliefs, may represent a barrier to diabetes control. Objective: Review scientific evidence avaible on the relationship between fatalism and glycemic control in adults with Type 2 Diabetes. Methods: A search was carried out in EBSCO Academic Search Complete, Science Direct, Web of Science, Pubmed, Springer, Redalyc, Latindex, Mediclatina y Fuente Académica EBSCO, limited to ten years (2008-2018). DeCS and MeHS descriptors were used, the search for studies was in Spanish and English. The studies were evaluated for validity through the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Assessment guide for cross-sectional analytical studies. Results: The information query delivered 275 results and 5 from these studies were included. These are correlational-cross-sectional studies, published in English, from countries such as The United States of America, Lebanon, and Israel, which studied between 130 and 615 patients with diagnosis of T2D (between 5 and 14.4 years). Available evidence suggests that there is a relationship between fatalism and glycemic control. Conclusion: The relationship between fatalism and glycemic control in adults with Type 2 Diabetes is complex and represents, in more fatalistic patients, a barrier to disease control.

Humans , Cultural Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology , Self Care , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878316


Objective@#The relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and glycemic indices, including plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour postload glucose (2h-PG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), remains inconclusive. We aimed to explore the associations between glycemic indices and SUA levels in the general Chinese population.@*Methods@#The current study was a cross-sectional analysis using the first follow-up survey data from The China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study. A total of 105,922 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 40 years underwent the oral glucose tolerance test and uric acid assessment. The nonlinear relationships between glycemic indices and SUA levels were explored using generalized additive models.@*Results@#A total of 30,941 men and 62,361 women were eligible for the current analysis. Generalized additive models verified the inverted U-shaped association between glycemic indices and SUA levels, but with different inflection points in men and women. The thresholds for FPG, 2h-PG, and HbA1c for men and women were 6.5/8.0 mmol/L, 11.0/14.0 mmol/L, and 6.1/6.5, respectively (SUA levels increased with increasing glycemic indices before the inflection points and then eventually decreased with further increases in the glycemic indices).@*Conclusion@#An inverted U-shaped association was observed between major glycemic indices and uric acid levels in both sexes, while the inflection points were reached earlier in men than in women.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Asian People , Blood Glucose/analysis , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Glycemic Index , Uric Acid/blood
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880686


OBJECTIVES@#To determine the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and ambulatory blood pressure or heart rate in hypertensive patients.@*METHODS@#A total of 585 patients, who performed ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) from September 2018 to April 2019 in Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, were enrolled and assigned into 2 groups (470 in a hypertensive group and 115 in a normal group). HbA1c levels were compared. According to the HbA1c level, the hypertensive group was divided into 2 subgroups: A high HbA1c group (HbA1c≥6.1%, @*RESULTS@#The hypertensive group had higher HbA1c level than the normal group [(6.1±1.3)% vs (5.1±1.7)%, @*CONCLUSIONS@#In hypertensive patients, HbA1c is positively correlated with ambulate blood pressure, blood pressure load, and heart rate, and it has no correlation with blood pressure variability, heart rate variability, or morning blood pressure.

Humans , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Heart Rate , Hypertension
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921832


High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is currently the mainstream technology for detecting hemoglobin. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a gold indicator for diagnosing diabetes, however, the accuracy of HbA1c test is affected by thalassemia factor hemoglobin F (HbF)/hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) and variant hemoglobin during HPLC analysis. In this study, a new anti-interference hemoglobin analysis system of HPLC is proposed. In this system, the high-pressure three-gradient elution method was improved, and the particle size and sieve plate aperture in the high-pressure chromatography column and the structure of the double-plunger reciprocating series high-pressure pump were optimized. The system could diagnose both HbA1c and thalassemia factor HbF/HbA2 and variant hemoglobin, and the performance of the system was anti-interference and stable. It is expected to achieve industrialization. In this study, the HbA1c and thalassemia factor HbF/HbA2 detection performance was compared between this system and the world's first-line brand products such as Tosoh G8, Bio-Rad Ⅶ and D10 glycosylated hemoglobin analysis system. The results showed that the linear correlation between this system and the world-class system was good. The system is the first domestic hemoglobin analysis system by HPLC for screening of HbA1c and thalassemia factor HbF/HbA2 rapidly and accurately.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fetal Hemoglobin/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Hemoglobin A2/analysis , Hemoglobins
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(5): 570-578, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345201


ABSTRACT Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the heterogeneity of the association between glycemic variability and oxidative stress markers in T1DM patients under daily life insulin treatment. Subjects and methods: We studied, in a cross-sectional analysis, 76 T1DM patients without clinical chronic diabetes complications and 22 healthy individuals. Were evaluated the short-term glycemic variability (STGV), long-term glycemic variability (LTGV), oxidative stress markers [8-isoprostaglandin-F2α (Ur-8-iso-PGF2α), nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and erythrocytes reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG)] and biochemical dosages (glycaemia, HbA1c, lipidogram, albuminuria). Results: Plasmatic NO was positively associated with LTGV (last year average of HbA1c) (8.7 ± 1.6% or 71 ± 18 mmol) (rS: 0.278; p: 0.042). Plasmatic TBARS, erythrocytes GSH/GSSH and Ur-8-iso-PGF-2α didn't show correlation with glycemic variability. GSH/GSSG was inversely correlated with LDL-cholesterol (rS: - 0.417; p: 0.047) and triglycerides (rS: −0.521; p: 0.013). Albuminuria was positive correlated with age (rS: 0.340; p: 0.002), plasmatic NO (rS: 0.267; p 0.049) and TBARS (rS: 0.327; p: 0.015). Conclusion: In daily life insulin treatment, young T1DM patients have higher plasmatic NO than healthy subjects. However, the correlation between glycemic variability and oxidative stress markers is heterogeneous. Lipid profile and albuminuria are associated with different oxidative stress markers. These data collaborate to explain the controversial results in this issue.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Insulins/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oxidative Stress
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(5): 640-647, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345205


ABSTRACT Objective: Flash glucose monitoring (FGM) is increasingly used in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) management. This study aimed to assess glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI) in the first year of FGM use in patients with T1D and to identify predictive factors of benefit associated with its use. Subjects and methods: Retrospective study of T1D patients, using FGM for ≥ 6 months and under intensive insulin therapy with multiple daily injections. Results: In 179 patients with a median (Md) age of 43.0 years (P25 31.0; P75 52.0) and disease duration of 18.0 years (P25 10.0; P75 28.0), initial HbA1c was 7.9% (P25 7.2; P75 8.8) and initial BMI was 24.0 kg/m2 (P25 21.9; P75 26.2). With FGM, HbA1c improved significantly to 7.6% (P25 7.0; P75 8.3) at 6 months and 7.7% (P25 6.95; P75 8.5) at 12 months (p < 0.05), with more patients with HbA1c < 7% (16.1% vs 22.5%) and fewer patients with HbA1c ≥ 8% (49.1% vs 35.8%) (p < 0.05). Initial HbA1c 8.0-8.9% (HR 1.886; 95% CI 1.321-2.450) and ≥ 9.0% (HR 3.108, 95% CI 2.454-3.761) predicted greater HbA1c reduction. BMI increased significantly, especially between 6 and 12 months (BMI Md 23.8 [P25 21.9; P75 26.2] kg/m2 and 24.0 [P25 22.0; P75 26.2] kg/m2, respectively) (p < 0.05). Overweight (HR 4.319, 95% CI 3.185-5.453) and obesity (HR 8.112, 95% CI 3.919-12.306) predicted greater weight gain. Conclusions: FGM use was associated with significant improvement in HbA1c, mainly in patients with worse previous glycemic control. It was also associated with increased BMI, especially if baseline BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, so weight control strategies should be emphasized.

Humans , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Body Mass Index , Retrospective Studies , Glycemic Control , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(5): e00076120, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249440


O diabetes mellitus é uma das doenças mundialmente mais prevalentes em adultos e está entre as principais causas de perda de anos de vida saudável, o que se agrava com o acelerado envelhecimento populacional no Brasil. Este estudo visa dimensionar o problema do diabetes mellitus e suas complicações e caracterizar a atenção à saúde do diabético no Brasil, segundo regiões. As prevalências foram estimadas utilizando modelo de regressão multinomial, e a caracterização da atenção à saúde se deu a partir da triangulação entre a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS), o Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e da Qualidade da Atenção Básica (PMAQ-AB) e dados da Farmácia Popular. A prevalência de diabetes mellitus no Brasil foi de 9,2%, pelo modelo multinomial, e a prevalência da PNS corrigida (autorreferida + alterada na hemoglobina glicosilada - HbA1c ≥ 6,5) foi de 9,4%. A proporção de subnotificação do diabetes mellitus no país foi de 42,5%, chegando a 72,8% na Região Norte. Dentre os diagnosticados, mais da metade apresentou HbA1c ≥ 6,5. A insuficiente realização de exame de fundo de olho (40%), com ampla variação regional (Norte 25% - Sudeste 52%), reflete-se na alta prevalência de retinopatia. O exame dos pés apresentou baixa realização (30%), podendo levar a mais amputações. Cerca de 80% dos diabéticos usavam medicamentos, o que indica uma alta parcela ainda sem tratamento. Deficiências na atenção à saúde do diabético levam a maior morbidade, internações (15%) e idas a emergências (27% - PMAQ). O cenário apresentado em 2012, apesar de não ser ideal, deu-se num contexto de fortalecimento do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Com a crescente prevalência de diabetes mellitus e cortes no investimento em saúde pública, cabe a reflexão sobre o controle da doença nos próximos anos.

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide and is among the leading causes of loss of healthy years of life, which is aggravated in Brazil by accelerated population aging. This study aims to measure the problem of diabetes mellitus and its complications and characterize healthcare for diabetics in Brazil, according to regions. Prevalence rates were estimated using a multinomial regression model, and characterization of healthcare was based on triangulation between the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS), the National Program for Improving Access and Quality in Primary Care (PMAQ-AB), and data from the Popular Pharmacy program. Diabetes prevalence in Brazil was 9.2%, according to the multinomial model, and prevalence in the corrected PNS (self-report + altered glycated hemoglobin - HbA1c ≥ 6.5) was 9.4%. The proportion of diabetes mellitus underreporting in the country was 42.5%, reaching 72.8% in the North. Among individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, half presented HbA1c ≥ 6.5. Insufficient fundus eye examination (only 40% on average), with major regional variation (North 25% - Southeast 52%), is reflected in the high prevalence of retinopathy. Insufficient examination of feet (only 30%), can lead to more amputations. About 80% of diabetics used medications, indicating a persistently high proportion still without treatment. Healthcare deficiencies for diabetics lead to greater morbidity, hospitalizations (15%), and visits to emergency departments (27%, PMAQ). The scenario in 2012, although not ideal, occurred in a context of strengthening of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). The growing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and cutbacks in public health budgeting call for serious reflection on control of the disease in the coming years.

Resumen: La diabetes mellitus es una de las enfermedades mundialmente más prevalentes en adultos y está entre las principales causas de pérdida de años de vida saludable, lo que se agrava con el acelerado envejecimiento poblacional en Brasil. Este estudio tiene como objetivo dimensionar el problema de la diabetes mellitus y sus complicaciones, así como caracterizar la atención a la salud del diabético en Brasil, según regiones. Las prevalencias fueron estimadas utilizando un modelo de regresión multinomial, además, la caracterización de la atención a la salud se produjo a partir de la triangulación entre Encuesta Nacional de Salud (PNS), el Programa Nacional para la Mejora del Acceso y la Calidad en Atención Primaria (PMAQ-AB) y datos de la Farmacia Popular. La prevalencia de diabetes mellitus en Brasil fue de 9,2%, por el modelo multinomial y la prevalencia de la PNS corregida (autoinformada + alterada en la hemoglobina glicosilada - HbA1c ≥ 6,5) fue de 9,4%. La proporción de subnotificación de la diabetes mellitus en el país fue de 42,5%, llegando a 72,8% en la región Norte. Entre los diagnosticados, más de la mitad presentó HbA1c ≥ 6,5. La insuficiente realización de exámenes de fondo de ojo (40%), con amplia variación regional (Norte 25% - Sureste 52%), se refleja en la alta prevalencia de retinopatía. El examen de los pies presentó baja realización (30%), pudiendo conducir a más amputaciones. Cerca de un 80% de los diabéticos usaban medicamentos, lo que indica un alto porcentaje todavía sin tratamiento. Deficiencias en la atención a la salud del diabético conducen a una mayor morbilidad, internamientos (15%) e idas a emergencias (27% - PMAQ). El escenario presentado en 2012, a pesar de no ser el ideal, se produjo en un contexto de fortalecimiento del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS). Con la creciente prevalencia de diabetes mellitus y cortes en la inversión en salud pública, cabe la reflexión sobre el control de la enfermedad durante los próximos años.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Prevalence , Delivery of Health Care