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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(3): 311-314, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288589

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. It is a metabolic syndrome in which blood sugar levels increase due to defects in insulin secretion or impaired function, or even both defects. Object To understand the effect of diabetic patients in controlling blood sugar through physical exercise, the paper analyzes the correlation between the exercise status and physiological indicators of diabetic patients in our hospital. Methods We randomly selected 41 diabetic patients and monitored their exercise. At the same time, we check the physiological indicators of the patients after the exercise is completed and analyze the control of blood sugar by sports. Results After healthy physical exercise, the blood sugar level of diabetic patients tended to stabilize, and the glycosylated hemoglobin level decreased. The blood sugar levels of patients who did not participate in healthy physical exercises were not stable, and their glycosylated hemoglobin levels did not improve. Conclusion Healthy sports is a simple, easy, safe and effective adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of diabetes, and it is worthy of clinical promotion. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução O diabetes é uma doença metabólica caracterizada por hiperglicemia. É uma síndrome metabólica em que os níveis de açúcar no sangue aumentam devido a defeitos na secreção de insulina ou função prejudicada, ou mesmo ambos os defeitos. Objetivo Para compreender os pacientes diabéticos no controle da glicemia por meio do exercício físico, o artigo analisa a correlação entre o estado de exercício e os indicadores fisiológicos de pacientes diabéticos em nosso hospital. Métodos Selecionamos aleatoriamente 41 pacientes diabéticos e monitoramos seus exercícios. Ao mesmo tempo, verificamos os indicadores fisiológicos dos pacientes após a realização do exercício e analisamos o controle da glicemia pelo esporte. Resultados Após exercícios físicos saudáveis, o nível de açúcar no sangue de pacientes diabéticos tendeu a se estabilizar e o nível de hemoglobina glicosilada diminuiu. Os níveis de açúcar no sangue dos pacientes que não praticavam exercícios físicos saudáveis não foram estáveis e os níveis de hemoglobina glicosilada não melhoraram. Conclusão O esporte saudável é uma terapia adjuvante simples, fácil, segura e eficaz para a prevenção e tratamento do diabetes e merece divulgação clínica. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción la diabetes es una enfermedad metabólica caracterizada por hiperglucemia. Es un síndrome metabólico en el que los niveles de azúcar en sangre aumentan debido a defectos en la secreción de insulina o función alterada, o incluso a ambos defectos. Objeto Para comprender a los pacientes diabéticos en el control de la glucemia a través del ejercicio físico, el trabajo analiza la correlación entre el estado de ejercicio y los indicadores fisiológicos de los pacientes diabéticos en nuestro hospital. Métodos Seleccionamos aleatoriamente a 41 pacientes diabéticos y monitoreamos su ejercicio. Al mismo tiempo, verificamos los indicadores fisiológicos de los pacientes una vez finalizado el ejercicio y analizamos el control del azúcar en sangre mediante los deportes. Resultados Después de un ejercicio físico saludable, el nivel de azúcar en sangre de los pacientes diabéticos tendió a estabilizarse y el nivel de hemoglobina glicosilada disminuyó. Los niveles de azúcar en sangre de los pacientes que no participaron en ejercicios físicos saludables no fueron estables y sus niveles de hemoglobina glicosilada no mejoraron. Conclusión El deporte saludable es una terapia adyuvante simple, fácil, segura y eficaz para la prevención y el tratamiento de la diabetes y es digno de promoción clínica. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Exercise/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 50-54, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279073

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) constituye la principal causa de mortalidad en mujeres; la preeclampsia (PE) y la diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) están asociadas a incremento en el riesgo de ECV. Objetivo: Evaluar el conocimiento de los médicos generales (MG) sobre complicaciones obstétricas asociadas a ECV. Métodos: Se envió a los MG un cuestionario electrónico anónimo basado en casos, diseñado para evaluar el entendimiento de la influencia de la historia obstétrica en el riesgo cardiovascular a largo plazo y el conocimiento general sobre riesgo de ECV. Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue de 35 % (161/465). Los participantes reconocieron que la PE y la DMG son factores de riesgo para ECV (98 y 83 %, respectivamente) y reportaron las siguientes estrategias de tamizaje de ECV en mujeres con historial de PE y DMG: monitoreo de presión arterial (PE 100 %, DMG 46 %), cálculo de índice de masa corporal (PE 68 %, DMG 57 %), evaluación del perfil de lípidos (PE 71 %, DMG 57 %), hemoglobina glucosilada (PE 26 %, DMG 92 %) y glucosa en ayuno (PE 28 %, DMG 91 %). Conclusión: Las estrategias de tamizaje para identificar ECV en mujeres con antecedentes de PE y DMG reportadas por los MG fueron variables.


Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in women; preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are associated with an increased risk of CVD. Objective: To evaluate general practitioners (GP) knowledge about complicated pregnancies and their association with CVD. Methods: An anonymous case-based electronic questionnaire designed to assess the level of understanding on the influence of a history of pregnancy complications on long-term cardiovascular risk and general knowledge about CVD risk was sent to GPs. Results: The response rate was 35 % (161/465). The participants recognized that PE and GDM are risk factors for CVD (98 and 83 %, respectively), and reported the following CVD screening strategies in women with a history of PE and GDM: blood pressure monitoring (PE 100 %, GDM 46 %), body mass index calculation (PE 68 %, GDM 57 %), lipid profile evaluation (PE 71 %, GDM 57 %), glycated hemoglobin (PE 26 %, GDM 92 %), and fasting glucose (PE 28 %, GDM 91 %). Conclusion: GP-reported screening strategies to identify CVD in women with a history of PE and GDM were variable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/etiology , Clinical Competence , Diabetes, Gestational , General Practitioners , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/diagnosis , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Pressure Determination , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Fasting/blood , Health Care Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Lipids/blood
3.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 29(1): 27-34, Ene-Mar 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1284101

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en la actualidad, la diabetes se considera una emergencia mundial debido al aumento de su prevalencia, posibles complicaciones y elevada mortalidad. Algunos factores culturales, como las creencias fatalistas, pueden representar una barrera para su control. Objetivo: revisar la evidencia científica disponible de la relación entre el fatalismo y el control glucémico en adultos con diabetes tipo 2. Metodología: se realizó una búsqueda en EBSCO Academic Search Complete, Science Direct, Web of Science, Pubmed, Springer, Redalyc, Latindex, Mediclatina y Fuente Académica vía EBSCO, delimitada a 10 años (2008-2018). Se utilizaron los descriptores DeCS y MeHS y la búsqueda de los estudios se efectuó en español e inglés. Los estudios se evaluaron para su validez a través de la guía para estudios analíticos transversales del Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal. Resultados: de 275 resultados que arrojó la búsqueda, se seleccionaron cinco estudios correlacionales-transversales, publicados en inglés en Estados Unidos, Líbano, Turquía e Israel, que incluyeron entre 130 y 615 pacientes con diagnóstico (5-14.4 años) de diabetes tipo 2. La evidencia disponible sugiere que existe una relación entre el fatalismo y el control glucémico. Conclusión: la relación entre el fatalismo y el control glucé-mico en adultos con diabetes tipo 2 es compleja y represen- ta en pacientes fatalistas una barrera para el control de la enfermedad.


Introduction: Diabetes is currently considered a worldwide emergency due to its increased prevalence, possible complications, and high mortality. Some cultural factors, such as fatalistic beliefs, may represent a barrier to diabetes control. Objective: Review scientific evidence avaible on the relationship between fatalism and glycemic control in adults with Type 2 Diabetes. Methods: A search was carried out in EBSCO Academic Search Complete, Science Direct, Web of Science, Pubmed, Springer, Redalyc, Latindex, Mediclatina y Fuente Académica EBSCO, limited to ten years (2008-2018). DeCS and MeHS descriptors were used, the search for studies was in Spanish and English. The studies were evaluated for validity through the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Assessment guide for cross-sectional analytical studies. Results: The information query delivered 275 results and 5 from these studies were included. These are correlational-cross-sectional studies, published in English, from countries such as The United States of America, Lebanon, and Israel, which studied between 130 and 615 patients with diagnosis of T2D (between 5 and 14.4 years). Available evidence suggests that there is a relationship between fatalism and glycemic control. Conclusion: The relationship between fatalism and glycemic control in adults with Type 2 Diabetes is complex and represents, in more fatalistic patients, a barrier to disease control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cultural Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology , Self Care , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921832

ABSTRACT

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is currently the mainstream technology for detecting hemoglobin. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a gold indicator for diagnosing diabetes, however, the accuracy of HbA1c test is affected by thalassemia factor hemoglobin F (HbF)/hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) and variant hemoglobin during HPLC analysis. In this study, a new anti-interference hemoglobin analysis system of HPLC is proposed. In this system, the high-pressure three-gradient elution method was improved, and the particle size and sieve plate aperture in the high-pressure chromatography column and the structure of the double-plunger reciprocating series high-pressure pump were optimized. The system could diagnose both HbA1c and thalassemia factor HbF/HbA2 and variant hemoglobin, and the performance of the system was anti-interference and stable. It is expected to achieve industrialization. In this study, the HbA1c and thalassemia factor HbF/HbA2 detection performance was compared between this system and the world's first-line brand products such as Tosoh G8, Bio-Rad Ⅶ and D10 glycosylated hemoglobin analysis system. The results showed that the linear correlation between this system and the world-class system was good. The system is the first domestic hemoglobin analysis system by HPLC for screening of HbA1c and thalassemia factor HbF/HbA2 rapidly and accurately.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fetal Hemoglobin/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hemoglobin A2/analysis , Hemoglobins
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878316

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and glycemic indices, including plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour postload glucose (2h-PG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), remains inconclusive. We aimed to explore the associations between glycemic indices and SUA levels in the general Chinese population.@*Methods@#The current study was a cross-sectional analysis using the first follow-up survey data from The China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study. A total of 105,922 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 40 years underwent the oral glucose tolerance test and uric acid assessment. The nonlinear relationships between glycemic indices and SUA levels were explored using generalized additive models.@*Results@#A total of 30,941 men and 62,361 women were eligible for the current analysis. Generalized additive models verified the inverted U-shaped association between glycemic indices and SUA levels, but with different inflection points in men and women. The thresholds for FPG, 2h-PG, and HbA1c for men and women were 6.5/8.0 mmol/L, 11.0/14.0 mmol/L, and 6.1/6.5, respectively (SUA levels increased with increasing glycemic indices before the inflection points and then eventually decreased with further increases in the glycemic indices).@*Conclusion@#An inverted U-shaped association was observed between major glycemic indices and uric acid levels in both sexes, while the inflection points were reached earlier in men than in women.


Subject(s)
Aged , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Blood Glucose/analysis , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycemic Index , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Uric Acid/blood
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880686

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To determine the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and ambulatory blood pressure or heart rate in hypertensive patients.@*METHODS@#A total of 585 patients, who performed ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) from September 2018 to April 2019 in Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, were enrolled and assigned into 2 groups (470 in a hypertensive group and 115 in a normal group). HbA1c levels were compared. According to the HbA1c level, the hypertensive group was divided into 2 subgroups: A high HbA1c group (HbA1c≥6.1%, @*RESULTS@#The hypertensive group had higher HbA1c level than the normal group [(6.1±1.3)% vs (5.1±1.7)%, @*CONCLUSIONS@#In hypertensive patients, HbA1c is positively correlated with ambulate blood pressure, blood pressure load, and heart rate, and it has no correlation with blood pressure variability, heart rate variability, or morning blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Heart Rate , Humans , Hypertension
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(5): e00076120, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249440

ABSTRACT

O diabetes mellitus é uma das doenças mundialmente mais prevalentes em adultos e está entre as principais causas de perda de anos de vida saudável, o que se agrava com o acelerado envelhecimento populacional no Brasil. Este estudo visa dimensionar o problema do diabetes mellitus e suas complicações e caracterizar a atenção à saúde do diabético no Brasil, segundo regiões. As prevalências foram estimadas utilizando modelo de regressão multinomial, e a caracterização da atenção à saúde se deu a partir da triangulação entre a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS), o Programa Nacional de Melhoria do Acesso e da Qualidade da Atenção Básica (PMAQ-AB) e dados da Farmácia Popular. A prevalência de diabetes mellitus no Brasil foi de 9,2%, pelo modelo multinomial, e a prevalência da PNS corrigida (autorreferida + alterada na hemoglobina glicosilada - HbA1c ≥ 6,5) foi de 9,4%. A proporção de subnotificação do diabetes mellitus no país foi de 42,5%, chegando a 72,8% na Região Norte. Dentre os diagnosticados, mais da metade apresentou HbA1c ≥ 6,5. A insuficiente realização de exame de fundo de olho (40%), com ampla variação regional (Norte 25% - Sudeste 52%), reflete-se na alta prevalência de retinopatia. O exame dos pés apresentou baixa realização (30%), podendo levar a mais amputações. Cerca de 80% dos diabéticos usavam medicamentos, o que indica uma alta parcela ainda sem tratamento. Deficiências na atenção à saúde do diabético levam a maior morbidade, internações (15%) e idas a emergências (27% - PMAQ). O cenário apresentado em 2012, apesar de não ser ideal, deu-se num contexto de fortalecimento do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Com a crescente prevalência de diabetes mellitus e cortes no investimento em saúde pública, cabe a reflexão sobre o controle da doença nos próximos anos.


Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide and is among the leading causes of loss of healthy years of life, which is aggravated in Brazil by accelerated population aging. This study aims to measure the problem of diabetes mellitus and its complications and characterize healthcare for diabetics in Brazil, according to regions. Prevalence rates were estimated using a multinomial regression model, and characterization of healthcare was based on triangulation between the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS), the National Program for Improving Access and Quality in Primary Care (PMAQ-AB), and data from the Popular Pharmacy program. Diabetes prevalence in Brazil was 9.2%, according to the multinomial model, and prevalence in the corrected PNS (self-report + altered glycated hemoglobin - HbA1c ≥ 6.5) was 9.4%. The proportion of diabetes mellitus underreporting in the country was 42.5%, reaching 72.8% in the North. Among individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, half presented HbA1c ≥ 6.5. Insufficient fundus eye examination (only 40% on average), with major regional variation (North 25% - Southeast 52%), is reflected in the high prevalence of retinopathy. Insufficient examination of feet (only 30%), can lead to more amputations. About 80% of diabetics used medications, indicating a persistently high proportion still without treatment. Healthcare deficiencies for diabetics lead to greater morbidity, hospitalizations (15%), and visits to emergency departments (27%, PMAQ). The scenario in 2012, although not ideal, occurred in a context of strengthening of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). The growing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and cutbacks in public health budgeting call for serious reflection on control of the disease in the coming years.


Resumen: La diabetes mellitus es una de las enfermedades mundialmente más prevalentes en adultos y está entre las principales causas de pérdida de años de vida saludable, lo que se agrava con el acelerado envejecimiento poblacional en Brasil. Este estudio tiene como objetivo dimensionar el problema de la diabetes mellitus y sus complicaciones, así como caracterizar la atención a la salud del diabético en Brasil, según regiones. Las prevalencias fueron estimadas utilizando un modelo de regresión multinomial, además, la caracterización de la atención a la salud se produjo a partir de la triangulación entre Encuesta Nacional de Salud (PNS), el Programa Nacional para la Mejora del Acceso y la Calidad en Atención Primaria (PMAQ-AB) y datos de la Farmacia Popular. La prevalencia de diabetes mellitus en Brasil fue de 9,2%, por el modelo multinomial y la prevalencia de la PNS corregida (autoinformada + alterada en la hemoglobina glicosilada - HbA1c ≥ 6,5) fue de 9,4%. La proporción de subnotificación de la diabetes mellitus en el país fue de 42,5%, llegando a 72,8% en la región Norte. Entre los diagnosticados, más de la mitad presentó HbA1c ≥ 6,5. La insuficiente realización de exámenes de fondo de ojo (40%), con amplia variación regional (Norte 25% - Sureste 52%), se refleja en la alta prevalencia de retinopatía. El examen de los pies presentó baja realización (30%), pudiendo conducir a más amputaciones. Cerca de un 80% de los diabéticos usaban medicamentos, lo que indica un alto porcentaje todavía sin tratamiento. Deficiencias en la atención a la salud del diabético conducen a una mayor morbilidad, internamientos (15%) e idas a emergencias (27% - PMAQ). El escenario presentado en 2012, a pesar de no ser el ideal, se produjo en un contexto de fortalecimiento del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS). Con la creciente prevalencia de diabetes mellitus y cortes en la inversión en salud pública, cabe la reflexión sobre el control de la enfermedad durante los próximos años.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Prevalence , Delivery of Health Care
8.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 654-659, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137331

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the association between the preoperative level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and in-hospital mortality in patients who underwent valvular heart surgery in our center in a retrospective cohort. Methods: In this retrospective consecutive cohort study, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were referred to our center for elective valvular surgery were enrolled and followed up. The endpoint of this study was in-hospital mortality. Based on the level of HbA1c, patients were dichotomized around a level of 7% into two groups: exposed patients with HbA1c ≥ 7% and unexposed patients with HbA1c < 7%. Then, the study variables were compared between the two groups. Results: Two hundred twenty-four diabetic patients who were candidates for valvular surgery were enrolled; 106 patients (47.3%) had HbA1c < 7%, and 118 patients (52.6%) had HbA1c ≥ 7%. The duration of diabetes was higher in patients with HbA1c ≥ 7% (P=0.007). Thirteen (5.8%) patients died during hospital admission, of which nine patients were in the high HbA1c group. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding in-hospital mortality (P=0.899). Both the unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models showed that HbA1c was not a predictor for in-hospital mortality (P=0.227 and P=0.388, respectively) Conclusion: This study showed no association between preoperative HbA1c levels and in-hospital mortality in candidates for valvular heart surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Blood Glucose , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(2): 275-280, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The risk of cardiovascular events and sudden death increases with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Objective: To evaluate electrocardiographic markers of arrhythmias in T1DM patients. Methods: Electrocardiographic parameters reflecting ventricular depolarization and repolarization, namely, QT, QTc, QTd, QTdc, Tp-e, JT, and JTc intervals and Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios, of 46 patients diagnosed with T1DM were retrospectively analyzed and compared with 46 healthy age-, sex-, and body mass-matched controls. Correlations between T1DM duration, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and ventricular repolarization variables were analyzed. P values lower than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Diabetes duration was 16.6 ± 7.1 years, and HbA1c was 10.81% ± 3.27% in the T1DM group. In comparison with the control group, heart rate, QTc, QTd, QTdc, Tp-e and JTc intervals, Tp-e/QT ratio (p < 0.001), and Tp-e/QTc ratio (p = 0.007) were significantly higher in T1DM patients. T1DM duration and HbA1c levels were significantly correlated with QTc, QTd, QTdc, Tp-e, and JTc intervals and Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios. Conclusions: In T1DM patients, potential electrocardiographic repolarization predictors were significantly increased in correlation with disease duration and HbA1c levels. These findings may contribute to the understanding of sudden cardiac death in patients with T1DM.


Resumo Fundamento: O risco de eventos cardiovasculares e morte súbita aumenta com diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1). Objetivo: Avaliar alguns marcadores eletrocardiográficos de arritmias em pacientes com DM1. Métodos: Parâmetros eletrocardiográficos que refletem despolarização e repolarização ventricular, a saber, os intervalos QT, QTc, QTd, QTdc, Tp-e, JT e JTc e as relações Tp-e/QT e Tp-e/QTc, de 46 pacientes diagnosticados com DM1 foram retrospectivamente analisados e comparados com 46 controles saudáveis, pareados por idade, sexo e massa corporal. As correlações entre duração de DM1, HbA1c e variáveis de repolarização ventricular foram analisadas. Foram considerados estatisticamente significativos os valores de p inferiores a 0,05. Resultados: A duração de diabetes foi de 16,6 ± 7,1 anos, e HbA1c foi 10,81% ± 3,27% no grupo DM1. Em comparação com o grupo controle, a frequência cardíaca, os intervalos QTc, QTd, QTdc, Tp-e e JTc, a relação Tp-e/QT (p < 0,001) e a relação Tp-e/QTc (p = 0,007) foram significativamente mais altos em pacientes com DM1. A duração de DM1 e os níveis de HbA1c foram significativamente correlacionados com os intervalos QTc, QTd, QTdc, Tp-e e JTc e com as relações Tp-e/QT e Tp-e/QTc. Conclusões: Em pacientes com DM1, potenciais preditores eletrocardiográficos de repolarização foram significativamente aumentados em correlação com a duração da doença e com os níveis de HbA1c. Estes achados podem contribuir à compreensão da morte súbita cardíaca em pacientes com DM1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Statistics, Nonparametric , Electrocardiography/methods , Electrophysiological Phenomena/physiology , Heart Rate
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To compare the differences in clinical characteristics between Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and fulminant Type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1DM), and to reduce the missed diagnosis, misdiagnosis, and mistreatment of FT1DM by medical staff.@*METHODS@#A total of 101 hospitalized patients with T1DM (including 8 cases of FT1DM) were enrolled in this study from Changsha Central Hospital between June 2012 and December 2018. Clinical characteristics of the 8 FT1DM patients were collected and compared with all T1DM patients.@*RESULTS@#All FT1DM patients were adult with the average age of (30.25±5.28) years old, accompanied by severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurred within 1 week after onset. Moreover, pancreatic beta cells in these patients were destroyed and the islet-related antibodies were negative, while the serum pancreatic enzyme levels were increased. Compared with classic T1DM patients, the plasma glucose levels in FT1DM patients were much higher [(41.89±12.54) mmol/L vs (22.57±9.74) mmol/L], but glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting C peptide levels were significantly lower [(6.08±0.41)% vs (10.87±2.46%)%, @*CONCLUSIONS@#The onset time of FT1DM patients is very urgent via driving DKA. These patients have higher blood glucose concentration than classic T1DM patients, accompanied by electrolyte disturbances, impaired renal function, partially impaired liver function, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms and elevated trypsin. Most FTDM patients are adolescents and adults with no gender difference, especially pregnant women who are at high risk. Lifelong insulin dependence in FT1DM patients should be paid more attention in clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Insulin , Pregnancy , Sex Factors , Young Adult
12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 103, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, BBO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139475

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of implementation intentions as an intervention strategy to promote walking in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS We conducted a controlled and randomized trial, with 12 months of follow-up, involving 65 people with T2DM recruited from primary health care units and allocated them in the control group (CG, n = 32) and intervention group (IG, n = 33). The IG received the implementation intention strategy to promote walking and the CG remained in follow-up for conventional treatment in primary health care. The researchers were blinded by anthropometric measurements and the filling of the instruments. RESULTS After twelve months of follow up, the IG presented a statistically significant increase in the leisure time physical activity when compared with the CG (p = 0.0413) and showed a significant decrease in waist circumference (p = 0.0061). No significant difference was observed regarding body mass index and glycated hemoglobin among groups. CONCLUSIONS Implementation intention was effective in promoting walking and improving clinical indicators in adults with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Walking/psychology , Intention , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Health Promotion/methods , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Program Evaluation , Middle Aged
13.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(2): 43-47, 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095229

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La evaluación de los programas de transición (PT) es un paso fundamental para determinar su importancia como estrategia de seguimiento y apoyo a los adolescentes con diabetes tipo 1 (DM1) que transitan de una atención pediátrica a una adulta. OBJETIVO: evaluar un modelo de PT para adolescentes con DM1 a 4 años de su implementación. SUJETOS Y MÉTODO: este estudio se realizó en 65 adolescentes que ingresaron al PT. Se evaluó el cumplimiento de los indicadores de adherencia del PT (preparación, continuidad, regularidad, exclusividad en la atención médica y seguimiento psicológico), la participación de los adolescentes en el PT (cumplir con los 5 indicadores) y el control metabólico asociado a esa participación. El análisis estadístico se realizó con Prueba de Chi Cuadrado para las variables grados de participación y control metabólico; y Prueba T de Student para muestras pareadas para evaluar la variación de HbA1c al finalizar el primer año en atención como adulto. RESULTADOS: los indicadores de adherencia del PT se cumplen sobre el 65% en la población estudiada. Se encontró que el 38,5% de los adolescentes logran participación completa en el PT (cumplir 5 indicadores), 43,1% participación parcial (cumplir 3 o 4 indicadores) y 18,4% participación insuficiente en el PT (cumplir con 0, 1 ó 2 indicadores). Se observó una mayor frecuencia de mantenimiento o mejoría del control metabólico en los adolescentes con participación completa en el PT en comparación con los de participación parcial e insuficiente (76% v/s 59,2% y 22,2% respectivamente). Se observó un cambio significativo (p < 0,05) de la HbA1c en adolescentes con participación completa y participación parcial. CONCLUSIÓN: en los adolescentes con DM1, se debe incentivar la participación en el PT para fortalecer las conductas de adherencia al tratamiento diabético incluyendo el control metabólico.


INTRODUCTION: the evaluation of the transition programs (TP) is a fundamental step to determine its importance as a follow-up and support strategy for adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who move from a pediatric to adult care. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate a TP model for adolescents with T1D 4 years after its implementation. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: this study was carried out in 65 adolescents who entered the TP. Compliance with the TP adherence indicators was evaluated (preparation, continuity, regularity, exclusivity in medical care and psychological follow-up), the participation of adolescents in the TP (compliance with the 5 indicators) and the metabolic control associated with that participation. The statistical analysis was carried out with Chi-square test for the variable degrees of participation and metabolic control; and paired Student's T test for the change of HbA1c at the end of the first year in adult. RESULTS: TP adherence indicators are met over 65% in the population studied. When evaluating participation in the TP, it was found that 38.5% of adolescents achieved full participation in the TP (meet 5 indicators), 43.1% partial participation (meet 3 or 4 indicators) and 18.4% insufficient participation in the TP (comply with 0, 1 or 2 indicators). A higher frequency of maintenance or improvement of metabolic control was observed in adolescents with full participation in the TP compared to those with partial and insufficient participation (76% v/s 59.2% and 22.2% respectively). The statistical difference (p < 0.05) was obtained in the change of HbA1c of adolescents with full participation and partial participation. CONCLUSION: in adolescents with T1D, participation in TP should be encouraged to strengthen adherence to diabetic treatment including metabolic control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Program Evaluation/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Transition to Adult Care , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Chi-Square Distribution , Patient Compliance , Continuity of Patient Care , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
14.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5572, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142882

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the association between inadequate functional health literacy, considering the Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-speaking Adults, and glycemic control in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, and to examine this association in low social support settings, according to Medical Outcomes Study . Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted at the diabetes referral center of a university hospital. Participants were recruited among type 2 diabetes patients aged 60 years or older, between May 2013 and November 2014. The primary outcome was the most recent glycated hemoglobin value measured within the last 6 months. Results: A total of 398 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes were evaluated. Of these, 232 were not eligible to participate. The final sample comprised 166 participants. Hierarchical multiple linear regression was performed. The following variables were entered in three blocks: sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables and health literacy scores. Regression analysis of the interaction between health literacy and social support as a determinant of glycemic control was also performed. Mean age of subjects was 68.0 years (standard deviation of 5.9). Mean glycated hemoglobin value was 8.5% (standard deviation of 1.4). Short assessment of health literacy for Portuguese speaking adults score was independently associated with glycated hemoglobin (B=-0.059; p=0.043). The interaction between social support and health literacy score (p=0.003) was a determinant of glycemic control. Conclusion: Health literacy is associated with glycemic control. Social support may modify the relation between health literacy and glycemic control.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a associação entre alfabetismo em saúde inadequado, segundo o Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-speaking Adults , e controle glicêmico, em pacientes idosos com diabetes tipo 2, bem como avaliar tal associação no contexto de baixo suporte social, segundo o Medical Outcomes Study . Métodos: Estudo transversal conduzido no centro de referência de diabetes de um hospital universitário. Os participantes foram recrutados entre pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 com idade de 60 anos ou mais, entre maio de 2013 e novembro de 2014. O desfecho primário foi o valor mais recente de hemoglobina glicada obtido nos últimos 6 meses. Resultados: Foram avaliados 398 pacientes idosos com diabetes tipo 2. Destes, 232 não foram considerados elegíveis para participar da pesquisa. A amostra final incluiu 166 participantes. Foi realizada análise de regressão linear múltipla hierárquica com as seguintes variáveis inseridas em três blocos: características sociodemográficas, variáveis clínicas e escore de alfabetismo em saúde. Realizou-se também uma análise de regressão adicional da interação entre alfabetismo em saúde e apoio social como determinante do controle glicêmico. A média de idade dos indivíduos foi 68,0 anos (desvio-padrão de 5,9). O valor médio de hemoglobina glicada foi de 8,5% (desvio-padrão de 1,4). O Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-speaking Adults mostrou-se independentemente associado à hemoglobina glicada (B=-0,059; p=0,043). A interação entre suporte social e escore de alfabetismo em saúde (p=0,003) foi determinante para o controle glicêmico. Conclusão: O alfabetismo em saúde está associado ao controle glicêmico. O suporte social pode modificar a relação entre o escore de alfabetismo em saúde e o controle glicêmico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Health Literacy , Social Support , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glycemic Control , Middle Aged
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRW4686, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056065

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the impact of pharmaceutical care-based interventions on type 2 diabetes mellitus . Methods PubMed®, Cochrane and Web of Science data bases were searched for randomized controlled clinical trials. Studies evaluating pharmaceutical care-based interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus published between 2012 and 2017 were included. Glycated hemoglobin was defined as the primary endpoint; blood pressure, triglycerides and cholesterol as secondary endpoints. The random effects model was used in meta-analysis. Results Fifteen trials involving 2,325 participants were included. Meta-analysis revealed considerable heterogeneity (I2>97%; p<0.001), reduction in glycated hemoglobin (-1.07%; 95%CI: -1.32; -0.83; p<0.001), glucose (-29.91mg/dL; 95%CI: -43.2; -16.6; p<0.001), triglyceride (19.8mg/dL; 95%CI: -36.6; -3.04; p=0.021), systolic blood pressure (-4.65mmHg; 95%CI: -8.9; -0.4; p=0.032) levels, and increased HDL levels (4.43mg/dL; 95%CI: 0.16; 8.70; p=0.042). Conclusion Pharmaceutical care-based clincal and education interventions have significant impact on type 2 diabetes mellitus . The tools Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale may be useful to monitor patients.


RESUMO Objetivo Identificar o impacto das intervenções providenciadas pelo cuidado farmacêutico no diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos Buscas por ensaios clínicos randomizados controlados foram realizadas nas bases PubMed®, Cochrane e Web of Science . Foram incluídos estudos publicados entre 2012 e 2017, que avaliaram o impacto do cuidado farmacêutico no diabetes mellitus tipo 2. A hemoglobina glicada foi o desfecho primário, e os secundários foram pressão arterial, triglicérides e colesterol. O modelo de efeitos aleatórios foi utilizado na metanálise. Resultados Foram incluídos 15 estudos envolvendo 2.325 participantes. A metanálise demonstrou heterogeneidade elevada (I2>97%; p<0,001), redução nos níveis de hemoglobina glicada (-1,07%; IC95%: -1,32; -0,83; p<0,001), glicose (-29,91mg/dL; IC95%: -43,2; -16,6; p<0,001), triglicérides (19,8mg/dL; IC95%: -36,6; -3,04; p=0,021), pressão arterial sistólica (-4,65mmHg; IC95%: -8,9; -0,4; p=0,032) e aumento do colesterol HDL (4,43mg/dL; IC95%: 0,16; 8,70; p=0,042). Conclusão As intervenções clínicas e educacionais providenciadas pelo cuidado farmacêutico têm impacto significativo no diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Ferramentas como o Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities e a Morisky Medication Adherence Scale podem ser úteis no acompanhamento dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Pharmacists , Pharmaceutical Services/statistics & numerical data , Self Care/statistics & numerical data , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Pressure , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Cholesterol/blood , Patient Education as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190248, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056591

ABSTRACT

Abstract The evidence is inconclusive regarding the effect of periodontal treatment on glycemic control and systemic inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and periodontitis Objective: To evaluate the effect of scaling and root planing (SRP) on the metabolic control and systemic inflammation of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methodology: A literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE database via PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from their oldest records up to July 2018. Only randomized clinical trials (RCT) were considered eligible for evaluating the effect of periodontal treatment on markers of metabolic control [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C)] and systemic inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)] in patients with T2D. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration risk assessment tool. Meta-analyses were performed for HbA1c and CRP using random effects models. The size of the overall intervention effect was estimated by calculating the weighted average of the differences in means (DM) between the groups in each study. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q-statistic method (x2 and I²). The level of significance was established at p<0.05. Results: Nine RCT were included. SRP was effective in reducing HbA1c [DM=0.56 (0.36-0.75); p<0.01] and CRP [DM=1.89 (1.70-2.08); p<0.01]. No heterogeneity was detected (I2=0%, p>0.05). Conclusions: SRP has an impact on metabolic control and reduction of systemic inflammation of patients with T2D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontitis/physiopathology , Periodontitis/therapy , Dental Scaling/methods , Root Planing/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Publication Bias
18.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(5): 487-494, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038505

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Different pathways may lead from night work to metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to explore the direct and indirect pathways from night work to glycemic levels, considering the role of physical activity, waist circumference and snacking using data from ELSA-Brasil. Materials and methods A structural equation model was used to confirm the pathways from night work to glycemic levels. The latent variable, "glycemic levels", included fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin and 2-hour plasma glucose. Results A total of 10.396 participants were included in the analyses. The final model showed that among women, night work was associated with increased glycemic levels. A statistical significant association between night work and glycemic levels mediated by waist circumference was observed among women and men. Conclusions The association between night shift and glycemic levels can be interpreted as an important step toward understanding the pathways that could explain night work as a risk factor for diabetes using epidemiological data.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Shift Work Schedule/adverse effects , Latent Class Analysis , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Waist Circumference , Shift Work Schedule/statistics & numerical data
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 561-566, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054858

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Rubeosis faciei diabeticorum is a persistent facial erythema in patients with diabetes mellitus. The actual pathogenesis has not been studied. However, it is speculated to be a cutaneous diabetic microangiopathy. Objective Examine the correlation between the severity of facial erythema and the possible causes of microvascular diabetic complications, namely oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and cutaneous accumulation of advanced glycation end-products . Methods Patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 32) were enrolled in the study. The facial erythema index was measured using the Mexameter MX18; cutaneous accumulation of advanced glycation end-products was estimated by measuring skin auto fluorescence with the AGE Reader (DiagnOptics Technologies B.V. - Groningen, Netherlands). Glycated haemoglobin, total antioxidant status, and malondialdehyde were measured in blood by TBARS assay. The correlation between the selected variables was assessed by Spearman's rank test; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results There was a statistically significant correlation between total antioxidant status and the facial erythema index (ρ = 0.398, p = 0.024). Malondialdehyde, skin autofluorescence, glycated haemoglobin, body mass index, duration of diabetes, and age did not demonstrate statistically significant correlation with the facial erythema index. Study limitations This is an observational study. Elevation of total antioxidant status could have been caused by several factors that might have also influenced the development of rubeosis faciei, including hyperbilirubinemia and hyperuricemia. Conclusions The results contradicted expectations. Total antioxidant status correlated positively with facial erythema index; however, there was no correlation with oxidative stress and skin autofluorescence. Further investigations should be conducted to reveal the cause of total antioxidant status elevation in patients with rubeosis faciei.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Oxidative Stress , Diabetic Angiopathies/metabolism , Erythema/metabolism , Facial Dermatoses/metabolism , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Body Mass Index , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetic Angiopathies/complications , Erythema/etiology , Facial Dermatoses/etiology , Fluorescence , Malondialdehyde/blood , Antioxidants/analysis
20.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(3): 270-275, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038708

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Metabolic risk factors of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in non diabetic teetotallers who constitute a definite group are not well defined. OBJECTIVE: To identify the metabolic risk factors of NAFLD if any in non diabetic subjects who do not consume alcohol. METHODS: In a cross sectional study the effect of metabolic parameters (BMI, individual lipid levels, hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c), HOMA IR and the metabolic syndrome components) of 150 consecutive non diabetic teetotallers (90 with normal glucose tolerance and 60 prediabetics) on their NFS (quantifiable severity parameter of NAFLD) was studied by linear regression analysis. Similar study was done in the normal glucose tolerance and prediabetes groups separately. These parameters were then compared with those of 75 matched diabetic teetotallers with NAFLD. To analyse further the difference between normal glucose tolerance, prediabetic and overt diabetic groups, binary logistic regression of the factors was carried out taking prediabetes and diabetes as outcome variable. RESULTS: All the metabolic parameters were significantly higher in diabetics compared to non diabetics and in prediabetics compared to those with normal glucose tolerance except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and BMI significantly predicted NFS in the overall (adjusted R2 68.7%, P=0.000) and normal glucose tolerance groups (adjusted R2 73.2%, P=0.000) whereas BMI, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and HbA1c did in prediabetics (adjusted R2 89%, P=0.000). The metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with NFS in the overall and prediabetic groups. High triglyceride (odds ratio1.08), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (odds ratio1.03) and HbA1c (odds ratio 11.54) were positively associated with prediabetes compared to normal glucose tolerance group. CONCLUSION: In nondiabetic teetotallers dyslipidemias are the prime contributors to the development of NAFLD.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os fatores de risco metabólicos da doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA) em abstêmios não diabéticos, que constituem um grupo distinto, não são bem definidos. OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores de risco metabólicos da DHGNA em indivíduos não diabéticos e que não consumam álcool. MÉTODOS: Em um estudo transversal, o efeito dos parâmetros metabólicos (IMC, níveis de lipídios individuais, HbA1c, Homa IR e os componentes da síndrome metabólica) de 150 abstêmios não diabéticos consecutivos (90 com tolerância à glicose normal e 60 pré-diabéticos) em sua NFS (parâmetro de gravidade quantificável da DHGNA) foram estudados por análise de regressão linear. Um estudo similar em separado foi feito nos grupos normais da tolerância da glicose e do pré-diabetes. Esses parâmetros foram comparados com os de 75 abstêmios diabéticos pareados com DHGNA. Para analisar ainda mais a diferença entre a tolerância à glicose normal foi realizada a regressão logística binária dos fatores tomando pré-diabetes e diabetes como variável de desfecho, nos grupos diabéticos e pré-diabéticos. RESULTADOS: Todos os parâmetros metabólicos foram significativamente maiores nos diabéticos comparados aos não diabéticos e em pré-diabéticos comparados àqueles com tolerância normal à glicose, exceto HDL. Os índices TG, HDL e IMC previram significativamente o NFS no geral nos grupos de tolerância normal (R2 ajustado 68,7%, P=0,000) e de glicose normal (R2 ajustado 73,2%, P=0,000), enquanto o IMC, TG, LDL e HbA1c predisseram em pré-diabéticos (R2 ajustado 89%, P=0,000). A síndrome metabólica foi associada significativamente com o NFS nos grupos totais e pré-diabéticos. O TG elevado (odds ratio 1,08), o LDL (odds ratio 1,03) e a HbA1c (odds ratio 11,54) foram positivamente associados ao pré-diabetes em comparação com o grupo normal de tolerância à glicose. CONCLUSÃO: Em abstêmios não diabéticos as dislipidemias são os principais contribuintes para o desenvolvimento da DHGNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Dyslipidemias/blood , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/metabolism
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