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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246579, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278558


Abstract Water magnetization and geoprocessing are increasingly utilized tools in weed management. Our objective was to study the influence of water magnetization on herbicide efficiency and to verify whether there is a relationship between control scores and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In the laboratory experiment, water was subjected to magnetization and evaluated with respect to four characteristics. In the field experiment, plots of Brachiaria grass were subjected to treatments in a factorial scheme (6 × 2 + 1). Six herbicidal factors (doses of glyphosate and glyphosate + 2,4-D) and the magnetization or absence of magnetization of the spray solution were evaluated and compared against the control treatment (without spraying). Weed control assessments were carried out six times. Images were obtained using an embedded multispectral camera to determine the NDVI values. Data related to water characteristics were analyzed using the t test. Weed control and NDVI data were subjected to analysis of variance and are presented in regression graphs. Dispersion analysis of NDVI data was performed according to the control scores. The magnetization process decreased the pH of the water and increased the surface tension, but it did not influence the control scores or the NDVI. As the glyphosate dose was increased, the control scores were higher and the NDVI values were lower. Magnetized water did not affect the biological efficiency of the herbicides, and there was a strong correlation between the control scores and the NDVI values.

Resumo A magnetização da água e o geoprocessamento são ferramentas cada vez mais utilizadas no manejo de ervas daninhas. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a influência da magnetização da água na eficiência do herbicida e verificar se existe uma relação entre os escores de controle e o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI). No experimento de laboratório, a água foi submetida à magnetização e avaliada em relação a quatro características. No experimento de campo, parcelas de capim-braquiária foram submetidas a tratamentos em esquema fatorial (6 × 2 + 1). Seis fatores herbicidas (doses de glyphosate e glyphosate + 2,4-D) e a magnetização ou ausência de magnetização da calda foram avaliados e comparados com o tratamento controle (sem pulverização). Avaliações de controle de plantas daninhas foram realizadas seis vezes. As imagens foram obtidas usando uma câmera multiespectral incorporada para determinar os valores de NDVI. Os dados relacionados às características da água foram analisados ​​por meio do teste t. O controle de plantas daninhas e os dados de NDVI foram submetidos à análise de variância e são apresentados em gráficos de regressão. A análise de dispersão dos dados NDVI foi realizada de acordo com os escores de controle. O processo de magnetização diminuiu o pH da água e aumentou a tensão superficial, mas não influenciou nos escores de controle ou no NDVI. Conforme a dose de glyphosate foi aumentada, os escores de controle foram maiores e os valores de NDVI foram menores. A água magnetizada não afetou a eficiência biológica dos herbicidas, e houve uma forte correlação entre os escores de controle e os valores de NDVI.

Desiccation , Herbicides , 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid , Weed Control , Glycine/analogs & derivatives
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540


Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.

Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.

Humans , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicides/toxicity , Aspergillus , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Organophosphonates , Fungi , Glycine/analogs & derivatives
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246450, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278532
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4215-4230, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921500


Threonine aldolases catalyze the aldol condensation of aldehydes with glycine to furnish β-hydroxy-α-amino acid with two stereogenic centers in a single reaction. This is one of the most promising green methods for the synthesis of optically pure β-hydroxy-α-amino acid with high atomic economy and less negative environmental impact. Several threonine aldolases from different origins have been identified and characterized. The insufficient -carbon stereoselectivity and the challenges of balancing kinetic versus thermodynamic control to achieve the optimal optical purity and yield hampered the application of threonine aldolases. This review summarizes the recent advances in discovery, catalytic mechanism, high-throughput screening, molecular engineering and applications of threonine aldolases, with the aim to provide some insights for further research in this field.

Amino Acids , Catalysis , Glycine , Glycine Hydroxymethyltransferase/metabolism , Kinetics , Substrate Specificity , Threonine
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2936-2946, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887855


A stable Zr-based metal-organic framework (MOF, UiO-66-NH2) synthesized via micro-water solvothermal method was used to immobilize amidase by using the glutaraldehyde crosslinking method. The effect of immoblization conditions on enzyme immoblization efficiency was studied. An activity recovery rate of 86.4% and an enzyme loading of 115.3 mg/g were achieved under the optimal conditions: glutaraldehyde concentration of 1.0%, cross-linking time of 180 min, and the weight ratio of MOF to enzyme of 8:1. The optimal temperature and optimal pH of the immobilized amidase were determined to be 40 °C and 9.0, respectively, and the Km, Vmax and kcat of the immoblized amidase were 58.32 mmol/L, 16.23 μmol/(min·mg), and 1 670 s⁻¹, respectively. The immobilized enzyme was used for (S)-4-fluorophenylglycine synthesis and the optimal reaction conditions were 300 mmol/L of N-phenylacetyl-4-fluorophenylglycine, 10 g/L of immobilized enzyme loading, and reacting for 180 min at pH 9.0 and 40 °C. A conversion rate of 49.9% was achieved under the optimal conditions, and the conversion rate can be increased to 99.9% under the conditions of enantiomeric excess. The immobilized enzyme can be repeatedly used, 95.8% of its original activity can be retained after 20 cycles.

Amidohydrolases , Enzyme Stability , Enzymes, Immobilized/metabolism , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Metal-Organic Frameworks , Temperature
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5657, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286305


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the morphology and morphometry of the muscles extensor digitorium longus and soleus of C57BL/6 females, who were exposed to glyphosate during pregnancy and lactation. Methods Twelve female mice from the C57BL/6 lineage were used. After detection of pregnancy, they were divided into a Control Group, which received only water, and a Glyphosate Group, which received water with 0.5% glyphosate during pregnancy and lactation. Both groups received ad libitum standard diet. After weaning, the females were euthanized and weighed; naso-anal length was measured, and fats were collected and weighed. The muscles extensor digitorium longus and soleus were collected, and their length and weight were measured. Then, the muscles were fixed in Methacarn to perform the histological study of muscle fibers. Results Glyphosate Group presented lower weight gain during pregnancy and also lower final body weight and naso-anal length; however, the other body parameters evaluated did not present a significant difference in relation to the Control Group. Significant differences were also not observed in the analysis of muscle fibers and connective tissue. Conclusion Exposure to 0.5% glyphosate during pregnancy and lactation resulted in lower weight gain during pregnancy, final weight, and naso-anal length. Despite not directly altering the morphology of muscle tissue, these results may indicate enough exposure to interfere with animal metabolism.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a morfologia e a morfometria dos músculos extensor longo dos dedos e sóleo de fêmeas C57BL/6 expostas ao glifosato durante a prenhez e lactação. Métodos Foram utilizados 12 camundongos fêmeas da linhagem C57BL/6. Após detecção da prenhez, foram separadas em Grupo Controle, que recebeu somente água, e Grupo Glifosato, que recebeu água com 0,5% de glifosato durante a prenhez e lactação. Ambos os grupos receberam dieta padrão ad libitum. Após o desmame, as fêmeas foram eutanasiadas e pesadas; o comprimento nasoanal foi mensurado, e as gorduras foram coletadas e pesadas. Os músculos extensor longo dos dedos e sóleo foram coletados, e seu comprimento e peso foram mensurados. Em seguida, os músculos foram fixados em Methacarn para a realização do estudo histológico das fibras musculares. Resultados O Grupo Glifosato apresentou menor ganho de peso durante a prenhez e também menor peso corporal final e comprimento nasoanal, entretanto os demais parâmetros corporais avaliados não apresentaram diferença significativa em relação ao Grupo Controle. Na análise das fibras musculares e do tecido conjuntivo, também não foram observadas diferenças significativas. Conclusão A exposição a 0,5% de glifosato durante a prenhez e lactação resultou em menor ganho de peso na gestação, peso final e comprimento nasoanal, o que pode indicar que, apesar de não alterar a morfologia do tecido muscular diretamente, a exposição foi suficiente para interferir no metabolismo dos animais.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Lactation , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Mice, Inbred C57BL
MedUNAB ; 24(2): 268-275, 20210820.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291948


Introducción. La Hiperglicinemia no Cetósica (HNC) es un error innato del metabolismo de herencia autosómica recesiva, cuya principal característica es la acumulación de glicina en los fluidos corporales, producido por una falla en el complejo de clivaje enzimático de este aminoácido. Presentación del caso. Presentamos el caso de un recién nacido de 36 semanas, con adaptación neonatal espontánea, sin historia de noxa perinatal ni hipoglicemia documentada, quien tras un corto período de 24 horas presentó deterioro neurológico progresivo, rápida alteración del estado de conciencia hasta el coma y falla ventilatoria. Llamó la atención al ingreso la hipotonía severa generalizada, hiporreflexia, ausencia de reflejos primitivos, con episodios de hipo aislado y movimientos oculares anormales. Ante la sospecha de un error innato del metabolismo se realizó el perfil de aminoácidos donde se evidenció elevación significativa de la glicina, 1417 mmol/L (referencia 94-553 umol/L). Se solicitaron aminoácidos en líquido cefalorraquídeo, glicina muy elevada 1263 mmol/L (referencia 3-7 umol/L), con lo que se confirma la sospecha de hiperglicinemia no cetósica. Se decidió iniciar manejo con benzoato de sodio y dextrometorfano. La resonancia magnética inicial fue normal, en estudio control se encontraron al igual que en el electroencefalograma hallazgos reportados previamente en la literatura para esta patología. Discusión. La mayoría de los niños con HNC se presentan en el período neonatal o en la primera infancia, y solo los casos más leves se presentan al final de la infancia o la niñez. En las presentaciones de inicio neonatal, el 85% tiene HNC grave y el 15% tiene forma atenuada, como este caso. El diagnóstico de la HNC se hace con base en la sospecha clínica, confirmada por los hallazgos de laboratorio, con la alteración característica de la glicina tanto en plasma como en el LCR y soportada por los hallazgos de las neuroimágenes y electroencefalograma (EEG). Conclusiones. La HNC no es una condición tan inusual, aunque sí posiblemente subdiagnosticada por la forma de presentación tan catastrófica, además porque no produce grandes desarreglos metabólicos de rápido diagnóstico. Por este motivo, ante un paciente con cuadro clínico sugestivo, con coma, alteración respiratoria y convulsiones de difícil manejo, y muy característicamente hipo, debe solicitarse el estudio de aminoácidos en plasma, neuroimágenes y EEG, con el fin de instaurar un manejo temprano.

Introduction. Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is an autosomal recessive innate error of metabolism, whose main characteristic is the accumulation of glycine in body fluids, produced by a failure in the enzymatic cleavage complex of this amino acid. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 36-week-old newborn, with spontaneous neonatal adaptation, no history of perinatal noxa or documented hypoglycemia, who after a short period of 24 hours presented progressive neurological deterioration, rapid alteration of consciousness to coma and ventilatory failure. At admission the patient was noted for severe generalized hypotonia, hyporeflexia, absence of primitive reflexes, with episodes of isolated hiccups and abnormal eye movements. In view of the suspicion of an innate error of metabolism, an amino acid profile was performed, showing a significant elevation of glycine, 1417 umol/L (reference 94-553 umol/L). Amino acids were requested in cerebrospinal fluid, glycine very elevated 1263 umol/L (reference 3-7 umol/L), confirming the suspicion of nonketotic hyperglycinemia. It was decided to start treatment with sodium benzoate and dextromethorphan. The initial MRI was normal; in the control study, findings previously reported in the literature for this pathology were found, as well as in the electroencephalogram. Discussion. Most children with NKH will display it in the neonatal period or early infancy, with only the mildest cases presenting in late infancy or childhood. In neonatal-onset cases, 85% have severe NKH and 15% have attenuated form, as in this case. The diagnosis of NKH is made based on clinical suspicion, confirmed by laboratory findings, with the characteristic alteration of glycine in both plasma and CSF and supported by neuroimaging and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings. Conclusions. NKH is not such an unusual condition, although it is possibly underdiagnosed because of its catastrophic presentation and because it does not produce major metabolic disorders that are quickly diagnosed. For this reason, in a patient with a suggestive clinical condition, with coma, respiratory alteration and unmanageable seizures, and very characteristically hiccups, the study of amino acids in plasma, neuroimaging and EEG should be requested, in order to establish early treatment.

Introdução. A hiperglicinemia não-cetótica (HNC) é um erro inato do metabolismo de herança autossômica recessiva, cuja principal característica é o acúmulo de glicina nos fluidos corporais, produzido por uma falha no complexo de clivagem enzimática deste aminoácido. Apresentação do caso. Apresentamos o caso de um recém-nascido de 36 semanas, com adaptação neonatal espontânea, sem história de noxa perinatal nem hipoglicemia documentada, que após um curto período de 24 horas apresentou deterioração neurológica progressiva, alteração rápida de consciência até coma e falha ventilatória. Na admissão, eram notáveis a hipotonia grave generalizada, hiporreflexia, ausência de reflexos primitivos, com episódios de soluços isolados e movimentos oculares anormais. Diante da suspeita de erro inato no metabolismo, foi realizado o perfil de aminoácidos, onde foi constatada elevação significativa da glicina, 1417umol/L (referência 94-553 umol/L). Foram solicitados aminoácidos no líquido cefalorraquidiano, glicina muito alta 1263umol/L (referência 3-7 umol/L), confirmando a suspeita de hiperglicinemia não-cetótica. Foi decidido iniciar o tratamento com benzoato de sódio e dextrometorfano. A ressonância magnética inicial foi normal, tanto em estudo controle quanto no eletroencefalograma, foram encontrados achados previamente relatados na literatura para esta patologia. Discussão. A maioria das crianças com HNC estão no período neonatal ou na primeira infância, e apenas os casos mais leves ocorrem na infância ou na infância tardia. Nas apresentações de início neonatal, 85% têm HNC grave e 15% têm forma atenuada, como neste caso. O diagnóstico de HNC é feito com base na suspeita clínica, confirmada por achados laboratoriais, com alteração característica da glicina tanto no plasma quanto no LCR e apoiado por achados de neuroimagem e eletroencefalograma (EEG). Conclusões. A HNC não é uma condição tão incomum, embora possivelmente seja subdiagnosticada por sua apresentação catastrófica, também por não produzir grandes distúrbios metabólicos que possam ser diagnosticados rapidamente. Por esse motivo, em um paciente com quadro clínico sugestivo, com coma, distúrbios respiratórios e convulsões de difícil manejo, e soluços muito característicos, deve ser solicitado um estudo de aminoácidos no plasma, neuroimagem e EEG a fim de estabelecer um tratamento rápido.

Hyperglycinemia, Nonketotic , Infant, Newborn , Epilepsy , Glycine , Hiccup
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880319


BACKGROUND@#Glyphosate and its salt formulations are nonselective herbicides that have been extensively used worldwide, both for residential and agricultural purposes. The possible carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of glyphosate remain to be elucidated. We developed a sensitive and high-throughput analytical method for urinary glyphosate using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with the aim of contributing to glyphosate exposure assessment in epidemiological studies.@*METHODS@#After urine dilution (creatinine matching dilution to 0.05 g creatinine/L), glyphosate was extracted using two types of solid phase extraction columns (SCX and NH2) with automated sample preparation instruments. The eluate was dried and dissolved in the mobile phase, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The optimized method was applied to urine samples obtained from 54 Japanese adults and children.@*RESULTS@#The results from the validation study demonstrated good recoveries (91.0-99.6%), within- and between-run precisions (< 15%), low detection limits (0.1 μg/L), and lower limit of quantification (0.3 μg/L). The detection frequency and median concentration of the urinary glyphosate in Japanese subjects were 59% and 0.25 μg/L (0.34 μg/g creatinine).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our reliable determination method was successful in measuring urinary glyphosate concentration. Moreover, this is the first biomonitoring report of urinary glyphosate levels in the Japanese general population.

Adult , Aged , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Female , Glycine/urine , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Solid Phase Extraction/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 301-314, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775476


Neuropathic pain is a chronic debilitating symptom characterized by spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia. It occurs in distinct forms, including brush-evoked dynamic and filament-evoked punctate mechanical allodynia. Potassium channel 2.1 (Kir2.1), which exhibits strong inward rectification, is and regulates the activity of lamina I projection neurons. However, the relationship between Kir2.1 channels and mechanical allodynia is still unclear. In this study, we first found that pretreatment with ML133, a selective Kir2.1 inhibitor, by intrathecal administration, preferentially inhibited dynamic, but not punctate, allodynia in mice with spared nerve injury (SNI). Intrathecal injection of low doses of strychnine, a glycine receptor inhibitor, selectively induced dynamic, but not punctate allodynia, not only in naïve but also in ML133-pretreated mice. In contrast, bicuculline, a GABA receptor antagonist, induced only punctate, but not dynamic, allodynia. These results indicated the involvement of glycinergic transmission in the development of dynamic allodynia. We further found that SNI significantly suppressed the frequency, but not the amplitude, of the glycinergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (gly-sIPSCs) in neurons on the lamina II-III border of the spinal dorsal horn, and pretreatment with ML133 prevented the SNI-induced gly-sIPSC reduction. Furthermore, 5 days after SNI, ML133, either by intrathecal administration or acute bath perfusion, and strychnine sensitively reversed the SNI-induced dynamic, but not punctate, allodynia and the gly-sIPSC reduction in lamina IIi neurons, respectively. In conclusion, our results suggest that blockade of Kir2.1 channels in the spinal dorsal horn selectively inhibits dynamic, but not punctate, mechanical allodynia by enhancing glycinergic inhibitory transmission.

Animals , Bicuculline , Pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Glycine , Metabolism , Hyperalgesia , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Imidazoles , Pharmacology , Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials , Physiology , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neurons , Metabolism , Neurotransmitter Agents , Pharmacology , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Phenanthrolines , Pharmacology , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying , Metabolism , Receptors, GABA-A , Metabolism , Receptors, Glycine , Metabolism , Strychnine , Pharmacology , Synaptic Transmission , Physiology , Tissue Culture Techniques , Touch
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785854


PURPOSE: Alpha-1-adrenoceptor blockers (e.g., naftopidil) are prescribed for the treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms. Although the mechanism of action of naftopidil has been studied in various organs, that in the urinary bladder remains unknown. To clarify the direct effects of naftopidil on this organ, activities were assessed in the isolated rat whole urinary bladder.METHODS: A total of 30 female rats were used. In Experiment 1, bladder activity was measured during a cumulative administration of 2.5–75μM naftopidil (n=7). In Experiment 2, rats were divided into 2 groups: control (n=10) and naftopidil (5 mg/animal/day, oral gavage, once-daily for 2 weeks) (n=13). After the treatment period, plasma was obtained from each rat. The urinary bladders were harvested from the control rats. Isovolumetric rhythmic bladder contractions were induced at above the threshold volume, and intravesical pressure was recorded. Control plasma was added to the organ bath; after subsequent wash-out, plasma collected from rats administered naftopidil was added. In Experiment 3, the plasma levels of monoamines and amino acids were quantified using the individual plasma prepared in the Experiment 2.RESULTS: Cumulative dosing with naftopidil did not change the interval between spontaneous contractions compared to the interval at baseline. After adding control plasma, the interval was shortened compared to the baseline (P=0.008). The plasma collected from rats administered naftopidil suppressed the shortening of the interval compared to the control plasma (P=0.041). Naftopidil resulted in a decrease in the level of noradrenaline (P=0.009) and an increase in that of glycine (P=0.014).CONCLUSIONS: Although naftopidil did not directly act on the interval between spontaneous contractions of the urinary bladder, the plasma collected from rats administered naftopidil, with changing levels of monoamines and amino acids, may suppressed shortening the interval.

Amino Acids , Animals , Baths , Capillary Permeability , Female , Glycine , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Male , Norepinephrine , Plasma , Rats , Urinary Bladder
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 238-247, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786398


The butanol extract of Asparagus cochinchinensis roots fermented with Weissella cibaria (BAW) effectively prevents inflammation and remodeling of airway in the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. To characterize biomarkers that can predict the anti-asthmatic effects induced by BAW treatment, we measured the alteration of endogenous metabolites in the serum of OVA-induced asthma mice after administration of low concentration BAW (BAWLo, 250 mg/kg) and high concentration BAW (BAWHi, 500 mg/kg) using ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectral data. The number of immune cells and serum concentration of IgE as well as thickness of the respiratory epithelium and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the airway significantly recovered in the OVA+BAW treated group as compared to the OVA+Vehicle treated group. In the metabolic profile analysis, the pattern recognition showed completely separate clustering of serum analysis parameters between the OVA+Vehicle and OVA+BAW treated groups. Of the total endogenous metabolites, 19 metabolites were upregulated or downregulated in the OVA+Vehicle treated group as compared to the Control treated group. However, only 4 amino acids (alanine, glycine, methionine and tryptophan) were significantly recovered after BAWLo and BAWHi treatment. This study provides the first results pertaining to metabolic changes in the asthma model mice treated with OVA+BAW. Additionally, these findings show that 4 metabolites can be used as one of biomarkers to predict the anti-asthmatic effects.

Amino Acids , Animals , Asthma , Biomarkers , Fermentation , Glycine , Immunoglobulin E , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Methionine , Mice , Ovalbumin , Respiratory Mucosa , Therapeutic Uses , Weissella
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764307


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver and the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. HCC is caused by infection of hepatitis B/C virus and liver dysfunctions, such as alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cirrhosis. Amino acids are organic substances containing amine and carboxylic acid functional groups. There are over 700 kinds of amino acids in nature, but only about 20 of them are used to synthesize proteins in cells. Liver is an important organ for protein synthesis, degradation and detoxification as well as amino acid metabolism. In the liver, there are abundant non-essential amino acids, such as alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, and serine and essential amino acids, such as histidine and threonine. These amino acids are involved in various cellular metabolisms, the synthesis of lipids and nucleotides as well as detoxification reactions. Understanding the role of amino acids in the pathogenesis of liver and the effects of amino acid intake on liver disease can be a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of liver disease. In this review, we describe the biochemical properties and functions of amino acids and to review how they have been applied to treatment of liver diseases.

Alanine , Amino Acids , Amino Acids, Essential , Aspartic Acid , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Fibrosis , Glutamic Acid , Glycine , Hepatitis , Histidine , Liver Diseases , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Liver , Metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Nucleotides , Serine , Therapeutic Uses , Threonine
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761789


The lamina II, also called the substantia gelatinosa (SG), of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc), is thought to play an essential role in the control of orofacial nociception. Glycine and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) are the important neurotransmitters that have the individual parts on the modulation of nociceptive transmission. However, the electrophysiological effects of 5-HT on the glycine receptors on SG neurons of the Vc have not been well studied yet. For this reason, we applied the whole-cell patch clamp technique to explore the interaction of intracellular signal transduction between 5-HT and the glycine receptors on SG neurons of the Vc in mice. In nine of 13 neurons tested (69.2%), pretreatment with 5-HT potentiated glycine-induced current (I(Gly)). Firstly, we examined with a 5-HT₁ receptor agonist (8-OH-DPAT, 5-HT(1/7) agonist, co-applied with SB-269970, 5-HT₇ antagonist) and antagonist (WAY-100635), but 5-HT₁ receptor agonist did not increase IGly and in the presence of 5-HT₁ antagonist, the potentiation of 5-HT on I(Gly) still happened. However, an agonist (α-methyl-5-HT) and antagonist (ketanserin) of the 5-HT₂ receptor mimicked and inhibited the enhancing effect of 5-HT on I(Gly) in the SG neurons, respectively. We also verified the role of the 5-HT₇ receptor by using a 5-HT₇ antagonist (SB-269970) but it also did not block the enhancement of 5-HT on I(Gly). Our study demonstrated that 5-HT facilitated I(Gly) in the SG neurons of the Vc through the 5-HT₂ receptor. The interaction between 5-HT and glycine appears to have a significant role in modulating the transmission of the nociceptive pathway.

Animals , Glycine , Mice , Neurons , Neurotransmitter Agents , Nociception , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Receptors, Glycine , Serotonin , Signal Transduction , Substantia Gelatinosa
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813059


To explore the renal metabolic markers relavant to the renal toxicity of diethylnitrosamine and the metabolic pathways involved in the renal metabolic markers.
 Methods: Nineteen Sprague Dawley rats were assigned into 2 groups: A normal control group (n=9) and a diethylnitrosamine (DEN) administration group (n=10). The rats in the normal control group were given sterilized water for free drinking. The rats in the DEN administration group were given 0.1 mg/mL DEN solution for free drinking. After 18 weeks, the kidney tissues were collected and tested for nuclear magnetic resonance detection and pathological examination.
 Results: The content of kidneys metabolites in the rats with the DEN administration was changed significantly. The levels of alanine, taurine, pyruvate, acetate, and choline were significantly reduced compared with rat in the normal control group, while the levels of creatine, glycine, TMAO, methionine, proline, lactate, valine, leucine and isoleucine were significantly increased.
 Conclusion: Metabolicomics studies have revealed significant differences in five metabolic pathways, including valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, glycine serine and threonine metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, cysteine and methionine metabolism.

Alkylating Agents , Toxicity , Animals , Diethylnitrosamine , Toxicity , Glycine , Kidney , Physiology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 296-305, May-Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888862


Abstract In Brazil, the expansion of agricultural activity and the associated indiscriminate use of herbicides such as glyphosate is directly related to the loss of biodiversity in the Cerrado. The identification of plant species as bioindicators of herbicide action, especially species native to the area, can help in monitoring the impacts of xenobiotics in the remaining Cerrado. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the possible use of the native Cerrado species Pouteria torta as a bioindicator of glyphosate action via changes in physiological performance. At 16 months after sowing, the effect of glyphosate was evaluated by applying the following doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 g a.e. ha-1. In response to glyphosate, P. torta exhibited reductions in photosynthesis and chloroplastid pigment content, as well as accumulation of shikimic acid and the occurrence of chlorosis and necrosis. These changes demonstrate the high sensitivity of P. torta to glyphosate and its potential for use as a bioindicator of this herbicide.

Resumo No Brasil, a expansão da atividade agrícola, aliada a utilização indiscriminada de herbicidas como o glyphosate, possui relação direta com a perda da biodiversidade no Cerrado. A identificação de espécies vegetais bioindicadoras da ação de herbicidas, particularmente as nativas do Cerrado, pode auxiliar em processos de monitoramento dos impactos desse xenobiótico nas remanescentes do Cerrado. Assim, este estudo foi projetado para avaliar o possível uso de Pouteria torta, espécie nativa do cerrado, como bioindicadora da ação do glyphosate via mudanças na sua performance fisiológica. Após 16 meses de semeadura, o efeito do glyphosate foi avaliado quando aplicadas as seguintes doses: 0 (controle), 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 e 1200 g e. a. ha-1. Em reposta ao glyphosate, as plantas de P. torta apresentaram redução na sua performance do processo fotossintético e no conteúdo de pigmentos cloroplastídicos, além do acúmulo de ácido chiquímico e da ocorrência de cloroses e necroses. Essas alterações demonstram a alta sensibilidade de P. torta ao glyphosate, o que potencializa a sua utilização como bioindicadora da ação desse herbicida.

Photosynthesis/drug effects , Pouteria/drug effects , Sentinel Species/metabolism , Herbicides/adverse effects , Brazil , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glycine/adverse effects
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(1): 41-50, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899316


Abstract Helminth parasites have been studied as potential accumulators for different pollutants. Echinostoma paraensei is a foodborne trematode whose vertebrate host, the rodent Nectomys squamipes, is naturally exposed to environmental pesticides. However, little information exists regarding the pesticide's effects on helminths. This study investigated the morphological effects on the trematode, E. paraensei, after experimental Roundup® herbicide exposure, in concentrations below those recommended for agricultural use. After two hours of exposure, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed changes to the tegument, such as furrowing, shrinkage, peeling, spines loss on the peristomic collar, and histopathological evidence of altered cells in the cecum and acinus vitelline glands with vacuoles and structural changes to the muscular layers. Glycidic content was decreased, primarily in the connective tissue. As E. paraensei is an intestinal parasite of the semi-aquatic wild rodent, N. squamipes, it is predisposed to pesticide exposure resulting from agricultural practices. Therefore, we emphasize the need to evaluate its impact on helminth parasites, due to their pivotal role in regulating host populations.

Resumo Helmintos parasitos tem sido estudados como acumuladores potenciais para diferentes poluentes. O trematódeo E. paraensei tem como hospedeiro vertebrado o roedor Nectomys squamipes naturalmente exposto a pesticidas no meio ambiente. No entanto, pouca informação está disponível sobre os efeitos dos pesticidas em helmintos parasitos. O presente estudo investigou, em condições experimentais, os efeitos morfológicos no trematódeo E. paraensei após a exposição ao herbicida Roundup®, em concentrações abaixo das recomendadas para a utilização agrícola. A microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) mostrou após duas horas de exposição, alterações no tegumento, como enrugamento, contração e descamação com perda de espinhos no colar peristômico e análise histopatológica evidenciou células do ceco alteradas, as glândulas vitelínicas com vacúolos e mudanças estruturais nas camadas musculares. Diminuição do conteúdo glicídico, principalmente no tecido conjuntivo, também foi observado. Considerando a predisposição à exposição a pesticidas agrícolas de N. squamipes infectado por E. paraensei, são necessários estudos para avaliar o impacto de tais resíduos frente aos helmintos e seus hospedeiros.

Animals , Echinostoma/anatomy & histology , Echinostoma/drug effects , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Herbicides/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Echinostoma/ultrastructure , Glycine/pharmacology
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 61: e18180028, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974111


ABSTRACT Extracts of the seeds of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f. were studied in relation to its chemical composition and toxicity to the brown stink bug Euschistus heros (F.). The extracts were obtained in ethyl acetate and ethanol in the sequence according to the polar nature of the solvents. Extracts were sprayed in concentration of 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% on third-instars nymphs and adults, and mortality was recorded. Presence two rotenoids in ethyl acetate was detected, with analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Crude fraction analyses confirmed the presence of these rotenoids (tephrosin - 2.71% in ethyl acetate and 3.66% in methanol; and deguelin - 10.46% in ethyl acetate and 1.22% in methanol) and three other rotenoids in small amounts. Eight days after applications, ethyl acetate caused more stink bugs mortality and on less time than ethanol extract, because great quantity of rotenoids, as polarity. Concentrations above to 1 and 2.5% of the ethyl acetate extracts caused mortality above 80% of the nymphs and adults of E. heros, respectively. Concentration were considered high, thus chemist analyzes demonstrated high rotenoids presence. In conclusion, seed T. vogelli extracts, rich in deguelin and tephrosin (3:1), cause mortality of E. heros, however, high concentration are necessary.

Soybeans , Cimicidae , Tephrosia/chemistry , Glycine
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741510


The capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encoded by open reading frame 2 (ORF2) is important for neutralizing activity against PCV2 infection. This study investigated the heterogeneity of the ORF2 gene of PCV2 isolated in Korea during 2016–2017. The results revealed that PCV2d is currently the predominant genotype. Moreover, comparison of ORF2 from 17 PCV2 isolates revealed 88.3–100% homology at the nucleotide (deduced amino acid 86.3–100%) level. Interestingly, 61.5% (8/13) of the PCV2d isolates had glycine at position 210. These data provide a useful information for PCV2 epidemiology in Korea.

Capsid Proteins , Circovirus , Epidemiology , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Glycine , Korea , Open Reading Frames , Population Characteristics
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715113


OBJECTIVE: 3-Methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase deficiency (3MCCD) is classified as organic acid disease due to leucine catabolism. It is among the most common inborn errors of metabolism identified on newborn screening test using tandem mass spectrometry. There is a broad spectrum of clinical presentations. 3-Methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase converts 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA to 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA using biotin as a coenzyme in mitochondria. Restricting protein diets and supplementing carnitine, glycine, and biotin are known treatments. We reported this study to find out clinical symptoms, type of gene mutation, and effect of treatment. METHODS: This study was based on retrospective data of patients with 3MCCD in Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital and Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital between April 2009 to August 2016. RESULTS: All 10 infants were born term infants and had no symptoms. During the neonatal period, abnormalities were detected in the new born screening test using tandem mass spectrometry, 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine was increased. 3-Methylcrotonylglycine (3MCG) and 3-hydroxyisovalreric acid (3HIVA) were examined in urine organic acid assay. The results showed that 3MCG was increased in all 10 children. Except for three of the 10 children, 3HIVA was increased. Genetic tests were performed on all 10 children. MCCC1 gene mutations were detected in four patients and MCCC2 mutations were detected in six patients. After diagnosis, all children were recommended leucine-restricted diets, and seven of the 10 patients started to feed on leucine free formula for the treatment of 3MCCD. CONCLUSION: According to our data, all patients has no symptoms and are shown normal development. There were no clinical symptoms or changes in prognosis according to gene mutation type.

Biotin , Carnitine , Child , Diagnosis , Diet , Glycine , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Leucine , Mass Screening , Metabolism , Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Mitochondria , Neonatal Screening , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 3103-3110, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886869


ABSTRACT The low fruit set is one of the main factors leading to poor yield of pear orchards in Brazil. The exogenous application of thidiazuron (TDZ) and aminoethoxyvinilglycine (AVG) has shown promising results in some pear cultivars and other temperate fruit trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TDZ and AVG on fruit set, yield, and fruit quality of 'Hosui' and 'Packham's Triumph' pears. The study was performed in a commercial orchard located in São Joaquim, SC. Plant material consisted of 'Hosui' and 'Packham's Triumph' pear trees grafted on Pyrus calleryana. Treatments consisted on different rates of TDZ (0 mg L-1, 20 mg L-1, 40 mg L-1 and 60 mg L-1) sprayed at full bloom for both cultivars. An additional treatment of AVG 60 mg L-1 was sprayed one week after full bloom in 'Hosui'. The fruit set, number of fruit per tree, yield, fruit weight, seed number, and fruit quality attributes were assessed. Fruit set and yield of both cultivars are consistently increased by TDZ, within the rates of 20 to 60 mg L-1. Besides, its application increased fruit size of 'Hosui' and did not negatively affect fruit quality attributes of both cultivars.

Phenylurea Compounds/pharmacology , Thiadiazoles/pharmacology , Pyrus/drug effects , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Phenylurea Compounds/administration & dosage , Thiadiazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrus/growth & development , Crop Production , Glycine/administration & dosage , Glycine/pharmacology