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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246579, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278558

ABSTRACT

Abstract Water magnetization and geoprocessing are increasingly utilized tools in weed management. Our objective was to study the influence of water magnetization on herbicide efficiency and to verify whether there is a relationship between control scores and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In the laboratory experiment, water was subjected to magnetization and evaluated with respect to four characteristics. In the field experiment, plots of Brachiaria grass were subjected to treatments in a factorial scheme (6 × 2 + 1). Six herbicidal factors (doses of glyphosate and glyphosate + 2,4-D) and the magnetization or absence of magnetization of the spray solution were evaluated and compared against the control treatment (without spraying). Weed control assessments were carried out six times. Images were obtained using an embedded multispectral camera to determine the NDVI values. Data related to water characteristics were analyzed using the t test. Weed control and NDVI data were subjected to analysis of variance and are presented in regression graphs. Dispersion analysis of NDVI data was performed according to the control scores. The magnetization process decreased the pH of the water and increased the surface tension, but it did not influence the control scores or the NDVI. As the glyphosate dose was increased, the control scores were higher and the NDVI values were lower. Magnetized water did not affect the biological efficiency of the herbicides, and there was a strong correlation between the control scores and the NDVI values.


Resumo A magnetização da água e o geoprocessamento são ferramentas cada vez mais utilizadas no manejo de ervas daninhas. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a influência da magnetização da água na eficiência do herbicida e verificar se existe uma relação entre os escores de controle e o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI). No experimento de laboratório, a água foi submetida à magnetização e avaliada em relação a quatro características. No experimento de campo, parcelas de capim-braquiária foram submetidas a tratamentos em esquema fatorial (6 × 2 + 1). Seis fatores herbicidas (doses de glyphosate e glyphosate + 2,4-D) e a magnetização ou ausência de magnetização da calda foram avaliados e comparados com o tratamento controle (sem pulverização). Avaliações de controle de plantas daninhas foram realizadas seis vezes. As imagens foram obtidas usando uma câmera multiespectral incorporada para determinar os valores de NDVI. Os dados relacionados às características da água foram analisados ​​por meio do teste t. O controle de plantas daninhas e os dados de NDVI foram submetidos à análise de variância e são apresentados em gráficos de regressão. A análise de dispersão dos dados NDVI foi realizada de acordo com os escores de controle. O processo de magnetização diminuiu o pH da água e aumentou a tensão superficial, mas não influenciou nos escores de controle ou no NDVI. Conforme a dose de glyphosate foi aumentada, os escores de controle foram maiores e os valores de NDVI foram menores. A água magnetizada não afetou a eficiência biológica dos herbicidas, e houve uma forte correlação entre os escores de controle e os valores de NDVI.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Herbicides , 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid , Weed Control , Glycine/analogs & derivatives
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.


Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicides/toxicity , Aspergillus , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Organophosphonates , Fungi , Glycine/analogs & derivatives
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246450, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278532
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2936-2946, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887855

ABSTRACT

A stable Zr-based metal-organic framework (MOF, UiO-66-NH2) synthesized via micro-water solvothermal method was used to immobilize amidase by using the glutaraldehyde crosslinking method. The effect of immoblization conditions on enzyme immoblization efficiency was studied. An activity recovery rate of 86.4% and an enzyme loading of 115.3 mg/g were achieved under the optimal conditions: glutaraldehyde concentration of 1.0%, cross-linking time of 180 min, and the weight ratio of MOF to enzyme of 8:1. The optimal temperature and optimal pH of the immobilized amidase were determined to be 40 °C and 9.0, respectively, and the Km, Vmax and kcat of the immoblized amidase were 58.32 mmol/L, 16.23 μmol/(min·mg), and 1 670 s⁻¹, respectively. The immobilized enzyme was used for (S)-4-fluorophenylglycine synthesis and the optimal reaction conditions were 300 mmol/L of N-phenylacetyl-4-fluorophenylglycine, 10 g/L of immobilized enzyme loading, and reacting for 180 min at pH 9.0 and 40 °C. A conversion rate of 49.9% was achieved under the optimal conditions, and the conversion rate can be increased to 99.9% under the conditions of enantiomeric excess. The immobilized enzyme can be repeatedly used, 95.8% of its original activity can be retained after 20 cycles.


Subject(s)
Amidohydrolases , Enzyme Stability , Enzymes, Immobilized/metabolism , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Metal-Organic Frameworks , Temperature
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5657, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286305

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the morphology and morphometry of the muscles extensor digitorium longus and soleus of C57BL/6 females, who were exposed to glyphosate during pregnancy and lactation. Methods Twelve female mice from the C57BL/6 lineage were used. After detection of pregnancy, they were divided into a Control Group, which received only water, and a Glyphosate Group, which received water with 0.5% glyphosate during pregnancy and lactation. Both groups received ad libitum standard diet. After weaning, the females were euthanized and weighed; naso-anal length was measured, and fats were collected and weighed. The muscles extensor digitorium longus and soleus were collected, and their length and weight were measured. Then, the muscles were fixed in Methacarn to perform the histological study of muscle fibers. Results Glyphosate Group presented lower weight gain during pregnancy and also lower final body weight and naso-anal length; however, the other body parameters evaluated did not present a significant difference in relation to the Control Group. Significant differences were also not observed in the analysis of muscle fibers and connective tissue. Conclusion Exposure to 0.5% glyphosate during pregnancy and lactation resulted in lower weight gain during pregnancy, final weight, and naso-anal length. Despite not directly altering the morphology of muscle tissue, these results may indicate enough exposure to interfere with animal metabolism.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a morfologia e a morfometria dos músculos extensor longo dos dedos e sóleo de fêmeas C57BL/6 expostas ao glifosato durante a prenhez e lactação. Métodos Foram utilizados 12 camundongos fêmeas da linhagem C57BL/6. Após detecção da prenhez, foram separadas em Grupo Controle, que recebeu somente água, e Grupo Glifosato, que recebeu água com 0,5% de glifosato durante a prenhez e lactação. Ambos os grupos receberam dieta padrão ad libitum. Após o desmame, as fêmeas foram eutanasiadas e pesadas; o comprimento nasoanal foi mensurado, e as gorduras foram coletadas e pesadas. Os músculos extensor longo dos dedos e sóleo foram coletados, e seu comprimento e peso foram mensurados. Em seguida, os músculos foram fixados em Methacarn para a realização do estudo histológico das fibras musculares. Resultados O Grupo Glifosato apresentou menor ganho de peso durante a prenhez e também menor peso corporal final e comprimento nasoanal, entretanto os demais parâmetros corporais avaliados não apresentaram diferença significativa em relação ao Grupo Controle. Na análise das fibras musculares e do tecido conjuntivo, também não foram observadas diferenças significativas. Conclusão A exposição a 0,5% de glifosato durante a prenhez e lactação resultou em menor ganho de peso na gestação, peso final e comprimento nasoanal, o que pode indicar que, apesar de não alterar a morfologia do tecido muscular diretamente, a exposição foi suficiente para interferir no metabolismo dos animais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Mice , Muscle, Skeletal , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal , Lactation , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Mice, Inbred C57BL
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(1): 41-50, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899316

ABSTRACT

Abstract Helminth parasites have been studied as potential accumulators for different pollutants. Echinostoma paraensei is a foodborne trematode whose vertebrate host, the rodent Nectomys squamipes, is naturally exposed to environmental pesticides. However, little information exists regarding the pesticide's effects on helminths. This study investigated the morphological effects on the trematode, E. paraensei, after experimental Roundup® herbicide exposure, in concentrations below those recommended for agricultural use. After two hours of exposure, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed changes to the tegument, such as furrowing, shrinkage, peeling, spines loss on the peristomic collar, and histopathological evidence of altered cells in the cecum and acinus vitelline glands with vacuoles and structural changes to the muscular layers. Glycidic content was decreased, primarily in the connective tissue. As E. paraensei is an intestinal parasite of the semi-aquatic wild rodent, N. squamipes, it is predisposed to pesticide exposure resulting from agricultural practices. Therefore, we emphasize the need to evaluate its impact on helminth parasites, due to their pivotal role in regulating host populations.


Resumo Helmintos parasitos tem sido estudados como acumuladores potenciais para diferentes poluentes. O trematódeo E. paraensei tem como hospedeiro vertebrado o roedor Nectomys squamipes naturalmente exposto a pesticidas no meio ambiente. No entanto, pouca informação está disponível sobre os efeitos dos pesticidas em helmintos parasitos. O presente estudo investigou, em condições experimentais, os efeitos morfológicos no trematódeo E. paraensei após a exposição ao herbicida Roundup®, em concentrações abaixo das recomendadas para a utilização agrícola. A microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) mostrou após duas horas de exposição, alterações no tegumento, como enrugamento, contração e descamação com perda de espinhos no colar peristômico e análise histopatológica evidenciou células do ceco alteradas, as glândulas vitelínicas com vacúolos e mudanças estruturais nas camadas musculares. Diminuição do conteúdo glicídico, principalmente no tecido conjuntivo, também foi observado. Considerando a predisposição à exposição a pesticidas agrícolas de N. squamipes infectado por E. paraensei, são necessários estudos para avaliar o impacto de tais resíduos frente aos helmintos e seus hospedeiros.


Subject(s)
Animals , Echinostoma/anatomy & histology , Echinostoma/drug effects , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Herbicides/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Echinostoma/ultrastructure , Glycine/pharmacology
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 3103-3110, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886869

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The low fruit set is one of the main factors leading to poor yield of pear orchards in Brazil. The exogenous application of thidiazuron (TDZ) and aminoethoxyvinilglycine (AVG) has shown promising results in some pear cultivars and other temperate fruit trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TDZ and AVG on fruit set, yield, and fruit quality of 'Hosui' and 'Packham's Triumph' pears. The study was performed in a commercial orchard located in São Joaquim, SC. Plant material consisted of 'Hosui' and 'Packham's Triumph' pear trees grafted on Pyrus calleryana. Treatments consisted on different rates of TDZ (0 mg L-1, 20 mg L-1, 40 mg L-1 and 60 mg L-1) sprayed at full bloom for both cultivars. An additional treatment of AVG 60 mg L-1 was sprayed one week after full bloom in 'Hosui'. The fruit set, number of fruit per tree, yield, fruit weight, seed number, and fruit quality attributes were assessed. Fruit set and yield of both cultivars are consistently increased by TDZ, within the rates of 20 to 60 mg L-1. Besides, its application increased fruit size of 'Hosui' and did not negatively affect fruit quality attributes of both cultivars.


Subject(s)
Phenylurea Compounds/pharmacology , Thiadiazoles/pharmacology , Pyrus/drug effects , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Phenylurea Compounds/administration & dosage , Thiadiazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrus/growth & development , Crop Production , Glycine/administration & dosage , Glycine/pharmacology
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(4): 26-30, July 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-793949

ABSTRACT

Background: Glycine oxidase (GO), a type of D-amino acid oxidase, is of biotechnological interest for its potential in several fields. In our previous study, we have characterized a new glycine oxidase (BceGO) from Bacillus cereus HYC-7. Here, a variant of N336K with increased the affinity against all the tested substrate was obtained by screening a random mutant library of BceGO. It is observed that the residue N336 is invariable between its homogeneous enzymes. This work was aimed to explore the role of the residue N336 in glycine oxidase by site-directed mutagenesis, kinetic assay, structure modeling and substrate docking. Results: The results showed that the affinity of N336H, N336K and N336R increased gradually toward all the substrates, with increase in positive charge on side chain, while N336A and N336G have not shown a little significant effect on substrate affinity. The structure modeling studies indicated that the residue Asn336 is located in a random coil between -J-18 and a-10. Also, far-UV CD spectra-analysis showed that the mutations at Asn336 do not affect the secondary structure of enzyme. Conclusion: Asn336 site was located in a conserved GHYRNG loop which adjoining to substrate and the isoalloxazine ring of FAD, and involved in the substrate affinity of glycine oxidase. This might provide new insight into the structure-function relationship of GO, and valuable clue to redesign its substrate specificity for some biotechnological application.


Subject(s)
Bacillus cereus/metabolism , Amino Acid Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Substrate Specificity , Kinetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Amino Acid Oxidoreductases/genetics
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(6): 382-388, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785018

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the regulatory roles of neutrophil elastase (NE) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. METHODS: To construct LPS-induced ALI mouse models, wild-type C57BL/6 mice were administered 5.0 mg/kg of LPS through endotracheal, and/or 1.0 mg/kg of ONO-5046, and/or 20.0 mg/kg of chemically modified tetracycline-3 (CMT-3) by gavage. The levels of MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1, interleukin (IL)-6 were detected by real time RT-PCR at 6 h, 24 h and 48 h, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lung wet-dry weight ratio, white blood cell (WBC) count and polymorphonuclear (PMN) count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were tested at 48 h after administration. The 5-day survival analysis of the ALI mice was also performed. RESULTS: Both ONO-5046 and CMT-3, regardless of being used individually or combined, significantly reduced the levels of MMP-9, IL-6, and TNF in lung tissue as well as in BALF, and the WBC and PMN count in BALF. Combined treatment with ONO-5046 and CMT-3 remarkably improved the survival rate of ALI mice. CONCLUSION: Neutrophil elastase synergizes with matrix metalloproteinase-9 to promote and regulate the release of inflammatory mediators and the infiltration of inflammatory cells, consequently affecting the survival of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Tetracyclines/administration & dosage , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/enzymology , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Time Factors , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Survival Analysis , Lipopolysaccharides , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Leukocyte Elastase/drug effects , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factors/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/blood , Glycine/administration & dosage , Leukocyte Count , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophils
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(3): 43-48, May 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787006

ABSTRACT

Background: D-Hydroxyphenylglycine is considered to be an important chiral molecular building-block of antibiotic reagents such as pesticides, and β-lactam antibiotics. The process of its production is catalyzed by D-hydantoinase and D-carbamoylase in a two-step enzyme reaction. How to enhance the catalytic potential of the two enzymes is valuable for industrial application. In this investigation, an Escherichia coli strain genetically engineered with D-hydantoinase was immobilized by calcium alginate with certain adjuncts to evaluate the optimal condition for the biosynthesis of D-carbamoyl-p-hydroxyphenylglycine (D-CpHPG), the compound further be converted to D-hydroxyphenylglycine (D-HPG) by carbamoylase. Results: The optimal medium to produce D-CpHPG by whole-cell immobilization was a modified Luria-Bertani (LB) added with 3.0% (W/V) alginate, 1.5% (W/V) diatomite, 0.05% (W/V) CaCl2 and 1.00 mM MnCl2.The optimized diameter of immobilized beads for the whole-cell biosynthesis here was 2.60 mm. The maximized production rates of D-CpHPG were up to 76%, and the immobilized beads could be reused for 12 batches. Conclusions: This investigation not only provides an effective procedure for biological production of D-CpHPG, but gives an insight into the whole-cell immobilization technology.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli , Amidohydrolases , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Cells, Immobilized , Glycine/biosynthesis
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(1): 223-233, Jan.-Mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753788

ABSTRACT

Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world with application in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, garden and aquatic environments. However, its use is highly controversial for the possible impact on not-target organisms, such as amphibians, which are vanishing at an alarming and rapid rate. Due to the high solubility in water and ionic nature, the glyphosate requires of surfactants to increase activity. In addition, for the control of coca (Erythroxylum coca) and agricultural weeds in Colombia, formulated glyphosate is mixed and sprayed with the adjuvant Cosmo-Flux®411F to increase the penetration and activity of the herbicide. This study evaluates the acute toxic and sublethal effects (embryonic development, tadpole body size, tadpole swimming performance) of the mixture of the formulated glyphosate Roundup® Active and Cosmo-Flux®411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species under 96h laboratory standard tests and microcosms, which are more similar to field conditions as they include soil, sand and macrophytes. In the laboratory, embryos and tadpoles of Engystomops pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50=3 904µg a.e./L; LC50=2 799µg a.e./L, respectively), while embryos and tadpoles of Hypsiboas crepitans (LC50=2 203µg a.e./L; LC50=1 424µg a.e./L, respectively) were the most sensitive. R. humboldti and R. marina presented an intermediate toxicity. Embryos were significantly more tolerant to the mixture than tadpoles, which could be likely attributed to the exclusion of chemicals by the embryonic membranes and the lack of organs, such as gills, which are sensitive to surfactants. Sublethal effects were observed for the tadpole body size, but not for the embryonic development and tadpole swimming performance. In microcosms, no toxicity (LC50 could not be estimated), or sublethal responses were observed at concentrations up to fourfold (14.76kg glyphosate a.e./ha) the highest field application rate of 3.69kg glyphosate a.e./ha. Thus, toxicity was less in the microcosms than in laboratory tests, which may be attributed to the presence of sediments and organic matter which rapidly adsorb glyphosate and surfactants such as POEA. It is concluded that the mixture of glyphosate (Roundup® Active) and Cosmo-Flux®411F, as used in the field, has a negligible toxic effect to embryos and tadpoles of the species tested in this study.


El glifosato es el herbicida más usado en el mundo con aplicaciones para la agricultura, control de malezas forestales, industriales, en jardines y ambientes acuáticos. Sin embargo, su uso es altamente controversial por el posible impacto sobre organismos no blanco, como los anfibios, los cuales están desapareciendo a una tasa alarmantemente rápida. Debido a su alta solubilidad en agua y naturaleza iónica, el glifosato requiere de surfactantes para incrementar su actividad. Además, para el control de Erythroxylum coca y de malezas en la agricultura en Colombia, el glifosato formulado es mezclado y rociado con el coadyuvante Cosmo-Flux®411F para incrementar la penetración y actividad del herbicida. Este estudio evalúa los efectos tóxicos agudos y subletales (desarrollo embrionario, tamaño corporal y desempeño natatorio de los renacuajos) de la mezcla del glifosato formulado Roundup® Activo con el Cosmo-Flux®411F en embriones y renacuajos de cuatro especies de anuros colombianos, bajo pruebas de 96h en condiciones estándar de laboratorio y microcosmos, que son más similares a las condiciones de campo al incluir tierra, arena y macrófitas. En laboratorio, los embriones y renacuajos de Engystomops pustulosus fueron los más tolerantes (CL50=3 904µg a.e./L; CL50=2 799µg a.e./L, respectivamente), mientras que los embriones y renacuajos de Hypsiboas crepitans fueron los más sensibles (CL50=2 203µg a.e./L; CL50=1 424µg a.e./L, respectivamente). R. humboldti y R. marina presentaron una toxicidad intermedia. Los embriones fueron más tolerantes a la mezcla que los renacuajos, lo cual podría ser atribuido a la exclusión de los químicos por las membranas embrionarias y a la falta de órganos, como las branquias, que son más sensibles a los surfactantes. Se observaron efectos subletales en el tamaño corporal de los renacuajos, pero no en el desarrollo embrionario ni el desempeño natatorio de los renacuajos. En microcosmos no se observaron efectos tóxicos ni respuestas subletales a concentraciones hasta cuatro veces (14.67kg glifosato a.e./ha) la tasa de aplicación más alta de 3.69kg glifosato a.e./ha. Por lo tanto, la toxicidad fue menor en los microcosmos que en las pruebas de laboratorio, lo que puede ser atribuido a la presencia de sedimentos y materia orgánica que absorbe rápidamente el glifosato y surfactantes como el POEA. Se concluye que la mezcla del glifosato (Roundup® Activo) y Cosmo-Flux®411F, como se aplica en campo, tiene un efecto tóxico bajo en los embriones y renacuajos de las especies estudiadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anura , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Herbicides/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Xanthones/toxicity , Anura/classification , Colombia , Glycine/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Acute
12.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Oct; 51(5): 350-357
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154263

ABSTRACT

The non-proteinogenic amino acids — phenylglycine (PG) and hydroxyphenylglycine (HPG) are crucial components of certain peptidic natural products and are important for the preparation of various medicines. In this, study, the conformation of model dipeptides Ac-X-NHMe of PG, p-HPG and 3, 5-di-hydroxyphenylglycine (3, 5-DHPG) was studied both in R and S form by quantum mechanical (QM) and molecular dynamics approaches. On the energy scale, the conformational states of these molecules in both the R and S were found to be degenerate by QM studies, stabilized by non-covalent interactions like carbonyl--carbonyl interactions, carbonyl-lp··π (aromatic ring) interactions etc. These interactions disappeared/weakened due to interaction of water molecules with carbonyl groups of backbone in simulation and water was found to interact with the aromatic ring through Ow-H··π or Owlp··π interactions. The degeneracy of conformational states was lifted in favor of R-form of PG and DHPG and water molecules interactions with aromatic ring led to non-planarity of the aromatic ring. In simulation studies, irrespective of the starting geometry, the , values for the R form correspond to inverse b/inverse collagen region and for the S-form, the , values correspond to b/collagen region i.e., adopt single conformation. The obtained results were in conformity with the CD spectroscopic data on D-PG and D-p-HPG. The conformational behavior of the unusual amino acids might be of great help in designing of bioactive peptides/peptide based drugs to be realized in single conformation – an essential requirement.


Subject(s)
Benzene/chemistry , Computer Simulation , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Glycine/chemistry , Models, Chemical , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Quantum Theory
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 971-975, July-Sept. 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727028

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the impact of different concentrations of glyphosate (Rondup®) on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures of P. aeruginosa ATCC®15442 inoculated in MHB + glyphosate (0.845 ppm, 1.690 ppm, 8.45 ppm, 16.90 ppm, 84.50 ppm, 169 ppm, 845 ppm, and 1690 ppm) and cultured in normoxia and anoxia, following their OD560nm every hour for 24 h. Biofilms of adapted cells were formed in the presence of glyphosate (0.845 to 1690 ppm) in normoxia and anoxia for 36 h. Glyphosate at concentrations higher than 84.5 ppm reduces the cell density of planktonic aerobic cultures (p < 0.05). However, these same concentrations favor the planktonic anaerobic growth (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the herbicide favors a slight growth of biofilms in a concentration-dependent manner up to 84.5 ppm (p > 0.05), and more pronounced over 169 ppm. Anaerobic biofilms have their growth more readily favored (p < 0.05), regardless of concentration. In a concentration-dependent manner, glyphosate interferes with the growth ability of P. aeruginosa ATCC®15442.


Subject(s)
Biofilms/drug effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Herbicides/metabolism , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/physiology , Aerobiosis , Anaerobiosis , Biomass , Glycine/metabolism , Spectrophotometry
14.
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Jan-Mar; 51(1): 40-44
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154282

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Rigosertib, a potent, multi-kinase inhibitor that selectively induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells and is non-toxic to normal cells, is being developed for the treatment of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. AIMS: To determine the safety, doselimiting toxicities, and clinical activity of rigosertib administered by 2-, 4-, or 8-hour continuous IV infusion twice-a-week for 3 weeks out of a 4-week cycle in patients with advanced solid tumor or hematological malignancies; and to confirm the safety and tolerability of the recommended phase 2 dose (RPTD). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation study in men and women ≥18 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An escalation phase optimized the duration of infusion (2, 4, or 8 hours) of 3200 mg rigosertib twice-a-week for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle; an expansion phase confirmed the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: All data summaries were descriptive. PK parameters were estimated using compartmental analysis. RESULTS: 25 patients (16 male, 9 female, 26- 66 years, all Asian) were treated with rigosertib, 16 in the escalation phase; 9 in the expansion phase. MTD was determined to be 3200 mg as a 4-hour infusion and 2400 mg over 4 hours was declared to be the RPTD. Best response was stable disease in 5 of 14 evaluable patients, with a mean (range) of 90 (43-108) days. CONCLUSIONS: 2400 mg rigosertib as a 4-hour infusion was identified as the RPTD. Five patients achieved stable disease lasting 6-16 weeks.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Cohort Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glycine/administration & dosage , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Glycine/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Sulfones/administration & dosage , Sulfones/pharmacokinetics , Time Factors , Tissue Distribution
15.
IJVM-Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2014; 8 (1): 15-19
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-149901

ABSTRACT

Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever, and ruminants being considered as the main source for human infection. Although the main route of infection in human is inhalation of contaminated aerosols, oral transmission by contaminated raw milk or unpasteurized dairy products is also a possible route of infection. Raw milk or dairy products produced from unpasteurized milk may contain virulent C. burnetii. This study aimed to determine the contamination rate of milk and unpasteurized dairy products with C. burnetii. Touch-down PCR was used to examine the presence of C. burnetii on 147 dairy product samples collected from local traditional and commercial markets in Mashhad-Khorasan Razavi province- Iran. 2 of 28 [7.14%] cheese samples, 2 of 26 [7.69%] yoghurt samples, 8 of 23 [34.78%] sheep milk samples, and 2 of 60 [3.33%] cow milk samples were found to be positive for C. burnetii DNA. However, 10 goat milk samples were found to be negative. The results of this study indicate that the clinically healthy dairy livestock and their dairy products are important sources of C. burnetii infection


Subject(s)
Polymerase Chain Reaction , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Organophosphorus Compounds , Milk , Pasteurization , Dairy Products
16.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-6, 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The hippocampal CA3 area contains large amounts of vesicular zinc in the mossy fiber terminals which is released during synaptic activity, depending on presynaptic calcium. Another characteristic of these synapses is the presynaptic localization of high concentrations of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors, specifically activated by DCG-IV. Previous work has shown that DCG-IV affects only mossy fiber-evoked responses but not the signals from associational-commissural afferents, blocking mossy fiber synaptic transmission. Since zinc is released from mossy fibers even for single stimuli and it is generally assumed to be co-released with glutamate, the aim of the work was to investigate the effect of DCG-IV on mossy fiber zinc signals. RESULTS: Studies were performed using the membrane-permeant fluorescent zinc probe TSQ, and indicate that DCG-IV almost completely abolishes mossy fiber zinc changes as it does with synaptic transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc signaling is regulated by the activation of type II metabotropic receptors, as it has been previously shown for glutamate, further supporting the corelease of glutamate and zinc from mossy fibers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Zinc/metabolism , Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate/metabolism , Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal/drug effects , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Anticonvulsants/pharmacology , Synaptic Vesicles/drug effects , Synaptic Vesicles/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Presynaptic Terminals/drug effects , Presynaptic Terminals/metabolism , Synaptic Transmission/drug effects , 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal/metabolism , Glycine/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects
17.
Biocell ; 37(2): 23-28, ago. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-708029

ABSTRACT

Species of the genus Psychotria are used for multiple purposes in Brazilian folk medicine, either as water infusions, baths or poultices. This study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antiproliferative effects of infusions of Psychotria brachypoda and P. birotula on the Allium cepa test. Exposure to distilled water was used as a negative control, while exposure to glyphosate was used as a positive control. The interaction of extracts (as a post-treatment) with the effects of glyphosate was also studied. Results showed that glyphosate and the extracts of both P. brachypoda and P. birotula reduced the mitotic index as compared with the negative control (distilled water). Surprisingly, however, both extracts from P. brachypoda and P. birotula caused a partial reversal of the antiproliferative effect of glyphosat e when used as a post-treatment. Glyphosate also induced the highest number of cells with chromosomal alterations, which was followed by that of P. birotula extracts. However, the extracts from P. brachypoda did not show any significant genotoxic effect. Post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with distilled water allowed a partial recovery of the genotoxic effect of glyphosate, and some of the Psychotria extracts also did so. Notably, post-treatment of glyphosate-treated samples with P. brachypoda extracts induced a statistically significant apoptotic effect. It is concluded that P. brachypoda extracts show antiproliferative effects and are not genotoxic, while extracts of P. birotula show a less potent antiproliferative effect and may induce chromosomal abnormalities. The finding of a partial reversion of the effects of glyphosate by a post-treatment with extracts from both plants should be followed up.


Subject(s)
Onions/cytology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Medicine, Traditional , Plants , Cell Proliferation , Brazil , Drug Interactions , Glycine/pharmacology , Glycine/toxicity , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/toxicity
18.
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2013; 68 (3): 257-267
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-140959

ABSTRACT

Common carp [Cyprinus carpio] fishes during release into the rivers estuary of the Caspian southern basin are generally exposed to a broad spectrum of agricultural pesticides. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of three agricultural pesticides including Malathion, Carbaryle and Glyphosate on C. carpio in lethal level by determining LC[50] 96h and sub-lethal levels via cholinesterase [ChE] activity. The median lethal concentration using a standard method which is called OECD No. 203 [1992], was measured. About 300 fingerlings with average weight of 2.0 +/- 0.4 g were randomly selected and were then exposed to each pesticide in three treatments [0.1, 0.2 LC[50] 96h and negative control] in three replications. 5, 10 and 15 days after the test period, sampling from the head and body of fishes was carried out. The ChE activity was assayed with biochemical method described by Ellman. The LC[50] 96h for three glyphosate, malathion and carbaryle pesticides were obtained as 6.75, 1.3 and 12.67 mg/L, respectively. The mean values of ChE for both head and body under control conditions were found 1241.356 and 723.103 mU/min/mg protein, respectively. Therefore, the ChE activity of head was 1.7 times more than the body. During the test period, inhibition activitiy of ChE was significantly observed in the fishes treated by any of three components in comparison with control [p<0.05]. The ChE inhibition potential by carbaryle and glyphosate was lower than malathion as compared with control. The exposure time concentration exhibited a significant effect compared to the fishes treated by the investigated pesticide types. The used pesticide concentrations for non-target species which were ineffective and permissible according to the lethality bioassay test can lead to their enzyme responses and bio-damages


Subject(s)
Animals , Malathion/toxicity , Carbaryl/toxicity , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Cholinesterases , Lethal Dose 50 , Pesticides
19.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 15(4): 2-2, July 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-646952

ABSTRACT

Background: For successful in vitro plant regeneration, plant cell lines with multiple transgene integration and low transgene expression levels need to be ruled out. Although real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a rapid way to accomplish this, it is also expensive and typically limits the size of the target sequence. Quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR) is proven to be a safe and accurate method for determination of both copy number and quantification of transcript levels of synthetic transgenes in transformed plants. Results: The glyphosate oxidoreductase genewas chemically synthesized and used to transform Brassica napus L. via Agrobactrium-mediated transformation. A construct containing the mutated form of a synthetic glyphosate oxidoreductase (gox) gene (internal standard) was prepared. Gene copy number was estimated in nine independent transgenic lines using QC-PCR as well as the standard method of Southern blot analysis. By quantitative RT-PCR, transcript levels were also determined in these lines. High (> 3), medium to high (2.2-3), medium to low (1-2.2), and low (< 1) levels of transcript were detected. Conclusions: No direct relationship was found between copy number and transgene expression levels. QC-PCR method could be implemented to screen putative transgenic plants and quickly select single T-DNA inserts. QC-PCR methods and the prepared competitor construct may be useful for future quantification of commercial transgenic food and feed.


Subject(s)
Brassica napus/enzymology , Brassica napus/genetics , Glycine/genetics , Oxidoreductases/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Glycine/physiology , Oxidoreductases/physiology , Transcription, Genetic , Transgenes
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(3): 244-249, Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618052

ABSTRACT

Animal models of gentamicin nephrotoxicity present acute tubular necrosis associated with inflammation, which can contribute to intensify the renal damage. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling molecule involved in inflammation. We evaluated the effect of DL-propargylglycine (PAG), an inhibitor of endogenous H2S formation, on the renal damage induced by gentamicin. Male Wistar rats (N = 8) were injected with 40 mg/kg gentamicin (im) twice a day for 9 days, some of them also received PAG (N = 8, 10 mg·kg-1·day-1, ip). Control rats (N = 6) were treated with saline or PAG only (N = 4). Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected one day after the end of these treatments, blood samples were collected, the animals were sacrificed, and the kidneys were removed for quantification of H2S formation and histological and immunohistochemical studies. Gentamicin-treated rats presented higher sodium and potassium fractional excretion, increased plasma creatinine [4.06 (3.00; 5.87) mg percent] and urea levels, a greater number of macrophages/monocytes, and a higher score for tubular interstitial lesions [3.50 (3.00; 4.00)] in the renal cortex. These changes were associated with increased H2S formation in the kidneys from gentamicin-treated rats (230.60 ± 38.62 µg·mg protein-1·h-1) compared to control (21.12 ± 1.63) and PAG (11.44 ± 3.08). Treatment with PAG reduced this increase (171.60 ± 18.34), the disturbances in plasma creatinine levels [2.20 (1.92; 4.60) mg percent], macrophage infiltration, and score for tubular interstitial lesions [2.00 (2.00; 3.00)]. However, PAG did not interfere with the increase in fractional sodium excretion provoked by gentamicin. The protective effect of PAG on gentamicin nephrotoxicity was related, at least in part, to decreased H2S formation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Alkynes/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Gentamicins/toxicity , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Hydrogen Sulfide/antagonists & inhibitors , Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute/chemically induced , Creatinine/blood , Glycine/pharmacology , Hydrogen Sulfide/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute/drug therapy , Kidney/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
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