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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250179, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339372

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.


Resumo O diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença não transmissível em todo o mundo, na qual existe nível glicêmico persistentemente alto em relação à normalidade. O diabetes e a resistência à insulina são os principais responsáveis ​​pelas morbidades e mortalidades de humanos no mundo. Essa doença é regulada principalmente por várias enzimas e hormônios, entre os quais a glicogênio sintase quinase-3 (GSK-3) é uma enzima principal e a insulina é o principal hormônio que a regula. A GSK-3, que é a enzima-chave, normalmente mostra suas ações por vários mecanismos que incluem sua fosforilação, formação de complexos de proteínas e outras distribuições celulares e, portanto, controla e afeta diretamente a morfologia celular, seu crescimento, mobilidade e apoptose do célula. Perturbações na ação da enzima GSK-3 podem levar a várias condições de doença que incluem resistência à insulina que leva ao diabetes, doenças neurológicas como a doença de Alzheimer e câncer. As fluoroquinolonas são a classe mais comum de drogas que apresentam efeitos disglicêmicos por meio da interação com a enzima GSK-3. Portanto, é necessário hoje em dia compreender adequadamente as funções e mecanismos da GSK-3, principalmente seu papel na homeostase da glicose via efeitos na glicogênio sintase.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insulin Resistance , Diabetes Mellitus , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Glucose , Homeostasis
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887997

ABSTRACT

High fat diet induced hyperlipidemia hamster model was used to explore the anti-hyperlipidemia effect of water extract of Moringa oleifera leaves( WEMOL). On this basis,the possible action mechanism was predicted by network pharmacology. Golden hamsters were randomly divided into normal diet group( NFD),high-fat diet group( HFD),simvastatin group,high dose group of WEMOL( HIWEMOL) and low dose group of WEMOL( LOWEMOL). The model was administered simultaneously for 66 days,during which the body weight changes of hamsters were recorded. At the end of the experiment,serum lipid level and serum transaminase level of golden hamsters in each group were detected,and the pathological changes of liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin( HE) staining. The results showed that WEMOL could significantly decrease the serum total cholesterol( TC),total triglyceride( TG),low density lipoprotein cholesterol( LDL-c) levels,and reduce the lipid deposition in liver tissue,thus improving the hyperlipidemia of golden hamsters. According to the prediction of network pharmacology,219 targets of potential active components of M.oleifera leaves and 185 targets of water-soluble potential active components of M. oleifera leaves for the treatment of hyperlipidemia were obtained separately. The MCODE analysis was performed on the PPI network of 219 targets and 185 targets obtained above and got five and four clusters respectively. The signaling pathway analysis of clusters showed that among the common pathways,nonalcoholic fatty liver,insulin resistance,MAPK signaling pathway,estrogen signaling pathway,cell apoptosis and HIF-1 signaling pathway were associated with hyperlipidemia. In addition,the potential active components of M. oleifera leaves could also inhibit the metabolic inflammation of hyperlipidemia by modulating complement and coagulation cascades signaling pathway,and GSK3 B,F2,AKT1,RELA,SERPINE1 might be the key targets. The water-soluble potential active components of M. oliefera leaves could modulate lipid metabolism by modulating AMPK signaling pathway and JAK-STAT signaling pathway,with PIK3 CB,PIK3 CA,CASP3,AKT1 and BCL2 as the key targets. These results suggested that WEMOL had anti hyperlipidemia effect,and its mechanism might be related to the protein expression regulation of lipid metabolism,nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis related signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Diet, High-Fat , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Liver , Moringa oleifera , Plant Leaves
3.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 221-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880964

ABSTRACT

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) critically regulates several essential biological functions, such as cell growth, metabolism, survival, and immune response by forming two important complexes, namely, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and complex 2 (mTORC2). mTOR signaling is often dysregulated in cancers and has been considered an attractive cancer therapeutic target. Great efforts have been made to develop efficacious mTOR inhibitors, particularly mTOR kinase inhibitors, which suppress mTORC1 and mTORC2; however, major success has not been achieved. With the strong scientific rationale, the intriguing question is why cancers are insensitive or not responsive to mTOR-targeted cancer therapy in clinics. Beyond early findings on induced activation of PI3K/Akt, MEK/ERK, and Mnk/eIF4E survival signaling pathways that compromise the efficacy of rapalog-based cancer therapy, recent findings on the essential role of GSK3 in mediating cancer cell response to mTOR inhibitors and mTORC1 inhibition-induced upregulation of PD-L1 in cancer cells may provide some explanations. These new findings may also offer us the opportunity to rationally utilize mTOR inhibitors in cancer therapy. Further elucidation of the biology of complicated mTOR networks may bring us the hope to develop effective therapeutic strategies with mTOR inhibitors against cancer.


Subject(s)
Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 2 , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10107, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142578

ABSTRACT

Ketamine (KET) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist with rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects, but how the drug shows its sustained effects is still a matter of controversy. The objectives were to evaluate the mechanisms for KET rapid (30 min) and long-lasting (15 and 30 days after) antidepressant effects in mice. A single dose of KET (2, 5, or 10 mg/kg, po) was administered to male Swiss mice and the forced swim test (FST) was performed 30 min, 15, or 30 days later. Imipramine (IMI, 30 mg/kg, ip), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, was used as reference. The mice were euthanized, separated into two time-point groups (D1, first day after KET injection; D30, 30 days later), and brain sections were processed for glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), histone deacetylase (HDAC), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemical assays. KET (5 and 10 mg/kg) presented rapid and long-lasting antidepressant-like effects. As expected, the immunoreactivities for brain GSK-3 and HDAC decreased compared to control groups in all areas (striatum, DG, CA1, CA3, and mainly pre-frontal cortex, PFC) after KET injection. Increases in BDNF immunostaining were demonstrated in the PFC, DG, CA1, and CA3 areas at D1 and D30 time-points. GFAP immunoreactivity was also increased in the PFC and striatum at both time-points. In conclusion, KET changed brain BDNF and GFAP expressions 30 days after a single administration. Although neuroplasticity could be involved in the observed effects of KET, more studies are needed to explain the mechanisms for the drug's sustained antidepressant-like effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Ketamine/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Astrocytes , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Disease Models, Animal , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Histone Deacetylases
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888789

ABSTRACT

Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE) has been used to treat tumor in China for more than 40 years. However, its components and effectiveness in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and its mechanism of anti-cancer activity remain unknown. In the current study, high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was used to analyze the components of BJOE. Then, the anti-leukemia effects of BJOE were examined both in vitro and in vivo using ALL Jurkat cells and the p388 mouse leukemia transplant model, respectively. The primary ALL leukemia cells were also used to confirm the anti-leukemia effects of BJOE. The apoptotic-related results indicated that BJOE induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells and were suggestive of intrinsic apoptotic induction. Moreover, BJOE inhibited Akt (protein kinase B) activation and upregulated its downstream targets p53 and FoxO1 (forkhead box gene, group O-1) to initiate apoptosis. The activation of GSK3β was also involved. Our findings demonstrate that BJOE has anti-leukemia effects on ALL cells and can induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells through the phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) /Akt signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Brucea/chemistry , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Mice , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Seeds/chemistry , Signal Transduction
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(10): 862-872, Oct. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886174

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate whether the neuroprotective effect of TSA on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury is mediated by the activation of Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway. Methods: Mice were randomly divided into four groups (n=15): sham group (S); ischemia reperfusion group (IR); ischemia reperfusion and pretreated with TSA group (IR+T); ischemia reperfusion and pretreated with TSA and LY294002 group (IR+T+L). The model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion was established by 1h of MCAO following 24h of reperfusion. TSA (5mg/kg) was intraperitoneally given for 3 days before MCAO, Akt inhibitor, LY294002 (15 nmol/kg) was injected by tail vein 30 min before the MCAO. Results: TSA significantly increased the expression of p-Akt, p-GSK-3β proteins and the levels of SOD, Bcl-2, reduced the infarct volume and the levels of MDA, ROS, TNF-α, IL-1β, Bax, Caspase-3, TUNEL and attenuated neurological deficit in mice with transient MCAO, LY294002 weakened such effect of TSA dramatically. Conclusions: TSA could significantly decrease the neurological deficit and reduce the cerebral infarct volume, oxidative stress, inflammation, as well as apoptosis during cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury, which was achieved by activation of the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Ischemic Attack, Transient/metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/drug effects , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/physiopathology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred BALB C
7.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 178-182, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812789

ABSTRACT

Glycogen synthase kinase3 (GSK3α and GSK3β) are serine/threonine protein kinases acting on numerous substrates and involved in the regulation of various cellular functions such as their proliferation, survival, glycogen metabolism, and autophagy. Accumulating evidence indicates that the expression of GSK3α is increased mainly in androgendependent while that of GSK3β in androgenindependent prostate cancer, and that GSK3β is also involved in the regulation of the transactivation of the androgen receptor (AR) and growth of prostate cancer. Animal experiments have proved that some GSK3 inhibitors, such as lithium, can significantly suppress tumor growth in different animal models of prostate cancer. The GSK3 inhibitor is promising to be an important agent for the clinical management of prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Androgens , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Metabolism , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Proteins , Metabolism , Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent , Metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Receptors, Androgen , Metabolism
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93427

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the effects of chronic alcohol intake on the outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI). Hence, we examined the effects of chronic alcohol intake on the development of renal fibrosis following AKI in an animal model of bilateral renal ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury. We first found that chronic alcohol exposure exacerbated bilateral IR-induced renal fibrosis and renal function impairment. This phenomenon was associated with increased bilateral IR-induced extracellular matrix deposition and an increased myofibroblast population as well as increased bilateral IR-induced expression of fibrosis-related genes in the kidneys. To explore the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we showed that chronic alcohol exposure enhanced β-arrestin 2 (Arrb2) expression and Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3)β activation in the kidneys. Importantly, pharmacological GSK3 inhibition alleviated bilateral IR-induced renal fibrosis and renal function impairment. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Arrb2(−/−) mice exhibited resistance to IR-induced renal fibrosis and renal function impairment following chronic alcohol exposure, and these effects were associated with attenuated GSK3β activation in the kidneys. Taken together, our results suggest that chronic alcohol exposure may potentiate AKI via β-arrestin 2/Akt/GSK3β-mediated signaling in the kidney.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Animals , Extracellular Matrix , Fibrosis , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Glycogen Synthase Kinases , Glycogen Synthase , Glycogen , Kidney , Mice , Models, Animal , Myofibroblasts
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent living condition improvements, changes in dietary habits, and reductions in physical activity are contributing to an increase in metabolic syndrome symptoms including diabetes and obesity. Through such societal developments, humankind is continuously exposed to metabolic diseases such as diabetes, and the number of the victims is increasing. This study investigated Cordyceps militaris water extract (CMW)-induced glucose uptake in HepG2 cells and the effect of CMW treatment on glucose metabolism. MATERIALS/METHODS: Colorimetric assay kits were used to determine the glucokinase (GK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activities, glucose uptake, and glycogen content. Either RT-PCR or western blot analysis was performed for quantitation of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF-1α), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k), protein kinase B (Akt), phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, GK, PDH, and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) expression levels. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of acarbose and CMW were evaluated by absorbance measurement. RESULTS: CMW induced glucose uptake in HepG2 cells by increasing GLUT2 through HNF-1α expression stimulation. Glucose in the cells increased the CMW-induced phosphorylation of AMPK. In turn, glycolysis was stimulated, and glyconeogenesis was inhibited. Furthermore, by studying the mechanism of action of PI3k, Akt, and GSK-3β, and measuring glycogen content, the study confirmed that the glucose was stored in the liver as glycogen. Finally, CMW resulted in a higher level of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than that from acarbose. CONCLUSION: CMW induced the uptake of glucose into HepG2 cells, as well, it induced metabolism of the absorbed glucose. It is concluded that CMW is a candidate or potential use in diabetes prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Acarbose , alpha-Glucosidases , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Blotting, Western , Cordyceps , Feeding Behavior , Glucokinase , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose , Glycogen , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Glycolysis , Hep G2 Cells , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha , Hypoglycemic Agents , Liver , Metabolic Diseases , Metabolism , Motor Activity , Obesity , Oxidoreductases , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphoenolpyruvate , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Pyruvic Acid , Social Conditions , Water
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203972

ABSTRACT

The neurobiology of bipolar disorder, a chronic and systemic ailment is not completely understood. The bipolar phenotype manifests in myriad ways, and psychopharmacological agents like lithium have long term beneficial effects. The enzyme glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) has come into focus, as lithium and several other mood stabilizing medications inhibit its activity. This kinase and its key upstream modulator, Wnt are dysregulated in mood disorders and there is a growing impetus to delineate the chief substrates involved in the development of these illnesses. In May 2016, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken which revealed that there is over activity of GSK3 in bipolar disorder with deleterious downstream effects like proinflammatory status, increased oxidative stress, and circadian dysregulation leading to declining neurotrophic support and enhanced apoptosis of neural elements. By developing specific GSK3 inhibitors the progressive worsening in bipolar disorder can be forestalled with improved prospects for the sufferers.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Bipolar Disorder , Chronobiology Disorders , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Lithium , Mood Disorders , Neurobiology , Oxidative Stress , Phenotype , Phosphotransferases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Wnt Signaling Pathway
11.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 48-59, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193188

ABSTRACT

Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β has been known as a pro-inflammatory molecule in neuroinflammation. The involvement of GSK-3β remains unsolved in acute monophasic rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The aim of this study was to evaluate a potential role of GSK-3β in central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity through its inhibition by lithium. Lithium treatment significantly delayed the onset of EAE paralysis and ameliorated its severity. Lithium treatment reduced the serum level of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor a but not that of interleukin 10. Western blot analysis showed that the phosphorylation of GSK-3β (p-GSK-3β) and its upstream factor Akt was significantly increased in the lithium-treated group. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that lithium treatment also suppressed the activation of ionized calcium binding protein-1-positive microglial cells and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in the spinal cords of lithium-treated EAE rats. These results demonstrate that lithium ameliorates clinical symptom of acute monophasic rat EAE, and GSK-3 is a target for the suppression of acute neuroinflammation as far as rat model of human CNS disease is involved.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autoimmunity , Blotting, Western , Calcium , Central Nervous System , Central Nervous System Diseases , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Glycogen Synthase Kinases , Glycogen Synthase , Glycogen , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Lithium , Models, Animal , Multiple Sclerosis , Paralysis , Phosphorylation , Rats , Spinal Cord , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
12.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 216-223, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327355

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling pathway in the skin lesions and wound healing in diabetic rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-six SD rats were divided into diabetic wound group (D) and non-diabetic wound group (N) according to the random number table, with 18 rats in each group. 10 g/L streptozocin (60 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected in rats in group D, while the rats in group N were given same quantity of sodium citrate buffer. Two weeks after successful reproduction of diabetic model of rats in group D, two full-thickness skin of an area of 2 cm × 2 cm was resected on both sides of back of rats in the two groups. Wounds of three rats of each group were photographed and examined on post injury day (PID) 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21, and the wound healing rates were calculated. The non-injured skin and wound tissue (central part) on back of three rats of the rest 15 rats in the two groups were harvested on PID 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21, respectively. Morphology of the non-injured skin tissue was observed with HE staining, and the thickness of full-thickness skin and epidermis were measured. The mRNA expression levels of ILK, protein kinase B (Akt), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in non-injured skin tissue were determined with real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. The protein expression levels of ILK, Akt, phosphorylated Akt, GSK-3β, and phosphorylated GSK-3β in non-injured skin tissue, and ILK, phosphorylated Akt in wound tissue were assessed with Western blotting. Data were processed with two independent-sample t test, one-way analysis of variance, SNK test and analysis of variance of factorial design.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) After injury, the wound scabs of rats in group N were dry, and red granulation tissue with no excretion were seen when the scabs fell off, and the wound healed fast. After injury, excretion under the wound scabs of rats in group D was seen, and the scabs easily fell off with exposure of pink granulation tissue with much excretion, and the wounds healed slowly. Except for PID 3, the wound healing rate of rats in group D was significantly lower than that in group N on other PIDs (with t values from 3.858 to 13.738, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (2) On PID 3, the hair follicles and blood vessels in the non-injured skin tissue of rats in group N were rich, and the epidermis was composed of stratified cells in form of basal cells and keratinocyte, and the hair follicles and blood vessels in the non-injured skin tissue of rats in group D were scarce, and the epidermis was nearly composed of one-layer of cells. The thickness of full-thickness skin and epidermis of non-injured skin tissue of rats in group N was similar from PID 3 to 21, and the thickness of full-thickness skin and epidermis of non-injured skin tissue of rats in group D on PID 3 was respectively (1 074 ± 66) and (15.1 ± 3.8) μm, and they gradually thinned out to (785 ± 122) and (9.7 ± 2.1) μm on PID 21, respectively. The thickness of full-thickness skin and epidermis of non-injured skin tissue of rats in group N were significantly thicker than those in group D on each PID (with t values from 4.620 to 23.549, P values below 0.001). (3) From PID 3 to 21, the mRNA expression levels of ILK and Akt in non-injured skin tissue of rats in group D were significantly lower than those in group N (with t values respectively 4.779 and 3.440, P values below 0.05), the mRNA expression levels of GSK-3β in non-injured skin tissue of rats were similar in two groups (t=0.363, P>0.05). (4) From PID 3 to 21, the protein expression levels of ILK, Akt and phosphorylated Akt in non-injured skin tissue of rats in group D were significantly lower than those in group N (with t values from 2.630 to 6.209, P<0.05 or P<0.01); the protein expression levels of GSK-3β in non-injured skin tissue of rats in two groups were similar (t=0.652, P>0.05); the protein expression level of phosphorylated GSK-3β in non-injured skin tissue of rats in group D was significantly higher than that in group N (t=4.131, P<0.001). The protein expression levels of ILK in wound tissue of rats in two groups were similar on each PID (with t values from 0.381 to 2.440, P values above 0.05). Except for PID 3, the protein expression levels of phosphorylated Akt in wound tissue of rats in group N were significantly higher than that in group D on other PIDs (with t values from 4.091 to 20.555, P<0.05 or P<0.01). From PID 3 to 21, the protein expression levels of ILK in wound tissue and non-injured skin tissue of rats in group N were similar (F=2.522, P>0.05), and the protein expression level of phosphorylated Akt in wound tissue was significantly higher than that in non-injured skin tissue (F=117.329, P<0.001); the protein expression levels of ILK in wound tissue and non-injured skin tissue of rats in group D were similar (F=1.337, P>0.05), and the protein expression level of phosphorylated Akt in wound tissue was significantly higher than that in non-injured skin tissue (F=184.120, P<0.001).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The skin lesion of diabetic rats may be related to the declined expression levels of ILK, Akt and phosphorylated Akt in the ILK signaling pathway. The refractory healing of wound in diabetic rats may be related to the declined expression level of phosphorylated Akt.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Phosphorylation , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Skin , Wounds and Injuries , Wound Healing
13.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2015 Feb; 52 (1): 7-13
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157949

ABSTRACT

Increased activity of β-catenin, an important transcriptional activator for survival and proliferation-associated genes has been linked with many cancers. We examined whether β-catenin is a target of resveratrol and whether its degradation contributes to the pro-apoptotic effects of resveratrol. HeLa cells were exposed to 60 µM resveratrol for 48 h. Apoptosis was confirmed by measurement of annexin V externalization, caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Induction of apoptosis was observed as early as 12 h, when both caspase-3 activation and PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) cleavage occurred. Nuclear β-catenin levels remained unchanged for 48 h during resveratrol exposure. However, extranuclear cell lysate β-catenin underwent a decrease at a late stage of apoptosis namely at 36-48 h. Alterations in the phosphorylation status of Akt/GSK3β were not observed during resveratrol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibition of GSK3β activity which is largely responsible for β-catenin degradation failed to influence β-catenin stability. However, inhibition of caspase-3 activity prevented the decline in β-catenin levels at 36-48 h of resveratrol exposure. Lactacystin, a proteosomal inhibitor also prevented the degradation of β-catenin by resveratrol. In conclusion, resveratrol induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in an Akt/GSK3β-independent manner and down-regulated β-catenin levels during apoptosis through action of caspase-3 and proteasomal degradation, independent of GSK3β-mediated phosphorylation.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/physiology , beta Catenin/physiology , /physiology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/physiology , HeLa Cells , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/physiology , Stilbenes/physiology
14.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-9, 2015. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid (AF) contained by the amniotic sac of the pregnant female. The AF is directly conveyed to the fetus during pregnancy. Although AF has recently been reported as an untapped resource containing various substances, it remains unclear whether the AF could influence fetal neurodevelopment. RESULTS: We used AF that was extracted from embryos at 16 days in pregnant SD rat and exposed the AF to the neural cells derived from the embryos of same rat. We found that the treatment of AF to cortical neurons increased the phosphorylation in ERK1/2 that is necessary for fetal neurodevelopment, which was inhibited by the treatment of MEK inhibitors. Moreover, we found the subsequent inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), which is an important determinant of cell fate in neural cells. Indeed, AF increased the neural clustering of cortical neurons, which revealed that the clustered cells were proliferating neural progenitor cells. Accordingly, we confirmed the ability of AF to increase the neural progenitor cells through neurosphere formation. Furthermore, we showed that the ERK/GSK-3 pathway was involved in AF-mediated neurosphere enlargement. CONCLUSIONS: Although the placenta mainly supplies oxygenated blood, nutrient substances for fetal development, these findings further suggest that circulating-AF into the fetus could affect fetal neurodevelopment via MAP kinases-derived GSK-3 pathway during pregnancy. Moreover, we suggest that AF could be utilized as a valuable resource in the field of regenerative medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/metabolism , Neural Stem Cells/physiology , Amniotic Fluid/physiology , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Signal Transduction/physiology , Cell Differentiation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/antagonists & inhibitors , Neural Stem Cells/cytology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262627

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effects of Panax Quinquefolium Saponin (PQS) on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/serine threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt) pathway of neonatal rat myocardial cells subjected to hypoxia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Neonatal rat myocardial cells were cultured in vitro. After the myocardial cell injury was induced by hypoxia, the cells were randomized into 5 groups: the normal group, the model group, the positive control group (Ciclosporin A, 2 µ mol/L), the low-dose PQS group (PQSL, 25mg/L), and the high-dose PQS group (PQSH, 50 mg/L). Morphology and behavior of myocardial cells were observed under an inverted microscope. Apoptosis rate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage rate of myocardial cells were determined by colorimetry. Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was assessed using a fluorexon laser. Phospho-glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and phospho-Akt as well as cytochrome C were determined by Western blot</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>LDH leakage in the Ciclosporin A group, PQSH group and PQSL group reduced progressively compared with the model group (P<0.05). Akt and GSK-3β was strongly phosphorylated after treatment with Ciclosporin A and PQS compared with the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the model group (16.41±1.74; 35.28±6.30), both the integrated optical density of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and the mitochondrial transmembrane potential significantly increased in the PQSH group (42.74±2.12; 71.36±6.54) and the PQSL group (39.58±1.49; 66.99±5.45; P<0.05, P<0.01). However, the protein of cytochrome C outside the mitochondrion decreased in the PQSH group (273.66±14.61) and the PQSL group (259.62±17.31) compared with the model group (502.41±17.76; P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Through activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibition of the MPTP, PQS might protect the heart against ischemia injury and apoptosis of myocardial cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Shape , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Metabolism , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mitochondria , Metabolism , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins , Metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac , Cell Biology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction
16.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 404-411, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-248342

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the molecular mechanism of cisplatin to enhance the ability of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in reversing multidrug resistance in vincristine-resistant human gastric cancer SGC7901/VCR cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>MTT assay was used to measure the 50% inhibiting concentration (IC₅₀) and cell survival in SGC7901 and SGC7901/VCR cells after different treatments. SGC7901/VCR cells were treated with different concentrations of DDP, different concentrations of TRAIL alone or in combination, and then the mRNA and protein levels of several genes were determined by RT-PCR, RT-qPCR and Western-blot analysis. After targeted silencing with specific siRNA and transfection of recombinant plasmid c-myc into the SGC7901/VCR cells, the mRNA and protein levels of DR4, DR5 and c-myc were determined by RT-PCR and Western-blot analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After combined treatment with TRAIL and DDP of the SGC7901/VCR cells, the IC₅₀ of VCR, DDP, ADM, and 5-Fu treatment was significantly decreased compared with the control group or TRAIL-treated group (P < 0.05). After treatment with 0, 10, 50 ng/ml TRAIL in combination with 0.4 µg/ml DDP, the SGC7901/VCR cells showed significantly higher activation of caspase 3, down-regulation of DNA-PKcs/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway, and higher inhibition of MDR1(P-gp) and MRP1 than those treated with TRAIL alone (P < 0.01 for all). The mRNA and protein levels of DR4, DR5, c-myc were significantly decreased after silencing c-myc with specific siRNA in the SGC7901/VCR cells (P < 0.01 for all), and were significantly increased after transfection of recombinant plasmid c-myc into the SGC7901/VCR cells (P < 0.01 foe all). After the treatment with 10 ng/ml TRAIL, 0.25 µg/ml DDP + 10 ng/ml TRAIL and 0.5 µg/ml DDP + 10 ng/ml TRAIL, the relative expression level of c-myc protein in the SGC7901/VCR cells was 0.314 ± 0.012, 0.735 ± 0.026, and 0.876 ± 0.028, respectively, and the relative expression of cytochrome C was 0.339 ± 0.036, 0.593 ± 0.020 and 0.735 ± 0.031, respectively, and the relative expression levels of DR4, DR5, active-caspase 3 and active-caspase 9 in the SGC7901/VCR cells were also increased along with increasing DDP concentrations.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The activation of DNA-PKcs/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway and high expression of MDR1 and MRP1 play an important role in the multi-drug resistance properties of SGC7901/VCR cells. After combining with TRAIL, DDP can enhance the expression of DR4 and DR5 through up-regulating c-myc and enhancing the activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 by facilitating mitochondrial release of cytochrome C. It may be an important molecular mechanism of DDP-induced sensitization of TRAIL to reverse the multidrug resistancein SGC7901/VCR cells.</p>


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1 , Metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Pharmacology , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Caspase 9 , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cisplatin , Pharmacology , Down-Regulation , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Fluorouracil , Pharmacology , Formazans , Genes, myc , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins , Metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins , Metabolism , Plasmids , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Pharmacology , Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand , Metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand , Pharmacology , Tetrazolium Salts , Transfection , Methods
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-259576

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study was purposed to detect the expressions of β-catenin and P-GSK-3 β in Wnt signaling pathway of patients with mantle cell lymphoma(MCL), and investigate its relationship with the pathogenesis of MCL.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The expression levels of β -catenin protein and P-GSK-3 protein in mantle cell lymphoma and hyperplastic lymphadenitis were detected by using anti-β-catenin, P-GSK-3β polyclonal antibody and S-P staining technique.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The abnormal expression of β-catenin protein(73.33%) in mantle cell lymphoma group was significantly higher than that (6.7%) in reactive lymph node hyperplasia group (P<0.05); and the positive rate of P-GSK-3 β(66.67%) in mantle cell lymphoma group was significantly higher than that (16.67%) in reactive hyperplasia of lymph node group (P<0.05). Spearman correlation analysis showed that there was obvious positive correlation (R=0.852, P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The abnormal high expressions of β-catenin and P-GSK-3 β protein have been confirmed to appeare in mantle cell lymphoma.</p>


Subject(s)
Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Humans , Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell , Signal Transduction , Wnt Signaling Pathway , beta Catenin
18.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 354-360, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327397

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effects of exogenous carbon monoxide-releasing molecules 2 (CORM-2) on LPS-induced abnormal activation of platelets in peripheral blood of healthy human donors and its possible molecular mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Venous blood samples were collected from a healthy volunteer, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from the blood were isolated by differential centrifugation. The PRP was subpackaged into siliconized test tubes and then divided into control group, LPS group, inactive CORM-2 (iCORM-2) group, 10 µmol/L CORM-2 group, and 50 µmol/L CORM-2 group according to the random number table, with 3 tubes in each group. The PRP in control group did not receive any treatment. The PRP in LPS group received LPS (20 mL, 10 µg/mL) stimulation, and the PRP in iCORM-2 group, 10 µmol/L CORM-2 group, and 50 µmol/L CORM-2 group underwent the same LPS stimulation and treatment of 50 µmol/L iCORM-2, 10 µmol/L CORM-2, and 50 µmol/L CORM-2, respectively, with the dosage of 20 mL. After being cultured for 30 min, the platelet adhesion rate was determined by glass bottle method, the number of platelet spreading on fibrinogen was determined with immunofluorescent method, and the platelet aggregation rate was measured by turbidimetric method. The platelet poor plasma (PPP) was prepared from PRP, the levels of ATP in PPP and platelets were determined by chemical fluorescein method. The expressions of platelet glycoprotein I bα (GPIbα) and GPVI were analyzed by flow cytometer. The expressions of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and phosphorylated GSK-3β were determined by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation, respectively. Measurement of the above indices was repeated for 3 times. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and SNK test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with those in control group, the platelet adhesion rates, numbers of platelets spreading on fibrinogen, platelet aggregation rates, expressions of GPIbα and GPVI in PRP, levels of ATP in PPP in LPS and iCORM-2 groups were significantly increased, while levels of ATP in platelets were significantly decreased (with P values below 0.05). Compared with those in LPS group, the former 7 indices in iCORM-2 group showed no significant differences (with P values above 0.05), while the levels of ATP in platelets in the 10 µmol/L CORM-2 and 50 µmol/L CORM-2 groups were significantly increased, and the other 6 indices in 10 µmol/L CORM-2 and 50 µmol/L CORM-2 groups were significantly decreased (with P values below 0.05). The expression levels of GSK-3β of the platelets in PRP in control, LPS, iCORM-2, 10 µmol/L CORM-2, and 50 µmol/L CORM-2 groups were 0.550 ± 0.060, 1.437 ± 0.214, 1.210 ± 0.108, 0.720 ± 0.010, and 0.670 ± 0.010, respectively, and the expression levels of the phosphorylated GSK-3β of the platelets in PRP in the above 5 groups were 0.950 ± 0.070, 1.607 ± 0.121, 1.420 ± 0.040, 1.167 ± 0.015, and 0.513 ± 0.122, respectively. Compared with those in control group, both the expression levels of GSK-3β and phosphorylated GSK-3β of the platelets in PRP in LPS and iCORM-2 groups were significantly increased (with P values below 0.05). The expression levels of GSK-3β and phosphorylated GSK-3β of the platelets in PRP between LPS group and iCORM-2 group were similar (with P values above 0.05). The expression levels of GSK-3β and phosphorylated GSK-3β of the platelets in PRP in 10 µmol/L CORM-2 and 50 µmol/L CORM-2 groups were significantly decreased compared with those in LPS group (with P values below 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>LPS stimulation can abnormally activate the platelets in peripheral blood of healthy human, but the abnormal activation can be inhibited by CORM-2 intervention, and the mechanism of the latter may involve the phosphorylation of GSK-3β mediated by GP.</p>


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Metabolism , Carbon Monoxide , Metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Pharmacology , Organometallic Compounds , Pharmacology , Phosphorylation , Platelet Activation , Platelet Aggregation , Platelet-Rich Plasma
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2346-2353, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315335

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Sevoflurane preconditioning (SP) has been shown to invoke potent myocardial protection in animal studies and clinical trials. However, the mechanisms underlying SP are complex and not yet well understood. We investigated the hypothesis that the cardioprotection afforded by SP is mediated via the Wnt/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)/β-catenin signaling pathway.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Two models were established: a Langendorff perfused rat heart model and the H9C2 cell hypoxia/reoxygenation model. Both rats and H9C2 cells were randomly divided into 6 groups as follows: S group, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group, DMSO group, IWP group, SP group, and SP + IWP group. Hemodynamic parameters, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in coronary effluent and cell culture supernatant, and the infarct size were measured to evaluate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injuries. To determine the activity of Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway, the expressions of Wnt3a, phospho-GSK3β, and β-catenin were measured by Western blotting.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>SP improved cardiac function recovery, reduced infarct size (18 ± 2% in the SP group compared with 35 ± 4% in the I/R group; P < 0.05), decreased LDH activity in coronary effluent, and culture supernatant. IWP-2, an inhibitor of Wnt, abolished the cardioprotection by SP. In addition, Western blotting analysis demonstrated that the expressions of Wnt3a, phospho-GSK3β, and β-catenin significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the I/R group, compared with the S group; and compared to I/R group, SP significantly (P < 0.05) increased Wnt3a, phospho-GSK3β, and β-catenin expressions. Pretreatment with IWP-2 significantly (P < 0.05) abolished SP-induced Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling activation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The results showed for thefirst time that cardioprotection afforded by SP may be mediated partly via the Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Line , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Genetics , Metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Hemodynamics , Male , Methyl Ethers , Therapeutic Uses , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Drug Therapy , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Genetics , beta Catenin , Genetics , Metabolism
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320894

ABSTRACT

Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a pathological process correlated with multiple disease causes and actively regulated by cardiac valve cells. In this study, porcine aortic valve myofibroblasts cultured in vitro were treated with 50 μg z L(-1) of pathological factor tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Tanshinone II A (TSN) with the concentration of 50 mg x L(-1) and TNF-α were combined in incubating cells for 72 h (3 d) and 120 h (5 d). The Western blotting and Real-time PCR were adopted to detect the changes in smooth muscle α actin (α-SMA), bone morphogenetic protein 2 ( BMP2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in cells, and expressions of key effect proteins GSK-3β and β-catenin on Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. According to the findings, TNF-α can significantly increase the expression of myofibroblasts α-SMA and add the transformation activity to them, with nearly no expression of BMP2, ALP and mRNA in the control group and the TSN group but significant increase in their expressions in the TNF-α group (P < 0.01), which showed osteoblast-like phenotype. Moreover, TNF-α down-regulated the expression of up-streaming regulator GSK-3β and mRNA expression (P < 0. 01) , notably increased the expression of key effect protein β-catenin, but with no significant difference in mRNA with the control group and the TSN group. The result demonstrated that TSN showed a certain inhibitory effect on TNF-α's pathological impact (P < 0.05) in a time-dependent manner. Inflammatory factor TNF-α may promote the transformation of aortic valvular myofibroblasts to osteoblast-like phenotype by activating Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway in aortic valvular myofibroblasts, so as to cause AVC. Tanshinone II A can have a preventive effect in AVC by activating GSK-3β proteins and regulating signal transduction of Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aortic Valve , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Abietanes , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Genetics , Metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Myofibroblasts , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Osteoblasts , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Swine , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics , Metabolism , beta Catenin , Genetics , Metabolism
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