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1.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 9(1): e051, ene.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1254403

ABSTRACT

La mucopolisacaridosis tipo VI, también conocida como síndrome de Maroteaux-Lamy, es un trastorno lisosómico autosómico recesivo, causado por la deficiencia de la enzima arilsulfatasa B, lo que conduce a la acumulación de dermatán sulfato en los tejidos y su excreción urinaria. La deposición de mucopolisacáridos genera un trastorno progresivo que afecta a múltiples órganos y que, a menudo, resulta en la muerte a temprana edad. Esta enfermedad tiene varias manifestaciones orales, entre las que destacan las complicaciones dentales, que pueden ser graves e incluir folículos similares a quistes dentígeros, maloclusiones, defectos condilares e hiperplasia gingival, además de características clínicas como cuello corto, opacidad corneal, macroglosia y agrandamiento del cráneo, dimensión anteroposterior larga y mano en garra. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 14 meses de edad que acudió a consulta de odontopediatría por episodios de fiebre, bajo peso e hiperplasia gingival severa. El examen físico evidenció facies tosca, cuello corto, pectus excavatus, manos con disminución en agarre y retardo en el neurodesarrollo. El examen intraoral halló retardo de la erupción dental, hiperplasia gingival generalizada y paladar con poco crecimiento transversal. El examen radiográfico detectó órganos dentarios incluidos y mala posición en el sector anterior, molares superiores dentro del seno maxilar y caninos inferiores rotados. El paciente fue remitido a medicina para exámenes bioquímicos y genéticos para definir el diagnóstico. La bioquímica reveló MPS tipo VI, lo que fue confirmado mediante prueba molecular. Las manifestaciones clínicas en este caso corresponden a la forma clínica de progresión rápida reportada en estos pacientes: talla baja, malformaciones esqueléticas y alteraciones a nivel oral. Los niños con MPS VI grave comienzan temprano y progresan rápidamente, las radiografías óseas y la medición de GAG en orina son útiles para el diagnóstico con actividad de la enzima ARSB y genética. Es necesario fortalecer el conocimiento en odontología y la población en general sobre las características clínicas de mucopolisacáridos tipo VI para tener un diagnóstico temprano y un mejor manejo de patologías en estos pacientes. (AU)


Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI, also known as Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder, due to the deficiency of the enzyme arylsulfatase B that leads to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate in the tissues and its urinary excretion. Mucopolysaccharide deposition leads to a progressive disorder affecting multiple organs that often results in death at a young age. This disease has several oral manifestations, among which dental complications can be serious and include follicles similar to dentigerous cysts, malocclusions, condylar defects and gingival hyperplasia, in addition to a short neck, corneal opacity, macroglossia, skull enlargement, anteroposterior dimension long, claw hand is some of the clinical features. A case of a 14-month-old patient is presented, who attended a pediatric dentistry consultation for episodes of fever, low weight, severe gingival hyperplasia. Physical examination revealed coarse facies, short neck, pectus excavatus, hands with decreased grip, and neurodevelopmental delay. On intraoral examination, dental eruption delayed, generalized gingival hyperplasia, palate with little transverse growth. On radiographic examination, dental organs included and poor position in the anterior sector, upper molars within the maxillary sinus, rotated lower canines. He is referred to medicine for biochemical tests and genetics for diagnosis. Detailed biochemistry MPS type VI, confirmed by molecular testing. The clinical manifestations in this case correspond to the clinical form of rapid progression reported in these patients. They report: short stature, skeletal malformations and alterations at the oral level. Children with severe MPS VI start early and progress rapidly, bone radiographs and urine GAG measurement are helpful for diagnosis with genetic and ARSB enzyme activity. It is necessary to strengthen the knowledge in dentistry and the general population about the clinical characteristics of type VI mucopolysaccharides in order to have an early diagnosis and management of pathologies in these patients. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Arylsulfatases , Mucopolysaccharidosis VI , Dermatan Sulfate , Gingival Hyperplasia , Glycosaminoglycans
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e10730, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285651

ABSTRACT

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a type of glycosaminoglycan described as an antioxidant molecule that has been found in animal species such as fish. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) represents an eco-friendly source of this compound, since its economical processing generates usable waste, reducing the negative environmental impact. This waste was used for CS extraction, purification, characterization by enzymatic degradation, and evaluation of its antioxidant effect. CS obtained from tilapia presented sulfation mainly at carbon 4 of galactosamine, and it was not cytotoxic at concentrations up to 200 µg/mL. Furthermore, 100 µg/mL of CS from tilapia reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species to 47% of the total intracellular reactive oxygen species level. The ability of CS to chelate metal ions in vitro also suggested an ability to react with other pathways that generate oxidative radicals, such as the Haber-Weiss reaction, acting intracellularly in more than one way. Although the role of CS from tilapia remains unclear, the pharmacological effects described herein indicate that CS is a potential molecule for further study of the relationship between the structures and functions of chondroitin sulfates as antioxidants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chondroitin Sulfates , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Fishes , Glycosaminoglycans
3.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 315-322, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040245

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: It is hypothesized that increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression may contribute to diabetic nephropathy (DN) pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal effects of MIF inhibition in a diabetic experimental model. Methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats (230 ± 20 g) were divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) diabetic (STZ, 50 mg/kg, dissolved in saline, ip), 3) diabetic + MIF antagonist (p425, 1 mg/kg per day, ip, on the 21th day, for 21 consecutive days). The treatment started since we founwd a significant increase in urine albumin excretion (UAE) rate in the diabetic rats in comparison with the control rats. The rats were kept individually in metabolic cages (8 AM-2 PM) and urine samples were collected in the 21 and 42th day. At the end, blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical (BS, UPE, urine GAG, BUN, Cr, Na, and K) and histological analyses. Results: The results of this study showed that MIF antagonist (p425) significantly decreased urine protein and GAG excretion, urine protein/creatinine ratio, and serum BUN and Cr in the streptozotocin-induced DN in the rats. Pathological changes were significantly alleviated in the MIF antagonist (p425)-administered DN rats. Conclusion: Collectively, these data suggested that MIF antagonist (p425) was able to protect against functional and histopathological injury in the DN.


Resumo Introdução: Supõe-se que elevações da expressão do fator de inibição da migração de macrófagos (MIF) possam contribuir para a patogênese da nefropatia diabética (ND). O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar os efeitos renais da inibição do MIF em um modelo experimental diabético. Métodos: Dezoito ratos Wistar machos (230 ± 20g) foram divididos em três grupos: 1) controle, 2) diabético (STZ 50 mg/kg dissolvida em soro fisiológico, IP), 3) diabético + antagonista do MIF (p425 1 mg/kg por dia IP no 21o dia por 21 dias consecutivos). O tratamento começou após a identificação de aumento significativo na albuminúria nos ratos diabéticos em relação aos controles. Os ratos foram mantidos individualmente em gaiolas metabólicas (8h-14h) e amostras de urina foram colhidas no 21o e no 42o dia. Ao final do estudo, amostras de sangue e tecido foram colhidas para análises bioquímicas (BS, excreção urinária de proteína, excreção urinária de GAGs, BUN, Cr, Na e K) e histológicas. Resultados: O presente estudo demonstrou que o antagonista do MIF (p425) diminuiu significativamente proteinúria, excreção urinária de GAGs , relação proteína/creatinina na urina, BUN e Cr no grupo com ND induzida por estreptozotocina. As alterações patológicas foram significativamente abrandadas nos ratos com ND que receberam antagonista do MIF (p425). Conclusão: Coletivamente, os dados sugerem que o antagonista do MIF (p425) teve efeito protetor contra lesões funcionais e histopatológicas da ND.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Intramolecular Oxidoreductases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/therapy , Blood Glucose , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin/pharmacology , Creatinine/urine , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/urine , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/blood , Diabetic Nephropathies/urine , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/blood , Albuminuria/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Glycosaminoglycans/urine , Kidney/pathology , Macrophage Activation
4.
Medisan ; 23(4)jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1091108

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las mucopolisacaridosis son causadas por la deficiencia de las actividades de las enzimas lisosomales necesarias para degradar los glicosaminoglicanos. Estos síndromes comparten muchas características clínicas aunque en grados variables. Las manifestaciones clínicas implican múltiples sistemas de órganos y algunas tienen terapia de reemplazo enzimático. En muchas investigaciones se hace alusión a la presencia de estrés oxidativo en quienes la padecen, pero esta condición aún no se ha estudiado en los pacientes cubanos. Objetivo: Evaluar parámetros de estrés oxidativo en pacientes cubanos con mucopolisacaridosis. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles que incluyó a 7 niños con mucopolisacaridosis de tipos I, II, III y IV (casos) y a 21 aparentemente sanos, pareados en edad y sexo (controles). Se midieron los niveles plasmáticos de malonildialdehído, productos avanzados de oxidación de proteínas, grupos tiol libres y marcadores de química sanguínea. Se cuantificaron las actividades intraeritrocíticas de superóxido dismutasa, catalasa y de glutatión peroxidasa. Todas las técnicas utilizadas fueron espectrofotométricas. Resultados: Los pacientes mostraron un aumento tanto en los niveles de calcio como en la oxidación de lípidos y proteínas, en comparación con los controles y los valores de referencia de Cuba. Hubo una disminución en la actividad de la enzima superóxido dismutasa y las concentraciones de grupos tioles. No se encontraron diferencias para el resto de los parámetros medidos. Conclusiones: El aumento del daño oxidativo y la disminución de la capacidad antioxidante sugieren la presencia de estrés oxidativo en esos pacientes cubanos.


Introduction: Mucopolysaccharidosis are caused by the deficiency in lysosomal enzyme activities necessary to degrade the glycosaminoglycans. These syndromes share many clinical characteristics although in variable degrees. Clinical manifestations imply multiple organs systems and some have enzyme replacement treatment. Many investigations deal on the presence of oxidative stress in those who suffer it, but this condition has not still been studied in Cuban patients. Objective: To evaluate parameters of oxidative stress in Cuban patients with mucopolysaccharidosis. Methods: A cases and controls study which included 7 children with mucopolysaccharidosis types I, II, III and IV (cases) and 21 apparently healthy children, paired by age and sex (control group) was carried out. The plasmatic levels of malondialdehide, advanced products of proteins oxidation, free thiol groups and blood chemistry markers were measured. The intraerythrocytic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and that of glutathione peroxidase were quantified. All the used techniques were spectrophotometrical. Results: The patients showed an increase, both in the calcium levels as in the oxidation of proteins and lipids, in comparison with the control group and the Cuban values reference. There was a decrease in the activity of the enzyme superoxide dismutase and the concentrations of thiols groups. There were no differences for the rest of the measured parameters. Conclusions: The increase of the oxidative damage and the decrease of the anti-oxidant capacity suggest the presence of oxidative stress in those Cuban patients.


Subject(s)
Mucopolysaccharidoses , Oxidative Stress , Glycosaminoglycans , Child
5.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(3): 192-194, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013665

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aims to describe a challenging clinical case of a patient with a neurotrophic and exposure corneal ulcer. A 75-year-old male patient, with history of right eye (RE) limbic stem-cell insuficiency due to complications of recurrent herpetic keratitis, underwent successful limbic stem-cell transplantation in 2008. In 2010, an uneventful penetrating keratoplasty was performed. After a cataract phacoemulsification surgery with intraocular lens implantation done in 2011, best corrected visual acuity was 20/20, and remained stable until 2015. In July 2015, the patient developed right facial nerve palsy and two months later, presented with an extensive central corneal ulcer, with a significant thinning of central stroma, without infection signs, but with an imminent risk of perforation. Treatment with topical ofloxacin and intensive ocular lubrification was started in association with permanent ocular oclusion. Due to lack of any clinical improvement, treatment with RGTA [Poli (carboximetilglucose) sulfate, dextrano T40] (Cacicol®, Thea) was started. After two weeks of treatment, a complete reepithelization and partial stromal filling was observed. Continued monitoring and treatment with artificial tears was maintained, with no recurrence observed. There is an unmet need for a medical therapy that could help corneal neurotrophic ulcers to heal. The presented clinical case shows that the approach of targeting extracellular matrix can be effective in the reepithelialization of neurotrophic and exposure corneal ulcer that do not respond to conventional treatments.


RESUMO Este trabalho relata um caso clínico desafiante de doente com uma úlcera de córnea neurotrófica e de exposição. Doente do sexo masculino, de 75 anos, com antecedentes de queratites herpéticas de repetição no olho direito (OD), complicadas com o desenvolvimento de uma insuficiência límbica, foi submetido com sucesso a transplante de células límbicas em 2008. Em 2010 foi submetido a queratoplastia penetrante e em 2011, após realização de cirurgia de catarata, apresentava uma melhor acuidade visual corrigida (MAVC) de 20/20. A MAVC manteve-se estável até Julho de 2015, altura em que desenvolveu paresia facial periférica à direita. Dois meses depois, o doente desenvolveu uma úlcera de córnea central extensa, com adelgaçamento significativo do estroma central, sem sinais de infeção, mas com risco iminente de perfuração. Foi iniciado tratamento tópico com ofloxacina, lubrificação intensiva e oclusão ocular contínua. Por ausência de melhoria clínica, foi iniciado tratamento tópico com um RGTA [Poli (carboximetilglucose) sulfato, dextrano T40] (Cacicol®, Thea). Após duas semanas de tratamento, observou-se uma reepitelização completa e regeneração parcial do estroma. Foi mantida monitorização regular e tratamento com lágrimas artificiais, sem recidiva do quadro clínico. Há uma grande necessidade de tratamentos médicos que possam ajudar na regeneração de úlceras de córnea neurotróficas e de exposição. O caso clínico apresentado sugere que os fármacos que têm por alvo a matrix extracelular poderão ser eficazes na reepitelização de úlceras de córnea neurotróficas e de exposição que não respondem ao tratamento convencional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Regeneration/drug effects , Corneal Ulcer/drug therapy , Glycosaminoglycans/administration & dosage , Ophthalmic Solutions/administration & dosage , Stimulation, Chemical , Wound Healing , Administration, Topical , Dextrans/administration & dosage , Hypesthesia , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(3): 334-336, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011112

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Cutaneous mucinoses are a complex and diverse group of connective tissue disorders characterized by the accumulation of mucin and/or glycosaminoglycan in the skin and adnexa. Cutaneous focal mucinosis appears as a solitary, asymptomatic, skin-colored to white papule, nodule, or plaque located anywhere on the body or in the oral cavity. It presents mainly in adults and is characterized on histopathology by mucin throughout the upper and mid dermis. We describe the dermoscopy of two cases of cutaneous focal mucinosis. Both lesions presented a nonspecific homogenous whitish pattern; the first case also exhibited a sharply demarcated yellow border.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Skin Diseases/pathology , Mucinoses/pathology , Dermoscopy , Glycosaminoglycans , Mucins
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The effects of the staurosporine on contraction of self-assembled constructs and extracellular matrix syntheses of goat temporomandibular joint discs were investigated.@*METHODS@#Goat temporomandibular joint disc cells were isolated and cultured to P3, and 5.5×10⁶ cells were combined with different concentrations of staurosporine (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 nmol·L⁻¹) in agarose wells and cultured for one week. The samples were frozen and sectioned. Safranin-O,  Picro-sirius red and immunohistochemical staining were performed to observe the distributions of the extracellular matrix and the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Blyscan kits were utilized to quan--titatively detect the contents of type Ⅰ collagen (ColⅠ) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs).@*RESULTS@#Each group of goat temporo-mandibular joint disc cells in the agarose wells were gathered to self-assemble into a disc-shaped base for 4 hours and then to gradually contract into a round shape. The Picro-sirius red staining was strong and indicated collagen distribution. The Safranin-O staining observed GAGs throughout the entire construct. The expression of ColⅠ was strongly posi-tive in the staurosporine groups; however, the expression of α-SMA was weak. ColⅠ and GAGs contents in the stau-rosporine groups were greater than that of the control group, especially in the 10 nmol·L⁻¹ group (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Staurosporine has a certain effect on the shrinkage of self-assembled constructs; however, such effect is not prominent. Staurosporine contributes to the construction synthesis of extracellular matrix.


Subject(s)
Animals , Collagen Type I , Glycosaminoglycans , Goats , Staurosporine , Pharmacology , Temporomandibular Joint , Temporomandibular Joint Disc , Cell Biology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739999

ABSTRACT

Hyaluronic acid (HA) has long been studied in diverse applications. It is a naturally occurring linear polysaccharide in a family of unbranched glycosaminoglycans, which consists of repeating di-saccharide units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid. It is almost ubiquitous in humans and other vertebrates, where it participates in many key processes, including cell signaling, tissue regeneration, wound healing, morphogenesis, matrix organization, and pathobiology. HA is biocompatible, biodegradable, muco-adhesive, hygroscopic, and viscoelastic. These unique physico-chemical properties have been exploited for several medicinal purposes, including recent uses in the adjuvant treatment for chronic inflammatory disease and to reduce pain and accelerate healing after third molar intervention. This review focuses on the post-operative effect of HA after third molar intervention along with its various physio-chemical, biochemical, and pharmaco-therapeutic uses.


Subject(s)
Acetylglucosamine , Biocompatible Materials , Glycosaminoglycans , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid , Molar, Third , Morphogenesis , Regeneration , Vertebrates , Wound Healing
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741999

ABSTRACT

Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency in enzymes that participate in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Left untreated, patients show progressive mental and physical deterioration due to deposition of GAGs in organs. Death often occurs due to cardiac or respiratory failure before patients reach their early twenties. MPS has several oral and dental manifestations. An enlarged head, short neck, and open mouth associated with a large tongue are major characteristics of MPS patients. Dental complications can be severe, including unerupted dentition, dentigerous cyst-like follicles, malocclusions, condylar defects, and gingival hyperplasia. A 21-year-old female patient with MPS was described in this article, with special emphasis on oral manifestations and dental treatment.


Subject(s)
Dental Pulp Cavity , Dentition , Dermatan Sulfate , Female , Gingival Hyperplasia , Glycosaminoglycans , Head , Heparin , Humans , Malocclusion , Mouth , Mucopolysaccharidoses , Neck , Oral Manifestations , Respiratory Insufficiency , Root Canal Therapy , Tongue , Young Adult
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714999

ABSTRACT

It is very useful to evaluate the content and 3D distribution of extracellular matrix non-destructively in tissue engineering. This study evaluated the feasibility of using micro-computed tomography (µCT) with Hexabrix to measure quantitatively sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of engineered cartilage. Rabbit chondrocytes at passage 2 were used to produce artificial cartilages in polyglycolic acid scaffolds in vitro. Engineered cartilages were incubated with Hexabrix 320 for 20 min and analyzed via µCT scanning. The number of voxels in the 2D and 3D scanning images were counted to estimate the amount of sulfated GAGs. The optimal threshold value for quantification was determined by regression analysis. The 2D µCT images of an engineered cartilage showed positive correlation with the histological image of Safranin-O staining. Quantitative data obtained with the 3D µCT images of 14 engineered cartilages showed strong correlation with sulfated GAGs contents obtained by biochemical analysis (R² = 0.883, p < 0.001). Repeated exposure of engineered cartilages to Hexabrix 320 and µCT scanning did not significantly affect cell viability, total DNA content, or the total content of sulfated GAGs. We conclude that µCT imaging using Hexabrix 320 provides high spatial resolution and sensitivity to assess the content and 3D distribution of sulfated GAGs in engineered cartilages. It is expected to be a valuable tool to evaluate the quality of engineered cartilage for commercial development in the future.


Subject(s)
Cartilage , Cell Survival , Chondrocytes , DNA , Extracellular Matrix , Glycosaminoglycans , In Vitro Techniques , Ioxaglic Acid , Polyglycolic Acid , Tissue Engineering
12.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(4): 426-431, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889274

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The distribution, concentration and function of glycosaminoglycans in the various vocal fold tissues are still unclear. Objective: To evaluate the distribution and concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in different layers of the human vocal fold according to gender and age. Methods: We used 11 vocal folds obtained from cadavers (7 men and 4 women) with no laryngeal lesion, less than 12 h after death, and aged between 35 and 98 years. The folds underwent glycosaminoglycans extraction from the cover and ligament, and post-electrophoresis analysis. Data were compared according to the layer, age and gender. Results: The concentration of dermatan sulfate was significantly higher in all layers. No differences were observed in the total concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in layers studied according to gender. It is significantly lower in the cover of individuals aged below 60 years. Conclusion: Dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate were observed in the human vocal folds cover and ligament of both genders, with the concentration of dermatan sulfate being significantly higher in all layers. Glycosaminoglycans concentration on the cover is significantly lower in individuals below 60 years compared with elderly.


Resumo Introdução: A distribuição, concentração e função dos glicosaminoglicanos nos diversos tecidos da prega vocal ainda não está esclarecida. Objetivo: Avaliar a distribuição e concentração dos glicosaminoglicanos sulfatados nas diferentes camadas da prega vocal humana de acordo com o sexo e a idade. Método: Foram usadas 11 pregas vocais obtidas de cadáveres (sete homens e quatro mulheres) sem lesão de laringe, com menos de 12 horas de óbito e entre 35 e 98 anos. As pregas foram submetidas à extração de glicosaminoglicanos da cobertura e ligamento e leitura pós-eletroforese. Os dados foram comparados segundo camada, idade e sexo. Resultados: A concentração de dermatan sulfato foi significativamente maior em todas as camadas. Não foram observadas diferenças nas concentrações totais de glicosaminoglicanos nas camadas estudadas quanto ao gênero. É significantemente menor em indivíduos abaixo de 60 anos na cobertura. Conclusão: Dermatam sulfato, condroitim sulfato e heparam sulfato foram observados na cobertura e no ligamento de pregas vocais humanas, de ambos os sexos, sendo a concentração de dermatam sulfato foi significativamente maior em todas as camadas. A concentração de glicosaminoglicanos na cobertura é significativamente menor em indivíduos abaixo de 60 anos em comparação com idosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vocal Cords/chemistry , Glycosaminoglycans/analysis , Cadaver , Sex Factors , Age Factors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-649896

ABSTRACT

In this paper we report the differentiating properties of platelet-rich plasma releasates (PRPr) on human chondrocytes within elastomeric polycaprolactone triol–citrate (PCLT–CA) porous scaffold. Human-derived chondrocyte cellular content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and total collagen were determined after seeding into PCLT–CA scaffold enriched with PRPr cells. Immunostaining and real time PCR was applied to evaluate the expression levels of chondrogenic and extracellular gene markers. Seeding of chondrocytes into PCLT–CA scaffold enriched with PRPr showed significant increase in total collagen and GAGs production compared with chondrocytes grown within control scaffold without PRPr cells. The mRNA levels of collagen II and SOX9 increased significantly while the upregulation in Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) expression was statistically insignificant. We also report the reduction of the expression levels of collagen I and III in chondrocytes as a consequence of proximity to PRPr cells within the scaffold. Interestingly, the pre-loading of PRPr caused an increase of expression levels of following extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins: fibronectin, laminin and integrin β over the period of 3 days. Overall, our results introduce the PCLT–CA elastomeric scaffold as a new system for cartilage tissue engineering. The method of PRPr cells loading prior to chondrocyte culture could be considered as a potential environment for cartilage tissue engineering as the differentiation and ECM formation is enhanced significantly.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein , Cartilage , Chondrocytes , Collagen , Elastomers , Extracellular Matrix , Fibronectins , Glycosaminoglycans , Humans , Laminin , Methods , Phenotype , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Tissue Engineering , Up-Regulation
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-649882

ABSTRACT

Clinical investigations have shown a significant relationship between osteoarthritis (OA) and estrogens levels in menopausalwomen. Therefore, treatment with exogenous estrogens has been shownto decrease the risk ofOA.However, the effect estrogen has not been clearly demonstrated in the chondrocytes using phytoestrogens, which lack the specific side-effects of estrogens, may provide an alternative therapy. This study was designed to examine the possible effects of phytoestrogen (daidzein) on human chondrocyte phenotype and extracellular matrix formation. Phytoestrogens which lack the specific side-effects of estrogens may provide beneficial effect without causing hormone based side effect. Human chondrocytes cells were cultured in 2D (flask) and 3D (PCL-CA scaffold) systems. Daidzein cytotoxic effect was determined by MTT assay. Chondrocyte cellular content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), total collagen and chondrogenic gene expression were determined in both culture systems after treatment with daidzein.Daidzein showedtime-dependent and dose-independent effects on chondrocyte bioactivity.Thecompound at low doses showed significant (p0.05). The expression levels of Fibronectin, Laminin and Integrin b1were significantly increased especially in3Dculture system. This studywas illustrated the potential positive effects of daidzein onmaintenance of human chondrocyte phenotype and extracellular matrix formation suggesting an attractive and viable alternative therapy for OA.


Subject(s)
Chondrocytes , Collagen , Estrogens , Extracellular Matrix , Fibronectins , Gene Expression , Glycosaminoglycans , Humans , Laminin , Osteoarthritis , Phenotype , Phytoestrogens , RNA, Messenger , Up-Regulation
15.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(4): 693-697, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951881

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of inherited metabolic disorders caused by deficiency of enzymes that degrade glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Urinary excretion of GAGs is a common feature of MPS, and is considered their major biomarker. We aimed to adapt the GAG electrophoresis method to a commercial agarose gel which would be able to separate urinary GAGs in a simpler way with good sensitivity and reproducibility. Urine samples from patients previously diagnosed with MPS I, IV, and VI were used as electrophoretic standards. Samples from patients on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) were also assessed. Commercial agarose gel electrophoresis was effective, showing proper definition and separation of GAG bands. Detection sensitivity exceeded 0.1 µg and band reproducibility were consistent. GAG bands quantified in urine samples from patients on ERT correlated very strongly (correlation coefficient = 0.98) with total GAG concentrations. This application of gel electrophoresis demonstrates the possibility of monitoring patients with MPS treated with ERT by analyzing separately the GAGs excreted in urine. We suggest this process should be applied to MPS screening as well as to follow-up of patients on treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Mucopolysaccharidoses/diagnosis , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Glycosaminoglycans/therapeutic use , Urine , Electrophoresis/methods
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(5): 595-600, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827746

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives: Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Methods: Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). Results: The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion: The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Neoplasms/enzymology , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/enzymology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/enzymology , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Keratinocytes/metabolism , Eyelids/enzymology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Glucuronidase/genetics , Glycosaminoglycans/analysis , Hyaluronic Acid/analysis , Hyaluronic Acid/metabolism
17.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 87(4): 295-304, ago. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-796820

ABSTRACT

Las mucopolisacaridosis (MPS) son un grupo de enfermedades raras (huérfanas), de baja prevalencia, caracterizadas por la deficiencia de enzimas que participan en el metabolismo de glucosaminglucanos (GAG) a nivel lisosomal. Se caracteriza por acumulación de GAG intracelular, produciendo alteraciones de múltiples órganos y sistemas. Su diagnóstico se basa en el conocimiento de las manifestaciones clínicas, realizar el análisis bioquímico para identificar el tipo de GAG que se está acumulando y confirmar el tipo de enfermedad con la determinación enzimática correspondiente. Su identificación es fundamental para iniciar un tratamiento oportuno, teniendo en cuenta que actualmente existe manejo transdisciplinario y tratamiento de reemplazo enzimático para MPS I (síndrome de Hurler), MPS II (síndrome de Hunter), MPS IV (síndrome de Morquio) y MPS VI (síndrome de Maroteaux-Lamy). En esta revisión se analizan cada uno de estos síndromes, su diagnóstico y tratamiento.


The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of rare (orphan) diseases, characterised by a deficiency of enzymes involved in the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) at lysosomal level. When there is a deficiency of a particular enzyme there is an accumulation of GAGs in the cells resulting in progressive cellular damage, which can affect multiple organ systems and lead to organ failure. Diagnosis is based on knowledge of the clinical manifestations, performing biochemical analyses to identify the type of GAG that is accumulating, and confirm the type of disorder with the corresponding enzymatic determination. Their identification is essential to initiate early treatment, taking into account that multidisciplinary management and enzyme replacement therapy is available for MPS I (Hurler syndrome), MPS II (Hunter syndrome), MPS IV (Morquio syndrome), and MPS VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome. In this review, an analysis is made of each of these syndromes, as well as their diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mucopolysaccharidoses/physiopathology , Enzyme Replacement Therapy/methods , Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism , Mucopolysaccharidoses/diagnosis , Mucopolysaccharidoses/therapy
18.
Acta ortop. bras ; 24(2): 98-101, Mar.-Apr. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775079

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar e comparar o comportamento dos glicosaminoglicanos(GAGs) na Doença de Dupuytren (DD). Métodos: Trata-se deum estudo experimental com 23 pacientes diagnosticados com DD.Tecidos coletados através de fasciectomia com incisão tipo Brunnerou McCash, foram avaliados por eletroforese para identificação dosGAGs. A quantificação foi realizada por imunofluorescência e dosagemdas proteínas para os diferentes tipos de glicosaminoglicanos.Os resultados coletados foram expressos em porcentagem e avaliadosestatisticamente. Resultados: Foi observado, na corrida eletroforética,aumento significativo dos GAGs em relação ao controle(p<0,05). Na imunofluorescência houve redução (23 vezes) do ácidohialurônico quando comparado ao controle (p<0,0001). Conclusão:Ficou evidenciado pelos resultados o aumento dos GAGs sulfatadosna doença de Dupuytren, principalmente do dermatam sulfato, egrande diminuição do ácido hialurônico na aponeurose palmar dosmesmos pacientes. Nível de Evidência III, Estudo Caso Controle.


Objective: To evaluate and compare the behavior of glycosaminoglycans(GAGs) in Dupuytren disease (DD). Methods: Thisis an experimental study with 23 patients diagnosed with DD.Tissue collected through fasciectomy with incision type Brunneror McCash were evaluated by electrophoresis for identificationof GAGs. The quantification was carried out by immunofluorescenceand dosage of proteins for different types of glycosaminoglycans.The results were expressed in percentage and statisticallyevaluated. Results: A significant increase was observed througheletrophoresis in GAGs, as compared to the control (p<0.05). Immunofluorescenceof hyaluronic acid was reduced (23 times) whencompared to the control (p<0.0001). Conclusion: An increase ofsulfated GAGs in Dupuytren’s disease, mainly dermatan sulfate,was evident from our results, as well as a pronounced decrease ofhyaluronic acid in the palmar aponeurosis from the same patients.Level of Evidence III, Case-Control Study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dupuytren Contracture , Electrophoresis , Fascia , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glycosaminoglycans , Hand , Hyaluronic Acid , Proteoglycans
19.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 533-539, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are present in the hair shaft within the follicle but there are no studies regarding GAGs isolation and measurement in the human hair shaft over the scalp surface, it means, in the free hair shaft. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our research was to isolate and measure the total GAGs from human free hair shaft. METHODS: Seventy-five healthy individuals participated in the study, 58 adults, men and women over the age of 50 and 17 children (aged 4~9). GAGs in hair samples, received from the parietal and the occipital areas, were isolated with 4 M guanidine HCl and measured by the uronic acid-carbazole reaction assay. RESULTS: GAGs concentration was significantly higher in the occipital area than in the parietal area, in all study groups. GAG levels from both areas were significantly higher in children than in adults. GAG levels were not associated with gender, hair color or type. CONCLUSION: We report the presence of GAGs in the human free hair shaft and the correlation of hair GAG levels with the scalp area and participants' age.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Female , Glycosaminoglycans , Guanidine , Hair Color , Hair , Humans , Male , Proteoglycans , Rabeprazole , Scalp
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309135

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of pulsed ultrasound (PUS) and pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on the secretion of extracellular matrix from a culture complex during in vitro chondrogenesis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>All the rat bone marrow mesen- chymal stem cell pellets were cultured in achondrogenic medium. Different intensities of PUS (100, 150, and 200 mW · cm⁻²) and PEMF (1, 2, and 5 mT) were applied to the cell pellets for 2 weeks. Group N was cultured without PUS and PEMF stimu- lation as control. The culture medium was collected after 2 weeks of culture. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the type of collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in the culture medium.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>PUS increased the secreting-type collagen and GAG from cell pellets compared with group N (P < 0.05), whereas there was no difference in different intensities (P > 0.05). PEMF had no significant effect on the secretion of the type of collagen (P > 0.05). A PEMF of 1 mT had no significant effect on the secretion of GAG (P > 0.05). A PEMF 2 and 5 mT decreased the secretion of GAG (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>To prevent the secretary of extracellular matrix may play a role in chondrogenic effect of PEMF.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Marrow Cells , Radiation Effects , Cells, Cultured , Chondrogenesis , Radiation Effects , Electromagnetic Fields , Extracellular Matrix , Glycosaminoglycans , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Radiation Effects , Rats , Ultrasonic Waves
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