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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6624-6634, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008861

ABSTRACT

Carthami Flos, as a traditional blood-activating and stasis-resolving drug, possesses anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory pharmacological activities. Flavonoid glycosides are the main bioactive components in Carthamus tinctorius. Glycosyltransferase deserves to be studied in depth as a downstream modification enzyme in the biosynthesis of active glycoside compounds. This study reported a flavonoid glycosyltransferase CtUGT49 from C. tinctorius based on the transcriptome data, followed by bioinformatic analysis and the investigation of enzymatic properties. The open reading frame(ORF) of the gene was 1 416 bp, encoding 471 amino acid residues with the molecular weight of about 52 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CtUGT49 belonged to the UGT73 family. According to in vitro enzymatic results, CtUGT49 could catalyze naringenin chalcone to the prunin and choerospondin, and catalyze phloretin to phlorizin and trilobatin, exhibiting good substrate versatility. After the recombinant protein CtUGT49 was obtained by hetero-logous expression and purification, the enzymatic properties of CtUGT49 catalyzing the formation of prunin from naringenin chalcone were investigated. The results showed that the optimal pH value for CtUGT49 catalysis was 7.0, the optimal temperature was 37 ℃, and the highest substrate conversion rate was achieved after 8 h of reaction. The results of enzymatic kinetic parameters showed that the K_m value was 209.90 μmol·L~(-1) and k_(cat) was 48.36 s~(-1) calculated with the method of Michaelis-Menten plot. The discovery of the novel glycosyltransferase CtUGT49 is important for enriching the library of glycosylation tool enzymes and provides a basis for analyzing the glycosylation process of flavonoid glycosides in C. tinctorius.


Subject(s)
Carthamus tinctorius/chemistry , Phylogeny , Flavonoids/analysis , Glycosides/analysis , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chalcones
2.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 750-755, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the serological characteristics of ABO blood group and molecular genetic mechanism for a Chinese pedigree with cisAB09 subtype.@*METHODS@#A pedigree undergoing ABO blood group examination at the Department of Transfusion, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University on February 2, 2022 was selected as the study subjects. Serological assay was carried out to determine the ABO blood group of the proband and his family members. Activities of A and B glycosyltransferases in the plasma of the proband and his mother were measured with an enzymatic assay. Expression of A and B antigens on the red blood cells of the proband was analyzed by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood samples of the proband and his family members were collected. Following extraction of genomic DNA, exons 1 to 7 of the ABO gene and their flanking introns were sequenced, and Sanger sequencing of exon 7 was carried out for the proband, his elder daughter and mother.@*RESULTS@#The results of serological assay suggested that the proband and his elder daughter and mother had an A2B phenotype, whilst his wife and younger daughter had an O phenotype. Measurement of plasma A and B glycosyltransferase activity suggested that the titers of B-glycosyltransferase activity were 32 and 256 for the proband and his mother, which were respectively below and above that of A1B phenotype-positive controls (128). Flow cytometry analysis showed that the expression of A antigen on the red blood cell surface of the proband has decreased, whilst the expression of B antigen was normal. Genetic sequencing confirmed that, in addition to an ABO*B.01 allele, the proband, his elder daughter and mother have harbored a c.796A>G variant in exon 7, which has resulted in substitution of the methionine at 266th position of the B-glycosyltransferase by valine and conformed to the characteristics of ABO*cisAB.09 allele. The genotypes of the proband and his elder daughter were determined as ABO*cisAB.09/ABO*O.01.01, his mother was ABO*cisAB.09/ABO*B.01, and his wife and younger daughter were ABO*O.01.01/ABO*O.01.01.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.796A>G variant of the ABO*B.01 allele has resulted in an amino acid substitution p.Met266Val, which probably underlay the cisAB09 subtype. The ABO*cisA B.09 allele encodes a special glycosyltransferase which can synthesize normal level of B antigen and low level of A antigen on the red blood cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Pedigree , East Asian People , Genotype , Phenotype , Alleles , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Molecular Biology
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3774-3785, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981510

ABSTRACT

In this study, the authors cloned a glycosyltransferase gene PpUGT2 from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis with the ORF length of 1 773 bp and encoding 590 amino acids. The phylogenetic tree revealed that PpUGT2 belonged to the UGT80A subfamily and was named as UGT80A49 by the UDP-glycosyltransferase(UGT) Nomenclature Committee. The expression vector pET28a-PpUGT2 was constructed, and enzyme catalytic reaction in vitro was conducted via inducing protein expression and extraction. With UDP-glucose as sugar donor and diosgenin and pennogenin as substrates, the protein was found with the ability to catalyze the C-3 hydroxyl β-glycosylation of diosgenin and pennogenin. To further explore its catalytic characteristic, 15 substrates including steroids and triterpenes were selected and PpUGT2 showed its activity towards the C-17 position of sterol testosterone with UDP-glucose as sugar donor. Homology modelling and molecule docking of PpUGT2 with substrates predicted the key residues interacting with ligands. The re-levant residues of PpUGT2-ligand binding model were scanned to calculate the corresponding mutants, and the optimized mutants were obtained according to the changes in binding affinity of the ligand with protein and the surrounding residues within 5.0 Å of ligands, which had reference value for design of the mutants. This study laid a foundation for further exploring the biosynthetic pathway of polyphyllin as well as the structure of sterol glycosyltransferases.


Subject(s)
Ligands , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Sterols , Phylogeny , Ascomycota , Liliaceae/chemistry , Melanthiaceae , Diosgenin , Sugars , Glucose , Uridine Diphosphate
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1840-1850, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981402

ABSTRACT

Uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase(UGT) is a highly conserved protein in plants, which usually functions in secondary metabolic pathways. This study used the Hidden Markov Model(HMM) to screen out members of UGT gene family in the whole genome of Dendrobium officinale, and 44 UGT genes were identified. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the structure, phylogeny, and promoter region components of D. officinale genes. The results showed that UGT gene family could be divided into four subfamilies, and UGT gene structure was relatively conserved in each subfamily, with nine conserved domains. The upstream promoter region of UGT gene contained a variety of cis-acting elements related to plant hormones and environmental factors, indicating that UGT gene expression may be induced by plant hormones and external environmental factors. UGT gene expression in different tissues of D. officinale was compared, and UGT gene expression was found in all parts of D. officinale. It was speculated that UGT gene played an important role in many tissues of D. officinale. Through transcriptome analysis of D. officinale mycorrhizal symbiosis environment, low temperature stress, and phosphorus deficiency stress, this study found that only one gene was up-regulated in all three conditions. The results of this study can help understand the functions of UGT gene family in Orchidaceae plants and provide a basis for further study on the molecular regulation mechanism of polysaccharide metabolism pathway in D. officinale.


Subject(s)
Dendrobium/genetics , Plant Growth Regulators , Glycosyltransferases/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Mycorrhizae , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1004-1024, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927759

ABSTRACT

Triterpenoid saponins are widely used in medicine, health cares, cosmetics, food additives and agriculture because of their unique chemical properties and rich pharmacological activities. UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are the key enzymes involved in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis, and play important roles in the diversity of triterpenoid saponin structures and pharmacological activities. This review summarized the UGTs involved in plant triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis based on the sources of UGTs and the types of receptors. Moreover, the application of UGTs in heterologous biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins based on synthetic biology was also discussed.


Subject(s)
Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Plants , Saponins/chemistry , Triterpenes
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 112-129, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878547

ABSTRACT

Water solubility, stability, and bioavailability, can be substantially improved after glycosylation. Glycosylation of bioactive compounds catalyzed by glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and glycosyltransferases (GTs) has become a research hotspot. Thanks to their rich sources and use of cheap glycosyl donors, GHs are advantageous in terms of scaled catalysis compared to GTs. Among GHs, sucrose phosphorylase has attracted extensive attentions in chemical engineering due to its prominent glycosylation activity as well as its acceptor promiscuity. This paper reviews the structure, catalytic characteristics, and directional redesign of sucrose phosphorylase. Meanwhile, glycosylation of diverse chemicals with sucrose phosphorylase and its coupling applications with other biocatalysts are summarized. Future research directions were also discussed based on the current research progress combined with our working experience.


Subject(s)
Glucosyltransferases/metabolism , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Glycosylation , Glycosyltransferases/genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 278-281, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879571

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the molecular basis for an individual with Bw subtype.@*METHODS@#Routine serological reactions were used to determine the surface antigens of erythrocytes and antibodies in serum. PCR-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) was used to analyze the coding regions of the ABO gene and erythroid-specific regulatory element in its intron 1. Amplicons for exons 5 to 7 containing the variant site were subjected to TA cloning for the isolation of the haploid and verification of the sequence. The 3D structure of mutant protein was predicted with Pymol software. Changes of amino acid residues and structural stability were also analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Serological assay showed that the individual had weakened B antigen and anti-B antibody in his serum. His genotype was determined as ABO*B.01/ABO*O.01.01. Sequencing of the entire coding region of the ABO gene identified an additional heterozygous c.734C/T variant. No variant was found in the erythroid-specific regulatory element of intron 1. Haploid cloning and isolation has obtained an ABO*O.01.01 allele and a ABO*B.01 allele containing a c.734T variant, which has led to substitution of Thr by Ile at position 245 in the functional center of glycosyltransferase. Based on the 3D structure of the protein, the residues binding with the mutation were unchanged, but the bonding distance between the hydrogens was changed with the amino acid substitution. Meanwhile, the connections with water molecules were increased.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.734C>T variant of the GTB gene can lead to an amino acid substitution in the functional center of the enzyme, which in turn may affect the stability of glycosyltransferase B protein and reduceits enzymatic activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Alleles , Exons/genetics , Genotype , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Phenotype
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 86-93, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878915

ABSTRACT

Caffeic acid and its oligomers are the main water-soluble active constituents of the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) Arnebiae Radix. These compounds possess multiple biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardiovascular protective, liver protective, anti-liver fibrosis, antiviral and anticancer activities. The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is responsible for the biosynthesis of caffeic acid and its oligomers. Glycosylation can change phenylpropanoid solubility, stability and toxic potential, as well as influencing compartmentalization and biological activity. In view of the important role played by de-glycosylation in the regulation of phenylpropanoid homeostasis, the biosynthesis of caffeic acid and its oligomers are supposed to be under the control of relative UDP-glycosyltransferases(UGTs). Through the data mining of Arnebia euchroma transcriptome, we cloned 15 full-length putative UGT genes. After recombinant expression using the prokaryotic system, the crude enzyme solution of the putative UGTs was examined for the glycosylation activities towards caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid in vitro. AeUGT_01, AeUGT_02, AeUGT_03, AeUGT_04 and AeUGT_10 were able to glycosylate caffeic acid and/or rosmarinic acid resulting in different mono-and/or di-glycosylated products in the UPLC-MS analyses. The characterized UGTs were distantly related to each other and divided into different clades of the phylogenetic tree. Based on the observation that each characterized UGT exhibited substrate or catalytic similarity with the members in their own clade, we supposed the glycosylation abilities towards caffeic acid and/or rosmarinic acid were evolved independently in different clades. The identification of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid UGTs from A. euchroma could lead to deeper understanding of the caffeic acid oligomers biosynthesis and its regulation. Furthermore, these UGTs might be used for regiospecific glycosylation of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid to produce bioactive compounds for potential therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Boraginaceae/genetics , Caffeic Acids , Chromatography, Liquid , Cinnamates , Cloning, Molecular , Depsides , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Phylogeny , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
9.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 131-144, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776900

ABSTRACT

Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt is a perennial medicinal herb that contains pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins as the major bioactive constituents. In China, the rhizomes are used as treatments for a variety of ailments including arthritis. However, yields of the saponins are low, and little is known about the plant's genetic background or phytohormonal responsiveness. Using one-quarter of the 454 pyrosequencing information from the Roche GS FLX Titanium platform, we performed a transcriptomic analysis to identify 157 genes putatively encoding 26 enzymes involved in the synthesis of the bioactive compounds. It was revealed that there are two biosynthetic pathways of triterpene saponins in A. flaccida. One pathway depends on β-amyrin synthase and is similar to that found in other plants. The second, subsidiary ("backburner") pathway is catalyzed by camelliol C synthase and yields β-amyrin as minor byproduct. Both pathways used cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases (CYPs) and family 1 uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases (UGTs) to modify the triterpenoid backbone. The expression of CYPs and UGTs were quite different in roots treated with the phytohormones methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid. This study provides the first large-scale transcriptional dataset for the biosynthetic pathways of triterpene saponins and their phytohormonal responsiveness in the genus Anemone.


Subject(s)
Anemone , Genetics , Metabolism , Biosynthetic Pathways , Genetics , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Glycosyltransferases , Genetics , Metabolism , Oleanolic Acid , Metabolism , Plant Growth Regulators , Pharmacology , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Plants, Medicinal , Rhizome , Genetics , Metabolism , Saponins , Metabolism , Triterpenes , Metabolism
10.
Mycobiology ; : 349-360, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729741

ABSTRACT

Whole-genome sequencing of Flammulina ononidis, a wood-rotting basidiomycete, was performed to identify genes associated with carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). A total of 12,586 gene structures with an average length of 2009 bp were predicted by the AUGUSTUS tool from a total 35,524,258 bp length of de novo genome assembly (49.76% GC). Orthologous analysis with other fungal species revealed that 7051 groups contained at least one F. ononidis gene. In addition, 11,252 (89.5%) of 12,586 genes for F. ononidis proteins had orthologs among the Dikarya, and F. ononidis contained 8 species-specific genes, of which 5 genes were paralogous. CAZyme prediction revealed 524 CAZyme genes, including 228 for glycoside hydrolases, 21 for polysaccharide lyases, 87 for glycosyltransferases, 61 for carbohydrate esterases, 87 with auxiliary activities, and 40 for carbohydrate-binding modules in the F. ononidis genome. This genome information including CAZyme repertoire will be useful to understand lignocellulolytic machinery of this white rot fungus F. ononidis.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Esterases , Flammulina , Fungi , Genome , Glycoside Hydrolases , Glycosyltransferases , Polysaccharide-Lyases
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 704-711, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771679

ABSTRACT

According to the previous results from transcriptome analysis of Ligustrum quihoui, a glycosyltransferase gene(xynzUGT) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends(RACE). The full length cDNA of xynzUGT was 1 598 bp, consisting of 66 bp 5'-UTR, 1 440 bp ORF and 92 bp 3'-UTR. The ORF encoded a 480 amino-acid protein(xynzUGT) with a molecular weight of 54 826.67 Da and isoelectric point of 5.82. The structure of enzyme was analyzed by using bioinformatics method, the results showed that the primary structure contained a highly conserved PSPG box of glycosyltransferase, the secondary structure included α helix(38%), sheet(12.1%) and random coil(49.9%), and tertiary structure was constructed by peptide chain folding to form two face-to-face domains(often referred to as a Rossmann domains), between which a substrate binding pocket is sandwiched. The phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that xynzUGT might catalyze glycosylation of phenylpropanoids, such as tyrosol. Further simulation experiment of molecular docking between enzyme and tyrosol showed that Gly138 and Ser285 located in the binding pocket interacted with tyrosol by hydrogen bonding. SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited that the prokaryotic expression system successfully expressed recombinant xynzUGT with molecular weight of 58 370.57 Da, but it exists in the form of non-soluble inclusion bodies. Using the molecular chaperone and enzyme co-expression method, the soluble expression was promoted to some extent. The above works laid the foundation for further studying on enzymatic reaction and clarifying the functional mechanism of enzyme.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary , Glycosyltransferases , Genetics , Ligustrum , Genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary
12.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 281-287, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812114

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to perform structural modifications of of neobavaisoflavone (NBIF), using an in vitro enzymatic glycosylation reaction, in order to improve its water-solubility. Two novel glucosides of NBIF were obtained from an enzymatic glycosylation by UDP-glycosyltransferase. The glycosylated products were elucidated by LC-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR analysis. The HPLC peaks were integrated and the concentrations in sample solutions were calculated. The MTT assay was used to detect the cytotoxic activity of compounds in cancer cell lines. Based on the spectroscopic analyses, the two novel glucosides were identified as neobavaisoflavone-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and neobavaisoflavone-4', 7-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2). Additionally, the water-solubilities of compounds 1 and 2 were approximately 175.1- and 4 031.9-fold higher than that of the substrate, respectively. Among the test compounds, only NBIF exhibited weak cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines, with IC values ranging from 63.47 to 72.81 µmol·L. These results suggest that in vitro enzymatic glycosylation is a powerful approach to structural modification, improving water-solubility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Bacillus , Cell Line, Tumor , Colorimetry , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Glucosides , Chemistry , Glycosyltransferases , Metabolism , Isoflavones , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Solubility
13.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 423-426, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335111

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the molecular basis of an individual with Bel variant of the ABO blood group.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The ABO antigen and serum antibody of the individual were detected by serological method. All coding regions and flanking introns of the ABO gene were amplified with PCR and sequenced bidirectionally. The haplotypes of the individual were analyzed by cloning and sequencing. A three dimensional model of the mutant protein was constructed and analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The individual has expressed a very weak B antigen on its red blood cells by absorption and elution testing, which was identified as a Bel variant phenotype. The heterozygous sites in exon 6 (261del/G) and exon 7 (297A/G, 484del/G, 526C/G, 657C/T, 703G/A, 796C/A, 803G/C, 930G/A) of the coding region of the ABO gene were identified by direct sequencing. Haplotype analysis showed that the individual has carried an O01 allele and a novel B allele. The sequence of the novel B allele was identical to B101 except for a del G at nucleotide position 484 (484delG), which was nominated as B120 by the Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database (dbRBC NCBI). The 484delG mutation of the B allele has led to a reading frame shift and created a premature terminal codon for the glycosyltransferase (GT) enzyme. Prediction of the 3D structure suggested that the GT enzyme has become an incomplete protein only with its N-terminal region.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The 484delG mutation of the glycosyltransferase B gene has probably abolished or reduced the enzymatic activity and resulted in the Bel variant phenotype.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , ABO Blood-Group System , Genetics , Alleles , Base Sequence , Exons , Genotype , Glycosyltransferases , Genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Sequence Deletion
14.
Rev. bras. hematol. hemoter ; 38(4): 331-340, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829941

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT ABO, H, secretor and Lewis histo-blood system genes control the expression of part of the carbohydrate repertoire present in areas of the body occupied by microorganisms. These carbohydrates, besides having great structural diversity, act as potential receptors for pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms influencing susceptibility and resistance to infection and illness. Despite the knowledge of some structural variability of these carbohydrate antigens and their polymorphic levels of expression in tissue and exocrine secretions, little is known about their biological importance and potential applications in medicine. This review highlights the structural diversity, the biological importance and potential applications of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood carbohydrates.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , Lewis Blood Group Antigens , Oligosaccharides , Carbohydrates , Glycosyltransferases
15.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1029-1033, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286852

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To modify the structure of psoralidin using in vitro enzymatic glycosylation to improve its water solubility and stability.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A new psoralidin glucoside (1) was obtained by enzymatic glycosylation using a UDP- glycosyltransferase. The chemical structure of compound 1 was elucidated by HR-ESI-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peaks were integrated and sample solution concentrations were calculated. MTT assay was used to detect the cytotoxicity of the compounds against 3 cancer cell lines in vitro. Results Based on the spectroscopic data, the new psoralidin glucoside was identified as psoralidin-6',7-di-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (1), whose water solubility was 32.6-fold higher than that of the substrate. Analyses of pH and temperature stability demonstrated that compound 1 was more stable than psoralidin at pH 8.8 and at high temperatures. Only psoralidin exhibited a moderate cytotoxicity against 3 human cancer cell lines. Conclusion In vitro enzymatic glycosylation is a powerful approach for structural modification and improving water solubility and stability of compounds.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents , Metabolism , Benzofurans , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Coumarins , Metabolism , Glucosides , Glycosylation , Glycosyltransferases , Metabolism , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Solubility
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 148-153, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251803

ABSTRACT

Traditional herbal medicines, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium and Panax notoginseng, attract our attention for their extensive and powerful pharmacological activities. Ginsenosides are the main active constituents of these medicinal herbs. The related glycosyltransferases involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis are the key enzymes which catalyze the last important step. Modification of ginsenoside aglycones by glycosyltransferases produces the complexity and diversity of ginsenosides, which have more extensive pharmacological activity. At present, ginsenoside aglycones and compound K have been obtained by synthetic biology. As the last step of ginsenoside biosynthesis, glycosylation of ginsenoside aglycones has been studied intensively in recent years. This review summarizes the basic strategies and research advances in studies on glycosyltransferases involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis, which is expected to lay the theoretical foundation for the in-depth research of biosynthetic pathway of ginsenosides and their production by synthetic biology.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Ginsenosides , Glycosyltransferases , Metabolism , Panax , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Synthetic Biology
17.
Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion ; : 103-122, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33289

ABSTRACT

All living creatures on this planet, from bacteria to human, produce sugar chains (glycans). This means that sugar chains are essential for living a life. Abundant, diverse, and highly regulated repertoire of glycans are synthesized by glycosylation process in cells. Located in proteins (N-glycans and O-glycans) and lipids (glycosphingolipids), glycans participate in many vital biological processes including molecular recognition, cell adhesion, molecular trafficking and clearance, receptor activation, and signal transduction. Histo-blood group antigens that are composed of sugar chains are expressed under the control of the Secretor, Lewis and ABO glycosyltransferases. They play important roles in microbial infections and cancers. Many of sugar chains associated with histo-blood group antigens are exploited as receptors for microorganisms. Aberrant glycosylation of proteins and lipids occurs commonly during malignant transformation and leads to the expression of tumor-associated glycans. In this review, over the scope of transfusion medicine, we discussed deep down the biologic meaning of sugar chains, through exploring how the sugar chains are synthesized, structured, and functioning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria , Biological Phenomena , Cell Adhesion , Glycosylation , Glycosyltransferases , Planets , Polysaccharides , Signal Transduction , Transfusion Medicine
18.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-9, 2015. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glycoproteins play a critical role in the cellular activities of eukaryotes. Sialic acid is typically the outermost monosaccharide of glycolipids and glycoproteins, and is necessary for normal development. RESULTS: A strategy based on avidin-biotin affinity was established to enrich sialylated glycoproteins from HeLa cervical carcinoma, SW1990 pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Using HPLC-MS/MS, western blot, real-time PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, gp96 was identified in all three cell lines. No significant difference in the protein expression of gp96 was detected at the whole cell level, but the amount of bioti-nylated gp96 in SW1990 cells was 30-40 % lower than that in A549 and HeLa cells, and the amount of sialylated gp96 in SW1990 cells was 30 % lower than that in A549 and HeLa cells. Immunoblotting results showed that the expression of sialyltransferase proteins in the total cell lysates from HeLa and A549 cells were higher than that in SW1990 cells. CONCLUSIONS: We established a new method for investigating the expression and sialylation of glycoproteins using metabolic labeling, click chemistry, and avidin-biotin affinity. We successfully used this method to purify sialylated glycoproteins from cancer cell lines. Our results showed that the levels of gp96 sialylation varied across different cancer cell lines, and this may be because of differences in sialyltransferase expression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Glycosyltransferases/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HeLa Cells , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , A549 Cells
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 838-847, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279467

ABSTRACT

Glycosyltransferases (GTs) catalyze the transfer of a sugar residue of an activated sugar donor to an acceptor molecule. Many families 1 GTs utilize an uridine diphosphate (UDP) activated sugar as donor in the glycosylation reaction, and most of these belong to a group of GTs referred to as the UGTs. The relationship between the degree of amino acid sequence identity and substrate specificity of the plant UGTs is highly complicated, and the prediction of substrate specificity based on phylogenetic analyses need to be improved by more biochemical characterization. This review summarizes the three dimensional structures of plant UGTs published in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), including the detailed substrate interactions with the sugar and receptor binding pockets and mutational analyses of some critical amino acids. It will be helpful for biochemical characterization the substrate specificity of the individual UGT, and lay the foundation for the enzymatic and genetic manipulation of plant UGTs in the future.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Glycosylation , Glycosyltransferases , Chemistry , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Chemistry , Plants , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Substrate Specificity , Uridine Diphosphate , Chemistry
20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 179-186, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235685

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation, one of the most common and important reactions in biological systems, results in diverse functions and is often found in biologically active small-molecule natural products produced by microorganisms. Furthermore, sugar moieties are generally critical for their activities. Alternating the sugar structures thus provides the potentials for enhancing the biological activities of natural products, which evokes researchers to study the sugar biosynthetic machinery and its application in the modification of sugar moieties with an aim of generating unnaturally glycosylated natural product drugs with better activities. This review will briefly outline current studies on sugar biosynthesis and glycosyltransferase, with a few selected experiments designed to alter natural-product sugar structures.


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Metabolism , Biological Products , Chemistry , Metabolism , Carbohydrates , Chemistry , Erythromycin , Glycosylation , Glycosyltransferases , Isomerism , Molecular Structure , Saccharopolyspora , Metabolism , Streptomyces , Metabolism , Synthetic Biology
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