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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879050

ABSTRACT

Chemical constituents from aerial parts of Glycyrrhiza uralensis were analyzed and identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). The chromatographic column of Waters Acquity UPLC BEH-C_(18)(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) was adopted, with acetonitrile-water(0.5% formic acid) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL·min~(-1). Data was collected in positive and negative modes of electrospray ionization(ESI). A total of 55 compounds, including 42 flavonoids, 9 stilbenes, 2 coumarins, 1 lignin and 1 phenolic acid, which were characterized in the aerial parts of G. uralensis based on accurate molecular mass information of molecular and product ions provided by UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS based on comparison with standard substances and references. It is an effective and accurate method to provide chemical information of constituents in aerial parts of G. uralensis, and can provide a reference for further study on pharmacodynamic material basis and resources development and utilization.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Mass Spectrometry , Plant Components, Aerial
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774550

ABSTRACT

In this study, the synthetic pathway of β-amyrin was constructed in the pre-constructed Saccharomyces cerevisiae chassis strain Y0 by introducing β-amyrin synthase from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, resulting strain Y1-C20-6, which successfully produced β-amyrin up to 5.97 mg·L~(-1). Then, the mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase gene(ERG19), mevalonate kinase gene(ERG12), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase gene(ERG13), phosphomevalonate kinase gene(ERG8) and IPP isomerase gene(IDI1)were overexpressed to promoted the metabolic fluxto the direction of β-amyrin synthesis for further improving β-amyrin production, resulting the strain Y2-C2-4 which produced β-amyrin of 10.3 mg·L~(-1)under the shake flask fermentation condition. This is 100% higher than that of strain Y1-C20-6, illustrating the positive effect of the metabolic engineering strategy applied in this study. The titer of β-amyrin was further improved up to 157.4 mg·L~(-1) in the fed-batch fermentation, which was almost 26 fold of that produced by strain Y1-C20-6. This study not only laid the foundation for the biosynthesis of β-amyrin but also provided a favorable chassis strain for elucidation of cytochrome oxidases and glycosyltransferases of β-amyrin-based triterpenoids.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Genetics , Industrial Microbiology , Intramolecular Transferases , Genetics , Metabolic Engineering , Oleanolic Acid , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Metabolism
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773228

ABSTRACT

Thirty-two batches of cultivated and wild Glycyrrhiza uralensis were obtained from three geographical regions. Comparative study of water characteristic components of G. uralensis from three geographical origins was conducted by PCA,OPLS-DA chemical pattern recognition combined with LC-TOF/MS and muti-component analysis. The similarity of fingerprints of 32 batches of medicinal materials ranged from 0. 903 to 0. 999. Patterns recognition could be used to distinguish cultivated G. uralensis in Gansu and Xinjiang areas from cultivated and wild plants in Inner Mongolia. Then a total of thirty-one common constituents were identified by LC-TOF/MS analysis coupled with standard compounds information. The contents of four flavonoid glycosides and five saponins were determinated by HPLC and compared using One-way ANOVA. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the contents of 5 triterpenoid saponins among the three regions,but the contents of 4 flavonoid saponins showed the trend of Inner Mongolia >Gansu≈Xinjiang( P<0. 05). In the same Inner Mongolia region,the contents of 4 flavonoid glycosides and 5 triterpenoid saponins in wild plant was significantly higher than that in cultivated plants( P<0. 01). In addition,the contents of liquiritin,isoliquiritin,licorice-saponin A_3,22β-acetoxyl-glycyrrhizic acid and uralsaponin B in Gansu and Xinjiang were obviously lower than those in Inner Mongolia,but the contents of glycyrrhizic acid,the main component of G. uralensis,were not different in the three geographical regions. In Inner Mongolia,the contents of liquiritin,isoliquiritin,licorice-saponin A_3,licorice-saponin G_2 and glycyrrhizic acid in wild plants were significantly higher than those in cultivated plants. In conclusion,qualitative/quantitative analysis of multi-index components combined with pattern recognition could effectively evaluate the quality of cultivated and wild licorice in different regions. It was helpful for us to understand the reality of licorice in different regions,and provided scientific basis for the development and comprehensive utilization of licorice resources.


Subject(s)
China , Geography , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Plant Extracts , Saponins , Water
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773115

ABSTRACT

In the present paper,after the febrile rat model was prepared by injecting yeast,orthogonally compatible effective components from prescription drugs of Mahuang Decoction( Ephedra sinica total alkaloids,Cinnamomum cassia essential oil,amygdalin,Glycyrrhiza uralensis total flavonoids+G. uralensis total saponins) with nine different dosage ratios were given by gavage administration.The plasma concentrations of main active ingredients including ephedrine hydrochloride,pseudoephedrine hydrochloride,methylephedrine hydrochloride,cinnamic acid,amygdalin,liquritin and glycyrrhizin at different time points were analyzed by liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer( LC-MS). Based on the pharmacokinetic parameters of non-compartmental model,the area under curve of total quantum( AUCt) and the mean chromatographic retention time of total quantum( MRTt) were further calculated,in order to evaluate the effect of compatibility on the total statistical moment parameters. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of main active components in febrile rats were significantly different after treatment with orthogonally compatibility of E. sinica total alkaloids,C.cassia essential oil,amygdalin,G. uralensis total flavonoids and G. uralensis total saponins. Orthogonal analysis confirmed that different compatibility components had different effects on the total statistical moment parameters. The contribution of effective components of Mahuang Decoction to AUCtwas as follows in a descending order: E. sinica total alkaloids>C. cassia essential oil>amygdalin>G. uralensis total flavonoids+G. uralensis total saponin,while the contribution to MRTtwas: E. sinica total alkaloids >G. uralensis total flavonoids+G. uralensis total saponin>amygdalin>C. cassia essential oil. The E. sinica total alkaloid had the greatest effects on both of the above parameters,and the optimal combination was A_3B_3C_2D_1 for AUCt,and A_1B_1C_1D_1 for MRTt.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacokinetics , Ephedra sinica , Chemistry , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Oils, Volatile , Pharmacokinetics , Phytochemicals , Pharmacokinetics , Rats
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771728

ABSTRACT

The study was based on the toxic characteristics of the compatibility between "Zaojisuiyuan" and Gancao, with intestinal tract and intestinal bacteria as subject. From the angle of intestinal barrier function, motor function, steady state of intestinal flora and metabolism genes, the toxic and side effects of the compatibility between Qianjinzi and Gancao with similar properties, bases and chemical composition and types were further explored. The results showed that the combined application of Qianjinzi and Gancao enhanced intestinal mucosa damage, and led to abnormal changes in intestinal bacteria structure and metabolic function. It improved the degradation functions of mucus and aromatic amino acids on intestinal bacteria, which may increase the risk of disease and derived from intestinal urotoxin and other toxic substances. This study considered intestinal bacteria as an important target to study the interactions of traditional Chinese medicine. The "drug-intestinal bacteria-metabolism-toxicity" was applied in the experiment. Meanwhile, it provides ideas for exploring incompatible mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Intestinal Mucosa , Pathology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Neuroinflammation plays critical role in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the effect of three licorice varieties, Glycyrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, and Shinwongam (SW) on a mouse model of inflammation-induced memory and cognitive deficit. MATERIALS/METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and orally administrated G. uralensis, G. glabra, and SW extract (150 mg/kg/day). SW, a new species of licorice in Korea, was combined with G. uralensis and G. glabra. Behavioral tests, including the T-maze, novel object recognition and Morris water maze, were carried out to assess learning and memory. In addition, the expressions of inflammation-related proteins in brain tissue were measured by western blotting. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in spatial and objective recognition memory in LPS-induced cognitive impairment group, as measured by the T-maze and novel object recognition test; however, the administration of licorice ameliorated these deficits. In addition, licorice-treated groups exhibited improved learning and memory ability in the Morris water maze. Furthermore, LPS-injected mice had up-regulated pro-inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, via activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) pathways in the brain. However, these were attenuated by following administration of the three licorice varieties. Interestingly, the SW-administered group showed greater inhibition of iNOS and TLR4 when compared with the other licorice varieties. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain of LPS-induced cognitively impaired mice that were administered licorice, with the greatest effect following SW treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The three licorice varieties ameliorated the inflammation-induced cognitive dysfunction by down-regulating inflammatory proteins and up-regulating BDNF. These results suggest that licorice, in particular SW, could be potential therapeutic agents against cognitive impairment.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Behavior Rating Scale , Blotting, Western , Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cognition Disorders , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Glycyrrhiza , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Korea , Learning , Memory , Mice , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Water
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716208

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Glycyrrhiza uralensis species (Leguminosae) as a medicinal biocompound, and one of its root components, isoliquritigenin (ISL), which is a flavonoid, has been reported to have anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. However, its function in bone formation has not been studied yet. In this study, we tested the effect of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (ErLR) and baked Glycyrrhiza uralensis (EdLR) extracts on osteoblast proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and bone-related gene expression in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in various levels of ErLR (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 µg/mL), EdLR (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 µg/mL), or ISL (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 µM) in time sequences (1, 5, and 20 days). Also, isoliquritigenin (ISL) was tested for comparison to those two biocompound extracts. RESULTS: MTT assay results showed that all three compounds (ErLR, EdLR, and ISL) increased osteoblastic-cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner for one day. In addition, both ErLR and EdLR compounds elevated the osteoblast proliferation for 5 or 20 days. Extracellular ALP activity was also increased as ErLR, EdLR, and ISL concentration increased at 20 days, which implies the positive effect of Glycyrrhiza species on osteoblast mineralization. The bone-related marker mRNAs were upregulated in the ErLR-treated osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells for 20 days. Bone-specific transcription factor Runx2 gene expression was also elevated in the ErLR- and EdLR-treated osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells for 20 days. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that Glycyrrhiza uralensis extracts may be useful for preventing osteoporosis by increasing cell proliferation, ALP activity, and bone-marker gene expression in osteoblastic cells.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Glycyrrhiza , In Vitro Techniques , Miners , Osteoblasts , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis , RNA, Messenger , Transcription Factors
8.
Singapore medical journal ; : 115-120, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304075

ABSTRACT

Local healthcare providers often question the possible steroidal activity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs or herbal products and implicate them as a cause for adrenal insufficiency or Cushing's syndrome in patients with a history of TCM intake. We conducted a comprehensive database search for evidence of potential glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgenic or oestrogenic activity of herbs or herbal products. Overall, there are not many herbs whose steroidal activity is well established; among these, most cases were based on preclinical studies. Liquorice root may cause pseudoaldosteronism through interference with the steroidogenesis pathway. Although ginseng and cordyceps have some in vitro glucocorticoid activities, the corroborating clinical data is lacking. Deer musk and deer antler contain androgenic steroids, while epimedium has oestrogenic activity. On the other hand, adulteration of herbal products with exogenous glucocorticoids is a recurrent problem encountered locally in illegal products masquerading as TCM. Healthcare providers should stay vigilant and report any suspicion to the relevant authorities for further investigations.


Subject(s)
Androgens , Animals , Cordyceps , Databases, Factual , Deer , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Epimedium , Estrogens , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Glucocorticoids , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mineralocorticoids , Panax , Plant Preparations , Risk , Singapore , Steroids , Tissue Extracts
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250448

ABSTRACT

In order to obtain the fungicides with minimal impact on efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis, the effect of five fungicides including polyoxins, jinggangmycins, thiophanate methylate, chlorothalonil and carbendazim on the growth of medicinal plant and efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis were studied. Pot cultured Glycyrrhiza uralensis was treated with different fungicides with the concentration that commonly used in the field. 60 d after treated with fungicides, infection rate, infection density, biomass indexes, photosyn- thetic index and the content of active component were measured. Experimental results showed that carbendazim had the strongest inhibition on mycorrhizal symbiosis effect. Carbendazim significantly inhibited the mycorrhizal infection rate, significantly suppressed the actual photosynthetic efficiency of G. uralensis and the most indicators of biomass. Polyoxins showed the lowest inhibiting affection. Polyoxins had no significant effect on mycorrhizal infection rate, the actual photosynthetic efficiency of G. uralensis and the most indicators of biomass. The other three fungicides also had an inhibitory effect on efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis, and the inhibition degrees were all between polyoxins's and carbendazim's. The author considered that fungicide's inhibition degree on mycorrhizal effect might be related with the species of fungicides, so the author suggested that the farmer should try to choose bio-fungicides like polyoxins.


Subject(s)
Fungi , Physiology , Fungicides, Industrial , Pharmacology , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Microbiology , Physiology , Mycorrhizae , Physiology , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Symbiosis
10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 111-117, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251808

ABSTRACT

The transplants of one-year-old Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. were subjected to five concentrations of MnSO4-H2O (0, 1.81, 18.1, 36.2 and 54.3 mg·L(-1)) culturing in vermiculite. qRT-PCR and HPLC were respectively used to measure the relative expression of SQS1 gene and the content of glycyrrhizic acid of G. uralensis in different concentrations of MnSO4·H2O. This is to explore discuss the effects of the expression of SQS1 gene and the accumulation of glycyrrhizic acid by Mn treatment. The results showed both the expression of SQS1 gene and the content of glycyrrhzic acid of G. uralensis tended to rise after the fall of the first with the increase of concentration of Mn treatment. And they were of very significant positive correlation (P<0.01, r=0.737). Relative expression of SQS1 gene reached the highest 7.90 under 18.1 mg·L(-1) MnSO4·H2O treatment. It was very significantly different between 18.1 mg·L(-1) concentration of MnSO4·H2O treatment and CK (0 mg·L(-1)), 1.81, 36.2 and 54.3 mg·L(-1) (P<0.01), and 1.75, 1.37, 1.37, 2.33 times respectively. The content of glycyrrhizic acid reached the highest under 1.81 and 18.1 mg·L(-1) MnSO4·H2O treatment, and there were not significant difference (P>0.05). It was very significantly different between them and other concentrations of MnSO4·H2O treatment (P<0.01). This study suggests the appropriate concentration of Mn treatment could certain promote the expression of SQS1 gene and the accumulation of glycyrrhizic acid of G. uralensis.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Genes, Plant , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Genetics , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Manganese
11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 906-909, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257048

ABSTRACT

β-Amyrin synthase (β-AS) genes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis from 6 different regions were analyzed by PCR-SSCP and sequenced, then the correlationship between β-AS SNP and regions of Glycyrrhiza uralensis were determined. According to the 1 coding single nucleotide polymorphism on the first exon of β-AS gene at 94 bp site, Glycyrrhiza uralensis could be divided into 3 genotypes. In these genotypes, the percentage of 94A type in genuine regions was much higher, and it had significant differences with the percentage in non-genuine regions (P < 0.001). The results of the experiment proved that different β-AS genotypes at 94 bp site from different regions may be one of the important reasons to result in the genuineness of Glycyrrhiza uralensis.


Subject(s)
Exons , Genotype , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Classification , Genetics , Intramolecular Transferases , Genetics , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284803

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the inhibitory effect of flavonoids from Glycyrrhiza uralensis on thioacetamide-induced chonic hepatic fibrosis in rats and the effect on the protein expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and Caspase-3 in livers.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into totally seven groups: the normal control group, the model group, LF groups s (400, 200, 100, 50 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) and the silymarin positive control group (30 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)). The hepatic fibrosis model was induced in the rats through intraperitoneal injection with 3% thioacetamide (TAA) at a dose of 150 mg · kg(-1) body weight twice a week for 12 weeks. During the course, the control group and the model group were orally administered with saline (1 mL · kg(-1) · d(-1)). After the modeling and drug intervention, the pathologic changes and fibrosis in liver tissues were observed by HE staining and Masson's Trichrome staining. The serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and liver hydroxyproline (HYP) contents were assayed by biochemical process. The serum hyaluronic acid (HA) was assessed by radioimmunoassay. In addition, the protein expressions of liver TGF-β1 and Caspase-3 were examined by immunohistochemical method. The mRNA expression of TGF-β1 in hepatic tissues was examined by quantitative Real-time PCR analysis.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Compared with the model group, flavonoids can protect the integrity of the structure of liver tissues, significantly reduce the hepatic cell degeneration and necrosis and the proliferation of fibrous tissues, notably reduce the serum AST, ALT, ALP and HA and HYP in hepatic tissues and down-regulate the protein expressions of liver TGF-β1 and Caspase-3 and the mRNA expression of TGF-β1 in hepatic tissues.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The licorice flavonoids can resist the thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Its mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of the protein expressions of TGF-β1 and Caspase-3.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 3 , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Hyaluronic Acid , Blood , Liver , Pathology , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental , Metabolism , Male , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Thioacetamide , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Genetics
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351283

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted using cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis in age of one year to study the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on chemical components content and color of G. uralensis. By using different concentrations of ABA spraying on leaves, the change of the chemical component content was analyzed within 45 d after ABA stimulation, and the effects on quality were studied combined with colorimetric analysis data. It turned out that in some sense the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin had increased within 45 d, especially for liquiritin. After high concentrations of ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating, the content of glycyrrhizic acid rose 52% while liquiritin up 392% within 30 d. Then they both showed a decline in the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin on 45 d. Color index values of a* and b* were all significantly higher than that of the control group within 45 d, which meant the color of powders turned toward red and yellow. The conclusion was that ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating could not only improve the quality in the traditional sense through the color of G. uralensis, but also in the modern sense by improving the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , Pharmacology , Color , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavanones , Glucosides , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Plant Growth Regulators , Pharmacology
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246114

ABSTRACT

In order to study the interaction relationship between secondary metabolites in Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and find out which secondary metabolite is significantly related to the content of glycyrrhizic acid, artificial applying ammonium glycyrrhetate solution was used to establish a high glycyrrhizic acid environment. The change of the 4 secondary metabolites was analyzed within 72 h after glycyrrhizic acid stimulation, while correlation statistical soft was applied to analyze the correlation of glycyrrhizic acid and other compositions. It turned out that it is feasible to establish high glycyrrhizic acid environment by glycyrrhizic acid root soaking in the concentration of 1.0 mmol x L(-1). There was significant positive correlation between glycyrrhizic acid and liquorice glycosides in short-term glycyrrhizic acid stimulation environment. It is concluded that glycyrrhizic acid accumulation internal of G. uralensis could be effected by artificial exogenous glycyrrhizic acid stimulation in certain case, and its accumulation was significantly related to the content of liquorice glycosides.


Subject(s)
Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Metabolism , Secondary Metabolism , Time Factors
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236037

ABSTRACT

Moderate drought stress has been found to promote the accumulation of active ingredients in Glycyrrhiza uralensis root and hence improve the medicinal quality. In this study, the transcriptomes of 6-month-old moderate drought stressed and control G. uralensis root (the relative water content in soil was 40%-45% and 70%-75%, respectively) were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000. A total of 80,490 490 and 82 588 278 clean reads, 94,828 and 305,100 unigenes with N50 sequence of 1,007 and 1,125 nt were obtained in drought treated and control transcriptome, respectively. Differentially expressed genes analysis revealed that the genes of some cell wall enzymes such as β-xylosidase, legumain and GDP-L-fucose synthase were down-regulated indicating that moderate drought stress might inhibit the primary cell wall degradation and programmed cell death in root cells. The genes of some key enzymes involved in terpenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated by moderate drought stress might be the reason for the enhancement for the active ingredients accumulation in G. uralensis root. The promotion of the biosynthesis and signal transduction of auxin, ethylene and cytokinins by moderate drought stress might enhance the root formation and cell proliferation. The promotion of the biosynthesis and signal transduction of abscisic acid and jasmonic acid by moderate drought stress might enhance the drought stress tolerance in G. uralensis. The inhibition of the biosynthesis and signal transduction of gibberellin and brassinolide by moderate drought stress might retard the shoot growth in G. uralensis.


Subject(s)
Droughts , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Genetics , Plant Roots , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Stress, Physiological , Transcriptome
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61904

ABSTRACT

This article explores the indigenization of licorice(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) which was the most important medicine of the Oriental Medicine. There are a lot of records on licorice even before the Joseon Dynasty. The licorice had been used mainly in stomach related diseases such as food poisoning or indigestion. But the licorice was an imported medicine until the early days of the Joseon Dynasty. As the Joseon Dynasty began, the licorice production became necessary with the investigation and obtaining the herbs. And a large amount of licorice was needed when the epidemics outbroke under the reign of King Sejong. In particular, the licorice had been essential in treating the diseases of the Cold Damage which was focused in the Joseon Dynasty. That was why King Sejong ordered to plant the licorice in the Chollado province and Hamgildo province in 1448. But the licorice cultivation was not easy for two reasons. First, it was difficult to find the proper soil for proper soil for planting. Second, the people didn't actively grow the licorice, because they had to devote the licorice as the tax when the indigenization of licorice was succeeded. King Sejo and King Seongjong encouraged the people to plant the licorice. The recognition that the licorice is essential in pediatric diseases such as smallpox got stronger then before. Finally the indigenization of licorice was completed under the reign of King Seongjong. According to the Dongguknyeojiseungnam, edited in 1481, and Shinjeungdongguknyeojiseungnam, edited in 1530, the licorice was planted in seven districts. With the success of the indigenization of licorice, the approach of the people to the Oriental Medicine treatment had became much easier.


Subject(s)
Glycyrrhiza uralensis/growth & development , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, Medieval , Korea , Medicine, Korean Traditional/history
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812494

ABSTRACT

Chuanwu (CW), a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the mother roots of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx.. (Ranunculaceae), has been used for the treatment of various diseases. Unfortunately, its toxicity is frequently reported because of its narrow therapeutic window. In the present study, a metabolomic method was performed to characterize the phenotypically biochemical perturbations and potential mechanisms of CW-induced toxicity. Meanwhile, the expression level of toxicity biomarkers in the urine were analyzed to evaluate the detoxification by combination with Gancao (Radix Glyeyrrhizae, CG), Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba, CS) and Ganjiang (Rhizoma Zingiberis, CJ), which were screened from classical TCM prescriptions. Urinary metabolomics was performed by UPLC-Q-TOF-HDMS, and the mass spectra signals of the detected metabolites were systematically analyzed using pattern recognition methods. As a result, seventeen biomarkers associated with CW toxicity were identified, which were associated with pentose and glucuronate interconversions, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, among others. The expression levels of most toxicity biomarkers were effectively modulated towards the normal range by the compatibility drugs. It indicated that the three compatibility drugs could effectively detoxify CW. In summary, our work demonstrated that metabolomics was vitally significant to evaluation of toxicity and finding detoxification methods for TCM.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Toxicity , Animals , Biomarkers , Urine , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Toxicity , Ginger , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Heart , Inactivation, Metabolic , Liver , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Paeonia , Plant Roots , Rats, Wistar , Rhizome
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812137

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to determine the effects of copy number variations (CNVs) of squalene synthase 1(SQS1) gene on the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. SQS1 gene from G. uralensis (GuSQS1) was cloned and over-expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. Six recombinant P. pastoris strains containing different copy number of GuSQS1 were constructed. HPLC was used to assay the level of ergosterol in all transgenic P. pastoris strains containing GuSQS1. HPLC analysis showed that the contents of ergosterol in all of the transgenic P. pastoris containing GuSQS1 were higher than that in the negative control. And with the increase of copy number of GuSQS1, the content of ergosterol showed an increasing-decreasing-increasing pattern. The contents of ergosterol in 10-copy-GuSQS1 P. pastoris and 47-copy-GuSQS1 P. pastoris were significantly higher than that in the rest recombinant P. pastoris strains. In conclusion, the CNVs of GuSQS1 influence the content of secondary metabolites in the MVA pathway. The present study provides a basis for over-expressing GuSQS1 and increasing the content of glycyrrhizin in G. uralensis cultivars.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Genetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , DNA Copy Number Variations , Genetics , Ergosterol , Farnesyl-Diphosphate Farnesyltransferase , Genetics , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Genetics , Mevalonic Acid , Metabolism , Pichia , Metabolism , Plasmids , Genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recombinant Proteins , Metabolism
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300225

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to study the effect nitrogen supplying on biomass accumulation and root respiration dynamic change of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and reveal the metabolic pathway of root respiration impact the biomass accumulating of G. uralensis. Six groups of one-year-old G. uralensis were fertilized with total nutrition containing various nitrogen concentration (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 mmol x L(-1)) every week. At the end of every month, from June to October, the volume respiration rate and biomass of different classes of root samples were determined, and the correlation between root respiration and biomass was analyzed. The results indicated a negative correlation between volume respiration rate and biomass, nitrogen supply significantly affected both root respiration and biomass of G. uralensis by reducing root respiration and increasing root biomass. Under 8 mmol x L(-1) nitrogen supplying, there existed the optimal inhibition of root respiration, which has increased biomass of G. uralensis.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Metabolism , Kinetics , Nitrogen , Pharmacology , Oxygen Consumption , Plant Roots , Metabolism , Seasons , Time Factors
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299831

ABSTRACT

The chromatographic fingerprint was established by eluting with the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and 0.2% formic acid water on an Agilent TC-C18 (2) column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm). Six chromatographic peaks were identified by HPLC-MS/MS method. Ten batches of Glycyrrhizea Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle were determined, and the similarity was arranged from 0.72 to 0.99. Good precision, stability and repeatability were obtained, and this study provides a reference for the quality control of Glycyrrhizea Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle.


Subject(s)
China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Quality Control , Rhizome , Chemistry
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