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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(4): 464-484, jul. 2022. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526711

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional interaction of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract (GGRE) on the large conductance Ca 2+ - activated K + (BKCa) channels expressed in the peripheral nervo us system by using nociception and inflammation models in rodents in vivo . Besides toxicity studies and open field tests, nociception and inflammation tests were performed on rodents. Different doses of GGRE were given orally to rats and mice. Naloxone, in domethacin, morphine, NS1619 and iberiotoxin (IbTX) were administered. GGRE had both anti - nociceptive and anti - inflammatory activity in rats and mice. GGRE exhibited an analgesic effect by decreasing the time - course of the pain threshold or reaction time i n some nociceptive tests. Furthermore, GGRE reduced level of pro - inflammatory cytokines, including TNF - α and IL - 1ß. As a conclusion, GGRE can alleviate the pain sensation of the afferent nerves and can reduce inflammation and associated pain by activating B KCa channels and reducing the levels of TNF - α, IL1ß


Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la interacción funcional del extracto de raíz de Glycyrr hiza glabra (GGRE) en los canales de K + (BKCa) activados por Ca 2+ de gran conductancia expresados en el sistema nervioso periférico mediante el uso de modelos de nocicepción e inflamación en roedores in vivo . Además de los estudios de toxicidad y las prueb as de campo abierto, se realizaron pruebas de nocicepción e inflamación en roedores. Se administraron por vía oral diferentes dosis de GGRE a ratas y ratones. Se administraron naloxona, indometacina, morfina, NS1619 e iberiotoxina (IbTX). GGRE tenía activi dad tanto antinociceptiva como antiinflamatoria en ratas y ratones. GGRE mostró un efecto analgésico al disminuir la evolución temporal del umbral del dolor o el tiempo de reacción en algunas pruebas nociceptivas. Además, GGRE redujo el nivel de citocinas proinflamatorias, incluidas TNF - α e IL - 1ß. Como conclusión, GGRE puede aliviar la sensación de dolor de los nervios aferentes y puede reducir la inflamación y el dolor asociado activando los canales BKCa y reduciendo los niveles de TNF - α, IL1ß.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pain/drug therapy , Glycyrrhiza/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel alpha Subunits/pharmacology
2.
Health sci. dis ; 23(11): 108-110, 2022. figures, tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1398950

ABSTRACT

Cette observation illustre un tableau de pseudo-hyperaldostéronisme primaire par intoxication à la réglisse révélé par une hypokaliémie sévère chez un monsieur de 56 ans dans un contexte d'HTA de découverte récente. L'interrogatoire a retrouvé une notion de consommation régulière quotidienne de pastis sans alcool d'environ un litre et le bilan endocrinien a trouvé une activité rénine plasmatique effondrée et une hypoaldostéronémie. L'hypokaliémie et l'HTA ont régressé au bout de trois mois avec l'arrêt de la consommation du pastis et à distance de tout traitement antihypertenseur. Les abus de la réglisse sont rarement mentionnés spontanément par les patients ou sont ignorés d'eux, d'où l'intérêt d'une anamnèse minutieuse


This patient illustrates a case of primary pseudo-hyperaldosteronism due to licorice intoxication revealed by severe hypokalemia in a 56-year-old man with newly discovered hypertension. Past medical history revealed a notion of regular consumption of pastis without alcohol (about one liter per day) and hormonal assessment showed a collapsed plasma renin activity and hypoaldosteronemia. Hypokalaemia and hypertension resolved three months after cessation of pastis consumption, without any antihypertensive treatment. The abuse of licorice is rarely mentioned spontaneously by patients or is ignored by them, hence the interest of a careful medical history.


Subject(s)
Poisoning , Glycyrrhiza , Hypertension , Hypokalemia
3.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 421-431, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939908

ABSTRACT

Pseudo-allergic reactions (PARs) widely occur upon application of drugs or functional foods. Anti-pseudo-allergic ingredients from natural products have attracted much attention. This study aimed to investigate anti-pseudo-allergic compounds in licorice. The anti-pseudo-allergic effect of licorice extract was evaluated in rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 (RBL-2H3) cells. Anti-pseudo-allergic compounds were screened by using RBL-2H3 cell extraction and the effects of target components were verified further in RBL-2H3 cells, mouse peritoneal mast cells (MPMCs) and mice. Molecular docking and human MRGPRX2-expressing HEK293T cells (MRGPRX2-HEK293T cells) extraction were performed to determine the potential ligands of MAS-related G protein-coupled receptor-X2 (MRGPRX2), a pivotal target for PARs. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and licorice chalcone A (LA) were screened and shown to inhibit Compound48/80-induced degranulation and calcium influx in RBL-2H3 cells. GA and LA also inhibited degranulation in MPMCs and increase of histamine and TNF-α in mice. LA could bind to MRGPRX2, as determined by molecular docking and MRGPRX2-HEK293T cell extraction. Our study provides a strong rationale for using GA and LA as novel treatment options for PARs. LA is a potential ligand of MRGPRX2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Rats , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Degranulation , Glycyrrhiza , HEK293 Cells , Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Receptors, Neuropeptide/therapeutic use
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1618-1624, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928092

ABSTRACT

Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix Cocta is one of the most commonly used medicinal materials in Mongolian medicine. Due to the strong toxicity of Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix Cocta, Mongolian medicine often uses Chebulae Fructus, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma to reduce the toxicity, so as to ensure the curative effect of Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix Cocta while ensuring its clinical curative effect, but the mechanism is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Chebulae Fructus, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix Cocta on the mRNA transcription and protein translation of cytochrome P450(CYP450) in the liver of normal rats. Male SD rats were randomly divided into negative control(NC) group, phenobarbital(PB) group(0.08 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), Chebulae Fructus group(0.254 2 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma group(0.254 2 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix Cocta group(0.254 2 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1))and compatibility group(0.254 2 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1),taking Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix Cocta as the standard). After continuous administration for 8 days, the activities of total bile acid(TBA), alkaline phosphatase(ALP), amino-transferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST)in serum were detected, the pathological changes of liver tissue were observed, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of CYP1 A2, CYP2 C11 and CYP3 A1 were observed. Compared with the NC group, the serum ALP, ALT and AST activities in the Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix Cocta group were significantly increased, and the ALP, ALT and AST activities were decreased after compatibility. At the same time, compatibility could reduce the liver injury caused by Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix Cocta. The results showed that Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix Cocta could inhibit the expression of CYP1 A2, CYP2 C11 and CYP3 A1, and could up-regulate the expression of CYP1 A2, CYP2 C11 and CYP3 A1 when combined with Chebulae Fructus and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. The level of translation was consistent with that of transcription. The compatibility of Chebulae Fructus and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma with Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix Cocta could up-regulate the expression of CYP450 enzyme, reduce the accumulation time of aconitine in vivo, and play a role in reducing toxicity, and this effect may start from gene transcription.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhiza , Liver , Plant Extracts , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Terminalia
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 176-187, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927925

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to explore the alleviating effect and mechanism of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma against Psora-leae Fructus-induced liver injury based on network pharmacology and cell experiments. The active components of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Psoraleae Fructus were first retrieved from the Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine(ETCM), Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP), Comparative Toxicogenomics Database(CTD), and literature and further screened by SwissADME. The obtained 25 potential toxic components of Psoraleae Fructus and 29 flavonoids in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were input into the SwissTargetPrediction for target predication. A total of 818 targets related to liver injury were screened out based on GeneCards and MalaCards, and 91 common targets of Psoraleae Fructus, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and liver injury were obtained from Venny. STRING was applied for constructing the PPI network, and Metascape for analyzing the biological processes and signaling pathways that common targets participated in. Cytoscape was used to construct the component-target-disease network and component-target-pathway network for Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma against Psoraleae Fructus-induced liver injury. The predicted core targets were proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase(SRC), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase subunit alpha(PIK3 CA), RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase(AKT1), etc, with PI3 K-AKT signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, apoptosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and NF-κB signaling pathway mainly involved. Following the scree-ning of the main toxic and pharmacodynamic components, the pharmacodynamic effects were investigated by cell experiments. The results showed that licochalcone A was mainly responsible for alleviating coryfolin-induced liver injury, licochalcone B for coryfolin-and psoralidin-induced liver injury, and echinatin for corylifolinin-and bakuchiol-induced liver injury. The preliminary revealing of the alleviating effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma on Psoraleae Fructus-induced liver injury and the prediction of related mechanisms will provide reference for further mechanism research and reasonable clinical compatibility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Glycyrrhiza , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Network Pharmacology
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5810-5818, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921700

ABSTRACT

The anti-inflammatory activity and compatibility ratio of flavonoids in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata Cum Melle(GR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix(AS) were evaluated by the superoxide anion scavenging test. The matrix formula of gel was optimized by orthogonal test design and the model of deep partial-thickness scald in mice was induced. The gel was applied to the wound. The tissue water content, wound healing rate, serum TNF-α and IL-1, and EGF and VEGF in tissues were measured at diffe-rent periods. The results revealed that when the compatibility ratio of GR and AS was 1∶2, the maximal scavenging efficacy on supe-roxide anion was observed. The gel displayed the optimal properties when carbomer(1%), glycerol(5%), propylene glycol(10%) were added into the matrix. Gel external application can significantly improve the wound healing rate, relieve tissue edema, diminish tissue water content, alleviate inflammatory reaction, and increase the content of EGF and VEGF in tissues(P<0.05). The gel prepared in the present study is effective in promoting granulation, relieving pain, resisting inflammation, and alleviating edema, and is potent in healing scalds.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids , Glycyrrhiza , Rhizome
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2660-2676, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887936

ABSTRACT

Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, mainly contains triterpenoids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, coumarins and volatile oils with many pharmacological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, immune regulatory and anti-fibrotic effects. The widespread applications of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma in food, medicine and chemical industries make its demand increase gradually. Therefore, the quality guarantee of the medicinal is of great value. Starting from the elaboration of chemical components and pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and the introduction to the concept of quality marker(Q-marker), this study analyzed the Q-markers of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma from the aspects of plant phylogene-tics, chemical component specificity, traditional efficacy, traditional medicinal properties, absorbed components, different processing methods and so on, which provides reference for quality evaluation, development and utilization of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Glycyrrhiza , Rhizome , Triterpenes
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210084, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287344

ABSTRACT

Extracts of the plant Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) are used in traditional medicine to treat malaria. The main active components are the saponin glycyrrhizin (GLR) and its active metabolite glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) which both display activities against Plasmodium falciparum. We have identified three main mechanisms at the origin of their anti-plasmodial activity: (i) drug-induced disorganisation of membrane lipid rafts, (ii) blockade of the alarmin protein HMGB1 and (iii) potential inhibition of the detoxifying enzyme glyoxalase 1 (GLO-1) considered as an important drug target for malaria. Our analysis shed light on the mechanism of action of GLR against P. falciparum.


Subject(s)
Triterpenes , Glycyrrhiza , Plasmodium falciparum , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 810-819, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878944

ABSTRACT

By preparing 15 batches of lyophilized powder samples of substance benchmark in Houpo Wenzhong Decoction,the fingerprint,index component content and extract rate were determined,and the characteristic peaks,the range of similarity with the reference map,the content range and transfer rate range of magnolol,hesperidin,glycyrrhizic acid and pinocembrin,the extract rate range and the change range were clarified. The results showed that the similarity between the fingerprint of substance benchmark and the reference map R generated from the 15 batches of substance benchmark samples was higher than 0. 90. The assignment of the characteristic peaks in the full prescription's fingerprint of the herbs except Poria cocos was clarified. Nineteen characteristic peaks were assigned,and 12 characteristic peaks were assigned by the reference substance,of which 4 were from Magnolia ocinalis Cortex,5 from Exocarpium Citri Rubrum,2 from Radix aucklandiae,3 from Glycyrrhiza Radix et Rhizoma,4 from Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai,and one from Rhizoma Zingiberis and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. The index component content range and transfer rate range were 0. 80%-1. 14% and 20. 25%-39. 61% for hesperidin,0. 49%-0. 79% and 23. 09%-33. 87%for glycyrrhizic acid,0. 03%-0. 07% and 3. 55%-10. 09% for pinocembrin,0. 15%-0. 38% and 8. 08%-24. 35% for magnolol. The extract rate range and the change range were22. 60%-25. 57% and 12. 67%-23. 68% respectively. In this study,we introduced the concepts of index component content,fingerprint,extract rate,explored the transfer relation of quality value transmitting of substance benchmark in Houpo Wenzhong Decoction,and initially established the quality standard of Houpo Wenzhong Decoction,all of which would provide ideas for the development and research of similar prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhiza , Quality Control
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2546-2551, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828047

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of lime and licorice processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma on its toxic lectin protein and clarify the scientific detoxification connotation of lime and licorice processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma. Western blot was used to semi-quantitatively analyze the contents of lectin in Pinelliae Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum. Raw products and lectin were treated by soaking in licorice juice, lime solution or mixture solution of these two to investigate the different processing time on the content of toxic lectin protein. SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the changes of lectin protein bands in the solution and precipitates before and after processing. MALDI-TOF technology was used to qualitatively analyze and compare the protein molecular weight before and after processing. The results showed that the contents of lectin in Pinelliae Rhizoma and Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum were 5.01% and 0.04% respectively, indicating that processing could significantly reduce the content of active lectin in raw products. The results also showed that the content of lectin in raw drugs decreased significantly after soaking in lime solution for one day or in licorice juice for three day, and the effect was greatest in mixture solution. Qualitative analysis showed that after being treated by soaking in lime solution, the lectin protein was decomposed into small peptide segments, while after being treated by soaking in licorice juice, the lectin protein was denatured and precipitated. The structure of lectin protein in Pinelliae Rhizoma was broken after being processed with licorice juice and lime solution, which significantly reduced the content of toxic lectinprotein. This is one of the detoxification mechanisms of Pinelliae Rhizoma processing.


Subject(s)
Calcium Compounds , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhiza , Lectins , Oxides , Pinellia , Technology, Pharmaceutical
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2431-2438, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827930

ABSTRACT

This research is to predict anti-Alzheimer's disease active constituents on the target of acetylcholinesterase(AChE) from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma with the help of pharmacophore and molecular docking. AChE ligand-based pharmacophore model was set up and the molecular library of the constituents from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were established by collecting literature. Then the constituents from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were screen for the potential AChE inhibitory potency in silico through matching with the best pharmacophore model. The flexible docking was used to evaluate the interactions between compounds screened from pharmacophore model and AChE protein(PDB ID:4 EY7). The interactions were expressed including but not limited to CDOCKER interaction energy, hydrogen bonds and non-bonding interactions. The molecular library of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma contains 44 chemical constituents. As for the pharmacophore model, six kinds of potential AChE inhibitory constituents from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were considered to be the promising compounds according to the results of searching 3 D database of pharmacophore model. The molecular docking was possessed and the interaction patterns were given to show the detail interactions. The compounds screening from the pharmacophore model were consistent with the existing studies to some degree, indicating that the virtual screen protocols of AChE inhibitory constituents from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma based on pharmacophore and molecular docking was reliable.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhiza , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rhizome , Triterpenes
12.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(6): 555-568, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284299

ABSTRACT

Despite the development of modern medicine, alternative medicine, which has not lost its timeliness, remains attractive for the treatment of various diseases. Glabridin, a major flavonoid of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was: 1) to determine the possible protective role of glabridin against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the intestine; 2) to evaluate the in vitrocontractile responses of ileum smooth muscles to acetylcholine after an intestinal I/R; and 3) to explain the underlying molecular mechanism of its effect. Rats were assigned to groups of six rats each; 1) I/R, 2) gla10, 3) gla20, 4) gla40, 5) N5-[imino(nitroamino)methyl]-L-ornithine, methyl ester monohydrochloride (L-NAME)+gla40, and 6) Sham group. The healing effect of glabridin was abolished by L-NAME. Glabridin did not cause contractility of the smooth muscles to acetylcholine-induced contractile responses in intestinal I/R. Yet, it increased to spontaneous basal activity.


A pesar del desarrollo de la medicina moderna, la medicina alternativa, sin perder su vigencia, sigue siendo atractiva para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades. Glabradina, el flavonoide mayoritario de Glycyrrhiza glabra, es conocido por su actividad antioxidante y antiinflamatoria. Los propósitos de este estudio fueron: 1) Determinar el posible rol protector de glabradina ante daños intestinales por isquemia/reperfusion (I/R) 2) Evaluar in vitrolas respuestas de contracción de los músculos lisos del ileum ante acetilcolina después de I/R intestinal; y 3) Explicar el mecanismo molecular subyacente de este efecto. Se asignaron grupos de seis ratas: 1) I/R, 2) gla10, 3) gla20, 4) gla40, 5) N5-[imino(nitroamino)metil]-L-ornithina, metil ester monohidrochloruro (L-NAME)+gla40, y 6) Grupo testigo. El efecto curativo de glabridina fue abolido por L-NAME. Glabridina no causó contracción en el músculo liso como respuesta acetilcolina-inducida I/R. Además, incrementa la actividad basal expontánea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Phenols/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Glycyrrhiza , Isoflavones/administration & dosage , Phenols/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Cyclic AMP/analysis , Cyclic GMP/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Ileum/drug effects , Ileum/chemistry , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3857-3862, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828375

ABSTRACT

Licorice is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. In clinic, raw licorice and honey-fried licorice are used in medicines, with the main effects in clearing away heat and detoxifying, moistening lungs and removing phlegm. Honey-fried licorice has effects in nourishing the spleen and stomach and replenishing Qi and pulse. Because traditional Chinese medicine exerts the effects through multiple components and multiple targets, the index components used in the quality evaluation of licorice are often difficult to reflect their real quality. In addition, most of studies for the quality standards have shown that honey-fried licorice are the same as licorice, with a lack of quality evaluation standards that can demonstrate their processing characteristics. The quality of medicine is directly related to its clinical efficacy, so it is necessary to establish a more effective quality control method. Licorice has a beany smell, which is one of the main quality identification characteristics. In this study, by taking advantage of the odor characteristics, a headspace-gas chromatography-ion migration mass spectrometry technology was used to establish a quality evaluation method. A total of 76 volatile components were identified. Through the dynamic principal component analysis, 7 kinds of volatile substances in raw licorice and 13 kinds of volatile substances in honey-fried licorice were statistically obtained, and could be taken as index components for the quality evaluation of raw and honey-fried licorice, respectively. This study could help realize the combination and unification of modern detection and traditional quality evaluation methods, and make a more realistic evaluation for the quality of licorice.


Subject(s)
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Glycyrrhiza , Honey , Ion Mobility Spectrometry , Volatile Organic Compounds
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5209-5218, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878807

ABSTRACT

Licorice has long been regarded as one of the most popular herbs, with a very wide clinical application range. Whether being used alone or as an ingredient in prescription, it has an important role which cannot be ignored. However, the efficacy and chemical constituents of licorice will change after honey-processing. Therefore, it is necessary to find quality markers before and after honey-processing to lay the foundation for a comprehensive evaluation of the differences between raw and processed licorice pieces. HPLC-DAD was employed to establish fingerprints of raw and processed licorice. Multivariate statistical analysis methods including principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis(OPLS-DA) were applied to screen out the differential components before and after processing of licorice. Based on network pharmacology, the targets and pathways corresponding to the differential components were analyzed with databases such as Swiss Target Prediction and Metascape, and the "component-target-pathway" diagram was constructed with Cytoscape 3.6.0 software to predict the potential quality markers. A total of 17 common peaks were successfully identified in the established fingerprint, and seven differential components were selected as potential quality markers(licoricesaponin G2, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritigenin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritin apioside and isoliquiritigenin). The HPLC fingerprint method proposed in this study was efficient and feasible. The above seven differential chemical components screened out as potential quality markers of licorice can help to improve and promote the overall quality. These researches offer more sufficient theoretical basis for scientific application of licorice and its corresponding products.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhiza , Glycyrrhizic Acid/analysis , Honey/analysis
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5193-5199, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878805

ABSTRACT

Based on the previous study of compound liquorice microemulsion, this paper aims to prepare the compound liquorice microemulsion gel and investigate its pharmacodynamics of chronic eczema. The type, dosage and adding method of gel matrix, and formula dosage of humectant were optimized by single factor method to obtain the formula and preparation technique of the gel. With glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhetin and oxymatrine used as evaluation indexes, the Franz diffusion cell method was adopted to monitor the in vitro release profile of the gel. Eczema model of delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice was chosen to detect the ear swelling rate, degree of inflammatory cell infiltration of ear pieces, and pathological changes of ear pieces, so as to investigate the therapeutic effect of the microemulsion gel. The preparation process of the compound liquorice microemulsion gel was stable. The release of glycyrrhizin and oxymatrine was most consistent with the Hixcon-Crowell kinetic model, while the release of glycyrrhizic acid was most consistent with the Ritger-Peppas kinetic model. The pharmacodynamics studies proved that compound liquorice microemulsion gel could significantly reduce the ear swelling rate in mice, with good anti-inflammatory effect as well as the ability to resist the pathological changes of chronic eczema and inhibit the infiltration of dermal inflammatory cells. Therefore, the preparation process of compound liquorice microemulsion gel is feasible, with stable drug release and a significant therapeutic effect on chronic eczema.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Administration, Cutaneous , Drug Liberation , Emulsions , Gels , Glycyrrhiza , Skin Absorption
16.
West Indian med. j ; 68(2): 115-120, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341856

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The antibacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) roots was evaluated against several food-borne bacterial pathogens. Methods: The in vitro anti-bacterial activity was evaluated by determining the zone diameter of inhibition (ZDI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using the aqueous. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Results: Therefore, significant increase in inhibitory feature was observed because of increase in extracts concentration. In addition, the aqueous extract was more effective than the others; while, among the tested bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most sensitive and the most resistant, respectively. Conclusion: Extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots can potentially be used in the pharmaceutical and food industries as preservatives or antimicrobial agents.


RESUMEN Objetivo: La actividad antibacteriana del extracto de raíces de Glycyrrhiza glabra (regaliz) fue evaluada frente a varias bacterias patógenas trasmitidas por los alimentos. Métodos: La actividad antimicrobiana se evalúa determinando el diámetro de la zona de inhibición (DZI), y la concentración bactericida mínima (CBM). Extractos acuosos, etanólicos y metanólicos de la raíz de Glycyrrhiza glabra fueron analizados en su actividad antibacteriana in vitro. Resultados: Por lo tanto, se observó un aumento significativo en la característica inhibitoria debido al aumento en la concentración de extractos. Además, el extracto acuoso fue más eficaz que los otros, en tanto que, entre las bacterias probadas, Staphylococcus aureus y Pseudomonas aeruginosa fueron las más sensibles y las más resistentes, respectivamente. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de raíz de Glycyrrhiza glabra tienen un uso potencial en la industria farmacéutica y alimentaria, y pueden ser útiles como conservantes o agentes antimicrobianos.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Glycyrrhiza/chemistry , Phytotherapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects
17.
Translational and Clinical Pharmacology ; : 69-72, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761932

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old woman presented with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia secondary to hypokalemia, which necessitated dozens of DC cardioversions. She was not taking any other medication and denied any vomiting or diarrhea. Further investigation for hypokalemia suggested a hypermineralocorticoid state. Repeated inquiry prompted the patient to admit to taking herbal medicine containing licorice. She was treated with magnesium sulfate, potassium infusion, and intravenous lidocaine. A potassium-sparing diuretic was also prescribed. On the seventh day, the patient was discharged from the hospital with advice to discontinue taking herbal medicines containing licorice. She has been followed up at our outpatient clinic without further symptoms for 3 years. This case highlights the potential for cardiovascular complications associated with consumption of herbal medicines such as licorice. Clinicians should be aware that patients presenting to the emergency department with ventricular arrhythmia and uncertain hypokalemia should be questioned about licorice intake. Obtaining a detailed history from patients admitted to the hospital for electrical storm is essential.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Diarrhea , Electric Countershock , Emergency Service, Hospital , Glycyrrhiza , Herbal Medicine , Hypokalemia , Lidocaine , Magnesium Sulfate , Potassium , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Vomiting
18.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 324-332, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762230

ABSTRACT

Natural medicinal systems such as Ayurveda and folk medicine has remedies for wound management. However, the exact cellular and extracellular mechanisms involved in the healing process and its influence on keratinocytes is less discussed. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of certain natural wound healing medicines on the biology of the keratinocytes/HaCaT cells. Test materials such as honey (H), ghee (G), aqueous extracts of roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG) and leaves of Nerium indicum (NI) were considered. The HaCaT cells were treated with the test materials singly and in combinations (H+G, all combined [Tot]) for a specific period (24, 48, and 72 hours). The cells were then subjected to cytotoxicity/proliferation and migration/scratch assays. All the test materials, except NI, were non-cytotoxic and showed increased cell proliferation at variable concentrations. Significant observations were made in the groups treated with honey (100 µg/ml at 48 hours, P<0.05; 1,000 µg/ml at 72 hours, P<0.05), GG (all concentrations at 48 hours, P<0.05; 750 µg/ml at 72 hours, P<0.05), H+G (250 µg/ml at 24 hours, P<0.001; 500 µg/ml at 48 and 72 hours, P<0.05), and Tot (50 µg/ml at 24, 48 and 72 hours, P<0.01). In the in-vitro wound healing assay, all the treated groups showed significant migration and narrowing of the scratch area by 24 and 48 hours (P<0.001) compared to control. The results obtained from the present study signifies the positive influence of these natural wound healing compounds on keratinocytes/HaCaT cells.


Subject(s)
Biology , Cell Proliferation , Ghee , Glycyrrhiza , Honey , Keratinocytes , Medicine, Traditional , Nerium , Wound Healing , Wounds and Injuries
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3435-3440, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773699

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Tripterygium wilfordii processed with licorice on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis( UC) mice and its regulation on intestinal immune system. In this study,a DSS-induced animal model of UC mice was established,with mesalazine( Mes) as a positive drug. The pharmacodynamic effects of low( PT1) and high( PT2)doses of T. wilfordii processed with licorice were analyzed by disease activity index( DAI),colon length and colon histopathological score in mice. By detecting the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines in the serum of mice,immunohistochemical CD3+T and Fox P3+Treg staining in the colon of mice,the anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects of T. wilfordii processed with licorice on UC mice were analyzed. The hepatotoxicity of each dose of T. wilfordii processed with licorice was also analyzed by HE staining in liver tissue of mice and ALT and AST levels in serum. The results showed that the colitis symptoms of the mice in the PT1 group and the PT2 group were alleviated,the inflammatory cell infiltration was reduced. And the expression of inflammatory factors was decreased,the difference was statistically significant compared with the model group( P<0. 05). The HE staining and ALT and AST levels in the high dose group and low dose group were not significantly different from those in the normal group. The results showed that T. wilfordii processed with licorice has the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects on UC mice,and the dose did not show significant hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Colitis, Ulcerative , Drug Therapy , Dextran Sulfate , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Glycyrrhiza , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Tripterygium , Chemistry
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3454-3459, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773696

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to explore the dose-toxicity-effect relationship of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f( TW) processed by liquorice,to establish the safe and effective therapeutic window,and further to provide scientific reference for the clinical use of TW. The toxicity and anti-inflammatory effect of six doses of raw TW and TW processed by liquorice( 0. 78,1. 56,3. 12,6. 24,12. 48,15. 60 g·kg-1) in 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene( DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis( ACD) model were mainly examined by histopathology and serum biochemistry. The liver biochemical parameters including ALT and AST,related inflammatory factors including TNF-α and IL-2,together with liver index,kidney index and the other pharmacodynamic indicators,were examined and compared. The results showed that compared with the control group,the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-2 of the model group were significantly increased( P<0. 01),which proved that the ACD model was successful. The comprehensive analysis of liver biochemical indexes,serum inflammatory factors and the other indexes showed that the safe and effective therapeutic window of TW processed by liquorice was 3. 12-12. 48 g·kg-1. The results showed the therapeutic window of TW processed by liquorice was much broader than that of raw TW. And it could provide scientific reference for the clinical rational use of TW.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines , Blood , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Glycyrrhiza , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Tripterygium , Chemistry
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