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1.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(4): 317-322, Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280043

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fetal thyroid complications in pregnancy are uncommon, and are commonly related to the passage of substances through the placenta. The excessive iodine intake during the pregnancy is a well-known mechanism of fetal thyroid enlargement or goiter, and invasive procedures have been proposed for the treatment of fetal thyroid pathologies. In the present report, we demonstrate two cases from different centers of prenatal diagnosis of fetal thyroid enlargement and/or goiter in three fetuses (one pair of twins, wherein both fetuses were affected, and one singleton pregnancy). The anamnesis revealed the ingestion of iodine by the patients, prescribed from inadequate vitamin supplementation. In both cases, the cessation of iodine supplement intake resulted in a marked reduction of the volume of the fetal thyroid glands, demonstrating that conservative treatmentmay be an option in those cases. Also, clinicians must be aware that patients may be exposed to harmful dosages or substances during pregnancy.


Resumo As complicações fetais da tireoide na gravidez são incomuns e são comumente relacionadas à passagem de substâncias pela placenta. A ingestão excessiva de iodo durante a gravidez é um mecanismo bem conhecido de aumento da tireoide ou bócio fetal, e procedimentos invasivos foram propostos para o tratamento de patologias da tireoide fetal. No presente relato de caso, demonstramos dois casos de diferentes centros de diagnóstico pré-natal de aumento da tireoide fetal e/ou bócio em três fetos (um par de gêmeos, em que ambos os fetos foram afetados, e uma gravidez única). A anamnese revelou a ingestão de iodo pelos pacientes prescrita por suplementação inadequada de vitaminas. Nos dois casos, a interrupção da ingestão de suplemento de iodo resultou em uma redução acentuada do volume das glândulas tireoides fetais, demonstrando que o tratamento conservador pode ser uma opção nestes casos. Além disso, os médicos devem estar cientes de que as pacientes podem ser expostas a doses ou substâncias nocivas durante a gravidez.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Prenatal Care/methods , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Goiter/etiology , Iodine/adverse effects , Self Care/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Diseases in Twins/etiology , Diseases in Twins/diagnostic imaging , Fetal Diseases/etiology , Fetal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Goiter/diagnostic imaging , Iodine/administration & dosage
2.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 72(1): 12-23, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251609

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: evaluar la prevalencia de yodo deficiencia y de bocio en mujeres indígenas gestantes de cinco áreas no metropolitanas en Colombia. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal descriptivo. Se incluyeron mujeres embarazadas de cualquier edad gestacional sin condiciones patológicas del embarazo, atendidas en los centros de salud comunitarios o en sus residencias. Se excluyeron aquellas con comorbilidades presentes al momento del embarazo y también a quienes recibían suplementos con yodo. Muestreo aleatorio simple. Se midieron las características sociodemográficas y obstétricas, la concentración de yodo en orina y la presencia de bocio de acuerdo a la metodología de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo. Resultados: 189 gestantes indígenas fueron candidatas a ingresar al estudio, de las cuales 2 no aceptaron participar y 62 tenían criterios de exclusión, finalmente se analizaron 125. La concentración urinaria de yodo tuvo una mediana de 184,4 µg/L (min-max: 12,0-390,0). Un total de 42 gestantes (33,6%) tenían yodo deficiencia (< 100 µg/L) y se evidenció bocio (grado 1-2) en 43 (34,4%). No se identificó bocio grados 3 o 4. Conclusiones: embarazadas indígenas residentes en áreas no metropolitanas evidenciaron alta prevalencia de bocio y yodo deficiencia. Se requiere evaluar los efectos materno-perinatales e implementar intervenciones nutricionales.


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the prevalence of goiter and iodine deficiency in indigenous pregnant women coming from five non-metropolitan areas in Colombia. Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional cohort study that included pregnant women of any gestational age with no pregnancy-related conditions, seen in community health centers or in their homes. Patients with comorbidities at the time of pregnancy and those who were receiving iodine supplementation were excluded. Simple random sampling was used. The sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics, urinary iodine concentration and the presence of goiter were measured in accordance with the World Health Organization methodology. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Of 189 indigenous pregnant women who were candidates to enter the study, 2 declined participation, and 62 had exclusion criteria, and 125 were included in the final analysis. The mean urinary iodine concentration was 184.4 µg/L (min-max: 12.0-390.0). A total of 42 women (33.6%) had iodine deficiency (< 100 µg/L), and goiter (grade 1-2) was found in 43 (34.4%). No grade 3 or 4 goiter was identified. Conclusions: A high prevalence of goiter and iodine deficiency was found in indigenous pregnant women living in non-metropolitan areas. There is a need to assess maternal and perinatal effects and to implement nutritional interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Iodine Deficiency , Prevalence , Pregnant Women , Goiter , Indigenous Peoples
3.
Rev. venez. oncol ; 33(1): 33-39, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147475

ABSTRACT

La hemiagenesia tiroidea representa un trastorno congénito caracterizado por la ausencia de desarrollo de uno de los lóbulos tiroideos, asociado o no a ausencia del istmo. Es más frecuente en las mujeres y por lo general se presenta como falta del lóbulo izquierdo, con hipertrofia compensatoria del lóbulo contralateral. Su diagnóstico es generalmente incidental o por manifestaciones del lóbulo tiroideo presente. Se hizo una revisión bibliografía, en donde no se encontraron casos reportados en Venezuela de hemiagenesia o agenesia tiroidea, describiéndose el siguiente. Presentamos a una paciente de 50 años de edad, conocida con hipotiroidismo desde los 31 años, negando cualquier cirugía en el área de cabeza y cuello. Desde febrero 2019 presentó aumento progresivo de volumen en región anterior de cuello. Al examen físico se observó aumento de volumen en región anterior derecha del cuello, palpándose lóbulo tiroideo derecho aumentado de tamaño, de aspecto nodular, no doloroso. En ecosonograma tiroideo se concluyó como bocio tiroideo derecho de aspecto multinodular, con ausencia del lóbulo izquierdo. Perfil tiroideo dentro de límites normales. Se lleva a mesa operatoria corroborándose ausencia del lóbulo izquierdo y presentado en la biopsia definitiva hiperplasia nodular en el lóbulo derecho. Se discute su frecuencia, la forma de presentación y se hace revisión de la literatura(AU)


Thyroid hemiagenesis represents a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of development of one of thyroid lobes, associated or not with absence of isthmus. It is more frequent in women and generally presents as absence of the left lobe, with compensatory hypertrophy of the contralateral lobe. Its diagnosis is generally incidental or by manifestations of the present thyroid lobe. A bibliography review was made, where no cases reported in Venezuela of hemiagenesis or thyroid agenesis were found, describing the following. We present a 50-year-old patient, known with hypothyroidism since she was 31, denying any surgery in the head and neck area. Since February 2019, presented a progressive increase in volume in the anterior neck region. On physical examination, an increase in volume was observed in right anterior region of the neck, palpating an enlarged right thyroid lobe, with a nodular appearance and not painful. In a thyroid echo-sonogram, it was concluded as a right thyroid goiter with a multinodular appearance, with the absence of the left lobe. Thyroid profile within normal limits. It is taken to the operating table, confirming the absence of the left lobe and presented in the definitive biopsy nodular hyperplasia in the right lobe. Its frequency, form of presentation, and literature review are discussed(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Goiter , Hypothyroidism/surgery , Thyroid Diseases , Triiodothyronine , Ultrasonography
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): S8-S16, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147356

ABSTRACT

El hipotiroidismo es la disfunción tiroidea más frecuente, resultante de una disminución de la actividad biológica de las hormonas tiroideas en los tejidos. El objetivo es realizar una revisión y actualización del hipotiroidismo adquirido en la infancia y adolescencia con énfasis en el hipotiroidismo primario. La causa más común es la tiroiditis de Hashimoto o tiroiditis linfocitaria crónica. La característica distintiva es el impacto profundo en el crecimiento esquelético, maduración y desarrollo puberal, con potencial repercusión en la talla adulta. Los signos y síntomas del hipotiroidismo adquirido son similares a los adultos y, en general, no se asocia con compromiso del desarrollo neuromadurativo.La presunción clínica se confirma con niveles elevados de tirotrofina y disminuidos de tiroxina libre. Las metas del tratamiento incluyen lograr adecuado crecimiento, maduración sexual, desarrollo neuromadurativo y cognitivo óptimo. En la mayoría de los pacientes, el tratamiento de reemplazo revierte los signos y síntomas.


Hypothyroidism is the most frequent thyroid dysfunction. It is the consequence of a decrease in the biological activity of thyroid hormones in target tissues. The aim of this paper is to review and update acquired hypothyroidism in childhood and adolescence with emphasis on primary hypothyroidism due to its greater frequency. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is the most common cause of primary acquired hypothyroidism. The distinctive feature is the profound impact on skeletal growth, maturation, and pubertal development, with potential implications on adult height. Signs and symptoms of acquired hypothyroidism are similar to those reported in adults and are generally not associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. Biochemi confirmation of primary hypothyroidism requires the finding of elevated thyrophine and decreased free thyroxine levels. Treatment goals are to achieve normal growth and maturation as well as cognitive development. In most of the patients, replacement treatment reverses symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism and may decrease goiter size.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/therapy , Hashimoto Disease , Goiter , Hypothyroidism/etiology
5.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1171-1174, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921028

ABSTRACT

Through analyzing the indication distribution of the different acupoints located at the upper limbs recorded in


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Arm , Goiter , Humans , Meridians , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node
6.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(3): e254, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156400

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los valores de tirotropina (TSH) pueden modificarse marcadamente durante el embarazo, en relación con diversos factores clínicos y bioquímicos. Objetivo: Identificar los factores clínicos y bioquímicos asociados con la tirotropina en embarazadas aparentemente sanas. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, con 247 gestantes aparentemente sanas del municipio Plaza de la Revolución., en el periodo comprendido de septiembre de 2015 a enero de 2019. Variables analizadas: edad materna y gestacional, trimestre del embarazo, color de la piel, paridad, hábito de fumar, antecedentes familiares de enfermedad tiroidea (APF), consumo de suplementos con yodo, índice de masa corporal (IMC), presencia de bocio al examen físico, TSH, tiroxina total (T4t) y libre (T4l), triyodotironina total (T3t) y libre (T3l), gonadotropina coriónica (hCG), anticuerpos contra la peroxidasa tiroidea (AcTPO) y la tiroglobulina (AcTg) y yoduria. Resultados: La TSH (1,66 ± 0,91mUI/L) tuvo una asociación negativa con la edad materna (r = -0,17; p = 0,008), la paridad (nulíparas 1,80 ± 0,90 mUI/L, multíparas 1,45 ± 0,89 mUI/L; p = 0,003), los APF (positivos 1,56 ± 0,91 mUI/L, negativos 1,81 ± 0,89 mUI/L; p = 0,03), la T4t (r = -0,15; p = 0,02), la T4l (r = -0,23; p = 0,000) y la hCG (r = -0,52; p = 0,001). Mostraron una relación directa la edad gestacional (r = 0,25; p = 0,000) y el uso de suplementos yodados (consumo 1,96 ± 0,72mUI/L, no consumo 1,62 ± 0,93 mUI/L; p = 0,03). Conclusiones: La tirotropina presenta una relación inversa con la edad materna, la paridad, los antecedentes familiares de enfermedad tiroidea, la T4 total y libre, y la gonadotropina coriónica, y una relación directa con la edad gestacional y el consumo de suplementos con yodo(AU)


Introduction: Thyrotropin (TSH) values can be sharply modified during pregnancy, in relation to various clinical and biochemical factors. Objective: Identify clinical and biochemical factors associated with thyrotropin in seemingly healthy pregnant women. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study with 247 seemingly healthy pregnant women from Plaza de la Revolution municipality in the period from September 2015 to January 2019. Variables analyzed: maternal and gestational age, trimester of pregnancy, skin color, pregnancies, smoking habit, family history of thyroid disease (APF), consumption of iodine supplements, body mass index (BMI), presence of goiter to physical examination, TSH, total and free (T4l) thyroxine (T4t), total (T3t) and free (T3l) triiodothyronine, chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (AcTPO) and thyroglobulin (AcTg) and urinary iodine. Results: TSH (1.66 ± 0.91mUI/L) had a negative association with maternal age (r = -0.17; p x 0.008), pregnancy (nulliparas 1.80 ± 0.90 mUI/L, 1.45 ± 0.89 mUI/L; p x 0.003), APF (positive 1.56 ± 0.91 mUI/L, negative 1.81 ± 0.89 mUI/L; p x 0.03), the T4t (r = -0.15; p s 0.02), the T4l (r = -0.23; p x 0.000) and the hCG (r = -0.52; p x 0.001). They showed a direct relationship with gestational age (r x 0.25; p x 0.000) and the use of iodine supplements (consumption 1.96 ± 0.72mUI/L, not consumption 1.62 ± 0.93 mUI/L; p x 0.03). Conclusions: Thyrotropin has an inverse relationship with maternal age, pregnancies, family history of thyroid disease, total and free T4, and chorionic gonadotropin, and a direct relationship with gestational age and consumption of iodine supplements(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Thyroid Diseases/etiology , Thyrotropin/administration & dosage , Body Mass Index , Gestational Age , Goiter/etiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Maternal Age , Observational Studies as Topic
7.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(2): e498, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126592

ABSTRACT

Se estudió una paciente de 33 años de edad con antecedentes patológicos de Bocio tiroideo difuso desde hace 8 años, que acude al cuerpo de guardia por presentar falta de aire, fiebre de 39-40 °C, dolor de garganta y palpitaciones hace alrededor de tres días. Al examen físico se le constató exoftalmos, mucosas hipocoloreadas y faringe purulenta y punteada de color blanquecina, artralgia y taquicardia. Referente a los exámenes complementarios presentó anemia, leucopenia y pancitopenia luego de haber consumido propiltiouracilo (50mg) por un período prolongado; por lo que se concluye como agranulocitosis como consecuencia de una reacción adversa al propiltiouracilo. Luego de ser tratada la paciente se recupera de su gravedad con el uso de factores estimulantes de colonias de granulocitos(AU)


A female 33-year-old patient with an 8-year history of diffuse thyroid goiter presents at the emergency service with shortness of breath, a 39-40ºC fever, a sore throat and palpitation of 3 days' evolution. Physical examination revealed exophthalmos, hypopigmented mucosas, a purulent pharynx dotted with whitish spots, arthralgia and tachycardia. Complementary tests found anemia, leukopenia and pancytopenia upon consumption of propylthiouracil (50 mg) for a long period. The diagnosis is agranulocytosis resulting from an adverse reaction to propylthiouracil. After being treated the patient recovered from her severe status with the use of granulocyte colony stimulating factors(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Propylthiouracil/adverse effects , Agranulocytosis/complications , Goiter
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1): 11-19, feb. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002582

ABSTRACT

El hipotiroidismo subclínico (HS), elevación de tirotrofina con hormonas tiroideas normales, junto al bocio, aumentó la frecuencia en las últimas décadas. Con el objetivo de relacionar la prevalencia de bocio y HS con el consumo de agua subterránea como factor de riesgo etiológico poblacional, se analizaron 879 historias clínicas de un centro médico de Glew, en el conurbano bonaerense Sur. Se estudió la población según edad (20-60 y 12-19 años) y tipo de agua consumida (potabilizada o napa subterránea). El agua subterránea fue consumida por el 70.5% del grupo de 20 a 60 años (n = 559, 79.9% mujeres) y por el 66.3% del grupo de 12 a 19 años (n = 57, 81.4% mujeres). En el grupo de 20 a 60 años la prevalencia de HS en consumidores de agua potabilizada y subterránea fue del 1% y 57.8% (p < 0.0001) y la de bocio de 3.8% y 38.9% (p < 0.0001), respectivamente; con un riesgo atribuible al agua subterránea de 57% para HS y 35% para bocio. En el grupo de 12 a 19 años, la prevalencia de HS fue 6.9% y 52.6% (p < 0.0001) y de bocio 13.8% y 77.2% para los grupos de agua potabilizada y subterránea, (p < 0.0001) respectivamente; con un riesgo atribuible al agua subterránea de 46% para HS y 61% para bocio. El análisis fisicoquímico mostró presencia de nitratos (entre 24 y 83 mg/l) en aguas de pozos y ausencia en agua potable. La prevalencia aumentada de HS y bocio podrían deberse a la acción disruptora tiroidea de los nitratos.


Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH), elevation of the level of thyrotrophin with normal thyroid hormones, along with goiter (glandular size > 25g), increased in recent decades. In order to relate the prevalence of goiter and SH with the consumption of groundwater, as a population etiological risk factor, we analyzed 879 clinical histories from a medical center in the city of Glew in the South Buenos Aires suburbs. The population was studied according to age (20 to 60 and 12 to 19 years) and type of water consumed (potable water or groundwater). Groundwater was consumed by 70.5% of the group from 20 to 60 years old (n = 559, 79.9% women) and by 66.3% of the group from 12 to 19 years old (n = 57, 81.4% women In the group of 20 to 60 years, the prevalence of SH in potable water and groundwater users was 1% and 57.8% (p < 0.0001) and the goiter rate of 3.8% and 38.9% (p < 0.0001) respectively; with an attributable risk to groundwater of 57% for HS, and 35% for goiter In the group of 12 to 19 years, the prevalence of SH was 6.9% and 52.6% (p < 0.0001) and goiter 13.8% and 77.2% for the water and groundwater groups (p>0.0001) respectively, with an attributable risk of 46% for HS y 61% for goiter. The physicochemical analysis showed the presence of nitrates in the range of 24 to 83 mg/l in groundwater and absence in potable water. The increased prevalence of HS and goiter could be due to the thyroid disrupting action of nitrates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Drinking Water/chemistry , Groundwater/chemistry , Waterborne Diseases/etiology , Goiter/etiology , Hypothyroidism/etiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Water Quality , Thyrotropin/blood , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Waterborne Diseases/epidemiology , Goiter/epidemiology , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Nitrates/analysis
9.
Clin. biomed. res ; 39(3): 221-224, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053046

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A comida tem um papel proeminente na obtenção do iodo e uma das melhores estratégias é a iodização do sal. No Brasil, a Anvisa reduziu as doses de iodo no sal de cozinha desde 2014. Portanto, é importante avaliar a concentração urinária de iodo (CIU) em nossa população. Com base no exposto, propõe-se avaliar a CIU das gestantes, associando-a à frequência de bócio materno, aborto e peso neonatal. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo observacional com um corte transversal composto por 37 pacientes atendidos no Serviço de Obstetrícia da Faculdade de Medicina de Barbacena e uma clínica particular em Juiz de Fora. A CIU foi verificada em 24 horas de urina. Resultados: A média de CIU foi de 213,6 µg/l de urina, com dose mínima de 29 µg/l e máxima de 437 µg/l. A glândula tireoide foi avaliada durante o exame clínico prénatal (palpação da glândula) e em 24 pacientes (38,1%) foi considerada normal. A palpação da glândula tireoide foi associada à CIU. Houve maior iodúria em gestantes com glândula não palpável (p = 0,004; T = 14,13). Não houve associação entre a CIU e história de aborto ou peso fetal ao nascimento (p > 0,05). Conclusões: Apesar de ser uma amostra pequena da população, identificamos pacientes expostas ao déficit. No entanto, a CIU não parece estar associada ao peso do recém-nascido ou a abortos, mas à dosagem de TSH e ao tamanho da glândula tireoide. Assim, a palpação da glândula tireoide poderia ser usada como uma medida indireta do CIU. (AU)


Introduction: Food has a prominent role in providing iodine and one of the best strategies is salt iodization. The Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency has reduced iodine content in table salt since 2014. Therefore, there is a need for evaluating urinary iodine concentration in our population, especially after the modified recommendations. Based on the above, we sought to assess urinary iodine concentration in pregnant women, associating it with frequency of maternal goiter, abortion and neonatal weight. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study included 37 patients seen at the Obstetrics Service of Barbacena Medical School and a private clinic in Juiz de Fora, both in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Iodine concentration was determined in 24- hour urine through chromatography. Results: The mean 24-hour urine iodine was 213.6 µg/l, with minimum and maximum measures of 29 µg/l and 437 µg/l, respectively. The thyroid gland was assessed by prenatal clinical examination (palpation of the gland). In 24 patients (38.1%) it was considered normal. Palpation of the thyroid gland was associated with 24-hour urine iodine concentration, although a higher iodine concentration was identified in pregnant women with non-palpable gland (p = 0.004; T = 14.13). There was no association between 24-hour urine iodine concentration and history of abortion or birth weight (p > 0.05). Conclusions: This study, although based on a small sample of the population, was important to identify that even in areas where iodine is considered sufficient there may be patients exposed to iodine deficit. However, urinary iodine concentration does not appear to be associated with birth weight or abortion frequency but is associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level and thyroid gland size, suggesting that clinical evaluation of the thyroid gland is an important element for predicting urinary iodine concentration. Thus, palpation of the thyroid gland could be used as an indirect measure of urinary iodine concentration. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Birth Weight , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Goiter/epidemiology , Iodine/deficiency , Iodine/urine , Palpation , Pregnancy Complications/urine , Prenatal Care , Spectrophotometry , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 30(1): 5098-5101, 2019. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1008294

ABSTRACT

El bocio congénito es una patología infrecuente, que se genera por alteración de la función tiroidea fetal de causa endógena o exógena: disfunción tiroidea materna, déficit de aporte de yodo en la dieta o secundario a la toma de medicación. La repercusión en la maduración del feto, la compresión de estructuras adyacentes debido al aumento de tamaño, lo cual puede ser un factor de riesgo de obstrucción de la vía aérea y de lesiones hipóxico-isquémicas, hacen que el diagnóstico y tratamiento de esta patología sea de vital importancia. Habitualmente, se diagnostica por ecografía en el segundo o tercer trimestre de embarazo, pero la resonancia magnética (RM) se ha convertido en una técnica diagnóstica complementaria e importante ante un eventual tratamiento intraparto


Congenital goiter is an uncommon condition caused by altered fetal thyroid function of endogenous or exogenous cause (maternal thyroid dysfunction, iodine deficiency in the diet or secondary to taking medication). The impact on the mature development of the fetus, as well as the compression of adjacent structures due to increased size, which may be a risk factor for airway obstruction and hypoxic-ischemic lesions, make the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology of vital importance. It is usually diagnosed by ultrasound in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, but magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a complementary and important diagnostic technique in the event of an intrapartum treatment procedure


Subject(s)
Humans , Goiter , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ultrasonography
11.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258811

ABSTRACT

Background:Thyroid disorders constitute the second most common endocrine disordersworldwide, butthey are less commonly researched in thisenvironmentdue to low cost-effectiveness.Objective:Tostudy thespectrumofthyroid disordersat the EndocrinologyClinic ofa tertiary health facility in Sagamu, South-west, Nigeria,over two years.Method:Thisretrospectivestudywas conducted onallnewclinic attendees with thyroid disordersbetweenJanuary 2016 andDecember 2017.The data retrieved included clinicaldata,results of thyroid function tests and thyroid ultrasonographic scan.The patients weregroupedclinically into euthyroid, hypothyroid and thyrotoxicstates.Results:A total of 93 thyroid caseswereseen, and this constituted13.64% ofallnewendocrine consultations (682 patients).Themean age(±SD; range)of the patients was 37.6 (13.6; 15-78)years.Majority of the patients were females witha female-to-maleratio of 4.5:1.Out of these,77.4% hadGoitrous enlargement.Thyrotoxicosis wasthe most commonform of thyroid dysfunction,(72; 77.40%), mainly duetohyperthyroidism from Graves'disease(50; 69.44%),followed by toxic multinodular goitre (12; 16.67%),toxic solitary nodular goiter (5; 6.94%) andothers (5; 6.95 %).Hypothyroidism constituted 10.75%while euthyroid goitre constituted 11.85% of all thyroid cases.Conclusion:Auto-immune thyroiddisease remains the most common thyroid disorder amongendocrineclinicattendees. There isa needfor furtherstudies to elucidatethe likely aetiologies


Subject(s)
Goiter , Hypothyroidism , Nigeria , Patients , Thyroid Diseases , Thyrotoxicosis
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762677

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thyroid reoperations are surgically challenging because of significant anatomical variance. Visual and functional identification of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) were studied in 2 groups of patients who underwent primary and redo thyroid surgery. METHODS: This study was conducted on 200 patients: 100 patients with redo and 100 patients with primary thyroid surgery. In addition to visual identification, nerve branches were functionally identified by intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM). Visual, functional, and total identification rates of the EBSLN in both primary and redo surgery were determined and compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: We attempted to identify 138 and 170 EBSLNs at risk in redo and primary surgery, respectively. Visual identification rates were 65.3% and 30.4% (P < 0.001) in primary and redo surgery groups, respectively. In total, 164 (96.5%) and 97 EBSLNs (70.3%) were identified in primary and redo surgery, respectively (P < 0.001), including the use of IONM. In primary surgery group, 53 nonvisualized EBSLNs of 164 identified nerves (32.3%) were determined by IONM alone. In redo surgery group, 55 of 97 identified nerves (56.7%) were determined by IONM alone (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Both visual and total identification rates of the EBSLN are significantly decreased in reoperative thyroidectomy. IONM increases the total identification rate of the EBSLN in primary and redo thyroid surgery. Electrophysiological monitoring makes a substantial contribution to the identification of the EBSLN both in primary and especially in redo thyroid surgery.


Subject(s)
Goiter , Humans , Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring , Laryngeal Nerves , Recurrence , Thyroid Gland , Thyroidectomy
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762599

ABSTRACT

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a notable and potentially lethal complication of thyrotoxicosis, and Graves' disease is the most common cause of TPP. TPP is commonly reported in Asian males between 20–40 years of age, but it is rare in children and adolescents. We report 2 Korean adolescents (a 16-year-old male and a 14-year-old female) with episodes of TPP who were previously diagnosed with Graves' disease. These 2 patients presented with lower leg weakness in the morning after waking up. They were diagnosed with TPP-associated with thyrotoxicosis due to Graves' disease. After they were initially treated with potassium chloride and antithyroid drugs, muscle paralysis improved and an euthyroid state without muscle paralytic events was maintained during follow-up. Therefore, clinicians should consider TPP when patients have sudden paralysis and thyrotoxic symptoms such as goiter, tachycardia, and hypertension.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antithyroid Agents , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Child , Follow-Up Studies , Goiter , Graves Disease , Humans , Hypertension , Hypokalemia , Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis , Leg , Male , Paralysis , Potassium Chloride , Tachycardia , Thyrotoxicosis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Before iodination of Swedish table salt in 1936, iodine deficiency resulting in goitre and hypothyroidism was common. Sweden has become iodine sufficient, as shown in a national survey in 2007, proving its iodination fortification programme effective for the general population. The objective of this study was to collect drinking water from water treatment plants nationally and test if water iodine concentration (WIC) correlated to urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of school-aged children in a national survey 2007 to former goitre frequency in 1929 and to thyroid volume data in 2007.@*METHODS@#In 2012, 166 treatment plants, located in 57% (166 of 290) of all Swedish municipalities, were asked to collect drinking water samples of approximately 10 ml. In 2007, tap water samples of the same volume were collected from 30 randomly selected schools for the national survey. Analysis of WIC was done in both treatment plants in 2012 (n = 166) and tap water in 2007 (n = 30). The correlation of WIC to the children's UIC and thyroid volume after iodination was tested based on data from the national survey in 2007. The association of WIC to former goitre frequency was tested based on pre-iodination data, derived from a map of goitre frequency drawn in 1929.@*RESULTS@#The median WIC from water treatment plants was 4.0 μg/L (range 0-27 μg/L). WIC was similar in coastal and inland areas, for both ground and surface water. WIC correlated with historical goitre areas and was lower in the goitre areas than in non-goitre areas (p < 0.001). WIC in the same municipalities as the schools correlated with the UIC of children (p < 0.01), but not with their thyroid volume.@*CONCLUSIONS@#WIC still contributes to iodine nutrition in Sweden, but iodination overrides the goitre effect.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Drinking Water , Chemistry , Female , Food, Fortified , Goiter , Epidemiology , History , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Iodine , Urine , Male , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Sweden , Epidemiology , Thyroid Gland
15.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 111-116, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760575

ABSTRACT

Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a condition caused by a mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor gene. It is rarely reported in individuals with no family history of RTH or in premature infants, and its clinical presentation varies. In our case, a premature infant with no family history of thyroid diseases had a thyroid stimulating hormone level of 85.0 µIU/mL and free thyroxine level of 1.64 ng/dL on a thyroid function test. The patient also presented with clinical signs of hypothyroidism, including difficulties in feeding and weight gain. The patient was treated with levothyroxine; however, only free thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels increased without a decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Taken together with thyroid gland hypertrophy observed on a previous ultrasound examination, RTH was suspected and the diagnosis was eventually made based on a genetic test. A de novo mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor β gene in the infant was found that has not been previously reported. Other symptoms included tachycardia and pulmonary hypertension, but gradual improvement in the symptoms was observed after liothyronine administration. This report describes a case involving a premature infant with RTH and a de novo mutation, with no family history of thyroid disease.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Goiter , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Hypertrophy , Hypothyroidism , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Receptors, Thyroid Hormone , Tachycardia , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta , Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine , Ultrasonography , Weight Gain
16.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 29(2): 1-5, mayo.-ago. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978384

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el 28 de mayo de 1954, en los salones la Academia de Ciencias Médicas, Físicas y Naturales de La Habana, se organizó el Symposium sobre bocio y su tratamiento, primer evento científico sobre este tema endocrinológico realizado en Cuba. Objetivo: describir el contenido de las conferencias impartidas en el "Symposium sobre bocio y su tratamiento" realizado en 1954. Métodos: se utilizó el método histórico lógico, apoyado en la técnica de revisión documental. Resultados: el Symposium sobre bocio y su tratamiento, contó de cinco conferencias, las que fueron publicadas en los Anales de la Academia. Se hizo una valoración de los progresos en las últimas décadas en cuanto al diagnóstico, tratamiento y otros aspectos relacionados con las enfermedades del tiroides en Cuba. Conclusiones: este encuentro científico es el primero realizado en nuestro país sobre las enfermedades del tiroides, y evidencia el interés de un grupo de profesionales de la Medicina por divulgar los aspectos más actualizados sobre estos temas. Se destaca la figura del doctor Gonzalo E. Arostegui Aróstegui como uno de los profesionales más experimentados y conocedor de las enfermedades tiroideas en aquellos años(AU)


Introduction: the Symposium on goiter and its treatment was organized on May 28, 1954 in the halls of the Academy of Medical, Physical and Natural Sciences of Havana. It was the first scientific event on this endocrinological topic held in Cuba. Objective: to describe the content of the lectures given in the "Symposium on goiter and its treatment" carried out in 1954. Methods: the logical historical method was used, and it was supported by the documentary review technique. Results: the Symposium on goiter and its treatment had five lectures, which were published in the Annals of the Academy. An assessment of the progress made in the last decades in diagnosis, treatment and other aspects related to thyroid diseases in Cuba was carried out. Conclusions: this scientific meeting was the first held in our country on thyroid diseases, and showed the interest of a group of medical professionals to disseminate the most updated aspects on these topics. The figure of Dr. Gonzalo E. Arostegui Aróstegui stands out as one of the most experienced and knowledgeable professionals of thyroid diseases in those years(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Congresses as Topic/history , Endocrinology/history , Scientific and Educational Events , Goiter/diagnosis , Goiter/therapy
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(6): 1030-1037, jun. 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955448

ABSTRACT

Bócio é o aumento não inflamatório e não neoplásico da glândula tireoide em animais adultos e recém-nascidos. Uma das principais causas envolvidas é a deficiência nutricional de iodo. Relata-se neste trabalho, a ocorrência de três surtos de bócio em bovinos. Na primeira propriedade (Propriedade A), 60 bezerros foram afetados, sendo que 20 morreram logo após o nascimento, 30 recuperaram-se e 10 permaneceram doentes e tiveram remissão dos sinais apenas após tratamento parenteral com iodo. Na segunda propriedade (Propriedade B) uma vaca e seu feto foram acometidos e na terceira (Propriedade C) dois bezerros foram afetados. Os principais sinais clínicos observados nos bezerros foram aumento de volume bilateral na região cervical ventral, emagrecimento, dificuldade respiratória, hipotricose e desenvolvimento corpóreo retardado. Na propriedade A foi relatada ainda a ocorrência de abortamentos. Macroscopicamente, os bezerros e o feto apresentavam tireoide aumentada, vermelho-escura, com vascularização evidente e edema subcutâneo cervical. No surto dois também foi observado, à necropsia, aumento de volume da glândula tireoide da vaca. Microscopicamente, a tiroide dos bezerros e do feto apresentava folículos tireoidianos hiperplásicos, heterogêneos, destituídos de coloide e com interstício acentuadamente vascularizado. A tireoide da vaca era semelhante à dos bezerros, no entanto, possuía quantidade maior de coloide. Em todos os casos a suplementação mineral era realizada por meio da mistura de sal mineral com sal branco. Na Propriedade A o sal branco era não iodado e misturado em partes iguais com o sal mineral. Na Propriedade B o sal também era misturado a um sal branco não iodado na proporção e 1:2, respectivamente. Na Propriedade C o sal mineral e o sal branco não iodado eram ofertados em cochos separados no campo e, segundo relato do proprietário, os animais priorizavam o consumo do sal branco. Em todas as propriedades acompanhadas foi recomendada a interrupção da adição de sal branco na mistura mineral e a administração de iodo aos bezerros acometidos. Após essas medidas não foram observados novos casos nas propriedades. Apesar de ser uma enfermidade bem conhecida, ainda são poucos os relatados de casos de bócios em bovinos no Brasil. Além disso, pouco se sabe sobre as reais deficiências minerais de cada região, e que simples orientações de manejo nutricional ainda são necessárias.(AU)


Goiter is a non-inflammatory and non-neoplastic enlargement of the thyroid gland in adults and neonates. One of the main causes involved is the nutritional deficiency of iodine. In this study three outbreaks of goiter in cattle are reported. In the first outbreak (Farm A) 60 calves were affected, of which 20 died soon after birth, 30 recovered and 10 remained sick. In the second outbreak (Farm B) a cow and its fetus were affected and in the third outbreak (Farm C) two calves were affected. The main clinical signs observed were bilaterally enlarged thyroid glands, weight loss, respiratory distress, hypotrichosis and myxedema. Additionally in the Farm A abortions were reported. Macroscopically the thyroid of the calves and fetus was enlarged, dark red with evident vascularization and cervical subcutaneous edema. In the Farm B the cow showed enlarged thyroid gland as well. Microscopically the calves and the fetus had hyperplastic and heterogeneous thyroid follicles with absence of colloid and vascularized interstitium. The thyroid of the cow was also hyperplastic, but had higher amount of colloid. In all outbreaks the mineral supplementation was performed by mixing non-iodized white salt with the mineral mixture. On the property A the white salt was non-iodized and mixed in equal parts with the mineral salt. At property B the salt was also mixed to a non-iodized white salt in ratio and 1:2, respectively. In the property C, mineral salt and non-iodized white salt were offered in separate troughs in the field, and according to the owner's report the animals prioritized the consumption of white salt. In all the monitored properties it was recommended to stop the addition of white salt in the mineral mixture and the administration of iodine to the affected calves. After these measurements no new cases were observed in the properties. Despite being a well-known disease, there are still few reported cases of goiter in cattle in Brazil. Moreover, little is known about the actual mineral deficiencies of each region, and that simple nutritional management guidelines are still needed.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/abnormalities , Goiter/diagnosis , Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Iodine/deficiency
19.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 64-74, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715148

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Iodine deficiency causes multiple health problems. Previously we reported that 96% of high school students in Tuguegarao, Philippines had adequate iodine levels. However, iodine deficiency-associated problems remain among adults in the Philippines. Therefore, we evaluated iodine nutritional status and goiter prevalence among adults, including pregnant women, in Tuguegarao, Philippines. METHODS: A total of 245 adults, including 31 pregnant women, provided samples for urinary iodine analysis, and all pregnant women completed a questionnaire about iodine deficiency. RESULTS: The median urinary iodine level was 164.0 ± 138.4 µg/L; 38.4% of the participants were iodine deficient, according to the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) criteria. No severe iodine deficiency was observed. Among the 31 pregnant women, 24 (77.5%) fell into the iodine deficient category defined by a stricter World Health Organization (WHO) guideline, in which iodine deficiency is considered when urinary iodine levels are below 150 µg/L. Almost half (42%) of the pregnant women were unaware of the harmful effects of iodine deficiency on the human body and their fetus. CONCLUSIONS: Although iodine nutritional status in the Philippines has improved, iodine deficiency still exists among adults, especially among pregnant women. Therefore, our study strongly suggests that a better strategy should be established to monitor iodine nutritional status among adults continually, and to focus on populations susceptible to iodine deficiency, including pregnant women and women of reproductive age, to achieve the total elimination of iodine deficiency.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Fetus , Goiter , Human Body , Humans , Iodine , Nutritional Status , Philippines , Pregnant Women , Prevalence , World Health Organization
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714972

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and clinical findings of benign thyroid nodules and cancer in Korean pediatric patients with thyroid nodules. METHODS: We investigated the medical records of 134 patients aged younger than 18 years who had a goiter, thyroid nodule, thyroid mass, or thyroid cancer who underwent fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). RESULTS: The study population included 113 females (84.3%) and 21 males (13.7%); the mean patient age was 16.1±2.3 years (range, 8–18 years). Of the 134 patients, 24 (18.0%) were finally diagnosed with thyroid cancer, of which 20 (83.3%) were papillary cancer and 4 (16.7%) were follicular cancer. No patient was exposed to radiation. FNAB revealed malignant cancer in 21 of the patients; 3 were initially reported as having benign tumors by FNAB, but were later diagnosed with follicular cancer. An additional 13 patients were suspected to have malignant tumors by FNAB, with a final diagnosis of nodular hyperplasia. Cystic nodules were more common in the benign group. The percentages of cervical lymphadenopathy and irregular nodular margins were higher in the malignant group compared to the benign group. Cervical lymphadenopathy and FNAB malignant findings were highly suggestive of malignant nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid cancer prevalence in a Korean pediatric population is comparable to reported estimates of worldwide thyroid cancer prevalence. In this population, cancer predominates on the right thyroid lobe. Papillary thyroid cancers are dominant in the Korean pediatric population but are less prevalent than in Korean adults. As expected, FNAB was highly accurate in predicting malignant nodules.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , Female , Goiter , Humans , Hyperplasia , Lymphatic Diseases , Male , Medical Records , Prevalence , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule
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