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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786633

ABSTRACT

The infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae (DTM) was investigated in fishes from coastal lakes in Gangwon-do, the Republic of Korea (Korea). All fishes collected in 5 lakes were examined with the artificial digestion method. More than 10 species, i.e., Metagonimus spp., Pygidiopsis summa, Centrocestus armatus, Metorchis orientalis, M. taiwanensis, Clinostomum complanatum, Echinostoma spp., Stictodora spp., Diplostomum sp. and Diplostomid No. 1. by Morita (1960), of DTM were detected in fishes from 5 coastal lakes in Gangwon-do. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were found in 52 (41.3%) out of 126 sea rundace, Tribolodon hakonensis, from 5 lakes, and their density was 14.6 per fish infected. P. summa metacercariae were detected in 48 (84.2%) out of 57 mullets from 5 lakes, and their density was 316 per fish infected. C. armatus metacercariae were detected in 7 (14.6%) T. hakonensis and 3 (15.0%) Tridentiger brevispinis from Hyang-ho, and 5 (19.2%) Acanthogobius flavimanus from Gyeongpo-ho. Stictodora spp. metacercariae were found in 4 fish species, i.e., Tridentiger obscurus, Tridentiger trigonocephalus, Chelon haematocheilus, and Acanthogobius lactipes, from Gyeongpo-ho. Total 15 C. complanatum metacercariae were detected in 2 (9.1%) crucian carp, Carassius auratus, from Songji-ho. M. taiwanensis metacercariae were found in T. hakonensis from Hyang-ho and Gyeongpo-ho and in Pseudorasbora parva from Gyeongpo-ho. Total 11 M. orientalis metacercariae were detected in 3 (6.3%) T. hakonensis from Hyang-ho. From the above results, it was confirmed that various species of DTM are infected in fishes from coastal lakes in Gangwon-do, Korea.


Subject(s)
Carps , Digestion , Echinostoma , Fishes , Goldfish , Heterophyidae , Korea , Lakes , Metacercariae , Methods , Republic of Korea , Smegmamorpha
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742271

ABSTRACT

Present study was performed to survey infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae in 2 alien fish species, Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) and Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill), in 2 rivers draining Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea. A total of 107 largemouth bass and 244 bluegills were caught in Daecheong-ho (ho=lake) and Musim-cheon (a branch of Geum-gang), in Chungcheongbuk-do April–July 2015. Additionally, 68 native fish of 5 species, i.e., Zacco platypus, Hemibarbus longirostris, Carassius auratus, Pseudogobio esocinus and Puntungia herzi, were caught from the same water bodies. All of the fish collected were examined by artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Centrocestus armatus, Clinostomum complanatum, Metagonimus sp. and Diplostomum spp. were detected from 4 out of 5 native fish species in Daecheong-ho. However, any metacercariae were not found from 87 M. salmoides and 177 L. macrochirus in Daecheong-ho. In Musim-cheon, metacercariae of Exorchis oviformis and Metacercaria hasegawai were detected from 78% Z. platypus and 34% L. macrochirus, but any metacercariae not found in M. salmoides. We report here that the 2 alien fish species were less infected with the metacercariae than the native ones. Surveys on the metacercariae in the alien fish species in geographically various rivers should be undertaken for better understanding on the role of alien fish species in the trematode infections in Republic of Korea.


Subject(s)
Bass , Digestion , Emigrants and Immigrants , Goldfish , Heterophyidae , Humans , Metacercariae , Methods , Perciformes , Platypus , Republic of Korea , Rivers , Trematode Infections , Water
3.
Cambios rev. méd ; 16(2): 25-30, jul.- 2017. ^eilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-981204

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El pescado es una fuente completa de proteínas de fácil digestión. Su aceite, vitaminas y minerales proporcionan un funcionamiento normal a todos los sistemas básicos del organismo. Estudiar las características del crecimiento postnatal del músculo esquelético del pez permite formular propuestas basadas en evidencias para la producción de carne de pescado de buena calidad. Material y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo de más de 300 especies de peces bajo principios análogos: edad joven de 20 a 500 días, de 860 días y con 2 a 3 años bajo crianza con tecnología de granja. El complejo metodológico incluyó morfometría, disección anatómica, métodos de preparación histológica, microscopio electrónico (Quanta 200 3D) y procesador estadístico. Resultados: Las condiciones tecnológicas y la conducta alimentaria garantizan el crecimiento del pez tipo pequeño (fingerlings). Según los registros del estudio, el incremento del peso del cuerpo de los peces carpa entre 15 y 135 días, fitoplankton para carpas plateadas sobre 190 y 301 veces, fitovorous para carpa herbívora, 128 a 302 veces. Discusión: El crecimiento vigoroso hiperplásico en el período inicial de la ontogénesis influye en el crecimiento posterior de los animales adultos. La dinámica estacional de las características morfométricas de las fibras musculares está influida por la intensidad de los procesos metabólicos del organismo.


Introduction: Fish as a food product is a source of complete, easily digested proteins, fish oil, vitamins, minerals which provide normal operation of all basic systems in the organism. Studying the general and specific characteristics of postnatal growth of fish skeletal muscles allow us to formulate evidence-based approach to the production of good quality fish. Methods: Prospective study of more than 300 species under analogue principles: : juveniles aged from 20 till 500 days, species aged 860 days at two- and three years farming technology. Complex methodological approach including morphometrics, anatomic dissection, histological set up methods with electronic scanning microscopy (Quanta 200 3D) was used. Statistical data processing was performed. Results: Technological conditions and feeding behaviour guarantee the intensity of fingerlings growth. According to our records carp increases body weight up to from 50 (at 3 year technology) to 411 times (at 2 year technology) between 15 and 135 days; phytoplankton silver carp up to 190-301 times, phytovorous grass carp up to 128-302 times respectively. Discussion: Vigorous hyperplastic growth of carps at early stages of postnatal ontogenesis influences on further growth of mature animals. Seasonal dynamics of morphometric characteristics of muscular fibers is determined by intensity of metabolic processes proceeding in organism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Goldfish , Aquaculture , Fisheries , Anatomy, Veterinary , Fish Oils , Muscle Development , Muscles
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168708

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the morphology and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Centrocestus formosanus originating from 5 species of freshwater fish, i.e., Esomus metallicus, Puntius brevis, Anabas testudineus, Parambassis siamensis, and Carassius auratus, in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and phylogeny based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) were performed. The results showed similar morphologies of adult C. formosanus from day 5 after infection in chicks. C. formosanus originated from 4 species of freshwater fish had the same number of circumoral spines on the oral sucker, except for those from C. auratus which revealed 34 circumoral spines. The phylogenetic tree obtained from SRAP profile and the combination of ITS2 and CO1 sequence showed similar results that were correlated with the number of circumoral spines in adult worms. Genetic variability of C. formosanus also occurred in different species of freshwater fish hosts. However, more details of adult worm morphologies and more sensitive genetic markers are needed to confirm the species validity of C. formosanus with 34 circumoral spines originating from C. auratus in the future.


Subject(s)
Adult , Electron Transport Complex IV , Fresh Water , Genetic Markers , Goldfish , Humans , Phylogeny , Spine , Thailand , Trees
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69359

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae was investigated in ornamental fish purchased from a pet shop in Chiang Mai, Thailand, including Carassius auratus (goldfish), Cyprinus carpio (Koi), Poecilia latipinna (Sailfin Molly), Danio rerio (Zebrafish), and Puntigrus tetrazona (Tiger barb). The parasite species was identified by the morphology of worms as well as by a molecular approach using ITS2. The results showed that 50 (33.3%) of 150 fish examined were infected with the metacercariae. The highest prevalence was found in C. auratus (83.3%), and the highest intensity was noted in C. carpio (70.8 metacercariae/fish). The most important morphological character was the presence of 32–34 circumoral spines on the oral sucker. The phylogenetic studies using the rRNA ITS2 region revealed that all the specimens of C. formosanus in this study were grouped together with C. formosanus in GenBank database. This is the first report on ornamental fish, C. carpio, P. latipinna, D. rerio, and P. tetrazona, taking the role of second intermediate hosts of C. formosanus in Thailand. Prevention and control of metacercarial infection in ornamental fish is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Carps , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Goldfish , Metacercariae , Parasites , Poecilia , Prevalence , Spine , Thailand , Zebrafish
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 24(3): 283-289, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761137

ABSTRACT

Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration). Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean). The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.


A infestação concomitante por vários gêneros de parasitas é uma condição rara, debilitante e letal para os peixes e está geralmente associada aos problemas ambientais e de manejo. Com o objetivo de descrever os ectoparasitos presentes em kinguios Carassius auratus com lesões cutâneas, cultivados em fazenda comercial, foram analisados 30 exemplares de peixes por esfregaços de pele lesionada e de brânquias; exame histopatológico de tecidos corados pela técnica de Hematoxilina-Eosina e Giemsa e estudo ultraestrutural por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e varredura de tecidos coletados após necropsia. Nas lesões cutâneas, foram observados os parasitos: Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. e Ichthyobodo necator, associados à hiperplasia epitelial, descamação epidérmica e presença de infiltrado inflamatório. A infestação das brânquias, mesmo sem lesão macroscópica, evidenciou Epistylissp., Piscinoodinium sp., I. multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamita sp. e cistos de trematódeo associados à hipertrofia e hiperplasia epitelial, fusão de lamelas secundárias, descamação epitelial e presença de infiltrado inflamatório. Os trematódeos observados não foram identificados. É a primeira descrição do protozoário Vorticella sp. parasitando kinguios no Brasil. O ectoparasitismo múltiplo por protozoários e platelmintos, com ou sem lesão aparente, pode ser fatal em peixes cultivados em condições ambientais precárias.


Subject(s)
Goldfish/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Skin/parasitology , Brazil , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Fisheries , Gills/parasitology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247139

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the biological effects of nanoscale copper oxide (nCuO), zinc oxide (nZnO), cerium dioxide (nCeO2) and their mixtures on Carassius auratus.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Juvenile fish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to aqueous suspensions of nCuO, nZnO, and nCeO2 (alone and in mixtures) at concentrations of 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 mg/L. The biomarkers-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain, sodium/potassium-activated ATPase (Na+/K+-ATPase) in gill, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver-were determined after 4 days of exposure. Integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated by combining multiple biomarkers into a single value.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>AChE and SOD activities were significantly inhibited by all test metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) at high concentrations (⋝160 mg/L) with the exception of nCeO2. Na+/K+-ATPase induction exhibited bell-shaped concentration-response curves. CAT activity was significantly inhibited at concentrations equal to or higher than 160 mg/L. The order of IBR values was nCeO2 ≈ nZnO/nCeO2 ≈ nCuO/nCeO2 < nCuO/nZnO/nCeO2 < nZnO < nCuO < nCuO/nZnO. The joint effect seemed to be synergistic for nCuO/nZnO mixtures, additive for the ternary mixture and less than additive or antagonistic for the binary mixtures containing nCeO2.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Concentration-dependent changes of enzymatic activities (AChE, Na+/K+-ATPase, SOD, and CAT) were observed in fish exposed to nanoscale metal oxides. IBR analysis allowed good discrimination between the different exposures and might be a useful tool for the quantification of integrated negative effects induced by NPs toward fish.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Metabolism , Animals , Biomarkers , Metabolism , Brain , Cerium , Toxicity , Copper , Toxicity , Gills , Goldfish , Metabolism , Liver , Metal Nanoparticles , Toxicity , Random Allocation , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Toxicity Tests , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Toxicity , Zinc Oxide , Toxicity
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320353

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To assess the single and combined effects of estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) on goldfish (Carassius auratus).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Batch tests were conducted. Serum levels of vitellogenin (VTG) and E2, gonadosomatic indices (GSI), gonadal DNA damage and liver 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were measured after exposure for 14 days.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The VTG level increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. The serum E2 level was significantly higher and the GSI level was significantly lower in goldfish after exposed to the 3 drugs. DNA damage occurred in treated samples and EROD activity was significantly suppressed 7 days after exposure. The joint effect of E1 and E2 was additive with regard to VTG induction.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results of our study highlight a series of effects of steroidal estrogens on goldfish. Further study is needed to confirm their effect as a whole.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 , Metabolism , DNA Damage , Drug Combinations , Estradiol , Pharmacology , Estrone , Pharmacology , Goldfish , Gonads , Metabolism , Male , Vitellogenins , Blood
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36889

ABSTRACT

This study was performed in order to investigate the effects of taurine on cadmium poisoning in muscle, gill, and bone tissues of wild goldfish. For this experiment, 80 wild goldfish were divided into four experimental groups: 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 0 mg/L of taurine (Group I), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 20 mg/kg of taurine (Group II), 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 40 mg/L of taurine (Group III), and 0.3 mg/L of cadmium and 80 mg/L of taurine (Group IV). The results were as follows: The cadmium concentration in muscle tissue of wild goldfish was 0.65-3.21 mg/kg wet wt in Group I, whereas it decreased in Group IV. Levels of cadmium in gill tissue of wild goldfish were 16.57-42.39 mg/kg wet wt in Group I, 15.23-43.01 mg/kg wet wt in Group II, 15.11-39.56 mg/kg wet wt in Group III, and 13.15-38.55 mg/kg wet wt in Group IV (P < 0.05), suggesting that the cadmium concentration decreased in the experimental groups compared to control. The cadmium concentration in bone tissue of wild goldfish after 28 days was 0.52-9.75 mg/kg in Group II, whereas it increased in Group III (P < 0.05). In conclusion, taurine may have a preventive effect against cadmium accumulation in biological tissues.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone and Bones , Cadmium , Cadmium Poisoning , Gills , Goldfish , Muscles , Taurine
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(6): 1597-1602, Dec. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-660230

ABSTRACT

Avaliaram-se os tempos de indução e recuperação de quinguios (Carassius auratus) expostos a dois anestésicos, eugenol e benzocaína. Foram utilizados 128 juvenis com peso médio de 2,07±0,53g e comprimento total médio de 5,51±0,56cm. A benzocaína mostrou ser mais eficiente do que o eugenol em relação ao tempo, tanto para indução ao coma quanto para a recuperação à fuga e também no que diz respeito à sobrevivência. As doses de benzocaína com melhores resultados foram de 87,5 e 100mg.L-1. O eugenol proporcionou demora na indução e na recuperação dos animais, além de ter apresentado mortalidades quando as doses anestésicas foram elevadas.


The aim of this work was to evaluate the induction and recuperation time of quinguio (Carassius auratus) exposed to two anesthetics, eugenol and benzocaine. 128 juveniles with 2.07±0.53g of average weight and 5.51±0.56cm of total length were used. The benzocaine proved to be more efficient than the eugenol regarding the time in inducing a coma and recovering flight, as well as survival. The better results of benzocaine doses were 87.5 and 100mg.L-1. The eugenol resulted in a delay of animal induction and recovery, and also presented mortalities when the anesthetics doses were increased.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzocaine/analysis , Eugenol , Goldfish , Fishes/anatomy & histology , Fishes/microbiology
11.
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2012; 67 (3): 285-290
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-154115

ABSTRACT

Recently several types of herbal immune and growth stimulants have been used in aquaculture troughout the world. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of Viscum album and Nigella sativa extracts, on survival rate, growth factors and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in gold fish. 270 gold fishes were divided into 2 immune and non-immune groups and each group into 3 treatments; V.album, N.sativa and control [each with 3 repeats]. Each treatment groups fed for 7 weeks with food supplemented with 0.5% of V.album, N.sativa or water. At the end of treatment, survival rate, growth factors and resistance to A.hydrophila infection were compared among the groups. Percentage of mortality in different groups were 9.33 to 12% and prescription of either extracts has no significant effect on survival of groups [p>0.05]. Food conversion rate and percentage of weight gain were 2.56 +/- 0.31 and 131.6+/-25.05% in V.album treatment and 3.12 +/- 0.37 and 73.2 +/- 4.53% in control treatment, respectively which showed a significant increase [p<0.05], growth factors didn't show any significant difference between N.sativa and control treatments [p=0.15]. Mortality rate after bacterial infection showed a significant decrease in V.album treatment [p<0.05] in a way that mortality in V.album treatments of immune and nonimmune groups were 40 and 80% and in control treatment were 63.3 and 100%, respectively. N.sativa had no significant effect on mortality after challenge [p=0.45]. Oral administration of V.album in gold fish has similar effects on immune and growth stimulation as those reported in other warm-blooded animals but N. sativa didn't show such effects


Subject(s)
Animals , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Viscum album , Nigella sativa , Plant Extracts , Survival Rate , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Goldfish
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728097

ABSTRACT

Understanding how the b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) is generated by full-field light stimulation is still a challenge in visual neuroscience. To understand more about the origin of the b-wave, we studied the contributions of gap junctions to the ERG b-wave. Many types of retinal neurons are connected to similar and different neighboring neurons through gap junctions. The photopic (cone-dominated) ERG, stimulated by a small light beam, was recorded from goldfish (Carassius auratus) using a corneal electrode. Data were obtained before and after intravitreal injection of agents into the eye under a photopic illumination level. Several agents were used to affect gap junctions, such as dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists and antagonists, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, the gap junction blocker meclofenamic acid (MFA), and mixtures of these agents. The ERG b-waves, which were enhanced by MFA, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), SKF 38393, and sulpiride, remained following application of a further injection of a mixture with MFA. The ERG b-waves decreased following NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), SCH 23390, and quinpirole administration but were enhanced by further injection of a mixture with MFA. These results indicate that gap junction activity influences b-waves of the ERG related to NO and dopamine actions.


Subject(s)
2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine , Benzazepines , Dopamine , Electrodes , Eye , Gap Junctions , Goldfish , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Light , Lighting , Meclofenamic Acid , Neurons , Neurosciences , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Nitroprusside , Quinpirole , Retinal Neurons , Sulpiride , Tissue Donors
13.
Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2011; 6 (4): 109-111
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-122903

Subject(s)
Goldfish
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(9): 828-836, Sept. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-556864

ABSTRACT

Endothelins (ETs) and sarafotoxins (SRTXs) belong to a family of vasoconstrictor peptides, which regulate pigment migration and/or production in vertebrate pigment cells. The teleost Carassius auratus erythrophoroma cell line, GEM-81, and Mus musculus B16 melanocytes express rhodopsin, as well as the ET receptors, ETB and ETA, respectively. Both cell lines are photoresponsive, and respond to light with a decreased proliferation rate. For B16, the doubling time of cells kept in 14-h light (14L):10-h darkness (10D) was higher compared to 10L:14D, or to DD. The doubling time of cells kept in 10L:14D was also higher compared to DD. Using real-time PCR, we demonstrated that SRTX S6c (12-h treatment, 100 pM and 1 nM; 24-h treatment, 1 nM) and ET-1 (12-h treatment, 10 and 100 pM; 24- and 48-h treatments, 100 pM) increased rhodopsin mRNA levels in GEM-81 and B16 cells, respectively. This modulation involves protein kinase C (PKC) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in GEM-81 cells, and phospholipase C, Ca2+, calmodulin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase, and PKC in B16 cells. Cells were kept under constant darkness throughout the gene expression experiments. These results show that rhodopsin mRNA levels can be modulated by SRTXs/ETs in vertebrate pigment cells. It is possible that SRTX S6c binding to the ETB receptors in GEM-81 cells, and ET-1 binding to ETA receptors in B16 melanocytes, although activating diverse intracellular signaling mechanisms, mobilize transcription factors such as c-Fos, c-Jun, c-Myc, and neural retina leucine zipper protein. These activated transcription factors may be involved in the positive regulation of rhodopsin mRNA levels in these cell lines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Endothelins/pharmacology , Rhodopsin/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Viper Venoms/pharmacology , Cell Line , Gene Expression Regulation , Goldfish , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein Kinase C/drug effects , Protein Kinase C/genetics , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Rhodopsin/genetics , Rhodopsin/metabolism
15.
Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2010; 5 (2): 71-76
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-97919

ABSTRACT

Argulus foliaceus [Crustacea: Branchiura], or the fish louse, is an ectoparasite of the skin or gill of the fresh water fish species. Clinical signs in infected fish include scratching on aquarium walls, erratic swimming, and poor growth. It causes pathological changes due to direct tissue damage and secondary infections. In the present study, lionhead goldfish [Carassius auratus], taken from a goldfish aquarium with symptoms such as abnormal swimming, poor growth and death, were examined for ectoparasites. The parasites collected from the skin and fins of fish were identified as A. foliaceus. Then, treatment was carried out by trichlorfon. After administration, no parasite was observed on the fish. This is the first report of infection with A. foliaceus of lionhead goldfish [Carassius auratus] in Iran


Subject(s)
Animals , Crustacea , Goldfish
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727389

ABSTRACT

To understand the function of edges in perception of moving objects, we defined four questions to answer. Is the focus point in visual motion detection of a moving object: (1) the body or the edge of the object, (2) the leading edge or trailing edge of the object, (3) different in scotopic, mesopic and photopic luminance levels, or (4) different for colored objects? We measured the Optomotor Response (OMR) and Edge Triggering Response (ETR) of goldfish. We used a square and sine wave patterns with black and red stripes and a square wave pattern with black and grey stripes to generate OMR's and ETR's in the goldfish. When we used black and red stripes, the black leading edges stimulated an ETR under scotopic conditions, red leading edges stimulated an ETR under photopic conditions, and both black and red leading edges stimulated an ETR under mesopic luminance levels. For black and gray stripes, only black leading edges stimulated an ETR in all three light illumination levels. We observed less OMR and ETR results using the sine wave pattern compared to using the square wave pattern. From these results, we deduced that the goldfish tend to prefer tracking the leading edge of the pattern. The goldfish can also detect the color of the moving pattern under photopic luminance conditions. We decided that ETR is an intriguing factor in OMR, and is suitable as a method of behavioral measurement in visual system research.


Subject(s)
Goldfish , Light , Lighting , Track and Field
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 61(3): 714-720, jun. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-519475

ABSTRACT

Para avaliar o desempenho de dois alimentos comerciais para larvas de peixes ornamentais e analisar o efeito que a suplementação em vitaminas e minerais teria sobre a sobrevivência e o crescimento dessas, foi realizado um ensaio de crescimento de 21 dias, com 4800 larvas de peixe vermelho (Carassius auratus), distribuídas por 24 grupos (200 indivíduos por grupo). Cada grupo foi alojado em tanques de 5L de capacidade, ligados a um sistema de recirculação de água. Quatro grupos foram alocados a um controle de jejum, em que os animais não foram alimentados, e os restantes 20 grupos foram utilizados em cinco tratamentos, em quadruplicado. Em cada um dos cinco tratamentos, os peixes ingeriram uma das seguintes dietas: R (referência), C1 (SERA vipan® baby), C2 (SERA® microgran), C1v e C2v (C1 e C2, respectivamente, reforçadas em vitaminas e minerais). As taxas de sobrevivência e crescimento dos peixes do tratamento R foram maiores que as obtidas nos outros tratamentos (P<0,05). Foram ainda observadas diferenças significativas entre tratamentos relativamente ao comprimento e peso totais. Face aos resultados observados, conclui-se que as duas dietas comerciais, com e sem suplementação, não parecem ser adequadas para o preenchimento das necessidades nutricionais de larvas de peixe vermelho.


A 21-day growth trial was performed to evaluate two ornamental fish larvae commercial diets and the effect of mineral and vitamin supplementation of the same commercial microdiets on growth and survival of goldfish larvae (Carassius auratus). A total of 4,800 larvae were randomly distributed in 24 groups of 200 individuals. Each group was housed in a 5L tank, connected to a recirculating water system. Four groups were assigned to a fastening control. The animals in these groups did not receive any food. The remaining 20 groups were distributed in five treatments, in quadruplicate. The animals of each treatment were fed one of five experimental diets: R (reference), C1 (SERA vipan® baby), C2 (SERA® microgran), C1v, and C2v (C1 and C2, respectively, reinforced with minerals and vitamins). At the end of the trial, high survival and growth rates were observed in R treatment. There were significant differences in total length and total weight among dietary treatments. Considering the high survival and growth rates of goldfish larvae obtained with the reference diet, it can be concluded that the two commercial diets tested, with or without mineral and vitamin supplements, do not seem suitable for feeding goldfish larvae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Feed , Goldfish/growth & development , Goldfish/metabolism , Diet Therapy/methods , Diet Therapy/veterinary
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(1): 135-140, Jan. 2009. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-505431

ABSTRACT

The effect of post-training treatment with L-histidine (LH) on the memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance was investigated in Carassius auratus submitted to cerebellar ablation. The inhibitory avoidance procedure included 3 days: one habituation day, one training day (5 trials, T1-T5) and one test day. On the training day, each fish was placed individually in a white compartment separated from a black compartment by a sliding door. When the fish crossed into the black compartment, a weight was dropped in front of it (aversive stimulus) and the time to cross was recorded. Saline or LH (100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 10 min after the trials. Data were log10 transformed and analyzed by ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls test (P < 0.05). In T5, all groups [ablation/LH (N = 15; 189.60 ± 32.52), ablation/saline (N = 14; 204.29 ± 28.95), sham/LH (N = 14; 232.36 ± 28.15), and sham/saline (N = 15; 249.07 ± 25.82)] had similar latencies that were significantly higher than T1 latencies [ablation/LH (89.33 ± 20.41), ablation/saline (97.00 ± 25.16), sham/LH (73.86 ± 18.42), and sham/saline (56.71 ± 17.59)], suggesting acquisition of inhibitory avoidance. For the test, there was a significant reduction in latencies of ablation/LH (61.53 ± 17.70) and sham/saline (52.79 ± 25.37) groups compared to the ablation/saline (213.64 ± 29.57) and sham/LH (199.43 ± 24.48) groups, showing that cerebellum ablation facilitated retention of inhibitory avoidance and LH reversed the effect of ablation. The results support other evidence that LH impairs memory consolidation and/or reduces the interpretation of aversion value.


Subject(s)
Animals , Avoidance Learning/drug effects , Cerebellum/surgery , Goldfish/physiology , Histidine/pharmacology , Ablation Techniques , Goldfish/surgery , Reaction Time
19.
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2009; 64 (3): 237-242
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-93802

ABSTRACT

Lead is one of the heavy metal that is very toxic for environment and organisms. Lead can inhibits many physiological processes and it is so dangerous for body tissues. In this study, four groups of fish [carassius auratus] 35 in each, were used for experiment. Group 1 was as control, in group 2 fishes were exposed to lead acetate at concentration of 8.5 mg/l, fishes in group 3 and 4 were also exposed to lead acetate in the same concentration of group 2 supplemented with vitamin B1[thiamine] at doses 30mg/l and 60mg/l, for 21 days respectively. Tissue specimens including gill, brain, kidney and liver were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and stained with H and E. Results of histopathological findings evaluated with two non parametric Kruskal - Wallis Test and Mann - Whitney Test. Histopathology of brains of fishes in group two, showed hyperemia, privascular edema, prineuronal edema and ischemic cell changes. According to Mann - Whitney Test, hyperemia and edema lesions, the difference between group 2 and 4 was significant. This result showed some efficacy of thiamine at concentration of 60mg/l in prevention of brain lesions caused by lead poisoning. Histopathology of kidneys revealed hyperemia, degenerative and necrotic changes, swelling of epithelial cells, hyperplasia of melanomacrophage centers, intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. In kidney, goup 2 and 3 showed significant difference in swelling of epithelial cells, intranuclear inclusion bodies and degenerative necrotic changes according to Mann - Whitney test. In liver, hyperemia, hyperplasia of melanomacrophage centers, hepatocellular vacular degeneration and intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed. In liver, the difference of hyperemia were significant in group 2 and 4. Considering the histopathological findings and based on Mann-Whitney test, non of lesions revealed significant difference in gill. According to the result of this experiment, it seems that thiamine has some degrees of protective effects on lead poisoning lesions in brain, kidney and liver of Goldfish, and it seems that the thiamine has a dose depended role dose on lead poisoning in fish


Subject(s)
Animals , Lead Poisoning/drug therapy , Organometallic Compounds/poisoning , Goldfish , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Lead/toxicity
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727455

ABSTRACT

Induced activation of the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA(A)) receptor in the retina of goldfish caused the fish to rotate in the opposite direction to that of the spinning pattern during an optomotor response (OMR) measurement. Muscimol, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, modified OMR in a concentration-dependent manner. The GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen and GABA(C) receptor agonist CACA did not affect OMR. The observed modifications in OMR included decreased anterograde rotation (0.01~0.03 micrometer), coexistence of retrograde rotation and decreased anterograde rotation (0.1~30 micrometer) and only retrograde rotation (100 micrometer~1 mM). In contrast, the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline blocked muscimolinduced retrograde rotation. Based on these results, we inferred that the coding inducing retrograde movement of the goldfish retina is essentially associated with the GABA(A) receptor-related visual pathway. Furthermore, from our novel approach using observations of goldfish behavior the induced discrete snapshot duration was approximately 573 ms when the fish were under the influence of muscimol.


Subject(s)
Baclofen , Bicuculline , Clinical Coding , Cytarabine , Goldfish , Injections, Intraocular , Muscimol , Receptors, GABA , Receptors, GABA-A , Retina , Visual Pathways
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