Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 579
Filter
1.
Femina ; 49(3): 134-141, 20210331. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224073

ABSTRACT

A suspeita clínica de endometriose geralmente envolve a história clínica da paciente e exame físico, abordando sua sintomatologia e história pessoal e familiar. Entretanto, a apresentação clínica da doença varia consideravelmente, sem características clínicas patognomônicas, fato que dificulta o seu diagnóstico. Um diagnóstico presuntivo de endometriose pode ser fortemente sugerido pela ultrassonografia transvaginal e pela ressonância magnética em casos de endometrioma ou endometriose infiltrativa profunda. No entanto, esses exames de imagem não possuem a sensibilidade e a especificidade necessárias quando se trata de endometriose peritoneal superficial. O biomarcador sérico mais utilizado na investigação da endometriose foi o CA-125, que não apresenta sensibilidade (70%-75%) suficiente para sua indicação na prática clínica. Portanto, apesar de seu risco e alto custo, a videolaparoscopia e a análise anatomopatológica subsequente ainda se apresentam como o procedimento padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico definitivo de endometriose. Assim, com o objetivo de demonstrar quais exames seriam necessários para o diagnóstico dessa doença, realizamos uma revisão sistemática da literatura, cujos dados estão descritos a seguir.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Video-Assisted Surgery , Endometriosis/surgery , Endometriosis/etiology , Endometriosis/diagnostic imaging , Progestins/therapeutic use , Contraceptives, Oral, Combined/therapeutic use , Endometriosis/drug therapy , Gonadotropins/agonists
2.
Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1823, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363830

ABSTRACT

Following the induction of oestrus out of season in small ruminants, low fertility and variations in fertility rates are associated with embryonic losses. One of the main causes of embryonic loss is luteal dysfunction. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) supports the luteal structure, and increasing progesterone levels may be beneficial in terms of promoting embryonic life. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of GnRH administration following an oestrus induction protocol in the anoestrus season for preventing embryonic loss in goats having failure to conceive during the season. In the study, 106 Damascus goats aged 3-5 years and weighing 45-60 kg were used. The oestrus of 106 goats in the anoestrous group was stimulated with progesterone and pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) treatment. Out of breeding season, goats were divided into the 4 following groups: GnRH0 (n = 27), GnRH7 (n = 26), GnRH0+7 (n = 27) and control (n = 26). In each goat, an intravaginal sponge (IS) containing 20 mg of fluorogestone acetate (FGA) was placed into the vagina and left for 9 days. With the withdrawal of the sponge, 550IU PMSG and 125 µg of d-cloprostenol were injected intramuscularly. Oestrus detection was made via teaser bucks for 3 days starting 24 h after withdrawal of the IS. Eighteen bucks known to be fertile were used for breeding. Goats in the oestrus period were mated via natural breeding. The GnRH analogue lecirelin was injected intramuscularly at breeding in the GnRH0 group, on day 7 post-breeding in the GnRH7 group, and both at breeding and on day 7 post-breeding in the GnRH0+7 group. No injections were given to the control group. Blood samples for progesterone measurement were taken by jugular vena puncturing on days 3, 6, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 after breeding from 10 randomly chosen goats in all groups. The goats with a level of > 3.5 ng/mL of progesterone on day 21 post-breeding were evaluated as pregnant. Pregnancy was also viewed on day 50 after breeding by real-time ultrasonography (USG) with a 5-7.5 MHz convex probe. The oestrus rate was 96.23% (102/106) in the goats. The rates of onset of oestrus between 36-48 h, 48-60 h and 60 h and beyond were 38.7% (41/106), 21.7% (23/106) and 35.8% (38/106), respectively. The total pregnancy rate was 35.8% (38/106). There were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) found for the pregnancy rate, embryonic death rate or progesterone concentration of the groups. However, serum progesterone levels were statistically different in the GnRH7 group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). After synchronisation, various anti-luteolytic strategies can be used to support corpus luteum development and elevate progesterone concentration in the luteal phase to decrease embryonic loss and increase reproductive performance. Therefore, application of GnRH to support the luteal structure and to increase progesterone levels may be beneficial in terms of supporting embryonic life. The results showed that GnRH treatment on the day 7 post-breeding following oestrus induction, including FGA and PMSG, can increase serum progesterone levels in Damascus goats in the anoestrus period. However, following oestrus induction in the anoestrus period, it was seen that GnRH treatment at breeding or on day 7 after breeding did not have any positive effect on embryonic loss or reproductive performance. In conclusion, it was considered that this protocol could be implemented successfully, yielding a 35% pregnancy rate in Damascus goats in the anoestrus period, but embryonic loss must be deeply studied in detail.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anestrus , Estrus/drug effects , Goat Diseases/embryology , Embryo Loss/veterinary , Gonadotropins/administration & dosage , Goats
3.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(4): 379-383, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043443

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The underlying cause of seasonal infertility in humans is unclear, but is likely to be ­multifactorial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to compare the pregnancy rates among infertile women who underwent induced ovulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI) with the season in which the fertility treatment was performed. DESIGN AND SETTING: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on 466 patients who were treated in the reproductive endocrinology and infertility outpatient clinic of a tertiary-level women's healthcare and maternity hospital. METHODS: Retrospective demographic, hormonal and ultrasonographic data were obtained from the patients' medical records. Clomiphene citrate or gonadotropin medications were used for induced ovulation. The patients were divided into four groups according to the season (spring, winter, autumn and summer) in which fertility treatment was received. Clinical pregnancy rates were calculated and compared between these four groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the seasonal groups in terms of age, infertility type, ovarian reserve tests, duration of infertility, medications used or length of stimulation. A total of 337 patients (72.3%) were treated with clomiphene citrate and 129 (27.7%) with gonadotropin; no significant difference between these two groups was observed. The clinical pregnancy rates for the spring, winter, autumn and summer groups were 15.6% (n = 24), 8.6% (n = 9), 11.5% (n = 13) and 7.4% (n = 7), respectively (P = 0.174). CONCLUSIONS: Although the spring group had the highest pregnancy rate, the rates of successful IUI did not differ significantly between the seasonal groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Ovulation Induction/methods , Insemination, Artificial , Clomiphene/administration & dosage , Fertility Agents, Female/administration & dosage , Gonadotropins/administration & dosage , Infertility/therapy , Seasons , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Pregnancy Rate
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762593

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The standard method used to diagnose central precocious puberty (CPP) is the gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation test (GnRHST). However, this test is inconvenient for children because it is time-consuming and requires multiple samples. This study aimed to determine the reliability of morning unstimulated luteinizing hormone (mLH) level when screening for CPP, with an emphasis on the influence of diurnal variation. METHODS: This study included 160 girls with signs of early puberty (SMR 2) under 8 years of age. They were classified as CPP or non-CPP based on their standard GnRHST. The auxological, biochemical, and hormonal characteristics of subjects were retrospectively evaluated. The prognostic value of single morning unstimulated gonadotropin level was examined for use in CPP screening. RESULTS: Of 160 patients, 121 (75.6%) presented with CPP, and 39 (24.4%) were determined to be prepubertal. The mLH/mFSH (morning unstimulated follicular stimulating hormone) ratio showed significant differences between the 2 groups (P<0.001). The mLH was correlated with GnRHST variables (r=0.532, P<0.001). The mLH cutoff point when screening for CPP was 0.22 IU/L, which had sensitivity and specificity of 69.4% and 82.1%, respectively. In regression analysis, bone age (BA) (odds ratio [OR], 1.018; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.967–1.071; P=0.506) and body mass index (BMI) (OR, 0.874; 95% CI, 0.583–1.310; P=0.515) were not significant predictors. The mLH≥0.22 IU/L group (OR, 9.596; 95% CI, 3.853–23.900; P<0.001) was highly suggestive of CPP. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, single morning unstimulated luteinizing hormone had clinical efficacy for CPP screening, but BA advanced over chronological age and BMI was not useful for CPP screening.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Child , Female , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gonadotropins , Humans , Lutein , Luteinizing Hormone , Mass Screening , Methods , Puberty , Puberty, Precocious , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Treatment Outcome
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762590

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the CHD7 gene, encoding for the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7, are found in approximately 60% of individuals with CHARGE syndrome (coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities and/or hearing loss). Herein, we present a clinical case of a 14-year-old male presenting for evaluation of poor growth and pubertal delay highlighting the diagnostic challenges of CHARGE syndrome. The patient was born full term and underwent surgery at 5 days of life for bilateral choanal atresia. Developmental milestones were normally achieved. At age 14 his height and weight were


Subject(s)
Adolescent , CHARGE Syndrome , Choanal Atresia , Diagnosis , Ear , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Follow-Up Studies , Genetic Testing , Gonadotropins , Growth and Development , Hearing , Heart , Humans , Luteinizing Hormone , Male , Olfaction Disorders , Puberty, Delayed , Testis , Testosterone
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a gonadotropin secreted by the pituitary gland, is a representative secondary sex hormone and an important indicator of reproductive function. The effects of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury on humans have been studied, but reports on their effects on sex hormone levels are lacking. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between heavy metal exposure and FSH levels in Korean men and postmenopausal women. METHODS: A total of 4,689 adults (2,763 men and 1,926 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or over) who participated in the Second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2012–2014) were included. We compared differences in serum FSH levels by demographic characteristics using the t-test and analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the blood levels of lead and mercury and the urine cadmium level, and serum FSH levels. RESULTS: On multiple linear regression analysis, lead exposure was positively associated with serum FSH concentrations in postmenopausal women (β = 2.929, p = 0.019). However, we found no significant association between serum FSH concentration and blood lead and mercury levels, or urine cadmium level, in men. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that lead exposure can affect the FSH level in postmenopausal women. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of low-dose long-term exposure to heavy metals on sex hormones.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cadmium , Environmental Health , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Gonadotropins , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Metals, Heavy , Pituitary Gland
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 667-678, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762093

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate how type I diabetes mellitus (T1D) affects the folliculogenesis and oocyte development, fertilization, and embryo development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative animal study was conducted using two different mouse models of T1D, a genetic AKITA model and a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model. Ovarian function was assessed by gross observation, immunoblot, immunohistochemistry, oocyte counting, and ELISA for serum hormones (insulin, anti-Mullerian hormone, estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone). Maturation and developmental competence of metaphase II oocytes from control and T1D animals was evaluated by immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical detection of biomarkers and in vitro fertilization. RESULTS: Animals from both T1D models showed increased blood glucose levels, while only streptozotocin (STZ)-injected mice showed reduced body weight. Folliculogenesis, oogenesis, and preimplantation embryogenesis were impaired in both T1D mouse models. Interestingly, exogenous streptozotocin injection to induce T1D led to marked decreases in ovary size, expression of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor in the ovaries, the number of corpora lutea per ovary, oocyte maturation, and serum progesterone levels. Both T1D models exhibited significantly reduced pre-implantation embryo quality compared with controls. There was no significant difference in embryo quality between STZ-injected and AKITA diabetic mice. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that T1D affects folliculogenesis, oogenesis, and embryo development in mice. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the observed reproductive effects of diabetes need to be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Mullerian Hormone , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Corpus Luteum , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Embryonic Development , Embryonic Structures , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Estradiol , Female , Female , Fertility , Fertilization , Fertilization in Vitro , Gonadotropins , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lutein , Mental Competency , Metaphase , Mice , Oocytes , Oogenesis , Ovary , Pregnancy , Progesterone , Reproduction , Streptozocin , Testosterone
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Provision of optimal endometrial stromal cells is essential in uterine tissue engineering. Culture of these cells is significantly influenced by gonadotropin hormones. This investigation attempted to define the proliferation profiles of murine uterine endometrial stromal cells during in vitro culture with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH), urinary follicle stimulating hormone (uFSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). METHODS: Murine uterine endometrial stromal cells were collected from 8-week-old mice and cultured in vitro up to 72 h, with rFSH, uFSH, or hCG. Cell cycles were analyzed by BrdU assay, and cyclin D1 expression was evaluated according to dose and duration of gonadotropin treatment. RESULTS: BrdU assay showed a further inhibitory effect on murine uterine endometrial stromal cell proliferation when cultured with rFSH compared to uFSH, and a similar inhibitory proliferation profile when cultured with hCG at a specific range of concentrations. The expression of cyclin D1 of murine uterine endometrial stromal cells was down-regulated when cultured with rFSH, uFSH, or hCG, compared to control. CONCLUSIONS: FSH may inhibit the proliferation of murine uterine endometrial stromal cells during in vitro culture. rFSH may have more significant inhibitory effects on the proliferation of endometrial stromal cells than uFSH. Establishing an optimal endocrine milieu is necessary using more advanced combination of female hormones for in vitro culture of this type of cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Cycle , Chorionic Gonadotropin , Cyclin D1 , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadotropins , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Stromal Cells , Tissue Engineering , Uterus
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760650

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the association between clinical and laboratory characteristics and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in young female patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). METHODS: We retrospectively investigated a series of 74 female patients (age range, 14–42 years) with normoprolactinemic HH who underwent pituitary MRI. Pubertal milestones and hormonal features of patients with small pituitary glands (PGs) and space-occupying lesions were compared with those of patients with normal PGs. RESULTS: The overall frequency of abnormal PGs was 35.1%, with space-occupying lesions observed in 8 patients (10.8%), and small PG observed in 18 patients (24.3%). The mean serum gonadotropin level was not different between patients with and without pituitary MRI abnormalities (P>0.05). Space-occupying lesions were not associated with low gonadotropin levels, type of amenorrhea, or presence of secondary sex characteristics. The frequency of space-occupying lesions was higher in patients with interrupted puberty (25.0%) than in patients who did not go through puberty (4.8%) or had a normal puberty (9.8%), but were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Small PG was associated with low gonadotropin levels and type of amenorrhea (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Clinically significant space-occupying lesions were not associated with low gonadotropin levels, type of amenorrhea, or presence of secondary sex characteristics. However, the frequency of space-occupying lesions was higher in patients with interrupted puberty than in patients who did not go through puberty or who with normal puberty.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Amenorrhea , Female , Gonadotropins , Humans , Hypogonadism , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pituitary Gland , Puberty , Puberty, Delayed , Retrospective Studies , Sex Characteristics
10.
Rev. Hosp. Niños B.Aires ; 60(270): 214-222, sept. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-998451

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La capacidad funcional del testículo en los niños con criptorquidia ha recibido poca atención. La hormona anti-mülleriana (AMH), producida por la célula de Sertoli, es el marcador ideal para evaluar la función testicular durante la infancia. Objetivo: Caracterizar la función testicular en niños prepuberales antes de la orquidopexia. Investigar la asociación entre función testicular y las características de la criptorquidia. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio de corte transversal y analítico, retrospectivo. Medida de resultado principal: concentración de AMH. Medidas de resultados secundarias: concentraciones de gonadotrofinas y testosterona. Para comparación, se utilizaron los niveles hormonales de 179 niños normales. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 186 pacientes con criptorquidia bilateral y 124 con criptorquidia unilateral. La mediana de SDS de AMH fue menor a 0 en ambos grupos. La concentración sérica de AMH fue más baja en pacientes con criptorquidia bilateral que en niños controles y en niños con criptorquidia unilateral. La testosterona estuvo disminuida en niños menores de 6 meses. Las gonadotrofinas estuvieron aumentadas en un bajo porcentaje de los casos. Conclusión: Los niños prepuberales con criptorquidia, especialmente aquellos con criptorquidia bilateral, tienen menor producción de AMH y una considerable prevalencia de disfunción testicular


Introduction: Little information is available on testicular function in boys with cryptorchidism. Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) is a good marker of testicular functionin childhood. Objective: the aim of this study was to assess testicular function in boys with cryptorchidism before orchiopexy, and to look for an association between testicular function and features of cryptorchidism. Patients and methods: We performed a cross-sectional, retrospective study. Main outcome measure was serum AMH concentration, and secondary variables were gonadotropin and testosterone concentrations. For comparison, levels in 179 normal boys were compared. Results: 186 boys with bilateral cryptorchidism and 124 with unilateral cryptorchidism were included. Mean SDS AMH was below 0 in both groups. Mean serum AMH was lower in boys with bilateral cryptorchidism, as compared to unilateral cryptorchidism and controls between 6 months and 8.9 years of age. Testosterone was lower than normal in boys < 6 months of age. Gonadotropins were rarely affected. Conclusions: Prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism, especially those with bilateral forms, have a lower AMH production, reflecting testicular dysfunction


Subject(s)
Male , Cryptorchidism , Gonadotropins , Hypogonadism , Pediatrics , Sertoli Cells , Testosterone
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765746

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to establish the most effective premature ovarian failure (POF) mouse model using Cyclophosphamide (CTX), busulfan (Bu), and cisplatin considering treatment duration of anticancer drugs and natural recovery time. METHODS: POF was induced by intraperitoneally injecting CTX (120 mg/kg)/Bu (12 mg/kg) for 1 to 4 weeks or cisplatin (2 mg/kg) for 3 to 14 days to C57BL/6 female mice aged 6 to 8 weeks. Controls were injected with equal volume of saline for the same periods. Body weight was measured every week, and ovarian and uterine weights were measured after the last injection of anticancer drug. To assess ovarian function, POF-induced mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin, and then mated with male. After 18 hours, zygotes were retrieved and cultured for 4 days. Finally, the mice were left untreated for a period of times after the final injection of anticancer drug, and the time for natural recovery of ovarian function was evaluated. RESULTS: After 2 weeks of CTX/Bu injection, ovarian and uterine weights, and ovarian function were decreased sharply. Cisplatin treatment for 10 days resulted in a significant decrease in ovarian and uterine weight, and ovarian function. When POF was induced for at least 2 weeks for CTX/Bu and for at least 10 days for cisplatin, ovarian function did not recover naturally for 2 weeks and 1 week, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that CTX/Bu should be treated for at least 2 weeks and cisplatin for at least 10 days to establish the most effective primary ovarian insufficiency mouse model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Busulfan , Chorionic Gonadotropin , Cisplatin , Cyclophosphamide , Female , Gonadotropins , Humans , Male , Mice , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency , Weights and Measures , Zygote
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727861

ABSTRACT

Extra-hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays an important role in reproduction. To study the treatment effect of Grin (a novel hGHRH homodimer), the infertility models of 85 male Chinese hamsters were established by intraperitoneally injecting 20 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide once in a week for 5 weeks and the treatment with Grin or human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) as positive control was evaluated by performing a 3-week mating experiment. 2–8 mg/kg of Grin and 200 U/kg of hMG showed similar effect and different pathological characteristics. Compared to the single cyclophosphamide group (0%), the pregnancy rates (H-, M-, L-Grin 26.7, 30.8, 31.3%, and hMG 31.3%) showed significant difference, but there was no difference between the hMG and Grin groups. The single cyclophosphamide group presented loose tubules with pathologic vacuoles and significant TUNEL positive cells. Grin induced less weight of body or testis, compactly aligned tubules with little intra-lumens, whereas hMG caused more weight of body or testis, enlarging tubules with annular clearance. Grin presented a dose-dependent manner or cell differentiation-dependentincrease in testicular GHRH receptor, and did not impact the levels of blood and testicular GH, testosterone. Grin promotes fertility by proliferating and differentiating primitive cells through up-regulating testicular GHRH receptor without triggering GH secretion, which might solve the etiology of oligoasthenozoospermia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Cyclophosphamide , Fertility , Gonadotropins , Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone , Humans , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Infertility , Infertility, Male , Male , Male , Pregnancy Rate , Reproduction , Testis , Testosterone , Vacuoles
13.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 211-215, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718847

ABSTRACT

The following experiments were designed to examine the effect of serum of spayed dogs on superovulation response in mice and rats. In Experiment 1, female mice at diestrus (n=30) were divided into three equal groups and superovulated with either administration of 5 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) or recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) (reducing dose from 2.5 to 0.5 IU) and 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administered 48h later. Serum of spayed dogs was administered intraperitoneally at a reduced dose from 0.1 to 0.025 mL in a 48 h period. In Experiment 2, female rats (n=30) at diestrus stage were divided into three equal groups. Superovulation was induced using either 30 IU PMSG, or a dose reduced from 5 to 1 IU rFSH and 25 IU hCG administered 48h later. Serum of spayed dogs was administered in a reduced dose from 0.6 to 0.1 mL in a 48 hour period. Female mice and rats were mated 24 h following hCG administration. On day 14 after mating, animals were euthanized and ovarian sections were fixed for histopathological evaluation and corpus luteum (CL) counting. No significant difference observed in mean (±SEM) number of CLs between the PMSG group and the mice that received serum of spayed dog (10.4±1.3 vs 9.2±1.0). Mean (±SEM) number of CLs tended to be lower in rats that received serum of spayed dog than those of rats which received either PMSG or rFSH (15.1±1.9 vs 23.6±3.1 and 23.1±2.9, P=0.06, respectively). In conclusion, serum of spayed dogs is able to induce a superovulatory response in mice and rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chorionic Gonadotropin , Corpus Luteum , Diestrus , Dogs , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadotropins , Humans , Mice , Rats , Superovulation
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714978

ABSTRACT

Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) is the most common cause of delayed puberty (DP), is mainly found in males, and is characterized by short stature and delayed skeletal maturation. A family history of the subject comprising the timing of puberty in the parents and physical examination may provide clues regarding the cause of DP. Delayed onset of puberty is rarely considered a disease in either sex. In fact, DP usually represents a common normal variant in pubertal timing, with favorable outcomes for final height and future reproductive capacity. In adolescents with CDGP, a linear growth delay occurs until immediately before the start of puberty, then the growth rate rapidly increases. Bone age is often delayed. CDGP is a diagnosis of exclusion; therefore, alternative causes of DP should be considered. Functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may be observed in patients with transient delay in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis maturation due to associated conditions including celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, kidney insufficiency, and anorexia nervosa. Permanent hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (pHH) showing low serum value of testosterone or estradiol and blunted follicle-stimulating hormones (FSH) and luteinizing hormones (LH) levels may be due to abnormalities in the central nervous system. Therefore, magnetic resonance imaging is necessary to exclude morphological abnormalities and neoplasia. Moreover, pHH may be isolated, as observed in Kallmann syndrome, or associated with other hormone deficiencies, as found in panhypopituitarism. Baseline or gonadotropin-releasing hormone pituitary stimulated gonadotropin level is not sufficient to easily differentiate CDGP from pHH. Low serum testosterone in male patients and low estradiol values in female patients, associated with high serum FSH and LH levels, suggest a diagnosis of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. A genetic analysis can reveal a chromosomal abnormality (e.g., Turner syndrome or Klinefelter syndrome). In cases where the adolescent with CDGP is experiencing psychological difficulties, treatment should be recommended.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anorexia Nervosa , Celiac Disease , Central Nervous System , Chromosome Aberrations , Diagnosis , Estradiol , Female , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gonadotropins , Humans , Hypogonadism , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Kallmann Syndrome , Lutein , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Parents , Physical Examination , Puberty , Puberty, Delayed , Renal Insufficiency , Testosterone , Turner Syndrome
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714975

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the present study, the etiological trends in male central precocious puberty (CPP) were examined, and annual distribution was evaluated. METHODS: Seventy-one male CPP subjects who started puberty before 9 years of age were included in this study. All individuals were diagnosed as having CPP at Samsung Medical Center between 2001 and 2016. Chronological age at puberty onset, diagnosis of CPP, bone age, weight (kg), height (cm), puberty stage, brain magnetic resonance imaging findings, testosterone level, basal gonadotropin level, and gonadotropin level after gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation were analyzed. RESULTS: The 71 patients were divided into 2 groups: idiopathic (group I) and organic (group II) when the lesion was identified as associated with the central nervous system (CNS) or when the patient received chemotherapy for non-CNS tumors before CPP diagnosis, respectively. Forty-four cases (62%) were idiopathic, and 27 (38%) were organic. The proportion of idiopathic CPP was higher than that of organic CPP during the study period. In 51.9% of organic cases, puberty started before 8 years of age, whereas it started after that age in 93.2% of the idiopathic cases. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, among all male CPP cases, 62% were idiopathic. The probability of idiopathic CPP prevalence was higher in males when the puberty onset was after 8 years of age with no history of cranial radiotherapy or chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Brain , Central Nervous System , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gonadotropins , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Prevalence , Puberty , Puberty, Precocious , Radiotherapy , Testosterone
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713117

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the patterns of estradiol-oocyte ratio (EOR) and estradiol-mature oocyte ratio (EMOR) in patients with breast cancer undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) using letrozole and gonadotropins for fertility preservation. METHODS: This retrospective study included 32 breast cancer patients underwent COS for fertility preservation and no patients had previously undergone gonadotoxic treatments. Basal characteristics and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes were compared according to the age of women (age < 35 vs. age ≥35) and the starting phase of ovarian stimulation (early follicular phase vs. late follicular phase vs. luteal phase). RESULTS: Patients who were administered with a letrozole-combined regimen, the peak serum estradiol (E2) was maintained at a low level (386.3±346.9 pg/mL). EOR was 52.4±78.8 pg/mL, and EMOR was 71.0±41.2 pg/mL. When the 2 groups were compared according to the age of women (age < 35 vs. age ≥35), EOR was 34.5 (22.2–46.5) pg/mL and 40.7 (19.3–65.3) pg/mL, respectively; EMOR was 79.8 (40.8–90.6) pg/mL and 68.8 (44.5–85.9) pg/mL, respectively. There was no significant difference in the IVF outcomes. When the 2 groups were compared according to the starting phase of ovarian stimulation, there were no significant differences in IVF outcomes, EOR and EMOR among the groups. CONCLUSION: Measuring the peak E2 concentration in breast cancer patients undergoing IVF for fertility preservation with a co-treatment of letrozole allows for the prediction of the numbers of oocytes and mature oocytes.


Subject(s)
Aromatase Inhibitors , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Estradiol , Female , Fertility Preservation , Fertilization in Vitro , Follicular Phase , Gonadotropins , Humans , Oocytes , Ovulation Induction , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719220

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of overweight on luteinizing hormone (LH) levels after a gonadorelin stimulation test in Korean girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (CPP). METHODS: Medical records of 234 girls diagnosed with idiopathic CPP were reviewed retrospectively. CPP was diagnosed when the peak LH levels after gonadorelin stimulation was >5.0 U/L. The enrolled girls had a peak LH level >5.0 U/L after a gonadorelin stimulation test. Selected girls were classified as normoweight (body mass index [BMI] below the 85th percentile with respect to age) and overweight (BMI greater than the 85th percentile with respect to age). RESULTS: The peak LH (8.95±2.85 U/L vs. 11.97±8.42 U/L, P < 0.01) and peak follicle-stimulating hormone (9.60±2.91 U/L vs. 11.17±7.77 U/L, P=0.04) after gonadorelin stimulation were lower in overweight girls with idiopathic CPP than in normoweight girls with idiopathic CPP. Being overweight was negatively associated with peak LH levels after gonadorelin stimulation test (odds ratio, 0.89; 95 % confidence interval, 0.81–0.98, P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In girls with idiopathic CPP, being overweight led to a lower LH peak after gonadorelin stimulation. Further research is needed to better understand the role of overweight on gonadotropin secretion in precocious puberty.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gonadotropins , Humans , Lutein , Luteinizing Hormone , Medical Records , Metabolic Diseases , Obesity , Overweight , Puberty , Puberty, Precocious , Retrospective Studies
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1473-1481, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893159

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Special features of nanoparticles have resulted in their widespread use. Small molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3) nanoparticles can translocate from the entry portals into the circulatory and lymphatic systems and ultimately to body tissues and organs depending on their composition and size. In this research, sixty Wistar rats weighting 180-250 g were divided into 6 groups (n=10) randomly: Group 1 (Control) did not receive any medicine. Group 2 (Sham) received intraperitoneal normal saline for 35 days on a daily basis. Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 received 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg MoO3, respectively, the same way in the sham group and at the same interval. At the end of the experiment, the rats were weighted again and anesthetised. Then blood samples were taken from their hearts to determine the serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, and gonadotropins. Their ovaries were removed and ovarian volume, follicular diameter, number of each follicle type, and oocyte volume were determined. Results indicated that MoO3 nanoparticles strongly reduced body and ovarian weights in the rats. Moreover, a significant decrease was observed in ovarian volume, the number of follicle types, oocyte volume and follicular diameter. The nanoparticles increased the number of atretic follicles via ovarian tissue structure. MoO3 nanoparticles decreased serum estrogen level and increased serum level of FSH that was associated with disruption in the regulation of progesterone and LH secretion. The findings showed that MoO3 nanoparticles could bear negative effects on ovarian structure and function.


RESUMEN: Las características específicas de las nanopartículas han dado lugar a su uso generalizado. Las pequeñas nanopartículas de trióxido de molibdeno (MoO3) pueden penetrar los sistemas circulatorios y linfáticos y, en última instancia, dependiendo de su composición y tamaño, también los tejidos y órganos del cuerpo. En esta investigación se dividieron 60 ratas Wistar con un peso de 180-250 g en 6 grupos (n = 10) aleatoriamente: el Grupo 1 (Control) no recibió ningún medicamento. El Grupo 2 (Sham) recibió solución salina normal intraperitoneal durante 35 días diariamente. Los grupos 3, 4, 5 y 6 recibieron 50, 100, 200 y 300 mg / kg de MoO3 respectivamente, de la misma manera en el grupo simulado, y en el mismo intervalo. Concluyendo el experimento, las ratas se pesaron nuevamente y fueron anestesiadas. Luego se tomaron muestras de sangre de los corazones para determinar los niveles séricos de estrógeno, progesterona y gonadotropinas. Se retiraron los ovarios y se determinó el volumen ovárico, el diámetro folicular, el número de cada tipo de folículo y el volumen de ovocitos. Los resultados indicaron que las nanopartículas de MoO3 redujeron significativamente los pesos corporal y ovárico en las ratas. Además, se observó una disminución importante en el volumen ovárico, el número de tipos de folículos, el volumen de ovocitos y el diámetro folicular. Las nanopartículas aumentaron el número de folículos auriculares a través de la estructura del tejido ovárico. Las nanopartículas de MoO 3 disminuyeron el nivel sérico de estrógeno y aumentaron el nivel sérico de FSH que se asoció con la interrupción en la regulación de la progesterona y la secreción de LH. Los hallazgos mostraron que las nanopartículas de MoO 3 podrían tener efectos negativos sobre la estructura y la función ovárica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Molybdenum/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles , Ovarian Follicle/drug effects , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Estrogens/blood , Gonadotropins/blood , Microscopy, Electron , Organ Size/drug effects , Ovary/drug effects , Ovary/ultrastructure , Progesterone/blood , Rats, Wistar
19.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(2): 145-151, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838430

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effect of gonadotropin, sex hormone levels and insulin resistance (IR) on thyroid functions and thyroid volume (TV) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Subjects and methods 69 new diagnosed PCOS patients (age 24.82 ± 6.17) and 56 healthy control female (age 26.69 ± 5.25) were involved to the study. Fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone levels and urine iodine were measured in all participants. Thyroid and pelvic ultrasound were performed in all participants. Results Insulin, HOMA-IR, LH, E2 and TV were higher in PCOS group (p < 0.05). TV was significantly higher in PCOS patients with IR compared to non-IR PCOS patients (p < 0.001), while TSH, fT4, and urine iodine levels were similar between these groups (p > 0.05). There was a negative correlation between E2 and TSH (p < 0.05) and a positive correlation between TSH and TV (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between TV and LH, insulin, HOMA-IR (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study showed that TV was increased in patients with insulin resistance but differences in TSH and LH levels may affect TV changes as well.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/physiopathology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/metabolism , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Thyroid Gland/metabolism , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Gonadotropins/blood , Organ Size , Reference Values , Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Statistics, Nonparametric
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report an efficacy of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist administration after freezing of all embryos for treatment of early type ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). METHODS: In 10 women who developed fulminant early type OHSS after freezing of all embryos, GnRH antagonist (cetrorelix 0.25 mg per day) was started at the time of hospitalization and continued for 2 to 4 days. Fluid therapy and drainage of ascites was performed as usual. RESULTS: Early type OHSS was successfully treated without any complication. At hospitalization, the median (95% confidence interval [CI]) of the right and the left ovarian diameter was 10.0 cm (7.6 to 12.9 cm) and 8.5 cm (7.5 to 12.6 cm). After completion of GnRH antagonist administration, it was decreased to 7.4 cm (6.2 to 10.7 cm) (P=0.028) and 7.8 cm (5.7 to 12.2 cm) (P=0.116), respectively. The median duration of hospital stay was 6 days (3 to 11 days). Trans-abdominal drainage of ascites was performed in 2 women and drainage of ascites by percutaneous indwelling catheter was performed in 4 women. No side effect of GnRH antagonist was noted. CONCLUSION: GnRH antagonist administration appears to be safe and effective for women with fulminant early type OHSS after freezing all embryos. Optimal dose or duration of GnRH antagonist should be further determined.


Subject(s)
Ascites , Catheters, Indwelling , Drainage , Embryonic Structures , Female , Fluid Therapy , Freezing , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gonadotropins , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL