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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249158, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339346


Abstract The knowledge of the testicular and ovarian morphology of a particular fish species is of paramount importance. Such analyze enables the development of studies and techniques aiming the improvement of their reproduction, management, commercialization and even their conservation. This study performed the ovarian and testicular characterization of the ornamental Amazon fish Serrapinnus kriegi. A total of three males and three females had their gonads analyzed by optical microscopy. Females present ovaries filled with oocytes in asynchronous development, indicating partial spawning in the species. Moreover, the micropyle and micropilar cell formation was observed in primary growing oocytes, representing a precocious oocyte development; and the zona radiata in the final vitellogenic oocytes is thicker than other related species, evidencing the development of a better protection to the embryos in function of the waters' turbulence that characterize it spawning sites in the Amazonian streams. The male specimens' present anastomosed tubular testes with unrestricted spermatogonia spread along the entire seminiferous tubules. The present data elucidate the dynamic of spermatogenesis and oogenesis of an ornamental Amazonian species, through the description of the male and female germ cells development.

Resumo O conhecimento da morfologia testicular e ovariana de uma determinada espécie de peixe é de suma importância, pois através destas análises é possível o desenvolvimento de estudos e técnicas visando o melhoramento de sua reprodução, manejo e comercialização e até mesmo auxiliar em sua conservação. Este estudo realizou a caracterização ovariana e testicular do peixe Amazônico ornamental Serrapinnus kriegi. Um total de três machos e três fêmeas tiveram suas gônadas analisadas através de microscopia óptica. As fêmeas apresentam ovários preenchidos por oócitos em desenvolvimento assincrônico, indicando desova parcelada da espécie. Além disso, observou-se a formação de micrópila e célula micropilar em oócitos em crescimento primário, representando o desenvolvimento precoce do oócito; a zona radiata nos oócitos vitelogênicos finais é mais espessa em comparação a outras espécies relacionadas, evidenciando o desenvolvimento de uma melhor proteção aos embriões, em função das águas turbulentas que caracterizam seu local de desova nos córregos amazônicos. Os machos apresentam testículos do tipo tubular anastomosado com espermatogônias irrestritas, espalhadas por todo o túbulo seminífero. Os dados apresentados elucidam a dinâmica da espermatogênese e oogênese de uma espécie de peixe ornamental amazônica, por meio da descrição das células germinativas masculinas e femininas.

Animals , Male , Female , Characidae , Oocytes , Oogenesis , Ovary , Testis , Gonads
Sâo Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 163-170, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366043


Abstract BACKGROUND: Because normal male sexual differentiation is more complex than normal female sexual differentiation, there are more cases of disorders of sex development (DSDs) with 46,XY karyotype that have unclear etiology. However, Leydig and Sertoli cell markers are rarely used in distinguishing such individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the function of Leydig and Sertoli cells in individuals with genital ambiguity, 46,XY karyotype, palpable gonads and normal testosterone secretion. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Case-control study with 77 patients, including eight with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, eight with 5α-reductase deficiency type 2 (5ARD2) and 19 with idiopathic 46,XY DSD, and 42 healthy controls, from the Interdisciplinary Study Group for Sex Determination and Differentiation (GIEDDS), at the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil. METHODS: Baseline levels of gonadotropins, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, insulin-like 3 (INSL3), testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in cases, and AMH, inhibin B, and INSL3 levels in controls, were assessed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in age between cases and controls (P = 0.595). AMH and inhibin B levels were significantly lower in cases than in controls (P = 0.031 and P < 0.001, respectively). INSL3 levels were significantly higher in cases than in controls (P = 0.003). Inhibin B levels were lower in 5ARD2 patients (P = 0.045) and idiopathic patients (P = 0.001), in separate comparisons with the controls. CONCLUSION: According to our findings, we can speculate that inhibin B levels may be used to differentiate among DSD cases.

Humans , Male , Female , Sertoli Cells/metabolism , Disorders of Sex Development , Testosterone/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Karyotype , Gonads/metabolism
Int. j. morphol ; 39(5): 1253-1263, oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385493


SUMMARY: The rabbit is considered an ideal animal model for studies that describe abnormalities in the testicles due to the similar morphogenetic mechanisms of sexual development and diseases commonly found in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the male sexual differentiation of the New Zealand rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) through development. The gestational age was estimated and classified as 9, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 23 and 28 gestational days. The morphological and sexual determination were performed by histological analysis of the reproductive tract in the embryos and fetuses (9-28 days) as well as by immunohistochemistry- Desert hedgehog-Dhh- (testis-specific protein on Y chromosome- 16, 20, 23 days and adult rabbits). Gonads were observed from the 14th day in an undifferentiated stage and with homogeneous aspect. Sexual differentiation was observed from the 16th day with presence of cells forming gonadal cords and Dhh+ cells in the gonadal parenchyma. From the 18th gestational day testicular cords were observed, which evolved into organized seminiferous tubules. The formation of the efferent ducts and ductus deferens and epididymis was observed on the 20th and 23rd days, respectively. The differentiation of the external genitalia occurred from the 23rd days from the anogenital distance and was identified to identify the penile structures. In summary, the features of the sexual differentiation were determined by observation of the Dhh+ protein in embryos from the 16th day to adulthood, and the morphological particularities observed from the 18th gestational day, determined by differentiation of the external genitalia from the 23rd day.

RESUMEN: El conejo se considera un modelo animal ideal para estudios que describen anomalías a nivel testícular debido a que presenta mecanismos morfogenéticos similares al desa- rrollo sexual y enfermedades que se encuentran comúnmente en los seres humanos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la diferenciación sexual masculina del conejo de Nueva Zelanda (Oryctolagus cuniculus) a través del desarrollo. La edad gestacional se estimó y clasificó en 9, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 23 y 28 días gestacionales. La determinación morfológica y sexual se realizó mediante análisis histológico del tracto reproductivo en los embriones y fetos (9 - 28 días) así como mediante inmunohistoquímica -Desert hedgehog-Dhh- (proteína testicular específica en el cromosoma Y- 16, 20, 23 días y conejos adultos). Las gónadas se observaron a partir del día 14 en un estadio indiferenciado y con aspecto homogéneo. Se observó diferenciación sexual a partir del día 16 con presencia de células formadoras de cordones gonadales y células Dhh+ en el parénquima gonadal. A partir del día 18 de gestación se observaron cordones testiculares, que evolucionaron a túbulos seminíferos organizados. La formación de los conductos eferentes, deferentes y del epidídimo se observó a los 20 y 23 días, respectivamente. La diferenciación de los genitales externos ocurrió a partir del día 23 desde la distancia anogenital y se utilizó para identificar las estructuras del pene. En conclusión, las características de la diferenciación sexual se determinaron mediante la observación de la proteína Dhh en embriones desde el día 16 hasta la edad adulta, y las particularidades morfológicas observadas a partir del día 18 de gestación, determinadas por diferenciación de los genitales externos a partir del día 23.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Cell Differentiation , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Gonads/growth & development , Gonads/embryology , Seminiferous Tubules , Sex Differentiation , Immunohistochemistry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880170


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the dynamic molecular expression characteristics of single cell RNA binding proteins (RBPs) in the development of mouse embryonic hematopoitic stem cells (HSCs), and obtain the functional research target RNA splicing factor--Mbnl1, to clarify the function of Mbnl1 involved in regulating mouse embryonic HSC development.@*METHODS@#Bioinformatics was used to analyze the single-cell transcriptome data of mouse embryos during HSC development, and the single-cell RBP dynamic molecular expression maps in HSC development was obtained. Mbnl1 was obtained by combining differential analysis and literature research screening. The Mbnl1-knockout mouse model was constructed by the CRISPER/Cas9 technology. Aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) and yolk sac (YS) tissue in two genotype embryos of Mbnl1@*RESULTS@#The in vitro CFU-C experiment of hematopoietic cells preliminarily indicated that there was no significant difference in the number of cell colonies in AGM region and YS transformed by the two genotypes of Mbnl1@*CONCLUSION@#Through functional experiments in vivo and in vitro, it has been confirmed that knockout of the RNA splicing factor--Mbnl1 does not affect the development of HSPC in AGM region of mouse embryo.

Animals , Mice , DNA-Binding Proteins , Gonads , Hematopoiesis , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Mesonephros , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Yolk Sac
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879041


Protein kinase C(PKC) is a kind of kinase which is widely involved in cell proliferation and development. PKC(Wp-PKC) in Whitmania pigra body belongs to classic PKC. In order to investigate the effect of Wp-PKC on the development of Wh. pigra germ cells, 17β-estradiol(17β-E2)(100 ng·mL~(-1)) and methyltestosterone(MT)(150 μg·L~(-1)), 150 μg·L~(-1)(MT)+0.5 mg·L~(-1) PKC, 0.5 mg·L~(-1) PKC inhibitor were added to Wh. pigra culture water, and no addition group(control group) was added, and the effects on the development of Wh. pigra germ cells and the expression of Wp-PKC were observed. The results showed that: Wp-PKC in male gonads was always higher than that in female gonads; MT promoted the development of male gonads in Wh. pigra, while the expression of Wp-PKC was significantly higher than that in the control; 17β-E2 promoted the development of female gonads in Wh. pigra and Wp-PKC expression significantly lower than that of the control; while the development of the female and male gonads in the PKC inhibitor group was inhibited, the expression of Wp-PKC was significantly lower than that of the control. In summary, Wp-PKC may promote the development of Wh. pigra, especially the development of male gonads.

Animals , Female , Male , Estradiol , Gonads , Leeches , Methyltestosterone , Ovary
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878884


Protein kinase C(PKC) is a type of protein kinase widely involved in cell proliferation and development, but the developmental mechanism in the gonads of androgynous animals is still unclear. In order to explore the role of protein kinase C in the development of Whitmania pigra germ cells, the Wh. pigra PKC(Wp-PKC) gene was cloned, bioinformatics analysis was conducted, and fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of female and male gonads. The results showed that:(1)The cloned Wp-PKC had a full length of 2 580 bp, a relative molecular weight of 76 555.19, and contains an open reading frame encoding 670 amino acids, Wp-PKC was closely related to Danio rerio PKC-α and rat PKC-γ. The similarity of amino acid sequence was 55% and 58%.(2)The protein encoded by Wp-PKC had no signal peptide and was a hydrophilic protein. The secondary structure is mainly composed of random coils, α-helices, extended chains, folds and folds, with the largest proportion of random coils and α-helices. Wp-PKC protein does not contain a transmembrane domain. Multiple sequence alignment and domain prediction analysis show that Wp-PKC contains 4 conserved domains of classical protein kinase C.(3)Fluorescence quantitative results showed that the expression of Wp-PKC in Wh. pigra gonads was positively correlated with the development of germ cells, and the expression in male gonads was significantly higher than that in female gonads. In summary, Wp-PKC is a classic PKC, and Wp-PKC may promote the development of Wh. pigra, especially the development of male gonads, and provide references for further research on the developmental mechanisms of Wh. pigra.

Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Cloning, Molecular , Gonads , Leeches/genetics , Ovary , Protein Kinase C/genetics
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1405-1411, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134456


SUMMARY: Establishing guidelines for responsible management in fish production systems requires knowledge of the basic biology of the fish to be raised. The objective of this work was to determine the reproductive capacity of hybrids produced from the crossing of females of Pseudoplatystoma metaense with males of Leiarius marmoratus. Males presented a digitiform, unrestricted spermatogonial testicle containing caudal digits producing glycoproteins that do not form a seminal vesicle. It was possible to find free sperm in the lumen of the tubules and in the ducts. The ovary of the females was found to be saccular and synchronous with at least three groups of oocytes. In the first year of life, only oogonia up to previtellogenic oocytes (cortical alveolus 284.9 ± 35.7 mm in diameter) were found. After the second year vitellogenic oocytes 730 ± 3.78 mm in diameter were observed. The events of gonadal development of the hybrids indicate that they are gonochoric, synchronic animals. The maturation peaks in the high-water season, overlapping with the parental species. Therefore, the escape of hybrids from fish cultures to the rivers may increase the risk of crosses, gene introgression, or diminution of the reproductive capacity of the pure species.

RESUMEN: El establecimiento de pautas para la gestión responsable en los sistemas de producción de peces requiere el conocimiento de la biología básica de los peces a criar. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la capacidad reproductiva de los híbridos producidos por el cruce de hembras de Pseudoplatystoma metaense con machos de Leiarius marmoratus. Los machos presentaron un testículo espermatogonial digital no restringido que contiene dígitos caudales que producen glucoproteínas que no forman una vesícula seminal. Fue posible encontrar esperma libre en la luz de los túbulos y en los conductos. Se encontró que el ovario de las hembras era sacular y sincrónico con al menos tres grupos de ovocitos. En el primer año de vida, solo se encontraron oogonia hasta ovocitos previtelogénicos (alvéolo cortical de 284,9 ± 35,7 mm de diámetro). Después del segundo año, se observaron ovocitos vitelogénicos de 730 ± 3,78 mm de diámetro. Los eventos de desarrollo gonadal de los híbridos indican que son animales sincrónicos gonocóricos. La maduración alcanza su punto máximo en la temporada de aguas altas, superponiéndose con las especies parentales. Por lo tanto, el escape de híbridos de cultivos de peces a los ríos puede aumentar el riesgo de cruces, introgresión genética o disminución de la capacidad reproductiva de las especies puras.

Animals , Male , Female , Sexual Maturation , Catfishes , Gonads/growth & development , Oocytes , Ovary/anatomy & histology , Ovary/growth & development , Testis/anatomy & histology , Testis/growth & development , Gonads/anatomy & histology
Rev. chil. radiol ; 26(2): 40-45, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126192


Resumen: La protección gonadal ha sido durante largo tiempo un importante factor para abordar el requisito "tan bajo como sea razonablemente posible" ALARA. El presente artículo realiza una revisión sistemática sobre la utilidad de la protección gonadal en la radiografía de pelvis en la cual se han destacado los factores que tienen que ver con su realización diaria, es decir, la dosis de radiación involucrada, la radiosensibilidad de las gónadas, la posición del protector gonadal y el factor psicológico de la población en relación con su uso. La incorporación de equipamientos modernos, con dosis y protocolo optimizados, transforma el beneficio de la protección en un tema al menos debatible. Mientras algunos siguen respaldando la medida, otros organismos y autores ya no la respaldan. Es necesario reconsiderar prácticas actuales fundadas en consensos científicos que pueden estar obsoletos y considerar el factor de cambio cultural basados en estos nuevos consensos para su implementación, sin generar mayor preocupación en la población.

Abstract: Gonadal protection has long been an important factor in addressing the ALARA "as low as reasonably possible" requirement. This article performs a systematic review on the usefulness of gonadal protection in pelvic radiography, in which the factors that have to do with its daily performance have been highlighted, that is, radiation dose involved, the radiosensitivity of the gonads, the position of the gonadal shielding and the psychological factor of the population in relation to its use. The incorporation of modern equipment, with optimized dose and protocols, transforms the benefit of gonad shielding into an issue that is at least debatable. While some continue to support the measure, other agencies and authors no longer support it. It is necessary to reconsider current practices based on scientific consensus that may be obsolete and consider the factor of cultural change based on these new consensus for its implementation, without generating major concern in the population.

Humans , Child , Pelvis/diagnostic imaging , Radiation Protection/methods , Gonads/radiation effects , Radiation Dosage , X-Rays , Radiography
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 682-684, June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002276


Complete duplication of testicular veins is a rare phenomenon. However, a few cases of duplication of gonadal veins have been reported. Here, I report a case of unusual formation and termination of the right testicular vein in an adult male cadaver. Five veins arose from the pampinniform plexus and entered the abdomen through the deep inguinal ring. The most medial among the five was large (3 mm in diameter) and it continued as a testicular vein and opened into the right edge of the inferior vena cava, 1 cm above the union of the common iliac veins. The other four veins were about 1 mm in diameter and they united to form two veins in front of the lower part of the right psoas and iliacus muscles (about 2 cm above the deep inguinal ring) and the two veins united to form upper testicular vein, 4 cm above the deep inguinal ring. This testicular vein was 3 mm in diameter and it opened into the inferior vena cava, 4 cm above the union of common iliac veins. Having five veins at deep inguinal ring might increase the chances of varicocele and decrease the chances of indirect inguinal hernia.

La duplicación completa de las venas testiculares es un fenómeno raro. Sin embargo, se han reportado algunos casos de duplicación de venas gonadales. En el presente trabajo se informa un caso de formación y terminación inusual de la vena testicular derecha en un cadáver de un hombre adulto. Cinco venas surgieron del plexo pampiniforme y penetraron en el abdomen a través del anillo inguinal profundo. El más medial entre los cinco fue de gran tamaño (3 mm de diámetro) y continuó como una vena testicular y se abrió hacia el margen derecho de la vena cava inferior, 1 cm por encima de la unión de las venas ilíacas comunes. Las cuatro venas restantes eran de 1 mm de diámetro aproximadamente, y se unieron para formar dos venas frente a la parte inferior de los músculos psoas e ilíaco derechos (aproximadamente 2 cm por encima del anillo inguinal profundo). Se unieron dos venas para formar la vena testicular superior, la cual medía 3 mm de diámetro y se abría hacia la vena cava inferior, 4 cm por encima de la unión de las venas ilíacas comunes. Cinco venas en el anillo inguinal profundo podrían aumentar las posibilidades de varicocele y disminuir las posibilidades de una hernia inguinal indirecta.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Veins/abnormalities , Inguinal Canal/blood supply , Testis/blood supply , Varicocele/etiology , Vena Cava, Inferior/abnormalities , Gonads/blood supply , Hernia, Inguinal/etiology
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 694-700, June 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002279


Spondylus limbatus es una especie bajo protección especial en México, de la que existe poca información biológica y nada sobre estudios histológicos o de ultraestructura del ovario. El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar la morfología ultraestructural de los gametos femeninos maduros y en degeneración. La gónada femenina de S. limbatus en estado de madurez presentó ovocitos postvitelogénicos de 60-70 µm de diámetro, que presentan el aspecto característico de células metabólicamente activas y altamente sintetizadoras. La membrana citoplasmática posee especializaciones destinadas a aumentar la superficie de absorción de la célula, las microvellosidades; el citoplasma presenta numerosos sistemas membranosos relacionados con la síntesis de material de reserva y secreción; y el patrón de organización nuclear altamente lobulado, y por consiguiente con una gran superficie que asegura el intercambio núcleo-citoplasma, se incorpora de forma estructural al proceso de vitelogénesis. Finalmente, se describen los cambios ultraestructurales resultantes de la lisis de los ovocitos: colapso de las membranas nuclear y citoplásmica, y presencia de células hemocíticas macrófagas.

Spondylus limbatus is a species under special protection in Mexico, of which there is little or no information in the literature of biological, histological or ultrastructural studies of the ovary. The objective of this research was to characterize the ultrastructural morphology of mature and degenerating female gametes. The female gonad of S. limbatus in mature state presented post-vitellogenic oocytes 60-70 µm in diameter, which have characteristics of metabolically active and highly synthesizing cells. The cytoplasmic membrane has specializations designed to increase the absorption surface of the cell, the microvilli; the cytoplasm presents numerous membranous systems related to synthesis of reserve and secretion material as well as the highly lobed nuclear organization pattern; a large surface that ensures core-cytoplasm exchange, is structurally incorporated into the vitellogenesis process. Finally, ultrastructural changes resulting from the lysis of the oocytes are described: collapse of nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes, and the presence of macrophage hemocytic cells.

Animals , Female , Oocytes/ultrastructure , Bivalvia , Gonads/ultrastructure , Reproduction , Microscopy, Electron
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 70-79, Jan.-Mar 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983996


Abstract Population and reproductive aspects allow the knowledge and understanding of population dynamics and the influence of environmental factors, in addition to ensure the success of a species continuity. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze population and reproductive traits of the species Hyphessobrycon eques in southern Pantanal, Brazil. Monthly samplings were conducted from February/2009 to January/2011, with 617 individuals analyzed, being 365 females and 262 males. A similar form of distribution in length and weight between the sexes was observed. There was no significant variation in sex ratio over time, with higher proportion of females during the entire sampled period. Both sexes presented a angular coefficient of Weight/Length (b) relationship greater than 3, with speed of increase in weight greater than in length. For females, a long reproductive period was observed, with greater reproductive intensity from January through June. No significant correlation was observed between the Gonadosomatic Index (GSI) and the average temperature, rainfall and river level, despite the fact that reproductive activity occurs in autumn/winter, when there are favorable conditions due to flooding. The size at first maturation (L50) was 20.2 mm, with confidence interval varying from 19.7 through 20.7 mm. The average fecundity was 191.9 oocytes/females and was significantly related to the standard length and total weight (g), demonstrating a relation with energy accumulation to invest in reproduction. The long reproductive period, intensified by partial spawning, higher proportion of females and low L50, show that the species has strategies necessary for survival and rapid population growth, common in small species characterized as r-strategists.

Resumo Os aspectos populacionais e reprodutivos permitem o conhecimento e a compreensão da dinâmica populacional e da influência de fatores ambientais, assegurando o sucesso da continuidade de uma espécie. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os traços populacionais e reprodutivos da espécie Hyphessobrycon eques no Sul do Pantanal, Brasil. Foram realizadas amostragens mensais de Fevereiro/2009 a Janeiro/2011, com um total de 617 indivíduos analisados, sendo 365 fêmeas e 262 machos. Foi observada que a distribuição foi similar em comprimento e peso entre os sexos. Não ocorreu variação significativa na proporção sexual ao longo do tempo, com maior proporção de fêmeas durante todo período amostrado. Ambos os sexos apresentaram um coeficiente angular da relação Peso/Comprimento (b) maior que 3, com velocidade do incremento em peso maior do que em comprimento. Para as fêmeas, foi observado um período reprodutivo longo, com maior intensidade reprodutiva de Janeiro e Junho. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre o Índice Gonadossomático (IGS) e a temperatura média, pluviosidade e nível do rio, apesar de ocorrer atividade reprodutiva no outono/inverno, período que há condições favoráveis decorrentes da inundação. O tamanho de primeira maturação (L50) foi de 20,2 mm, com intervalo de confiança variando entre 19,7 e 20,7 mm. A fecundidade média foi de 191,9 ovócitos/fêmea e esteve relacionada significativamente ao comprimento padrão e peso total (g), demonstrando uma relação com acúmulo de energia para investir na reprodução. O período reprodutivo longo, intensificado pela desova parcelada, maior proporção de fêmeas e baixo L50, mostram que a espécie possui estratégias necessárias para sobrevivência e rápido crescimento da população, comum em espécies de pequeno porte caracterizadas como r-estrategistas.

Animals , Male , Female , Rain , Reproduction , Water Movements , Fertility , Characidae/physiology , Gonads/growth & development , Seasons , Sex Ratio , Temperature , Brazil , Rivers
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 133-143, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764257


Anorexia nervosa (AN) affects 2.9 million people, many of whom experience bone loss and increased fracture risk. In this article, we review data on the underlying pathophysiology of AN-related osteoporosis and possible approaches to disease management. Available research suggests that low body weight and decreased gonadal function are the strongest predictors of bone loss and fractures in patients with AN. Additionally, other metabolic disturbances have been linked to bone loss, including growth hormone resistance, low leptin concentrations, and hypercortisolemia, but those correlations are less consistent and lack evidence of causality. In terms of treatment of AN-related bone disease, weight gain has the most robust impact on bone mineral density (BMD). Restoration of gonadal function seems to augment this effect and may independently improve BMD. Bisphosphonates, insulin-like growth factor 1 supplementation, and teriparatide may also be reasonable considerations, however need long-term efficacy and safety data.

Humans , Anorexia Nervosa , Anorexia , Body Weight , Bone Density , Bone Diseases , Diphosphonates , Disease Management , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Gonads , Growth Hormone , Leptin , Osteoporosis , Teriparatide , Weight Gain
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758962


Two American Cocker Spaniels and one Bichon Frise were presented to our veterinary teaching hospital with an enlarged clitoris. Diagnostic imaging showed that the structure was composed of bony material. Exploratory laparotomy revealed uterine-like structures and testes which had an epididymis unilaterally. Surgical removal of internal genitalia, gonads and protruded clitoris were performed well. Histological evaluation revealed; inactive testes, female internal genital tracts with ambisexual ductal remnants, and prominent ossification in the clitoris. All 3 cases were diagnosed with male pseudohermaphroditism. In author's knowledge, this is the first report in Bichon Frise dog with os clitoris and also, it describes not common cases in small dog breeds with os clitoris.

Animals , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY , Clitoris , Diagnostic Imaging , Epididymis , Genitalia , Gonads , Hospitals, Teaching , Laparotomy , Testis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773727


The present study was conducted to explores the effects of short-term addition of 17β-E2 on the growth,gonad development and internal quality of overwintering Whitmania pigra. Before overwintering,0. 0,1. 0,10. 0,25. 0,50. 0,100. 0 μg·L~(-1) of 17β-E2 were added to the aquaculture water for 6 weeks and then hibernated for 60 days. The changes of growth performance,gonad index,morphological structure of spermary( ovary),endogenous steroid hormones level and internal quality were measured. The results showed that the body weight,weight gain rate,specific growth rate,female gonad index,oocyte development and endogenous estrogen level of the leech increased first and then decreased with the increase of the concentration of exogenous 17β-E2,which were higher than those of the control group. The body weight,weight gain rate and specific growth rate of the leech at the concentration of 25 μg·L~(-1)17β-E2 were significantly higher than those of the other groups( P<0. 05),oocyte development and endogenous estrogen levels were significantly higher than those of other groups at the concentration of 50 μg·L~(-1)( P<0. 05). When the concentration of exogenous 17β-E2 was higher than 50 μg·L~(-1),the levels of male gonad index,spermatocyte development,endogenous androgen and progesterone were significantly inhibited( P< 0. 05). There was no significant difference in endogenous corticosteroid levels among the groups. In conclusion,short-term addition of exogenous 17β-E2 of 10-25 μg·L~(-1) could promote the growth of overwintering leeches,oocyte development and antithrombin activity without inhibiting the development of male gonads.

Animals , Female , Male , Androgens , Estradiol , Pharmacology , Estrogens , Gonads , Hibernation , Leeches , Progesterone
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763706


In the current era of effective antiretroviral therapies (ARTs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection became a chronic disorder that requires long term follow-up. Among other medical issues, these patients may develop endocrine problems, specific to HIV infection and its treatment. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of common endocrine complications associated with HIV infection, and to propose diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. HIV can affect the endocrine system at several levels. Adrenal and gonadal dysfunction, osteoporosis with increased fracture risk, dyslipidemia with increased cardiovascular risk, are some of the endocrine disorders prevalent in HIV-infected patients that may negatively influence quality of life, and increase morbidity and mortality. While ARTs have dramatically increased life expectancy in the HIV-infected population, they are not devoid of adverse effects, including endocrine dysfunction. Physicians caring for HIV-infected patients should be knowledgeable and exercise a high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of endocrine abnormalities, and in particular be aware of those that can be life threatening. Endocrine evaluation should follow the same strategies as in the general population, including prevention, early detection, and treatment.

Humans , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Dyslipidemias , Endocrine System Diseases , Endocrine System , Follow-Up Studies , Gonads , HIV Infections , HIV , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome , Hyperlipidemias , Life Expectancy , Mortality , Osteoporosis , Quality of Life
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785878


Yolk sac tumors are rare malignant germ cell neoplasms that usually arise from the gonads. Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (EGYSTs) frequently occur in the mediastinum in post-pubertal females. EGYSTs in the pelvis are extremely rare, and to date, only thirteen cases have been reported in the English literature. Among them, the primary EGYST of the pelvic peritoneum in post-pubertal females has only been reported in ten cases. The present case describes a 26-year-old female diagnosed with primary peritoneal yolk sac tumor located in the rectouterine pouch. We report clinical and tumor imaging features, including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance images (MRI), positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and present a review of the literature.

Adult , Female , Humans , Douglas' Pouch , Electrons , Endodermal Sinus Tumor , Gonads , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mediastinum , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Pelvis , Peritoneum , Ultrasonography , Yolk Sac
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785408


PURPOSE: Patients with ovotesticular disorder of sex development (DSD) and mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) usually present with asymmetric gonads and have wide phenotypic variations in internal and external genitalia. The differential diagnosis of these conditions is based on karyotype and pathological findings of the gonads. This study investigated the clinical features at presentation, karyotype, sex of rearing, and pubertal outcomes of patients with ovotesticular DSD and MGD.METHODS: The study comprised 23 patients with DSD who presented with asymmetric gonads. The presenting features, karyotype, sex of rearing, and pubertal outcomes were reviewed retrospectively.RESULTS: All 23 patients presented with ambiguous genitalia at a median age of 1 month (range, 1 day–1.6 years). Müllerian duct remnants were identified in 15 of 23 patients (65.2%). Fourteen patients were diagnosed with ovotesticular DSD, whereas the other 9 were diagnosed with MGD. Eight of 14 patients (57.1%) with ovotesticular DSD were raised as males, while 7 of 9 patients with MGD (77.8%) were assigned as males. One male-assigned patient with ovotesticular DSD changed to female sex at age 20 years.CONCLUSION: Patients with ovotesticular DSD and MGD manifest overlapping clinical presentations and hormonal profiles. It is difficult to determine the sex of rearing and predict long-term pubertal outcomes. Therefore, long-term follow-up is required to monitor spontaneous puberty, sex outcome, and urological and gynecological complications.

Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Diagnosis, Differential , Disorders of Sex Development , Follow-Up Studies , Genitalia , Gonadal Dysgenesis , Gonadal Dysgenesis, Mixed , Gonads , Karyotype , Ovotesticular Disorders of Sex Development , Puberty , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742361


The survival rates of boys and men with cancer have increased due to advances in cancer treatments; however, maintenance of quality of life, including fertility preservation, remains a major issue. Fertile male patients who receive radiation and/or chemotherapy face temporary, long-term, or permanent gonadal damage, particularly with exposure to alkylating agents and whole-body irradiation, which sometimes induce critical germ cell damage. These cytotoxic treatments have a significant impact on a patient's ability to have their own biological offspring, which is of particular concern to cancer patients of reproductive age. Therefore, various strategies are needed in order to preserve male fertility. Sperm cryopreservation is an effective method for preserving spermatozoa. Advances have also been achieved in pre-pubertal germ cell storage and research to generate differentiated male germ cells from various types of stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and spermatogonial stem cells. These approaches offer hope to many patients in whom germ cell loss is associated with sterility, but are still experimental and preliminary. This review examines the current understanding of the effects of chemotherapy and radiation on male fertility.

Humans , Male , Alkylating Agents , Cryopreservation , Drug Therapy , Embryonic Stem Cells , Fertility , Fertility Preservation , Germ Cells , Gonads , Hope , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Infertility , Infertility, Male , Methods , Quality of Life , Radiotherapy , Spermatogenesis , Spermatozoa , Stem Cells , Survival Rate , Whole-Body Irradiation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719631


Testosterone has a variety of functions and is commonly used in older men to treat symptoms of hypogonadism, such as decreased libido, decreased mood and erectile dysfunction. Despite its positive effects on sexual function, it has a negative effect on fertility. Exogenous testosterone therapy can negatively affect the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis and inhibit the production of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. The purpose of this review is to discuss the contraceptive properties of testosterone therapy and to discuss strategies to increase testosterone in men with the desire to preserve fertility.

Humans , Male , Contraception , Erectile Dysfunction , Family Planning Services , Fertility , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonads , Hypogonadism , Infertility , Libido , Luteinizing Hormone , Testosterone