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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(2): e00174919, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153689

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O objetivo do estudo foi estimar a prevalência de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) e fatores associados sobre mulheres quilombolas no Brasil. Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional com mulheres quilombolas no período de março de 2017 a janeiro de 2019. Utilizou-se um questionário com informações sociodemográficas, comportamentais e clínicas. Foi realizado exame ginecológico para coleta de células cervicais para citologia oncótica e para detecção de Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis e papilomavírus humano (HPV), por meio de teste de reação em cadeia pela polimerase. Foi realizado teste rápido para HIV e sífilis. O desfecho principal foi definido como a infecção por um ou mais agentes infecciosos de transmissão sexual. Para a análise, utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado e regressão logística hierárquica. De um total de 380 mulheres, 352 (92,6%) foram incluídas no estudo. A prevalência de, pelo menos, uma IST foi de 18,5% (IC95%: 14,76-22,85). A maior prevalência foi de 11,1% por HPV, seguido de 6,3% por T. vaginalis e de 4,3% por C. trachomatis. Não houve nenhum caso de N. gonorrhoeae. Para o HIV, a prevalência foi de 0,3%, e de sífilis foi de 4,3%. A citologia cervicovaginal estava alterada em 7,7%. A detecção de uma ou mais IST foi significativamente associada a idade entre 25 e 44 anos (OR = 2,33; IC95%: 1,05-5,18), a consumo de álcool (OR = 1,96; IC95%: 1,06-3,64), a resultado alterado da citologia (OR = 3,96; IC95%: 1,65-9,48) e a vaginose bacteriana (OR = 3,61; IC95%: 2,01-6,47). Em mulheres quilombolas houve elevada prevalência de uma ou mais IST, o que torna importante a elaboração de estratégias de prevenção direcionadas a essas mulheres.


Abstract: The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and associated factors in women in quilombola (maroon) communities in Brazil. This was a population-based cross-sectional study of quilombola women from March 2017 to January 2019. A questionnaire was used with sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical information. A gynecological examination was performed for the collection of uterine cervical cells for oncotic cytology and the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and human papillomavirus (HPV) via polymerase chain reaction. Rapid tests for HIV and syphilis were performed. The main outcome was defined as infection with one or more sexually transmissible pathogens. The analysis used chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression. From a total of 380 women, 352 (92.6%) were included in the study. Prevalence of at least one STI was 18.5% (95%CI: 14.76-22.85). The highest prevalence was for HPV, with 11.1%, followed by 6.3% for T. vaginalis and 4.3% for C. trachomatis. There were no cases of N. gonorrhoeae. Prevalence was 0.3% for HIV and 4.3% for syphilis. Cervical-vaginal cytology was altered in 7.7% of the women. Detection of one or more STIs was significantly associated with age 25 to 44 years (OR = 2.33; 95%CI: 1.05-5.18), alcohol consumption (OR = 1.96; 95%CI: 1.06-3.64), altered cervical cytology (OR = 3.96; 95%CI: 1.65-9.48), and bacterial vaginosis (OR = 3.61; 95%CI: 2.01-6.47). Quilombola women showed high prevalence of one or more STIs, emphasizing the importance of organizing prevention strategies targeted to these women.


Resumen: El objetivo del estudio fue estimar la prevalencia de enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS) y sus factores asociados en mujeres quilombolas en Brasil. Estudio transversal de base poblacional con mujeres quilombolas durante el período de marzo de 2017 a enero de 2019. Se utilizó un cuestionario con información sociodemográfica, comportamental y clínica. Se realizó un examen ginecológico, a fin de recoger células cervicales para la citología oncótica, así como para la detección de Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, y virus del papiloma humano (VPH) mediante un test de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Se realizó un test rápido para VIH y sífilis. El resultado principal, se definió como infección por uno o más agentes infecciosos de transmisión sexual. Para el análisis, se utilizó el test de chi-cuadrado y regresión logística jerárquica. De un total de 380 mujeres, 352 (92,6%) se incluyeron en el estudio. La prevalencia de por lo menos una ETS fue de 18,5% (IC95%: 14,76-22,85). La mayor prevalencia fue por VPH 11,1%, seguida de 6,3% por T. vaginalis y 4,3% por C. trachomatis. No hubo casos de N. gonorrhoeae. Para el VIH, la prevalencia fue de 0,3% y de sífilis fue de 4,3%. La citología cérvico-vaginal estaba alterada en un 7,7%. La detección de una o más ETS estuvo significativamente asociada con la edad entre 25 a 44 años (OR = 2,33; IC95%: 1,05-5,18), el consumo de alcohol (OR = 1,96; IC95%: 1,06-3,64), resultado alterado de la citología (OR = 3,96; IC95%: 1,65-9,48) y vaginosis bacteriana (OR = 3,61; IC95%: 2,01-6,47). Las mujeres quilombolas presentaron una elevada prevalencia por una o más ETS, por lo que es importante la elaboración de estrategias de prevención dirigidas a estas mujeres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54(supl.1): e2020602, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250845

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is a topic included in the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines for Comprehensive Care for People with Sexually Transmitted Infections, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2020. Pelvic inflammatory disease is an upper female genital tract acute infection due to canalicular spread of endogenous cervicovaginal microorganisms and especially the sexually transmitted microorganisms. Standing out among the etiological agents involved are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The main sequelae are chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Clinical diagnosis is the most important practical approach. Antibiotic treatment must start immediately after the clinical suspicion. Guidelines for health service managers and health professionals on diagnostic tests, treatment, follow-up, counseling, notification, handling sexual partners and special populations are described. Given the increased availability of the molecular biology techniques in Brazil, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae screening are recommended as a disease prevention strategy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/drug therapy , Gonorrhea , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease/diagnosis , Brazil , Chlamydia trachomatis , Mass Screening
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 32-36, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092719

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los/as trabajadores/as sexuales, personas con adicción a drogas, población de inicio sexual precoz y población penal son considerados los grupos de mayor riesgo de contraer infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). Objetivo: Determinar prevalencia de infección por Neisseria gonorrhoeae, en reclusos del Centro de Detención Preventiva (CDP) de la Región de Arica y Parinacota, Chile. Este estudio contó con la aprobación del Cómité Ético Científico de la Universidad de Tarapacá. Material y Método: Participaron 140 reclusos, que aceptaron ser parte del estudio en forma voluntaria y firmaron un consentimiento informado. Se tomó una muestra del meato uretral para pesquisa de N. gonorrhoeae y se aplicó una encuesta epidemiológica que consignó edad, consumo de drogas, hacinamiento, entre otros. Resultados: La prevalencia del agente fue de 16,4% en reclusos del CDP de Arica, resultado menor a lo reportado en otros estudios similares. Conclusiones: Conocer la realidad de la prevalencia de esta ITS y algunos factores de riesgo asociados a la situación de privación de la libertad en una zona tri-fronteriza del norte de Chile, contribuye a las propuestas de programas de prevención en esta población vulnerable y de riesgo.


Abstract Background: Sex workers, people with drug addiction, early onset of sexual activity population, and criminal population, are considered the groups most at risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Aim: To determine the prevalence of infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in inmates of the Preventive Detention Center (CDP) at Arica and Parinacota Region, Chile. The Scientific Ethical Committee of Universidad de Tarapacá approved this study. Method: 140 inmates participated, who voluntarily agreed to be part of the study and signed an informed consent. A sample of urethral meatus was taken to investigate N. gonorrhoeae, and an epidemiological survey was applied, which included age, drug use, overcrowding, among others. Results: The prevalence of the agent was 16.4% in inmates of the Arica CDP, a result lower than that reported in other similar studies. Conclusion: Knowing the reality of the prevalence of this STI and some risk factors associated with the situation of deprivation of freedom in a tri-border area of northern Chile, contributes to the proposals for prevention programs in this vulnerable and at-risk population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sex Workers , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
5.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 30(4): e1401, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093081

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la asociación entre la búsqueda de información sobre sífilis y gonorrea a través de Google, y la producción científica sobre estas dos infecciones de transmisión sexual. Se realizó estudio descriptivo transversal. Los datos se obtuvieron de la consulta directa, online, Google Trends y MEDLINE (vía PubMed), con el uso de los términos "Syphilis" y "Gonorrhea". Las variables estudiadas fueron: volumen de búsqueda relativo (VBR), VBR mensual medio (VBRm), referencias (REF) y REF mensuales medias (REFm). La VBRm para el término Syphilis presentó ligera progresión creciente y ajuste exponencial (R2= 0,05; p= 0,42); Para Gonorrhea la evolución VBRm fue creciente con ajuste lineal (R2= 0,67; p< 0,01). La REFm para la producción científica sobre la Syphilis mostró un ajuste lineal creciente (R2= 0,42; p= 0,01) y para la REFm sobre la Gonorrhea fue un ajuste exponencial creciente (R2= 0,47; p= 0,01). La relación del VBRm para el término Syphilis en relación con su REFm dio una asociación escasa (R= 0,11; p= 0,69). Esta relación para la Gonorrhea mostró una significativa correlación positiva (R= 0,67; p= 0,01). Los resultados obtenidos no permitieron obtener una conclusión firme que contestara el objetivo de este trabajo. A partir de ahora, con un mayor seguimiento, se podrán obtener resultados que confirmen, o no, la asociación entre la búsqueda de información y la producción científica sobre los temas relacionados con la salud(AU)


The purpose of the study was to analyze the association between information search about syphilis and gonorrhea in Google, and the scientific production about these two sexually transmitted infections. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. Data were obtained by direct online consultation of Google Trends and MEDLINE (via PubMed) using the search terms "syphilis" and "gonorrhea". The variables analyzed were relative search volume (RSV), mean monthly RSV (RSVm), references (REF) and mean monthly REF (REFm). The RSVm for the term syphilis showed slight increasing progression and exponential adjustment (R2= 0.05; p= 0.42); while for gonorrhea the RSVm evolution was increasing with linear adjustment (R2= 0.67; p< 0.01). The REFm for the scientific production about syphilis displayed increasing linear adjustment (R2= 0.42; p= 0.01), whereas the REFm for gonorrhea showed increasing exponential adjustment (R2= 0.47; p= 0.01). The association of the RSVm for the term syphilis with its REFm was scant (R= 0.11; p= 0.69), while the term gonorrhea exhibited a significant positive correlation (R= 0.67; p= 0.01). The results obtained were not sufficient to reach a definitive conclusion in response to the aim of the study. From this moment onwards, with greater follow-up, further results may be obtained which will either confirm or disprove the association between information search and scientific production about health topics(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Gonorrhea , Syphilis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Information
6.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 30(4): 80-87, dic. 2019. graf, tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096677

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones transmisibles sexualmente (ITS) con afectación anorrectal constituyen un desafío pues las manifestaciones producidas por Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) y Treponema pallidum (TP) son similares. Objetivo: Evaluar si las manifestaciones anorrectales debidas a CT, NG y TP asociadas al examen proctológico permiten diagnóstico certero, sin estudios complementarios. Pacientes y método: Estudio retrospectivo. Revisión de registros de pacientes atendidos en consultorio coloproctológico. Periodo: 01/08/2015-01/07/2016. Se incluyeron pacientes con diagnóstico de ITS anorrectal, excepto aquellos con HPV únicamente. A todos se les pesquisaron ITS mediante hisopado anal para CT por inmunofluorescencia y para estudio directo y cultivo de NG, VDRL para TP y además HIV. Variables: sexo, edad, HIV, sexo anal, uso de preservativo, motivo de consulta y resultado de estudios efectuados. Resultados: Treinta y cuatro pacientes (32 hombres). Edad mediana 31,5 años (rango: 19-65). Veinticinco pacientes HIV + (73,5%). Veintinueve pacientes (28 hombres) mantenían sexo anal. 91% no usaba preservativo adecuadamente. 65% tuvo una única infección (ITS pura). Se diagnosticaron 14 sífilis (8 puras), 14 clamidiasis (7 puras) y 11 gonococcias (7 puras). Co-infección entre ellas: 9% y con HPV: 26%. La úlcera fue la manifestación en 7/8 casos de sífilis puras (todas dolorosas, excepto una). El resto presentó síntomas variados (condilomas virales atípicos, secreción purulenta y proctorragia). Más del 50% de las gonococias puras (4/7) se manifestó con úlcera, sin embargo, el dolor estuvo presente siempre (8/8) y en tres se asoció secreción purulenta. En cambio, la mitad de los pacientes con clamidiasis puras, se manifestó con proctorragia causada por un tumor rectal/sigmoideo inflamatorio, clínicamente indistinguible de neoplasia maligna. Todos las sífilis y gonococias tuvieron correlato con las pruebas diagnósticas, no así las clamidiasis cuyo diagnóstico no pudo confirmarse en tres casos (37,5%), que respondieron al tratamiento empírico. Conclusión: NG y TP anorrectal provocaron mayormente síntomas similares a los de etiología no venérea y se requirió del laboratorio para el diagnóstico etiológico. La presencia de tumor con biopsia negativa para neoplasia maligna en pacientes de riesgo para ITS obliga a descartar clamidiasis. (AU)


Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a challenge in medical consultation. The clinical manifestations of infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Treponema pallidum ( TP) share symptoms at anorectal level. This implies the need for a high index of suspicion for diagnosis, which is based on history, physical examination and laboratory tests that not always are accurate or available . Purpose: Assess whether clinical signs of anorectal infections by CT, NG and TP associated with proctologic exams, lead to an accurate etiologic diagnosis without the help of specific laboratory studies. Patients and methods: Observational, retrospective study, based on a review of records of patients treated at the outpatient clinic of the Hospital Fernandez (City of Buenos Aires) department of coloproctology, in the period between August 2015 and July 2016. Patients who underwent STI diagnosis were all considered, but to those whose only diagnosis was infection by human papilloma virus (HPV) were excluded from the analysis. All patients were tested after the three etiologies of STI (anal swab for CT study by immunofluorescence, swabbing for direct study, and cultivation of NG and TP VDRL) and HIV. Variables analyzed: sex, age, presence of HIV infection, practice of receptive anal sex, proper use of condoms, signs and symptoms that prompted the consultation, and results of diagnostic tests. Results: 34 patients (32 men) were included. Median age 31.5 years (range: 19-65, interquartile range: 26-37). Twenty-five patients (73.5%) were HIV+. Twenty-nine patients (28 men) remained receptive anal sex. 91% did not use condoms properly. 65% of infections were pure, without other STI asociada-. 14 cases of syphilis (8 pure), 14 Chlamydia (7 pure) and 11 gonococcias (7puras), including co-infection in 9% of cases, no evidence of a more frequent another co-infection diagnosed. Co-infection with HPV was detected in 9 (26%) cases. The ulcer was the sign in 7/8 cases of pure syphilis (all painful, except one). The rest is expressed by a variety of symptoms (atypical viral warts, purulent and bloody diarrhea). Similarly, just over 50% (4/7) of pure gonococcias demonstrated ulcer, but the pain was always present (8/8 of pure gonococcias) and three associated with purulent discharge. Instead of the ten patients with pure chlamydia, 50% manifested with bloody diarrhea caused by a rectal tumor / inflammatory sigmoid, clinically indistinguishable from malignancy. All cases of syphilis and gonococcal were correlated with diagnostic tests; not those whose diagnosis of chlamydial infection (confirmed in eight and was negative in three, 37.5%) who responded to empiric treatment indicated by the clinical suspicion. Conclusion: While this is a small series, it shows that the NG and TP in the anorectal location mostly caused symptoms similar to those of non-venereal ethology most of the times, and laboratory assistance for etiologic diagnosis was required. The presence of tumor with negative biopsy for malignancy in patients at risk for STIs, leads chlamydia to be ruled out. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Proctitis/etiology , Proctitis/microbiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial/complications , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Syphilis/diagnosis , Pain , Proctitis/epidemiology , Rectum/microbiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial/epidemiology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Clinical Laboratory Techniques
7.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(2): 116-124, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058964

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To identify correlates of HIV/STI prevalence among 13 cities with varying sizes of female sex worker (FSW) populations and municipal characteristics in Mexico. Materials and methods: FSWs underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia. Logistic regression explored variations in HIV/STI prevalence. Results: Among FSWs (n=1 092), prevalence across 13 sites was: HIV: 0.4% (range: 0%-1.4%): syphilis: 7.8% (range: 0%-17.2%); chlamydia: 15.3% (range: 5.7%-32.2%); gonorrhea: 2.9% (range 0%-13.8%), and any HIV/STI: 23% (range: 9.9%-46%). Municipalities with high human development scores and a lower municipal marginalization index had higher odds of combined HIV/STI prevalence. After controlling for site-specific variability in municipal characteristics, greater risk of HIV/STIs was associated with lower education, having a spouse diagnosed or treated for an STI, unaffordability of condoms, and having non-Mexican clients. Conclusions: Prevalence of HIV/STIs varies across Mexican municipalities indicating the need for surveillance to identify hotspots for targeted resource allocation.


Resumen: Objetivo: Identificar correlaciones de la prevalencia de VIH / ITS entre 13 ciudades con diferentes tamaños de población de trabajadoras sexuales y características municipales en México. Material y métodos: Las trabajadoras sexuales fueron entrevistadas y recibieron pruebas de VIH, sífilis, gonorrea y clamidia. La regresión logística exploró las variaciones en la prevalencia del VIH/ITS. Resultados: Entre las trabajadoras sexuales (n = 1 092), la prevalencia en 13 sitios fue: VIH: 0.4% (rango: 0-1.4%): sífilis: 7.8% (rango: 0-17.2%); clamidia: 15.3% (rango: 5.7-32.2%); gonorrea: 2.9% (rango 0-13.8%) y cualquier VIH/ITS: 23% (rango: 9.9-46%). Los municipios con altos puntajes de desarrollo humano y menor índice de marginación municipal tuvieron una mayor probabilidad de prevalencia combinada de VIH/ITS. Después de controlar la variabilidad específica del sitio en las características municipales, el mayor riesgo de VIH / ITS se asoció con menor educación, tener un cónyuge diagnosticado o tratado para una ITS, imposibilidad de conseguir condones y tener clientes no mexicanos. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de VIH/ITS varía entre los municipios mexicanos, lo que indica la necesidad de una vigilancia para identificar hotspots para la asignación selectiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Gonorrhea , Syphilis/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Analysis of Variance , Cities/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(2): 221-233, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003668

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) son una de las principales causas de enfermedad aguda, infertilidad, discapacidad a largo plazo y muerte en el mundo1. Este informe presenta la situación epidemiológica preliminar de las ITS hasta el año 2017 en Chile. Sífilis es la ITS de mayor tasa de notificación, seguido de la infección por VIH. En términos generales, todas las ITS presentan una relativa estabilización de sus tasas en el período 2014 y 2015, excepto gonorrea que muestra un incremento en estos años, el que se focaliza en el grupo de 15 a 24 años. El año 2017, sífilis y la infección por VIH presentaron un aumento de sus tasas en relación al año 2016. En todas estas ITS la tasa de hombres supera a la de mujeres y el grupo de edad más afectado es el de 15 a 39 años. Según distribución geográfica, las regiones de Arica-Parinacota a Antofagasta, Metropolitana, Valparaíso, Los Lagos y Aysén, presentan los mayores riesgos.


Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are one of the main causes of acute illness, infertility, long-term disability and death in the world1. This report presents the preliminary epidemiological situation of STIs up to the year 2017 in Chile. Syphilis is the STI with the highest reporting rate, followed by HIV infection. In general terms, all STIs present a relative stabilization of their rates in the 2014 and 2015 periods, except for gonorrhea that shows an increase in these years, which focuses on the group of 15 to 24 years. In 2017, syphilis and HIV infection showed an increase in their rates in relation to 2016. In all these STIs the rate of men exceeds that of women and the most affected age group is 15 to 39 years. According to geographical distribution, the regions of Arica-Parinacota to Antofagasta, Metropolitana, Valparaíso, Los Lagos and Aysén, present the greatest risks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Time Factors , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
10.
Med. Afr. noire (En ligne) ; 66(7): 411-414, 2019.
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1266347

ABSTRACT

Nous décrivons un cas d'urétrite gonococcique chez un patient de 31 ans qui a consulté après qu'il a eu une mictalgie et un écoulement urétral purulent, une semaine après de relations sexuelles non-protégées. Sont abordés par après le diagnostic de confirmation bactériologique, la toute première à Bukavu, la sensibilité de la souche aux antibiotiques (Ceftriaxone et Ciprofloxacine) et une brève revue de la littérature sur le Neisseria gonorrhoeae


Subject(s)
Democratic Republic of the Congo , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Urethritis
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763370

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae share between 80% and 90% of their genetic sequence. Meningococcal serogroup B vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles—such as VA-MENGOC-BC—could cross-protect against gonorrhea. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence rates of gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted diseases with respect to the use of the VA-MENGOC-BC vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Health statistics between 1970 and 2017 were reviewed and the incidence of meningococcal disease and sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, syphilis, condyloma acuminatum, hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infection) were analyzed during the pre- and post-vaccination periods. Gonorrhea incidence was also analyzed by age groups. RESULTS: VA-MENGOC-BC was successfully used to control a meningococcal epidemic in Cuba. The strategy to combat the epidemic was carried out in two stages. The first one was a nationwide mass-vaccination campaign from 1989 to 1990, targeting the population at highest-risk aged 3 months to 24 years. During the second stage, begun in 1991, it was included in the Expanded Immunization Program. Gonorrhea incidence increased from 1970 to 1989. However, after the VA-MENGOC-BC massive vaccination campaign a sharp decrease of gonorrhea incidence was observed. It lasted between 1989 and 1993. A second incidence peak was detected in 1995, but it dropped again. Data clearly show a decline in the incidence of gonorrhea following massive vaccination, in contrast with other sexually transmitted diseases. Incidence rates in unvaccinated age groups also decreased, probably due to herd immunity. CONCLUSION: There is evidence that VA-MENGOC-BC could induce a moderate protection against gonorrhea.


Subject(s)
Cuba , Gonorrhea , Hepatitis B , HIV , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Immunization Programs , Incidence , Membranes , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Neisseria meningitidis , Serogroup , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Syphilis , Vaccination , Vaccines
12.
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 50, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: To evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Methods: After exclusion, 33 female adolescent and young JIA patients (ILAR criteria) and 28 healthy controls were selected for this study. Demographic data, gynecological, sexual function, cervical cytology and histological abnormalities were evaluated. JIA clinical/laboratorial parameters and treatment were also assessed. HPV-DNA, CT-DNA and NG-DNA testing in cervical specimens were performed by Hybrid Capture 2 assays. Results: The mean current age was similar in JIA patients and controls (23.3 ± 6.24 vs. 26.1 ± 6.03 years, p = 0.09). The frequencies of sexual intercourse (76% vs. 89%, p = 0.201) and abnormal cervical cytology (24% vs. 11%, p = 0.201) were similar in JIA compared to controls. The higher frequency of HPV infection in JIA patients than controls (30% vs. 11%, p = 0.155) did not reach statistical significance. CT (0% vs. 7%, p = 0.207) and NG infections (0% vs. 4%, p = 0.459) were also alike in both groups. Further evaluation of JIA patients with abnormal and normal cervical cytology showed that the former group had a higher frequency of HPV infection (87% vs. 12%, p = 0.0002) with a low frequency of HPV vaccination (0% vs. 8%, p = 1.0). No differences were evidenced between these two JIA groups regarding demographic data, sexual function and clinical/laboratorial parameters. The frequencies of methotrexate (p =0.206) and biological agent use (p =0.238) were similar in both JIA groups. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this was the first study to assess lower genital infections in JIA patients allowing the identification of HPV as main cause of cervical dysplasia. Methotrexate and biological agents do not seem to increase risk of lower genital tract infections in JIA patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Arthritis, Juvenile/physiopathology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
13.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 52(4): 429-439, dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001067

ABSTRACT

La disfunción vaginal (vaginosis/vaginitis) es la patología genital hoy reconocida más prevalente. El objetivo del trabajo fue generar información sobre la prevalencia de Disfunción vaginal y los factores de riesgo asociados en mujeres sintomáticas y asintomáticas. Se incorporó además la detección de C. trachomatis y N. gonorrhoeae. Se consolida la validez del Balance del Contenido Vaginal (BACOVA) en el diagnóstico integral de disfunción vaginal y de la amplificación génica en la detección de C. trachomatis. Se estudiaron 295 mujeres que asistieron al Hospital Municipal de Bahía Blanca. La mayor prevalencia correspondió a vaginosis bacteriana (21,36%), luego levaduras (13,90%), T. vaginalis (3,73%) y C. trachomatis (3,05%). No se detectó ningún caso de gonococia. Los factores de riesgo encuadran en el marco de valores de la región centro sur del país, pero se debe destacar la frecuencia significativa de alteraciones de la función vaginal (68,87%) y la infección por clamidias (4,35%) detectadas en mujeres asintomáticas. Esto impone la necesidad de revisar y optimizar la política de cumplimiento de las Normas Ministeriales de prevención y control con la aplicación de una metodología de laboratorio normatizada en el protocolo de control de mujeres en edad fértil, embarazadas o no.


Vaginal dysfunction (vaginosis/vaginitis) is the most prevalent genital pathology recognized today. The objective of the work was to generate information on the prevalence of vaginal dysfunction and the associated risk factors in symptomatic and asymptomatic women. The detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was also incorporated. The validity of the Vaginal Content Balance (BACOVA) in the comprehensive diagnosis of vaginal dysfunction and of gene amplification in the detection of C. trachomatis is consolidated. A total of 295 women who attended the Municipal Hospital of Bahía Blanca were studied. The highest prevalence corresponded to bacterial vaginosis (21.36%), then yeasts (13.90%), T. vaginalis (3.73%) and C. trachomatis (3.05%). No cases of gonorrhea were detected. The risk factors fit within the framework of values of the south central region of the country, but the significant frequency of alterations of vaginal function (68.87%) and chlamydial infection (4.35%) detected in asymptomatic women should be noted. This imposes the need to review and optimize the compliance policy of the Ministerial Standards of prevention and control, with the application of a standardized laboratory methodology, in the control protocol for women of childbearing age, pregnant or not.


A disfunção vaginal (vaginose/vaginite) é a patologia genital mais prevalente hoje reconhecida. O objetivo do trabalho foi gerar informações sobre a prevalência de disfunção vaginal e os fatores de risco associados em mulheres sintomáticas e assintomáticas. A detecção de C. trachomatis e N. gonorrhoeae também foi incorporada. A validade do Equilíbrio do Conteúdo Vaginal (BACOVA) no diagnóstico integral da Disfunção Vaginal e da amplificação gênica na detecção de C. trachomatis está consolidada. Estudamos 295 mulheres que freqüentaram o Hospital Municipal de Bahía Blanca. A maior prevalência correspondeu à vaginose bacteriana (21,36%), depois leveduras (13,90%), T. vaginalis (3,73%) e C. trachomatis (3,05%). Nenhum caso de gonorreia foi detectado. Os fatores de risco enquadram-se no quadro de valores da região centro-sul do país, mas deve-se notar a frequência significativa de alterações da função vaginal (68,87%) e infecção por clamídia (4,35%), detectadas em mulheres assintomáticas. Isso impõe a necessidade de rever e otimizar a política de compliance das Normas Ministeriais de prevenção e controle, com a aplicação de metodologia laboratorial padronizada, no protocolo de controle para mulheres em idade fértil, gestantes ou não.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Trichomonas Vaginitis/epidemiology , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Vaginosis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Vaginosis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Vaginosis, Bacterial/microbiology
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 403-412, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978051

ABSTRACT

Resumen La gonorrea producida por Neisseria gonorrhoeae, es capaz de infectar diferentes tipos de mucosas dependiendo de las prácticas sexuales. Se ubica de preferencia en la uretra del hombre y en el cuello uterino de la mujer, también en el recto y la faringe. Su principal forma de transmisión es por relaciones sexuales no protegidas y, ocasionalmente, a través del conducto del parto en los recién nacidos. Este informe presenta la situación epidemiológica de la gonorrea hasta el año 2016 en Chile. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los casos que ingresaron a la vigilancia. Desde el año 2000, se observa una tendencia progresiva a la disminución de las tasas de gonorrea; sin embargo, en el año 2015 y 2016 se produjo un aumento de la tasa con relación al año 2014. En el año 2016 se presentaron 2.039 casos, lo que representa un incremento de 38% con respecto a la mediana del quinquenio anterior (1.473 casos). En relación con la edad de los casos, el mayor riesgo se encontró en el grupo de 15 a 24 años, destacándose que, a partir del año 2013, la tasa del grupo de 15 a 19 años superó al grupo de 25 a 29 años. Según distribución geográfica, las mayores tasas de notificación se presentaron en las regiones del extremo norte y sur del país, siendo las de mayor riesgo las regiones de Tarapacá, Antofagasta, Los Lagos y Aysén.


Gonorrhea is produced by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which is capable of infecting different types of mucous membranes depending on sexual practices. It is located preferably in the man's urethra and in the woman's cervix, also in the rectum and pharynx. Its main form of transmission is through unprotected sex and, occasionally, through the birth canal in newborns. This report presents the epidemiological situation of gonorrhea until 2016 in Chile. A descriptive analysis of the cases that entered the surveillance was carried out. Since 2000, there has been a progressive trend towards decreasing gonorrhea rates; However, in 2015 and 2016 there was an increase in the rate in relation to 2014. In 2016, 2,039 cases were presented, representing an increase of 38% with respect to the median of the previous five-year period (1,473 cases). Regarding the age of the cases, the greatest risk was found in the group of 15 to 24 years, highlighting that, as of 2013, the group rate of 15 to 19 years exceeded the group of 25 to 29 years. According to geographical distribution, the highest reporting rates were in the regions of the extreme north and south of the country, with the highest risk regions being Tarapacá, Antofagasta, Los Lagos and Aysén.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , Chile/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Incidence , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Emigrants and Immigrants , Research Report , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
15.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 30(1): 30-32, 30-03-2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122866

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a public health issue of global concern and frequently lead to important sequelae if not diagnosed and properly treated. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infection is one of the most prevalent STIs worldwide and recently presents increasing incidence and antimicrobial resistance rates. Apart from the neonatal period, NG infection during childhood is considered evidence of sexual violence (SV). However, defining perpetration of violence can be challenging in clinical practice. Objective: To report a case of conjunctivitis due to NG in a prepuberal girl and discuss possible means of infection acquisition and medical forensic implications. Case report: A 7-year-old female Caucasian student from São Paulo was referred to the Rape Care Center (Núcleo de Atendimento a Vítimas de Violência Sexual ­ NAVIS) outpatient clinic to investigate sexual violence in September 2013. At admission, she reported right ocular hyperemia for 10 days with no response to tobramycin eye drops. Personal history: nothing noteworthy. She lived with her mother and grandmother and visited her father every two weeks. Physical and gynecological examinations were normal. Eye examination: Left eye ­ nothing noteworthy. Right eye ­ palpebral edema, conjunctival hyperemia with purulent exudate and upper corneal perforation. Bacterioscopy of conjunctival secretion was positive for Gram-negative diplococci and NG was isolated in culture. The patient was submitted to suturing of right eye perforation and received 1g intravenous ceftriaxone per day for 10 days. During investigation at the NAVIS outpatient clinic, the mother denied any SV episode or school behaviour change. Multidisciplinary psychosocial care was provided to the child and her mother for over 6 months, but SV could not be characterized. STIs investigation for HIV, hepatitis B and C infections and syphilis resulted negative. Based on the literature, a hypothesis of accidental intra-familial non-sexual transmission of NG was then considered. Endocervical, vaginal and urethral secretions were collected from the mother and yielded isolation of endocervical beta-lactamase producing NG. Hygiene measures and contact isolation were recommended and the mother underwent treatment with ceftriaxone single dose 1G. During follow-up the child developed corneal opacity in her right eye. Conclusion: In prepuberal children presenting with unusual but compatible clinical manifestations, STIs should always be considered and investigated to enable prompt treatment and avoid sequelae. If gonococcal infection is diagnosed, the possibility of sexual violence should be thoroughly investigated, preferably in a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to rule out non-sexual contamination and avoid emotional damage to the child and family. Clearly defining SV and proposing proper interventions in these circumstances is, however, challenging for healthcare providers.


As infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (ISTs) são um problema de saúde pública global e com frequência deixam sequelas se não diagnosticadas e tratadas adequadamente. A infecção por Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) é uma das ISTs mais prevalentes em todo o mundo e, recentemente, tem apresentado crescentes taxas de incidência, além de resistência a antimicrobianos. Após o período neonatal, a infecção por NG na infância pode ser uma evidência de violência sexual (VS), no entanto a comprovação da violência é um desafio na prática clínica. Objetivo: Apresentar um caso de conjuntivite por NG em uma menina pré-púbere e discutir as possíveis vias de contaminação e implicações médicas forenses. Relato de caso: Trata-se de uma criança caucasiana de 7 anos de idade do sexo feminino, estudante, procedente de São Paulo, que, após uma internação, foi encaminhada ao Núcleo de Atendimento a Vítimas de Violência Sexual (NAVIS) para investigação de violência sexual, em setembro de 2013. Na admissão intra-hospitalar, houve relato de hiperemia ocular direita, iniciada havia 10 dias, sem resposta ao tratamento com colírio de tobramicina. Antecedentes pessoais: nada digno de nota. Ela morava com a mãe e a avó e visitava o pai a cada duas semanas. Os exames físico e ginecológico foram normais. Exame oftalmológico: olho esquerdo ­ nada digno de nota. Olho direito ­ edema palpebral, hiperemia conjuntival com exsudato purulento e perfuração da córnea superior. A bacterioscopia de secreção conjuntival foi positiva para diplococos gram-negativos e a NG foi isolada em cultura. A paciente foi submetida a sutura cirúrgica de perfuração do olho direito e, enquanto internada, recebeu 1 g de ceftriaxona endovenoso por dia, por um período de 10 dias. Durante a investigação no ambulatório de NAVIS, a mãe negou qualquer episódio de VS ou mudança de comportamento escolar. Foi oferecida assistência psicológica e social à criança e à mãe por mais de seis meses, mas a VS não pôde ser caracterizada. A investigação de IST para o HIV, infecções por hepatite B e C e sífilis resultou negativa. Com base na literatura, a hipótese de transmissão não sexual acidental de NG intrafamiliar foi então considerada. As secreções genitais da mãe (endocervical, vaginal e uretral) foram coletadas e o isolamento endocervical da NG produtora por betalactamase foi positivo. Medidas de higiene e isolamento de contato foram recomendados, além ser prescrito o tratamento com ceftriaxona em dose única de 1 g para a mãe. Durante o acompanhamento, a criança desenvolveu opacidade corneana em seu olho direito. Conclusão: Em crianças pré-púberes que apresentam manifestações clínicas incomuns, as ISTs devem sempre ser consideradas e investigadas para permitir o tratamento imediato e assim evitar sequelas. Se uma infecção gonocócica for diagnosticada, a possibilidade de (VS) deve ser minuciosamente investigada, de preferência com uma abordagem multidisciplinar abrangente para descartar a contaminação não sexual e evitar danos emocionais à criança e à sua família. Definir com precisão se houve VS e propor intervenções adequadas nessas circunstâncias mostra-se um desafio para os profissionais de saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rape , Sex Offenses , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Gonorrhea , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Neisseria
16.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 452-456, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689734

ABSTRACT

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), as a pathogen of gonorrhea, is strictly limited to growth on the human host. In case of gonococcal infection, the body may recruit such inflammatory cells as neutrophils to resist the invasion of NG or initiate its adaptive immune response by antigen presentation to eliminate the pathogen. However, a series of immune escape mechanisms of NG make it difficult to clear up the infection. In the innate immune system, NG can not only secrete thermonuclease to degrade neutrophile granulocytes, inhibit respiratory burst to resist killing by neutrophils, activate NLRP3 to prompt the pyronecrosis of inflammatory cells, but also regulate the differentiation of macrophages to reduce the inflammatory response, combine with factor H to evade complement-mediated killing. NG infection can hardly give rise to effective adaptive immune response and immune memory, but can promote TGF-β production to inhibit Th1/Th2-mediated adaptive immune response, bind to CEACAM1 on the B cell surface to promote apoptosis in B cells, and combine with CEACAM1 on the T cell surface to inhibit helper T cell proliferation, which makes it difficult for B cells to produce high-affinity specific antibodies. With the increasing drug-resistance of NG, immunological studies may play a significant role in the development of novel therapies and effective vaccines against the infection.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies , Allergy and Immunology , Antigens, CD , Allergy and Immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Allergy and Immunology , Complement Factor H , Allergy and Immunology , Gonorrhea , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Allergy and Immunology , Immunity, Innate , Allergy and Immunology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Allergy and Immunology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774013

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the infection status of human papilloma virus (HPV),Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU),Chlamydia trachomatis (CT),and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in clinical patients.Methods The laboratory specimens including urine,urethral swabs,and cervical swabs from 870 patients from January 1st 2014 to December 31st 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. HPV-DNA was detected by multiplex fluorescent PCR,and the UU-RNA,CT-RNA,and NG-RNA were determined by isothermal nucleic acid amplification. The positive rate of each pathogen and the distribution of positive rate between male and female patients were calculated. The samples were further divided into HPV-positive group and HPV-negative group,and the positive rates of UU-RNA,CT-RNA,and NG-RNA in these two groups were compared.Results The highest positive rate was 53.68%(467/870) for UU-RNA,followed by HPV-DNA [32.41%(282/870) ]and NG-RNA [2.18%(19/870)]. The total positive rate of high-risk (HR)-HPV(subtypes:16,18,31,33,35,39,45,51,52,56,58,59,and 68) [31.52%(209/663)]and UU in female patients [60.93%(404/663)] was significantly higher than that in male patients [17.39%(36/207),30.34%(63/207)](both P<0.001). The male patients had significantly higher CT positive rate in HR-HPV-positive group than in HR-HPV-negative group [22.58%(7/31) vs. 4.54%(8/176)](P<0.001). The female patients had significantly higher CT positive rate in HR-HPV-positive group than in HR-HPV-negative group [10.5%(21/200) vs. 5.61%(26/463)](P=0.024). The UU-RNA positive rate of females in the low-risk (LR)-HPV (subtypes:6 and 11) positive group was significantly higher than that in LR-HPV negative group [70.83%(34/48) vs.2.11%(13/615)](P<0.001).Conclusions Women are more susceptible to HR-HPV and UU infections. HR-HPV-positive patients are more likely to experience CT infection. In contrast,co-infection with UU is more common in LR-HPV-positive females.


Subject(s)
Chlamydia Infections , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis , Female , Gonorrhea , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Humans , Male , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Ureaplasma Infections , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Ureaplasma urealyticum
18.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e118, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-961812

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To estimate adult (15-49 years old) prevalence and incidence of active syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, and incidence of congenital syphilis (CS) and adverse birth outcomes (ABOs) in Colombia, over 1995-2016. Methods The Spectrum-STI epidemiological model tool estimated gonorrhea and chlamydia prevalences as moving averages across prevalences observed in representative general population surveys. For adult syphilis, Spectrum-STI applied segmented polynomial regression through prevalence data from antenatal care (ANC) surveys, routine ANC-based screening, and general population surveys. CS cases and ABOs were estimated from Spectrum's maternal syphilis estimates and proportions of women screened and treated for syphilis, applying World Health Organization case definitions and risk probabilities. Results The Spectrum model estimated prevalences in 2016 of 0.70% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15%-1.9%) in women and 0.60% (0.1%-1.9%) in men for gonorrhea and of 9.2% (4.4%-15.4%) in women and 7.4% (3.5%-14.7%) in men for chlamydia, without evidence for trends over 1995-2016. The prevalence of active syphilis in 2016 was 1.25% (1.22-1.29%) in women and 1.25% (1.1%-1.4%) in men, decreasing from 2.6% (2.1%-3.2%) in women in 1995. Corresponding CS cases in 2016 (including cases without clinical symptoms) totaled 3 851, of which 2 245 were ABOs. Annual CS and ABO estimates decreased over 2008-2016, reflecting decreasing maternal prevalence and increasing cases averted through ANC-based screening and treatment. Conclusions The available surveillance and monitoring data synthesized in Spectrum-STI— and the resulting first-ever national STI estimates for Colombia—highlighted Colombia's persistently high STI burden. Adult syphilis and congenital syphilis are estimated to be falling, reflecting improving screening efforts. Strengthened surveillance, including with periodic screening in low-risk populations and future refined Spectrum estimations, should support planning and implementation of STI prevention and control, including CS elimination.


resumen está disponible en el texto completo


RESUMO Objetivos Estimar a incidência e a prevalência na população adulta (com idade de 15-49 anos) de sífilis ativa, gonorreia e clamídia e a incidência de sífilis congênita (SC) e desfechos adversos congênitos na Colômbia no período de 1995 a 2016. Métodos O modelo epidemiológico Spectrum-STI foi o instrumento usado para estimar a prevalência de gonorreia e clamídia como médias móveis nas prevalências observadas em pesquisas representativas da população geral. A sífilis em adultos foi estimada com a regressão polinomial segmentada aplicada ao modelo Spectrum-STI com dados de prevalência obtidos de pesquisas da atenção pré-natal, exames pré-natais de rotina de detecção precoce e pesquisas da população geral. Casos de SC e desfechos adversos congênitos foram estimados a partir das estimativas de sífilis materna do modelo Spectrum e percentuais de mulheres que fizeram testes de detecção e foram tratadas para sífilis, segundo as definições de casos da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) e probabilidades de risco. Resultados O modelo Spectrum estimou, para 2016, uma prevalência de gonorreia de 0,70% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%] 0,15%-1,9%) no sexo feminino e 0,60% (0,1%-1,9%) no sexo masculino e uma prevalência de clamídia de 9,2% (4,4%-15,4%) no sexo feminino e 7,4% (3,5%-14.7%) no sexo masculino, sem evidência de tendências no período 1995-2016. A prevalência de sífilis ativa em 2016 foi de 1,25% (1,22-1,29%) no sexo feminino e 1,25% (1,1%-1,4%) no sexo masculino, demonstrando um declínio da prevalência de 2,6% (2,1%-3,2%) observada em 1995 para o sexo feminino. Houve, ao todo, 3.851 casos correspondentes de SC em 2016 (incluindo casos assintomáticos), dos quais 2.245 foram desfechos adversos congênitos. Observou-se uma redução nas estimativas anuais de SC e desfechos adversos congênitos em 2008-2016, refletindo a diminuição da prevalência materna e o número crescente de casos evitados com exames pré-natais de detecção e tratamento. Conclusões Os dados disponíveis de vigilância e monitoramento condensados no modelo Spectrum-STI, e as resultantes estimativas nacionais de infeções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) obtidas pela primeira vez na Colômbia, evidenciam a alta carga persistente de IST no país. Estima-se que a ocorrência de sífilis do adulto e sífilis congênita esteja diminuindo em decorrência da melhoria nos esforços de detecção precoce. A vigilância reforçada, consistindo também de exames periódicos de detecção precoce nas populações de baixo risco e estimavas futuras aprimoradas do instrumento Spectrum, deve sustentar o planejamento e a implementação de controle e prevenção de IST e a eliminação da SC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Gonorrhea , Syphilis/diagnosis , Colombia/epidemiology , Surveillance
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 617-628, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889182

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the agent of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection with an estimate from The World Health Organization of 78 million new cases in people aged 15-49 worldwide during 2012. If left untreated, complications may include pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Antimicrobial treatment is usually effective; however, resistance has emerged successively through various molecular mechanisms for all the regularly used therapeutic agents throughout decades. Detection of antimicrobial susceptibility is currently the most critical aspect for N. gonorrhoeae surveillance, however poorly structured health systems pose difficulties. In this review, we compiled data from worldwide reports regarding epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae, and highlight the relevance of the implementation of surveillance networks to establish policies for gonorrhea treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gonorrhea/microbiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/drug effects , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/history , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/classification , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(6): 779-784, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887127

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Urethral discharge syndrome (UDS) is characterized by the presence of purulent or mucopurulent urethral discharge.The main etiological agents of this syndrome are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of the syndromic management to resolve symptoms in male urethral discharge syndrome cases in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: Retrospective cohort of male cases of urethral discharge syndrome observed at a clinic for sexually transmitted disease (STD) in 2013. Epidemiological and clinical data, as well as the results of urethral swabs, bacterioscopy, hybrid capture for C.trachomatis, wet-mount examination, and culture for N.gonorrhoeae, were obtained through medical chart reviews. Results: Of the 800 urethral discharge syndrome cases observed at the STD clinic, 785 (98.1%) presented only urethral discharge syndrome, 633 (79.1%) returned for follow-up, 579 (91.5%) were considered clinically cured on the first visit, 41(6.5 %) were considered cured on the second visit, and 13(2.0%) did not reach clinical cure after two appointments. Regarding the etiological diagnosis, 42.7% of the patients presented a microbiological diagnosis of N.gonorrhoeae, 39.3% of non-gonococcal and non-chlamydia urethritis, 10.7% of C.trachomatis and 7.3% of co-infection with chlamydia and gonococcus. The odds of being considered cured in the first visit were greater in those who were unmarried, with greater schooling, and with an etiological diagnosis of gonorrhea. The diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis reduced the chance of cure in the first visit. Study limitation: A study conducted at a single center of STD treatment. Conclusion: Syndromic management of male urethral discharge syndrome performed in accordance with the Brazilian Ministry of Health STD guidelines was effective in resolving symptoms in the studied population. More studies with microbiological outcomes are needed to ensure the maintenance of the syndromic management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Urethral Diseases/microbiology , Urethral Diseases/drug therapy , Chlamydia Infections/complications , Gonorrhea/complications , Disease Management , Socioeconomic Factors , Suppuration , Syndrome , Brazil , Chlamydia Infections/drug therapy , Gonorrhea/drug therapy , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
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