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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201054, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286057

ABSTRACT

Understanding the genetic diversity and overcoming genotype-by-environment interaction issues is an essential step in breeding programs that aims to improve the performance of desirable traits. This study estimated genetic diversity and applied genotype + genotype-by-environment (GGE) biplot analyses in cotton genotypes. Twelve genotypes were evaluated for fiber yield, fiber length, fiber strength, and micronaire. Estimation of variance components and genetic parameters was made through restricted maximum likelihood and the prediction of genotypic values was made through best linear unbiased prediction. The modified Tocher and principal component analysis (PCA) methods, were used to quantify genetic diversity among genotypes. GGE biplot was performed to find the best genotypes regarding adaptability and stability. The Tocher technique and PCA allowed for the formation of clusters of similar genotypes based on a multivariate framework. The GGE biplot indicated that the genotypes IMACV 690 and IMA08 WS were highly adaptable and stable for the main traits in cotton. The cross between the genotype IMACV 690 and IMA08 WS is the most recommended to increase the performance of the main traits in cotton crops.


Compreender a diversidade genética e contornar os problemas causados pela interação genótipos por ambientes é uma etapa importante em programas de melhoramento. Este estudo teve como objetivo estimar a diversidade genética e aplicar a metodologia de biplot genótipo + genótipo por ambiente (GGE biplot) em doze genótipos de algodão avaliados quanto ao rendimento da fibra, comprimento da fibra, resistência da fibra e micronaire. A estimativa dos componentes de variância e dos parâmetros genéticos foi feita através do método da máxima verossimilhança restrita e a predição dos valores genotípicos por meio da melhor predição linear não enviesada. Os métodos de Tocher modificado e análise de componentes principais (PCA) foram utilizados para quantificar a diversidade genética entre os genótipos. O método GGE biplot foi conduzido para encontrar os melhores genótipos em relação à adaptabilidade e estabilidade. As técnicas de Tocher e PCA permitiram a formação de clusters de genótipos semelhantes com base em uma estrutura multivariada. O GGE biplot indicou que os genótipos IMACV 690 e IMA08 WS foram altamente adaptáveis e estáveis para as principais características do algodão. O cruzamento dentre os genótipos IMACV 690 e IMA08 WS é o mais recomendado para aumentar o desempenho das principais características na cultura do algodão.


Subject(s)
Gossypium/genetics , Cotton Fiber/analysis , Gene-Environment Interaction , Genotype , Plant Breeding/methods
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 251-257, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153347

ABSTRACT

Genetically modified plants are one of the tactics used in integrated pest management - IPM. There is great concern about the impact of these plants on non-target organisms. On the other hand, there is little information in the literature on the effects of transgenics (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bt on populations of phytophagous mites, and the physiological responses that this attack promotes on plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biology of the T. ludeni mite in Bt cotton, expressing the Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins. To evaluate the behavior of food and oviposition preference of the T. ludeni with Bt cotton and isohybrid. Verify if the physiological stress caused by T. ludeni's attack is differentiated in Bt cotton. The mites were reared in Bt cotton and isohybrid, in a total of 40 replicates in the completely randomized design and the biological cycle was evaluated. The food preference and oviposition analysis were done with 10 replicates, with choice. The physiological stress was evaluated through chlorophyll fluorescence, under greenhouse conditions. The data of the T. ludeni biology were analyzed by Student's t-test, for food and oviposition preference the chi-square test was performed. Regression models were fitted for the fluorescence parameters. The model identity test was used to evaluate the differences between Bt and isohybrid treatments. Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins have not affected the biology of T. ludeni. The photosynthetic parameters in Bt cotton plants were less influenced by T. ludeni infestation.


O uso de plantas geneticamente modificadas é uma das táticas utilizadas no manejo integrado de pragas - MIP. Observa-se grande preocupação com o impacto dessas plantas sobre organismos não alvos. Por outro lado, existe pouca informação na literatura sobre efeitos dos transgênicos (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bt em populações de ácaros fitófagos, e as respostas fisiológicas que esse ataque promove nas plantas. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a biologia do ácaro T. ludeni em algodoeiro Bt, expressando as proteínas Cry1F e Cry1Ac. Avaliar se há comportamento de preferência alimentar e postura de T. ludeni em relação ao algodoeiro Bt e seu iso-híbrido. E verificar se o estresse fisiológico causado pelo ataque de T. ludeni é diferenciado em algodoeiro Bt. Os ácaros foram criados em algodoeiro Bt e iso-híbrido, em um total de 40 repetições no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, onde foi avaliado o ciclo biológico. A análise de preferência alimentar e de posturas foi feita com 10 repetições, com escolha. O estresse fisiológico foi avaliando através da fluorescência da clorofila, em casa de vegetação. Os dados da biologia de T. ludeni foram analisados pelo teste t Student, para preferência alimentar e postura foi realizado o teste qui-quadrado. Para os parâmetros da fluorescência, foram ajustados modelos de regressão. Para testar as diferenças entre Bt e iso-híbrido foi utilizado o teste de identidade de modelos. As proteínas Cry1F e Cry1Ac não afetaram a biologia de T. ludeni. Os parâmetros fotossintéticos em plantas de algodoeiro Bt foram menos influenciados pela infestação de T. ludeni.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Tetranychidae/genetics , Stress, Physiological , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Larva
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2051-2065, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878465

ABSTRACT

Plant trichomes are special structures that originate from epidermal outgrowths. Trichomes play an important role in plant defense against pests and diseases, and possess economic and medicinal values. Study on molecular mechanism of plant trichomes will contribute to the molecular design breeding and genetic improvement of crops. In recent years, the regulation mechanism of trichome development has been basically clarified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, while great progresses are also found in other plant species. In this review, we focus on the developmental regulation of trichome formation from gene and phytohormones levels in Arabidopsis and cotton (with unicellular trichomes), as well as in tomato and Artemisia annua (with multicellular trichomes). The research progress associated with trichomes is also introduced in other typical monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Finally, the research and application of plant trichomes are prospected.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Gossypium/genetics , Lycopersicon esculentum , Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism , Trichomes/genetics
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180428, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132198

ABSTRACT

Abstract Development of transgenic Bt crops with stable and high level of Bt protein expression over generations under different environmental conditions is critical for successful deployment at field level. In the present study, progenies of transgenic cotton Coker310 event, CH12 expressing novel cry2AX1 gene were evaluated in T3 generation for stable integration, expression and resistance against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2AX1 gene showed stable inheritance and integration in the T3 progeny plants as revealed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. The expression of Cry2AX1 protein on 90 days after sowing (DAS) was in the range of 1.055 to 1.5 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue except one plant which showed 0.806 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue and after 30 days (i.e., on 120 DAS) three plants recorded in between 0.69 to 0.82 µg/g and other plants are in range of 0.918 to 1.058 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue. Detached leaf bit bioassay in T3 progeny on 110 DAS recorded mortality of 73.33 to 93.33 per cent against H. armigera and severe growth retardation in surviving larvae. These results indicate that the expression of chimeric cry2AX1 is stable and exhibits insecticidal activity against H. armigera in T3 progeny of CH12 event of transgenic cotton.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/pathogenicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Moths , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plants, Toxic , Biological Assay , Plants, Genetically Modified
5.
Biol. Res ; 52: 6, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pollen development is an energy-consuming process that particularly occurs during meiosis. Low levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) may cause cell death, resulting in CMS (cytoplasmic male sterility). DNA sequence differences in ATP synthase genes have been revealed between the N- and S-cytoplasms in the cotton CMS system. However, very few data are available at the RNA level. In this study, we compared five ATP synthase genes in the H276A, H276B and fertile F1 (H276A/H268) lines using RNA editing, RNA blotting and quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) to explore their contribution to CMS. A molecular marker for identifying male sterile cytoplasm (MSC) was also developed. RESULTS: RNA blotting revealed the absence of any novel orf for the ATP synthase gene sequence in the three lines. Forty-one RNA editing sites were identified in the coding sequences. RNA editing showed that proteins had 32.43% higher hydrophobicity and that 39.02% of RNA editing sites had proline converted to leucine. Two new stop codons were detected in atp6 and atp9 by RNA editing. Real-time qRT-PCR data showed that the atp1, atp6, atp8, and atp9 genes had substantially lower expression levels in H276A compared with those in H276B. By contrast, the expression levels of all five genes were increased in F1 (H276A/H268). Moreover, a molecular marker based on a 6-bp deletion upstream of atp8 in H276A was developed to identify male sterile cytoplasm (MSC) in cotton. CONCLUSIONS: Our data substantially contributes to the understanding of the function of ATP synthase genes in cotton CMS. Therefore, we suggest that ATP synthase genes might be an indirect cause of cotton CMS. Further research is needed to investigate the relationship among ATP synthase genes in cotton CMS.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/genetics , RNA Editing , Adenosine Triphosphatases/genetics , Gossypium/enzymology , Plant Infertility/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Gossypium/genetics , Cytoplasm/metabolism , RNA, Mitochondrial/genetics
6.
Biol. Res ; 51: 47, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983951

ABSTRACT

Increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and associated climatic variability is primarily responsible for inducing heat waves, flooding and drought stress. Among these, water scarcity is a major limitation to crop productivity. Water stress can severely reduce crop yield and both the severity and duration of the stress are critical. Water availability is a key driver for sustainable cotton production and its limitations can adversely affect physiological and biochemical processes of plants, leading towards lint yield reduction. Adaptation of crop husbandry techniques suitable for cotton crop requires a sound understanding of environmental factors, influencing cotton lint yield and fiber quality. Various defense mechanisms e.g. maintenance of membrane stability, carbon fixation rate, hormone regulation, generation of antioxidants and induction of stress proteins have been found play a vital role in plant survival under moisture stress. Plant molecular breeding plays a functional role to ascertain superior genes for important traits and can offer breeder ready markers for developing ideotypes. This review highlights drought-induced damage to cotton plants at structural, physiological and molecular levels. It also discusses the opportunities for increasing drought tolerance in cotton either through modern gene editing technology like clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9), zinc finger nuclease, molecular breeding as well as through crop management, such as use of appropriate fertilization, growth regulator application and soil amendments.


Subject(s)
Stress, Physiological/physiology , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Plants, Genetically Modified/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology , Gossypium/physiology , Droughts , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Gossypium/genetics , Acclimatization/genetics
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2955-2969, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886855

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The host acceptance behavior and environmental factors as temperature affect the feeding behavior of Lepidoptera pests. Thus, they must be considered in studies about the risk potential of resistance evolution. The current study sets the differences in the feeding behavior of neonate Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae exposed to Bt and non-Bt cotton plants, under different temperatures and time gap after hatching. Two cotton cultivars were used: the Bt (DP 404 BG - bollgard) and the non-transformed isoline, DP 4049. We found that the feeding behavior of neonate A. argillacea is significantly different between Bt and non-Bt cotton. Based on the number of larvae with vegetal tissue in their gut found on the plant and in the organza as well as on the amount of vegetal tissue ingested by the larvae. A. argillacea shows feeding preference for non-Bt cotton plants, in comparison to that on the Bt. However, factors such as temperature and exposure time may affect detection capacity and plant abandonment by the larvae and it results in lower ingestion of vegetal tissue. Such results are relevant to handle the resistance of Bt cotton cultivars to A. argillacea and they also enable determining how the cotton seeds mix will be a feasible handling option to hold back resistance evolution in A. argillacea populations on Bt cotton, when it is compared to other refuge strategies. The results can also be useful to determine which refuge distribution of plants is more effective for handling Bt cotton resistance to A. argillacea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Temperature , Gossypium/parasitology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Lepidoptera/physiology , Biological Assay , Pest Control, Biological , Plants, Genetically Modified , Gossypium/genetics , Lepidoptera/classification
8.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-11, 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Insects have developed resistance against Bt-transgenic plants. A multi-barrier defense system to weaken their resistance development is now necessary. One such approach is to use fusion protein genes to increase resistance in plants by introducing more Bt genes in combination. The locating the target protein at the point of insect attack will be more effective. It will not mean that the non-green parts of the plants are free of toxic proteins, but it will inflict more damage on the insects because they are at maximum activity in the green parts of plants. RESULTS: Successful cloning was achieved by the amplification of Cry2A, Cry1Ac, and a transit peptide. The appropriate polymerase chain reaction amplification and digested products confirmed that Cry1Ac and Cry2A were successfully cloned in the correct orientation. The appearance of a blue color in sections of infiltrated leaves after 72 hours confirmed the successful expression of the construct in the plant expression system. The overall transformation efficiency was calculated to be 0.7%. The amplification of Cry1Ac-Cry2A and Tp2 showed the successful integration of target genes into the genome of cotton plants. A maximum of 0.673 µg/g tissue of Cry1Ac and 0.568 µg/g tissue of Cry2A was observed in transgenic plants. We obtained 100% mortality in the target insect after 72 hours of feeding the 2nd instar larvae with transgenic plants. The appearance of a yellow color in transgenic cross sections, while absent in the control, through phase contrast microscopy indicated chloroplast localization of the target protein. CONCLUSION: Locating the target protein at the point of insect attack increases insect mortality when compared with that of other transgenic plants. The results of this study will also be of great value from a biosafety point of view.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Chloroplasts/genetics , Insect Control/methods , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Lepidoptera , Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Gene Expression/genetics , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microscopy, Phase-Contrast , Plants, Genetically Modified , Cloning, Molecular , DNA Primers , Plant Leaves/genetics , Transgenes/physiology , Endotoxins/analysis , Gene Fusion , Hemolysin Proteins/analysis , Insecticides , Larva
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144080

ABSTRACT

WRKY transcription factor proteins play important roles in diverse stress responses. In this study, we first cloned a novel WRKY from our constructed bacteriophage full-length cDNA library for cotton (Gossypium barbadense). The plants were stressed by exposure to a defoliating strain of Verticillium dahliae. The capacity of primary cDNA library was 1.28 × 106 PFU and the titer of the amplified cDNA library was >1010 PFU mL–1. The recombination rate of the library was 94% and average insert size was about 1.1 kb. This novel gene, named GbWRKY1 was 1971 bp long and encodes a protein of 489 amino acids. It contains two characteristic WRKY domains and two zinc finger motifs. The sub-cellular assay indicated that GbWRKY1–GFP fusion protein was localized in the nucleus. Furthermore, Northern blot analysis showed that expression pattern of GbWRKY1 was similar among tissue types (roots, stems and leaves), but differed between pathogen-infiltrated and Czapek medium-infiltrated (untreated control) plants. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that GbWRKY1 could also be induced by salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). These findings clearly suggest that as a pathogen-inducible transcription factor GbWRKY1 plays an important role in plant defense responses.


Subject(s)
DNA/chemistry , Genes/analysis , Gossypium/genetics , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/isolation & purification , Verticillium/isolation & purification , Genes, Plant , DNA, Plant/genetics
10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(2): 611-623, June 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657806

ABSTRACT

Arachnofauna (Araneae: Araneae) in transgenic and conventional cotton crops (Gossypiumhirsutum) in the North of Santa Fe, Argentina. Spiders have considerable potential importance for their role as predators to some pests in agricultural systems. The composition of spiders in transgenic and conventional cotton at the Research Station of INTA Reconquista (Santa Fe) was studied during the 2005-2006 season. The experiment was a complete randomized block design with three replications and three treatments: transgenic Bt cotton (ALBt), conventional cotton without chemical control (ALCSC), and conventional cotton with chemical control (ALCCC). Weekly, spiders were collected using nets, vertical cloth and pitfall-traps. A total of 1 255 specimens (16 families, and 32 species) were collected. Seven families were found in all the treatments, mainly Thomisidae (n=1 051, 84.04%) and Araneidae (n=83, 6.64%). The Hunting spiders guild ambushers (n=1 053, 83.91%), “Orb weavers” (n=85, 6.77%) and “Stalkers” (n=53, 4.22%) were more abundant. There were no significant differences in the indexes diversity between treatments. Spiders were presented during the whole crop season, with peaks about flowering and boll maturity, with the highest abundance in ALBt. This work is part of the first set of data registered in Argentina about spider’s community in cotton crops. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2): 611-623. Epub 2012 June 01.


Las arañas tienen un valor potencial considerable por su rol depredador de insectos, estas son plagas de la agricultura. Durante la campaña agrícola 2005/06, en INTA Reconquista, Santa Fe (Argentina) se estudio la composición de arañas presentes en cultivos de algodón transgénico y convencional, mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones y tres tratamientos: algodón transgénico Bt (ALBt), algodón convencional sin control químico (ALCSC) y con control químico (ALCCC). Semanalmente, se capturaron arañas, con una red entomológica de arrastre, paño vertical de 1m y trampas de caída. Asimismo se recolectaron 1 255 ejemplares (16 familias y 32 especies). Siete familias se presentaron en los tres tratamientos, donde predomino Thomisidae (n=1 051, 84.04%) y Araneidae (n=83, 6.64%). El gremio cazadoras por emboscada (n=1 053, 83.91%), “Tejedoras de telas orbiculares” (n=85, 6.77%) y “Cazadoras al acecho” (n=53, 4.22%) fueron las más abundantes. No hubo diferencias significativas en los índices de diversidad entre tratamientos. Las arañas se presentaron durante todo el ciclo del cultivo, con picos en las semanas de floración y madurez de las capsulas, además la mayor abundancia la encontramos en el ALBt. Este trabajo constituye el primer registro sobre la comunidad de arañas en cultivos de algodón para Argentina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Gossypium/parasitology , Plants, Genetically Modified/parasitology , Spiders/classification , Agriculture , Argentina , Gossypium/genetics , Population Density , Random Allocation
11.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2012 Jun; 49(3): 195-201
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140236

ABSTRACT

The impact of five Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton varieties and their respective isogenic non-Bt(NBt) isolines (ANKUR-2534, MECH-6304, RCH-317, ANKUR-651 and MECH-6301) was assessed on the key soil enzymes i.e., dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and urease in their rhizosphere at four growth stages of the crop, namely vegetative, flowering, bolling and harvesting. These varieties were grown on farmer’s field in villages 22 miles and 24 miles of Ganganagar District of Rajasthan State in India. Results showed that dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and urease activities were higher in rhizosphere of Bt isolines as compared to NBt isolines of all the varieties. Except phosphatase, differences in dehydrogenase and urease activities in rhizosphere of Bt and NBt isolines of all five varieties were significant (P<0.05). Maximum enhancement in the three enzymes activities was observed in MECH-6304 Bt isoline rhizosphere. Maximum and minimum activities of dehydrogenase and urease were observed in MECH-6304 and RCH-317 Bt isolines, respectively, whereas phosphatase activity was maximum and minimum in MECH-6304 and ANKUR-651 Bt isolines, respectively. Maximum dehydrogenase and urease activities were observed at boll formation and minimum at flowering and harvesting stage, respectively, while maximum phosphatase activity was observed at vegetative stage and minimum at harvesting stage. In conclusion, all the studied Bt isolines of cotton varieties showed no adverse effect on dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and urease activities in the rhizosphere.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase/chemistry , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Bacillus thuringiensis/enzymology , Bacillus thuringiensis/genetics , Gossypium/enzymology , Gossypium/genetics , Gossypium/growth & development , Oxidoreductases/chemistry , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Rhizosphere , Soil/analysis , Urease/chemistry , Urease/metabolism
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 14(3): 3-3, May 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602980

ABSTRACT

Increasing scarcity of irrigation water is a major threat to sustainable production of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Identifying genomic regions contributing to abiotic stress tolerance will help develop cotton cultivars suitable for water-limited regions through molecular marker-assisted breeding. A molecular mapping F2 population was derived from an intraspecific cross of the drought sensitive G. hirsutum cv. FH-901 and drought tolerant G. hirsutum cv. RH-510. Field data were recorded on physiological traits (osmotic potential and osmotic adjustment); yield and its component traits (seedcotton yield, number of bolls/plant and boll weight); and plant architecture traits (plant height and number of nodes per plant) for F2, F2:3 and F2:4 generations under well-watered versus water-limited growth conditions. The two parents were surveyed for polymorphism using 6500 SSR primer pairs. Joinmap3.0 software was used to construct linkage map with 64 polymorphic markers and it resulted into 35 markers mapped on 12 linkage groups. QTL analysis was performed by composite interval mapping (CIM) using QTL Cartographer2.5 software. In total, 7 QTLs (osmotic potential 2, osmotic adjustment 1, seedcotton yield 1, number of bolls/plant 1, boll weight 1 and plant height 1) were identified. There were three QTLs (qtlOP-2, qtlOA-1, and qtlPH-1) detected only in water-limited conditions. Two QTLs (qtlSC-1 and qtlBW-1) were detected for relative values. Two QTLs (qtlOP-1 and qtlBN-1) were detected for well-watered treatment. Significant QTLs detected in this study can be employed in MAS for molecular breeding programs aiming at developing drought tolerant cotton cultivars.


Subject(s)
Droughts , Gossypium/physiology , Gossypium/genetics , Quantitative Trait Loci , Adaptation, Physiological , DNA, Plant/genetics , Genetic Variation , Gossypium/growth & development , Chromosome Mapping/methods , Osmosis , Polymorphism, Genetic , Software
13.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 12(2): 151-162, dic. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-590781

ABSTRACT

La producción de alimentos se basa en el uso de diferentes tecnologías agrícolas, que pueden derivar en conflictos entre medioambiente y agricultura. Es significativo estudiar el impacto ambiental de las nuevas tecnologías aplicadas a la agricultura, la más importante de las cuales es la transgénesis. Este trabajo se realizó en la zona algodonera del municipio del Espinal, departamento del Tolima, para la cosecha de algodón del primer semestre de 2009, usando las metodologías de Brookes y Barfoot (2006) y Kovach y colaboradores (1992). Se estudió el efecto ambiental de la aplicación de agroquímicos y el uso de maquinaria agrícola en cultivos de algodón transgénico y convencional. Se recogió información mediante encuestas en veinte fincas productoras de algodón. El análisis de las encuestas se realizó de forma descriptiva, determinando diferencias de tipo cuantitativo y cualitativo para los predios que utilizan la tecnología convencional o la tecnología transgénicas (doble gen, Bt/RR), para luego realizar una correlación con el “Enviromental Index Quotient” (EIQ). No se encontraron diferencias entre el EIQ de campo de las dos tecnologías, aunque la tecnología transgénica tiene ventajas ambientales en el control de algunas plagas de lepidópteros. En relación con el uso de maquinaria agrícola, se encontró que la tecnología convencional genera menor liberación de CO2, gas de efecto invernadero. La metodología de Brookes y Barfoot puede adaptarse para estudios comparativos de tecnologías agrícolas en países tropicales.


Food production is based on the use of various agricultural technologies, which can lead to conflicts between environment and agriculture. It is important to study the environmental impact of new technologies applied to agriculture, the most important of which is transgenesis. This work was carried out in the cotton belt of the town of Espinal, Tolima Department for the cotton crop in the first half of 2009, through methodologies Brookes & Barfoot (2006) and Kovach et al (1992). We studied the environmental impact of pesticide application and use of agricultural machinery for cultivation of transgenic and conventional cotton. Information was collected through surveys of 20 farms producing cotton. The analysis of the survey was conducted descriptively, by determining differences in quantitative and qualitative for the sites that use conventional technology, and transgenic (Bt gene and double RR / RR), and then make a correlation with the Environmental Index Quotient (EIQ). No differences were found between the fields EIQ the two technologies, although transgenic technology has environmental advantages in the control of some lepidopteran pests. In connection with the use of agricultural machinery, was found to conventional technology generates less release of CO2, greenhouse gas. The Brookes and Barfoot methodology could be adapted in comparative studies of agricultural technologies in tropical countries.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Gossypium/growth & development , Gossypium/adverse effects , Gossypium/enzymology , Gossypium/physiology , Gossypium/genetics , Gossypium/immunology , Gossypium/parasitology , Gossypium/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 13(5): 3-4, Sept. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591885

ABSTRACT

Exploring genetic variation in Gossypium arboreum L. germplasm is useful as it contains many important genes conferring resistance to different stresses. In limited earlier studies, low level of genetic diversity was found by using conventional DNA marker systems which may impede future genome mapping studies. In the present investigation, we explored the extent of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) among 30 conserved regions of Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) of low copy genes between two genotypes of G. arboreum. A total of 27 SNPs including 21 substitutions and 6 Insertions and deletions (Indels) in 7804 bp were found between these genotypes with a frequency of one SNP per 371 bp and one Indel after every 1300 bp. Out of these SNPs, 52 percent were transitions, whilst 48 percent SNPs were transversion. In conclusion, SNPs are expedient markers that can explore polymorphism in highly conserved sequences where other markers are not effective.


Subject(s)
Gossypium/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Conserved Sequence , Expressed Sequence Tags , Genetic Markers , Polymorphism, Genetic
15.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(3): 338-344, May-June 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-556517

ABSTRACT

The two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a nontarget herbivore of Bt-cotton, but acquires and accumulates higher levels of Cry toxin than that expressed by transgenic plants. This work investigated the development and reproduction of T. urticae and of the predator Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks, during three successive generations looking for potential nontarget effect. In addition, behavioral studies on feeding preference, oviposition, and predation were carried out on Bt and non-Bt cottons. The development and reproduction of T. urticae and P. macropilis was conducted using leaf discs of Bt and non-Bt cottons. Arena containing leaf discs from both cotton types connected by a slide coverslip were also used in the behavioral studies. Averages of the three generations showed that the Bt-cotton does not affect the development, survival of immature stages, and reproductive output of T. urticae and of the predator P. macropilis. Furthermore, the preference for feeding and oviposition of T. urticae and P. macropilis were similar on both cotton types. In addition, P. macropilis exhibited similar predatory behavior on T. urticae fed on both cotton types. Levels of Cry1Ac toxin in T. urticae was 3.97 times greater than that found in the Bt-cotton plants as determined using a ELISA test. Despite of the amount of toxin acquired by the prey (T. urticae), no detectable levels of Cry1Ac were found in the predatory mite P. macropilis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acari/physiology , Gossypium/parasitology , Plants, Genetically Modified/parasitology , Tetranychidae/physiology , Behavior, Animal , Gossypium/genetics
16.
IJB-Iranian Journal of Biotechnology. 2009; 7 (1): 45-50
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-134995

ABSTRACT

Cotton cultivar Coker has been already transformed with recombinant pBI121-chi via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The T-DNA region of pBI121-chi carries the chitinase [chi] gene from bean and is under the control of the CaMV35S promoter. T1 and T2 progenies of transgenic cotton containing the chi gene were used in this study. Polymerase chain reaction [PCR], Southern and Western blotting data confirmed integration and expression of the chi gene in the T1 and T2 progenies. The growth of Verticillium dahliae was singnificantly inhibited in an in vitro bioassay for which 100 micro g of crude leaf protein extract derived from the T1 plants was used. The 850-bp expected chi fragment was amplified for 77 transgenic plants from 128 T1 and T2 progenies, and 75 transgenic plants showed both chi and nptII bands. T0 conduct bioassay, cotton seedlings were infected with the spore suspension [10[6] spores/ml], in a greenhouse. Fifty-five percent of the transgenic plants were able to restrict V. dahliae growth and symptoms. There were no distinguishable differences in the phenotypic appearance of transgenic plants compared to non-transgenics. These results showed that transgenic cotton expressing a bean chitinase exhibited enhanced resistance against V. dahliae in greenhouse and in-vitro assay as compared to the non-transgenic plants


Subject(s)
Gossypium/genetics , Genes , Plants, Genetically Modified , Verticillium , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Blotting, Southern , Blotting, Western
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Jun; 45(6): 554-62
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57923

ABSTRACT

The effect of Bt-cotton, i.e. genetically modified cotton that contain genes expressing delta-endotoxin, on aphid, whitefly, chrysopid and coccinellid populations was determined with a two-year field study at a cotton farm near Marble Hall, South Africa. Although Bt-cotton is lepidopteran specific, non-lepidopteran arthropod populations may be indirectly influenced by the endotoxin. Abundance of aphid, whitefly, chrysopid and coccinellid populations and predator-prey interactions were used as measures to determine possible effects on the populations under investigation. The cultivation of Bt-cotton had no effect on aphid, whitefly, chrysopid or coccinellid abundance. Positive density dependent interactions occurred between aphids and coccinellids which were not influenced by Bt-cotton. A significant relationship between whitefly and coccinellid abundance, i.e. predator-prey reaction, occurred in the control and sprayed non-Bt cotton fields but was absent from the Bt-cotton fields.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aphids/drug effects , Coleoptera/drug effects , Diptera/drug effects , Ecosystem , Endosulfan/pharmacology , Food Chain , Gossypium/genetics , Hemiptera/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Plants, Genetically Modified/physiology , Population Density
18.
J Environ Biol ; 2006 May; 27(2 Suppl): 427-30
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113483

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine genotype X environment (GE) interaction and stability of cotton genotypes, and effect of different environments on seed cotton yield to understand its adaptation to varying environments. Fourteen cotton genotypes were evaluated at four locations across Aegean region of Turkey in 1997 and 1998. Genotypes were tested by two stability parameters as linear regression coefficient (b) and deviations from regression (S2d). Significant differences were observed for the mean yields in the 8 environments. Mean seed cotton yield ranged from 4.58 to 5.80 t ha(-1). Genotypes showed significant interaction with environments. Regression coefficients ranged from 0.23 to 1.46, and deviations from regression were significant for only four genotypes. It was concluded that three high yielding cotton genotypes SG-1001, SG-125 and DLP-5409 were found to be stable genotypes.


Subject(s)
Crops, Agricultural/genetics , Genotype , Gossypium/genetics , Turkey
19.
Genet. mol. biol ; 29(3): 525-532, 2006. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-450293

ABSTRACT

Heat tolerance is measured at tissue level by cellular membrane thermostability (CMT) and at the whole plant level by the heat tolerance index (HTI). Eight upland cotton cultivars and 15 crosses were used to determine the type and extent of genetic variability associated with the expression of these traits between and within environments. Heat stress and non-stress conditions were used as the CMT environments and years for HTI. The wide variation in heterotic expression and combining ability effects observed for CMT and HTI suggest multigenic inheritance of these traits. Significant genetic variability across environments was evident but the traits were not highly heritable because of substantial environmental interaction. The available genetic variability included both additive and non-additive components, but the proportion of additive genetic variability was high for HTI. The parental cultivars CRIS-19 and CIM-448 were good donor parents for high CMT under heat-stressed conditions, and MNH-552 and N-Karishma under non-stressed conditions. Cultivar FH-634 was a good donor parent for HTI. The results show two types of general combining ability (GCA) inheritance among high CMT parents: positive GCA inheritance expressed by CRIS-19 in the presence of heat stress and MNH-552 and N-Karishma in the absence of heat stress; and negative GCA inheritance expressed by FH-900 in the presence of heat stress. It was also evident that genes controlling high CMT in cultivar CRIS-19 were different from those present in the MNH-552, N-Karishma and FH-900 cultivars. Similarly, among high HTI parents, FH-634 showed positive and CIM-443 negative GCA inheritance. No significant relationship due to genetic causes existed between tissue and whole plant heat tolerance, diminishing the likelihood of simultaneous improvement and selection of the two traits.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Gossypium/genetics , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure
20.
Genet. mol. biol ; 29(2): 321-329, 2006. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-432705

ABSTRACT

Genetic diversity and the relationship between varieties are of great importance for cotton breeding. Our work was designed to estimate the informativeness of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite locus and to estimate the genetic distance between 53 cotton cultivars as well as to select a set of SSR primers able to differentiate between the 53 cotton cultivars studied. After extracting DNA from the 53 cultivars and characterized it using 31 pairs of SSR primers we obtained a total of 66 alleles with an average of 2.13 alleles per SSR locus and values of polymorphism information content (PIC) varying from 0.18 to 0.62, the dissimilarity coefficient varying from zero to 0.41. Statistical analysis using the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic average (UPGMA) revealed seven subgroups which were consistent with the genealogical information available for some of the cultivars. The SSR genetic profile obtained for each of the cultivars made it possible to discriminate 52 of the 53 cultivars. This study of the genetic diversity of cotton cultivars with SSR markers support the need to introduce new alleles into the gene pool of the breeding cultivars.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Gossypium/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats , Minisatellite Repeats , Polymorphism, Genetic , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Statistical Analysis
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