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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253065, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350311

ABSTRACT

Abstract Routine blood culture is used for the detection of bloodstream infections by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and by common pathogenic yeasts. A retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Maceió-AL, by collecting data of all medical records with positive blood cultures. Out of the 2,107 blood cultures performed, 17% were positive with Staphylococcus coagulase negative (51.14%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (11.21%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.32%). Gram-positive bacteria predominated among positive blood cultures, highlighting the group of Staphylococcus coagulase-negative. While Gram-negative bacteria had a higher number of species among positive blood cultures.


Resumo A cultura sanguínea de rotina é usada para a detecção de infecções na corrente sanguínea por bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias e por leveduras patogênicas comuns. Estudo retrospectivo realizado em hospital público de Maceió-AL, por meio da coleta de dados de todos os prontuários com culturas sanguíneas positivas. Das 2.107 culturas sanguíneas realizadas, 17% foram positivas com Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (51,14%), seguido por Staphylococcus aureus (11,21%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,32%). As bactérias Gram-positiva predominaram entre as culturas de sangue positivas, destacando-se o grupo das Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo. Enquanto as bactérias Gram-negativas apresentaram um número maior de espécies entre as culturas de sangue positivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sepsis , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
2.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(113): 11-18, 20230000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1527283

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La emergencia y diseminación de la re-sistencia a antimicrobianos está vinculada en parte al abuso y/o mal uso de los mismos. La propagación del SARS-CoV-2 implicó un mayor consumo de antibióticos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los mecanismos de resistencia a betalactámicos (MRB) en bacilos Gram negativos (BGN) y la resistencia a amikacina (R AKN) en Acinetobacter baumannii.Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de 2863 muestras con aislamientos de BGN remitidas al sector de Bacteriología del hospital de mayo 2019 a abril 2022. Se definieron tres períodos: mayo 2019-abril 2020 (P0), mayo 2020-abril 2021 (P1) y mayo 2021-abril 2022 (P2).Resultados: En P0 se halló un 15% de MRB. En P1, un 17,7% y en P2, un 21%. La combinación de BLEE+MBL se encontró en un aislamiento de P0, en dos de P1 y en 13 de P2. KPC+MBL se halló en nueve aislamientos de P2. La R AKN en A. baumannii fue de 20,8% en P0, 29,8% en P1 y 42,7% en P2.Conclusiones: Hubo un aumento significativo de aisla-mientos de BGN con MRB. BLEE fue el MRB más frecuente y Klebsiella sp. el microorganismo con MRB aislado con mayor frecuencia. En P2 se observó un aumento de aisla-mientos con combinación de MRB. Se observó diferencia significativa en la R AKN en A. baumannii entre P0 y P2. Con la pandemia de COVID-19 aumentó la cantidad de BGN con MRB y la R AKN en A. baumannii


Introduction: emergency and disemination of antimicrobial resistance is partly linked to abusive or wrong usage of them. The spread of SARS-CoV-2 implied a rise in antibiotics consumption. The aim of this study was to analize the mechanisms of resistance to beta lactams (MRB) in Gram negative bacilli (BGN) and amikacin resistance (R AKN) in Acinetobacter baumannii.Methods: a retrospective, descriptive study was made on 2863 samples with BGN isolates which were remitted to the bacteriology laboratory from May 2019 to April 2022. 3 periods were defined: May 2019 - April 2020 (P0). May 2020 - April 2021 (P1) and May 2021 - April 2022 (P2).Results: in P0, 15% had MRB. In P1, 17,7% and in P2, 21%. Combination of BLEE+MBL was found in 1 isolate of P0, in 2 of P1 and in 13 of P2. KPC+MBL was found in 9 isolates of P2. R AKN in A. baumannii was 20.8% in P0, 29.8% in P1 and 42.7% in P2.Conclusion: there was a significant increase in BGN isolates with MRB. BLEE was the most frequent MRB and Klebsiella sp. the most frequently isolated microorganism with MRB. A significant difference was observed in R AKN in A. baumanii between P0 and P2. After COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase in the number of BGN with MRB and in R AKN in A. baumannii


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance , COVID-19 , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(Supl. 1): 77-88, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533901

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El 65 % de las infecciones humanas son producidas por bacterias o levaduras, cuya capacidad de formar biopelículas las hace más resistentes a los antimicrobianos y antifúngicos. Objetivo. Determinar la capacidad de formación de biopelículas en aislamientos bacterianos y fúngicos por medio de los métodos cuantitativo de microtitulación con cristal violeta y cualitativo de cultivo en agar con rojo Congo. Materiales y métodos. Con el método cuantitativo, se utilizaron los medios de cultivo infusión cerebro-corazón, tripticasa de soya y Müeller-Hinton para aislamientos bacterianos; para levaduras, se usaron caldo infusión cerebro-corazón y Sabouraud dextrosa. Para el método cualitativo de cultivo en agar, se utilizaron los mismos medios de cultivo más una solución con 3 % de rojo Congo y 10 % de dextrosa. Cómo método de referencia, se utilizó la propuesta de Stepanovic et al. Resultados. Se evaluaron 103 aislamientos bacterianos y 108 de levaduras. No es recomendable sustituir el caldo infusión cerebro-corazón por los caldos tripticasa de soya y Müeller-Hinton en el método cuantitativo, para evaluar la formación de biopelículas en los aislamientos bacterianos. El medio Sabouraud dextrosa, en caldo y agar, puede sustituir al de infusión de cerebro-corazón para evaluar la formación de biopelículas en levaduras, tanto por el método cuantitativo como por el cualitativo. Conclusión. El estudio de las biopelículas en el laboratorio de microbiología, a partir del método cualitativo de cultivo en agar con rojo Congo, es un procedimiento sencillo, rápido y de bajo costo, que proporciona información útil para el diagnóstico y la terapéutica de infecciones persistentes causadas por bacterias y levaduras.


Introduction. Sixty-five percent of human infections are caused by bacteria or yeasts able to form biofilms. This feature makes them more resistant to antimicrobials and antifungals. Objective. To determine biofilm formation capacity of bacterial and fungal isolates by quantitative crystal violet microtiter and qualitative Congo red agar methods. Materials and methods. Brain-heart infusion, trypticase soy broth and Müeller-Hinton culture media were used in bacterial isolates for the quantitative method; brain-heart infusion broth and Sabouraud dextrose were used for yeasts. The same culture media plus 3% Congo red and 10% dextrose were used to apply the qualitative method in agar. The proposal by Stepanovic, et al. was used as a reference method. Results. We evaluated 103 bacterial isolates and 108 yeasts isolates. We did not recommend substitute brain-heart infusion broth for trypticase soy and Müeller-Hinton broths for biofilm formation assessment in bacterial isolates using the quantitative method. Sabouraud dextrose medium, both broth and agar, can replace brain-heart infusion to assess biofilm formation in yeasts, quantitatively and qualitatively. Conclusion. The study of biofilms in the microbiology laboratory, using Congo red agar qualitative method, is a simple, fast, and inexpensive procedure that provides precise information for the diagnosis and treatment of persistent infections caused by bacteria and yeasts.


Subject(s)
Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Yeasts , Biofilms , Congo Red
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(2): 94-98, abr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441413

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones asociadas a diálisis peritoneal constituyen una de las causas de morbimortalidad más importante en estos pacientes y la terapia antimicrobiana empírica y dirigida adecuada es fundamental para mejorar el resultado, por lo que es importante establecer la microbiología local. OBJETIVO: Revisar la experiencia clínica de cinco años del Hospital Carlos Van Buren de Valparaíso, Chile, describiendo las características clínicas y microbiológicas de los pacientes con episodios de peritonitis asociada a diálisis peritoneal. METODOLOGÍA De forma retrospectiva se accedió a los registros clínicos de aquellos pacientes mayores de 18 años que presentaron al menos un evento de peritonitis asociada a diálisis peritoneal. RESULTADOS: De un total de 26 episodios, 62% de los pacientes fueron de sexo femenino, con un promedio de edad de 53 años. La principal comorbilidad fue la hipertensión arterial (100%), y el dolor abdominal fue el síntoma más frecuente (85%), con una mortalidad general de 7,7%. En el laboratorio la leucocitosis, la proteína C reactiva (PCR) y la velocidad de hemosedimentación (VHS) fueron los hallazgos más importantes. Predominaron las cocáceas grampositivas (54%), seguido de bacilos gramnegativos no fermentadores y Enterobacterales en igual proporción (11,5% cada grupo). Casos aislados de Candida albicans y Pasteurella canis fueron identificados, y en 15% de los casos el cultivo resultó negativo. CONCLUSIÓN: Se pudo conocer las características clínicas y microbiológicas locales de esta patología, para así redefinir las directrices de manejo en la institución.


BACKGROUND: Infections associated with peritoneal dialysis are one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients, and adequate empirical and targeted antimicrobial therapy are essential to improve the outcome, so it is important to establish the local microbiology. AIM: To review the clinical experience of 5 years at the Carlos Van Buren Hospital in Valparaíso, Chile, in order to know the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with episodes of peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis. METHODS: Retrospectively, the clinical records of those patients over 18 years of age who presented at least one peritonitis event associated with peritoneal dialysis were accessed. RESULTS: Of a total of 26 episodes, 62% of the patients were female, with a mean age of 53 years. The main comorbidity was arterial hypertension (100%), and abdominal pain was the most frequent symptom (85%), with an overall mortality of 7.7%. In the laboratory parameters, leukocytosis, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were the most important findings. Gram-positive cocci (54%) predominated, followed by Gram-negative non-fermenting and enterobacterial bacilli in the same proportion (11.5% each group). Isolated cases of Candida albicans and Pasteurella canis were identified, and in 15% of the cases the culture was negative. CONCLUSION: It was possible to know the local clinical and microbiological characteristics of this pathology, in order to redefine management guidelines for our institution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Peritonitis/microbiology , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Peritonitis/etiology , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification
5.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1878-1884, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of colistin sulfate in the treatment of hematonosis patients infected by multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB), and discuss the possible factors that affect the efficacy of colistin sulfate.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 85 hematologic patients infected with MDR GNB in the Soochow Hopes Hematonosis Hospital from April 2022 to November 2022 were collected and divided into clinically effective group with 71 cases and ineffective group with 14 cases according to the therapeutic efficacy of colistin sulfate. The age, gender, type of hematologic disease, status of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, infection sites, type of pathogen, timing of administration, daily dose and duration of colistin sulfate, and combination with other antibacterial agents of patients in two groups were compared. Logistic regression was used to analyze on the meaningful variables to study the influencing factors of colistin sulfate. The adverse reactions of colistin sulfate were also evaluated.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in age, gender, type of hematologic disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation status, infection sites and pathogen type between the effective group and the ineffective group (P>0.05). Compared with the medication time more than 7 days, meropenem used within 7 days in the clinical effective group, and timely replacement with colistin sulfate could obtain better efficacy, the difference was statistically significant (P=0.018). The duration of tigacycline before colistin sulfate did not affect the efficacy, and there was no significant difference in efficacy between the effective and ineffective groups. The therapeutic effect of colistin sulfate at daily dose of 500 000 U q8h was better than that of 500 000 U q12h, the difference was statistically significant (P=0.035). The time of colistin sulfate use in the clinically effective group was longer than that in the ineffective group, which had a statistical difference (P=0.003). Compared with the clinical ineffective group, the efficacy of combination regimens with colistin sulfate was better than that of colistin sulfate monotherapy, and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.013). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the indicators with statistical differences in the two groups of patients, which suggested that the use time of colistin sulfate (B: 2.358; OR: 10.573; CI: 1.567-71.361; P=0.015) and the combination of colistin sulfate (B: 1.720; OR: 5.586; CI: 1.210-25.787; P=0.028) were influential factors in the efficacy of colistin sulfate. During the treatment, the incidence of nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and peripheral neurotoxicity were 5.9%, 1.2% and 1.2%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The use of colistin sulfate improves the clinical efficacy of MDR GNB infections in hematological patients, and the timing of colistin sulfate administration and the combination of drugs are independent factors affecting its clinical efficacy, and the safety during treatment is high.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colistin/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Meropenem/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Hematologic Diseases
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1556-1562, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the pathogenic bacterial spectrum, drug resistance, and risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant bacterial infection and mortality in patients with hematologic diseases complicated by bloodstream infections, so as to provide reference for rational drug use and improving prognosis.@*METHODS@#Positive blood culture specimens of patients with hematologic diseases in two Class A tertiary hospitals of Shanxi province from January 2019 to December 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Pathogen distribution, drug resistance and outcomes of patients with bloodstream infection were investigated, then the multivariate logistic analysis was performed to analyze the risk factors of multidrug-resistant bacterial infection and factors affecting prognosis.@*RESULTS@#203 strains of pathogens were identified, mainly Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) (69.46%, 141/203), of which Escherichia coli (E.coli) had the highest incidence (41.13%, 58/141), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.57%, 29/141) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.77%, 18/141). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E.coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 46.55% (27/58) and 37.93% (11/29), respectively. Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 10.64% (15/141). And Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 27.59% (56/203), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated pathogen among Gram-positive bacteria (14.29%, 12.50% and 10.71%, respectively), of which methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 33.33% (2/6), coagulase-negative staphylococci accounted for 87.50% (7/8), without vancomycin- or linezolid-resistant strain. Additionally, fungi accounted for 2.95% (6/203), all of which were Candida. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) accounted for 53.90% (76/141). Duration of neutropenia >14 days was a risk factor for developing MDR-GNB infection. The 30-day all-cause mortality was 10.84%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the significant independent risk factors for mortality were age≥60 years (P <0.01, OR =5.85, 95% CI: 1.80-19.07) and use of vasopressor drugs (P <0.01, OR =5.89, 95% CI: 1.83-18.94).@*CONCLUSION@#The pathogenic bacteria of bloodstream infection in patients with hematological diseases are widely distributed, and the detection rate of multidrug-resistant bacteria is high. The clinicians should choose suitable antibiotics according to the results of bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Bacteremia/mortality , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sepsis/mortality
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1314-1331, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981140

ABSTRACT

Stenotrophomonas species are non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria that are widely distributed in environment and are highly resistant to numerous antibiotics. Thus, Stenotrophomonas serves as a reservoir of genes encoding antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The detection rate of Stenotrophomonas is rapidly increasing alongside their strengthening intrinsic ability to tolerate a variety of clinical antibiotics. This review illustrated the current genomics advances of antibiotic resistant Stenotrophomonas, highlighting the importance of precise identification and sequence editing. In addition, AMR diversity and transferability have been assessed by the developed bioinformatics tools. However, the working models of AMR in Stenotrophomonas are cryptic and urgently required to be determined. Comparative genomics is envisioned to facilitate the prevention and control of AMR, as well as to gain insights into bacterial adaptability and drug development.


Subject(s)
Stenotrophomonas/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Genomics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
8.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 479-483, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984647

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the incidence of bloodstream infections, pathogen distribution, and antibiotic resistance profile in patients with hematological malignancies. Methods: From January 2018 to December 2021, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics, pathogen distribution, and antibiotic resistance profiles of patients with malignant hematological diseases and bloodstream infections in the Department of Hematology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University. Results: A total of 582 incidences of bloodstream infections occurred in 22,717 inpatients. From 2018 to 2021, the incidence rates of bloodstream infections were 2.79%, 2.99%, 2.79%, and 2.02%, respectively. Five hundred ninety-nine types of bacteria were recovered from blood cultures, with 487 (81.3%) gram-negative bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eighty-one (13.5%) were gram-positive bacteria, primarily Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecium, whereas the remaining 31 (5.2%) were fungi. Enterobacteriaceae resistance to carbapenems, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone sodium/sulbactam, and tigecycline were 11.0%, 15.3%, 15.4%, and 3.3%, with a descending trend year on year. Non-fermenters tolerated piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone sodium/sulbactam, and quinolones at 29.6%, 13.3%, and 21.7%, respectively. However, only two gram-positive bacteria isolates were shown to be resistant to glycopeptide antibiotics. Conclusions: Bloodstream pathogens in hematological malignancies were broadly dispersed, most of which were gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotic resistance rates vary greatly between species. Our research serves as a valuable resource for the selection of empirical antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Cefoperazone , Sulbactam , Retrospective Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Hematologic Neoplasms , Sepsis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination , Escherichia coli
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 568-574, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the distribution and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria isolated from patients in hematology department, in order to provide evidence for rational use of antibiotics in clinic.@*METHODS@#The distribution of pathogenic bacteria and drug sensitivity data of patients in the hematology department of The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from 2015 to 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, and the pathogens isolated from different specimen types were compared.@*RESULTS@#A total of 2 029 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 1 501 patients in the hematology department from 2015 to 2020, and 62.2% of which were Gram-negative bacilli, mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Acinetobacter baumannii. Gram-positive coccus accounted for 18.8%, mainly Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) and Staphylococcus aureus. Fungi (17.4%) were mainly candida. The 2 029 strains were mainly isolated from respiratory tract (35.1%), blood (31.8%) and urine (19.2%) specimens. Gram-negative bacilli were the main pathogenic bacteria in different specimen types (>60%). K. pneumoniae, S. maltophilia and A. baumannii were the most common pathogens in respiratory specimens, E. coli, CoNS, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa were common in blood samples, and E. coli and Enterococcus were most common in urine samples. Enterobacteriaceae had the highest susceptibility to amikacin and carbapenems (>90.0%), followed by piperacillin/tazobactam. P. aeruginosa strains had high sensitivity to antibiotics except aztreonam (<50.0%). The susceptibility of A. baumannii to multiple antibiotics was less than 70.0%. The antimicrobial resistance rates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae in respiratory tract specimens were higher than those in blood specimens and urine specimens.@*CONCLUSION@#Gram-negative bacilli are the main pathogenic bacteria isolated from patients in hematology department. The distribution of pathogens is different in different types of specimens, and the sensitivity of each strain to antibiotics is different. The rational use of antibiotics should be based on different parts of infection to prevent the occurrence of drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Escherichia coli , Retrospective Studies , Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Drug Resistance , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Hematology
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 274-279, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971136

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens in oral mucositis associated with chemotherapy in hospitalized patients with malignant hematopathy, so as to provide scientific evidences for rational selection of antibiotics and infection prevention and control.@*METHODS@#From July 2020 to June 2022, 167 patients with malignant hematopathy were treated with chemical drugs in the Department of Hematology, Hainan Hospital, and secretions from oral mucosal infected wounds were collected. VITEK2 COMPECT automatic microbial identification system (BioMerieux, France) and bacterial susceptibility card (BioMerieux) were used for bacterial identification and drug susceptibility tests.@*RESULTS@#A total of 352 strains of pathogens were isolated from 167 patients, among which 220 strains of Gram-positive bacteria, 118 strains of Gram-negative bacteria and 14 strains of fungi, accounted for 62.50%, 33.52% and 3.98%, respectively. The Gram-positive bacteria was mainly Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, while Gram-negative bacteria was mainly Klebsiella and Proteus. The resistance of main Gram-positive bacteria to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was low, and the resistance to penicillin, cefuroxime, ampicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin and levofloxacin was high. The main Gram-negative bacteria had low resistance to gentamicin, imipenem and penicillin, but high resistance to levofloxacin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, ampicillin and vancomycin. The clinical data of oral mucositis patients with oral ulcer (severe) and without oral ulcer (mild) were compared, and it was found that there were statistically significant differences in poor oral hygiene, diabetes, sleep duration less than 8 hours per night between two groups (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Gram-positive bacteria is the main pathogen of oral mucositis in patients with malignant hematopathy after chemotherapy. It is sensitive to glycopeptide antibiotics and aminoglycosides antibiotics. Poor oral hygiene, diabetes and sleep duration less than 8 hours per night are risk factors for oral mucositis with oral ulcer (severe).


Subject(s)
Humans , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cefuroxime , Levofloxacin , Oral Ulcer/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Ampicillin , Penicillins , Cefotaxime , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gentamicins , Stomatitis/drug therapy
11.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 732-742, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of causative microorganisms recovered from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs).@*METHODS@#A total of 2,926 bacterial and fungal strains were identified in samples collected from 1,679 patients with IAIs at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 2011 and 2021. Pathogenic bacteria and fungi were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the VITEK 2 compact system and the Kirby-Bauer method. AST results were interpreted based on the M100-Ed31 clinical breakpoints of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.@*RESULTS@#Of the 2,926 strains identified, 49.2%, 40.8%, and 9.5% were gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and fungi, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen in intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients; however, a significant decrease was observed in the isolation of E. coli between 2011 and 2021. Specifically, significant decreases were observed between 2011 and 2021 in the levels of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli (from 76.9% to 14.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (from 45.8% to 4.8%). Polymicrobial infections, particularly those involving co-infection with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, were commonly observed in IAI patients. Moreover, Candida albicans was more commonly isolated from hospital-associated IAI samples, while Staphylococcus epidermidis had a higher ratio in community-associated IAIs. Additionally, AST results revealed that most antimicrobial agents performed better in non-ESBL-producers than in ESBL-producers, while the overall resistance rates (56.9%-76.8%) of Acinetobacter baumanmii were higher against all antimicrobial agents than those of other common gram-negative bacteria. Indeed, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, S. epidermidis, and S. aureus were consistently found to be susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid. Similarly, C. albicans exhibited high susceptibility to all the tested antifungal drugs.@*CONCLUSION@#The distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of the causative microorganisms from patients with IAIs were altered between 2011 and 2021. This finding is valuable for the implementation of evidence-based antimicrobial therapy and provides guidance for the control of hospital infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcus aureus , Intraabdominal Infections/epidemiology , Candida albicans , Coinfection
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248063, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339340

ABSTRACT

Abstract Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.


Resumo Persea lingue Ness é uma árvore que vive principalmente na floresta temperada do centro-sul do Chile. As folhas são usadas na etnomedicina. O fruto é uma drupa similar ao abacate e que nunca foi pesquisada anteriormente. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a citotoxicidade em células leucêmicas e as atividades antibacterianas, assim como algumas características químicas do extrato de fruto e da folha do P. lingue. As atividades antibacterianas foram determinadas pelo método da inibição do crescimento bacteriano em meio líquido empregando-se bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. As linhagens celulares leucêmicas, Kasumi-1 e Jurkat foram usadas para avaliar a atividade citotóxica em ensaios empregando-se iodeto de propídio e AlamarBlue. Foram avaliados os teores totais de fenóis, flavonóides, taninos condensados, alcalóides e lipídeos presentes nos extratos das folhas e dos frutos. As atividades antioxidantes de ambos os extratos também foram avaliadas. O extrato das folhas foi o que apresentou o maior conteúdo de fenóis, taninos condensados e flavonóides totais e a maior atividade antioxidante. Já o extrato de fruto apresentou a maior quantidade de lipídios e alcaloides e a melhor atividade antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium e Micrococcus luteus. Já o extrato das folhas apresentou apenas atividade contra M. luteus. Em relação à atividade citotóxica, apenas o extrato do fruto apresentou citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares Jurkat e Kasumi-1. Em resumo, o extrato do fruto de P. lingue é uma potencial fonte de moléculas com atividade biológica para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a serem utilizados em alguns tipos de leucemia, bem como agente antibacteriano.


Subject(s)
Lauraceae , Persea , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fruit , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239323, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339341

ABSTRACT

Abstract The β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) combination drugs are considered an effective alternative to carbapenems. However, there is a growing concern that the increased use of BLBLIs may lead to increased resistance. This study determined the temporal association between the consumption of BLBLI and the antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In this retrospective study, electronic data on the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, including A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae from in-patients and susceptibility testing results were retrieved from the medical records of the clinical laboratory. A linear regression and cross-correlation analysis were performed on the acquired data. Increasing trends (p<0.05) in the consumption of BIBLI and carbapenem with a median use of 27.68 and 34.46 DDD/1000 PD per quarter were observed, respectively. A decreased trend (p=0.023) in the consumption of fluoroquinolones with a median use of 29.13 DDD/1000 PD per quarter was observed. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was synchronized with the BIBLI and carbapenem consumptions with a correlation coefficient of 0.893 (p=0.012) and 0.951 (p=0.016), respectively. The cross-correlation analysis against the consumption of BIBLI and meropenem resistant K. pneumoniae was peaked at 0-quarter lag (r=951, p=0.016). There was an increasing trend in the consumption of BLBLI and carbapenems. The increasing trend in the rates of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, in line with the increasing consumption of BLBLI, suggests that BLBLI has to be used with caution and cannot be directly considered as a long-term alternative to carbapenems.


Resumo Os medicamentos combinados de β-lactâmicos / inibidores da lactamase (BLBLIs) são considerados uma alternativa eficaz aos carbapenêmicos. No entanto, existe uma preocupação crescente de que o aumento do uso de BLBLIs pode levar ao aumento da resistência. Este estudo determinou a associação temporal entre o consumo de BLBLI e a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias gram-negativas. Neste estudo retrospectivo, os dados eletrônicos sobre as bactérias gram-negativas isoladas, incluindo A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli e K. pneumoniae de pacientes internados e os resultados dos testes de suscetibilidade foram recuperados dos registros médicos do laboratório clínico. Uma regressão linear e análise de correlação cruzada foram realizadas nos dados adquiridos. Foram observadas tendências crescentes (p < 0,05) no consumo de BIBLI e carbapenem com uma mediana de uso de 27,68 e 34,46 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre, respectivamente. Foi observada uma tendência de diminuição (p = 0,023) no consumo de fluoroquinolonas com uma mediana de uso de 29,13 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre. A taxa de resistência de K. pneumoniae foi sincronizada com os consumos de BIBLI e carbapenem com coeficiente de correlação de 0,893 (p = 0,012) e 0,951 (p = 0,016), respectivamente. A análise de correlação cruzada contra o consumo de BIBLI e K. pneumoniae resistente ao meropenem atingiu o pico no intervalo de 0 quarto (r = 951, p = 0,016). Houve uma tendência de aumento no consumo de BLBLI e carbapenêmicos. A tendência crescente nas taxas de resistência a piperacilina/tazobactam, em linha com o consumo crescente de BLBLI, sugere que BLBLI deve ser usado com cautela e não pode ser considerado diretamente como alternativa de longo prazo aos carbapenêmicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria
14.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 29(4)oct.-dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536199

ABSTRACT

A case report is presented of a 50-year-old woman who was seen in Accident and Emergency because of pain in the lumbar area. She was subsequently diagnosed with septic arthritis of the left hip due to being Neisseria gonorrhoeae positive for beta-lactamase. She responded to treatment with ceftriaxone, but later required a total hip replacement.


Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 50 arios, sin antecedentes de importancia, a quien se le diagnosticó inicialmente lumbago e infección de vías urinarias. Por persistencia del dolor y limitación de la movilidad en la cadera izquierda se inicia el estudio de artritis séptica, que fue provocada por Neisseria gonorrhoeae betalactamasa positiva, sensible a tratamiento con ceftriaxona, con posterior deterioro articular, el cual requirió reemplazo total de cadera.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Bacteria , Arthritis, Infectious , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Infections , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
15.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(2): 135-145, maio-ago. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372966

ABSTRACT

A meningite bacteriana é uma inflamação das leptomeninges que envolvem o Sistema Nervoso Central. Essa patologia, que possui diversos agentes etiológicos, apresenta-se na forma de síndrome, com quadro clínico grave. Entre as principais bactérias que causam a meningite, estão a Neisseria meningitis e Streptococcus pneumoniae. A transmissão ocorre através das vias aéreas por meio de gotículas, sendo a corrente sanguínea a principal rota para as bactérias chegarem à barreira hematoencefálica e, a partir dessa, até as meninges. Atualmente existem vários métodos de diagnóstico precisos, onde a cultura de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) é o método padrão ouro. Ademais, a melhora na qualidade do tratamento com beta-lactâmicos e a maior possibilidade de prevenção, devido à elevação do número e da eficácia de vacinas, vem contribuindo para redução dos casos da doença e de sua gravidade. Porém, apesar desses avanços, ainda há um elevado número de mortalidades e sequelas causadas por essa síndrome.


Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the leptomeninges that surround the Central Nervous System. This pathology, which has several etiological agents, is presented as a syndrome with a severe clinical scenario. The main bacteria causing meningitis include Neisseria meningitis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. It can be transmitted by droplets through the airways, with the bacteria using the bloodstream as the main route to reach the blood-brain barrier, and from there to the meninges. There are currently several accurate diagnostic methods, with CSF culture being the gold standard. In addition, the improvement in the quality of beta-lactam treatment and the greater possibility of prevention due to the increased number and effectiveness of vaccines have contributed to reducing the number of cases and severity of the disease. Nevertheless, despite these advances, this syndrome still presents a high number of mortalities and sequelae.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Child, Preschool , Child , Aged , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/therapy , Streptococcus pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Syndrome , Bacteria/classification , Meningitis, Bacterial/drug therapy , beta-Lactams/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/drug therapy , Neisseria/pathogenicity
16.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 54(1): 50-54, 20220330.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395668

ABSTRACT

Serratia marcescens pertence à Família Enterobacteriaceae, é Gram-negativa e anaeróbica facultativa, sendo bem distribuída na natureza; pode ser isolada como saprófita do solo e da água. Possui um significado clínico relevante, pois acarreta infecções nosocomiais e pulmonares em determinados setores da saúde, como unidades neonatais, maternidades e UTIs, além de sepse, meningite, choque endotóxico e infecções do trato urinário. O intuito desse estudo foi analisar o mecanismo de heterorresistência em linhagens sensíveis de Serratia marcescens diante das concentrações testadas de meropeném. As linhagens SR1 e SR2 apresentaram perfil heterorresistente, ao passo que a SR6 demonstrou ser não heterorresistente, com CIM elevado (32µg/mL). Os isolados de Serratia marcescens são suscetíveis ao meropenem, por testes de sensibilidade padrão, mas contêm subpopulações resistentes ao mesmo.


Serratia marcescens belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family, it is optional anaerobic gram-negative, being well distributed in nature and it might be isolated as saprophytic from soil and water. It has a meaningful clinical significance, because it causes nosocomial and lung infections in certain healthcare sectors, such as neonatal units, maternity units and UTIs; septicemia, meningitis, endotoxin shock and urinary tract infections. The aim of this study was to analyze the mechanism of heteroresistance in susceptible strains of Serratia marcescens in the presence of the tested concentration of meropenem. The lineages SR1 and SR2 presented heteroresistant profile, while the SR6 showed to be nonheterorresistente, with CIM (32 µg/mL). The Isolates of Serratia marcescens are susceptible to meropenem, by standard sensitivity testing, but there are subpopulations resistant to it.


Subject(s)
Serratia Infections , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Serratia marcescens , Enterobacteriaceae , Meropenem , Gram-Negative Bacteria
17.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(1): 54-66, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374507

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La creciente resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos representa una amenaza mundial de salud pública. Las excreciones y secreciones larvarias derivadas de moscas necrófagas de la familia Calliphoridae podrían configurar una fuente promisoria para contrarrestar sus efectos. Objetivo. Comparar la actividad antimicrobiana de las excreciones y secreciones larvarias nativas, y de las mayores y menores de 10 kDa de Calliphora vicina y Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Materiales y métodos. El bioensayo se hizo a partir de la técnica de turbidimetría y en el caso de las excreciones y secreciones menores de 10 kDa se determinó la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM). Resultados. Las excreciones y secreciones nativas y las menores de 10 kDa de C. vicina y S. magellanica, evidenciaron una potente actividad antibacteriana contra tres cepas de Staphylococcus aureus y cuatro bacterias Gram negativas, siendo las menores de 10 kDa más efectivas que las nativas en las dos especies de moscas evaluadas. Además, las menores de 10 kDa presentaron la misma efectividad, aunque en las pruebas de CIM se observó que las de S. magellanica fueron más potentes en todas las bacterias evaluadas, excepto contra la cepa de S. aureus ATCC 25923. Las mayores de 10 kDa no inhibieron el crecimiento bacteriano. Conclusión. Los resultados validaron, en general, que estas sustancias son fuente importante para el aislamiento y la caracterización de agentes antimicrobianos.


Introduction: The growing resistance to antibiotics worldwide represents a global threat to public health. The larval excretions and secretions derived from necrophagous flies from the Calliphoridae family could represent a promising source for counteracting their effects. Objective: To compare the antimicrobial activity of Calliphora vicina and Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) native excretions and secretions and those weighing more than 10 kDa and less. Materials and methods: We used the turbidimetry technique for the bioassay; we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for excretions and secretions weighing less than 10 kDa. Results: Calliphora vicina and S. magellanica native excretions and secretions and those weighing less than 10 kDa exhibited potent antibacterial activity against three Staphylococcus aureus strains and four Gram-negative bacteria; those weighing less than 10 kDa were more effective than the native ones in the two species of flies evaluated here. Furthermore, excretions and secretions weighing less than 10 kDa had the same effectiveness, except in the MIC trials where S. magellanica excretions and secretions weighing less than 10 kDa were more potent against all the bacteria evaluated, except for S. aureus ATCC 25923. Excretions and secretions weighing more than 10 kDa did not inhibit bacterial growth. Conclusions: These results potentially validate these substances as an important source for isolating and characterizing antimicrobial agents.


Subject(s)
Modalities, Secretion and Excretion , Diptera , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Larva , Anti-Bacterial Agents
18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408435

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los mapas microbiológicos se consideran un marcador epidemiológico pues resumen estadísticamente las bacterias circulantes y su comportamiento frente a los antibióticos en uso. Permiten establecer una política de antibióticos que garantiza el uso más racional de los antimicrobianos y disminuye el riesgo de resistencia bacteriana. Objetivos: Identificar las bacterias aisladas con mayor frecuencia a partir de cultivos microbiológicos de pacientes hospitalizados en el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología durante el año 2020 y determinar la resistencia de las bacterias más frecuentes a los antimicrobianos ensayados, con vista a establecer el primer mapa microbiológico de la institución. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal que incluyó los cultivos de pacientes hospitalizados durante el año 2020. La identificación bacteriana se realizó según métodos convencionales y para determinar los perfiles de resistencia se empleó el método de Bauer-Kirby. Resultados: El hemocultivo fue el estudio microbiológico más indicado con una positividad de 32,80 por ciento. Predominaron las bacterias Gram negativas (81,71 por ciento), siendo las más identificadas Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. y Escherichia coli. Entre las bacterias Gram positivas predominó Staphylococcus spp. coagulasa negativa. Se obtuvieron elevados porcentajes de resistencia frente a casi todos los antimicrobianos evaluados. Conclusiones: La realización del mapa microbiológico de la institución permite actualizar la política de uso de los antimicrobianos al identificar a los bacilos Gram negativos, con elevados porcentajes de resistencia, como los principales agentes etiológicos de las infecciones registradas en este centro de salud durante el año 2020(AU)


Introduction: Microbiological maps are considered an epidemiological marker as statistically summarize circulating bacteria and their behavior against antibiotics in use. They allow establishing an antibiotic policy that guarantees the most rational use of antimicrobials and decreases the risk of bacterial resistance. Objectives: Identify the isolated bacteria with more frequency from microbiological crops of hospitalized patients in the Institute of Hematology and Immunology during the year 2020 and determine the resistance of the most frequent bacteria to the antimicrobials tested, with a view to establishing the first microbiological map of the institution. Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed that included cultures of patients hospitalized during the year 2020. Bacterial identification was carried out according to conventional methods and to determine the resistance profiles was used by the Bauer-Kirby method. Results: The blood culture was the most indicated microbiological study with 32.80 percent positivity. The Gram negative bacteria predominated (81.71percent), being the most identified Pseudomona spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli. Among the Gram positive bacteria predominate Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative. High percentages of resistance were obtained in front of almost all antimicrobials evaluated. Conclusions: The completion of the institutional microbiological map allows updating the antimicrobial use policy by identifying the Gram negative bacilli, with high percentages of resistance, as the main etiological agents of the infections registered in this health center during 2020(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Centers , Allergy and Immunology , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Hematology , Anti-Infective Agents
19.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 201-205, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928693

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the characteristics of infection in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), risk factors of serious infection, and their correlation with curative effect.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 92 newly diagnosed MDS patients with nosocomial infection from January 2016 to June 2020 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 306 courses of treatment were completed in 92 newly diagnosed MDS patients. The infection rate was the highest in the first course of treatment (84.8%, 78/92), and then decreased gradually. The top three infection sites were lung, upper respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. A total of 90 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected, of which 33.4% (30/90) were gram-negative bacilli, 23.3% (21/90) were gram-positive cocci, 23.3% (21/90) were fungi, and 20.0% (18/90) were viruses. The serious infection rate among 92 patients with MDS was 22.8% (21/92). Multivariate analysis showed that neutrophil deficiency>7 days (OR=10.875, 95%CI: 2.747-43.051, P=0.001) was an independent risk factor for serious infection in MDS patients. Compared with non-severe infection group, the total effective rate of severe infection group was lower (90.9% vs 63.6%, χ2=4.393, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The infection rate of MDS patients is high in the first course of treatment, and the most common infection site is the lung. Gram-negative bacteria is the most common pathogen. MDS patients with neutrophil deficiency>7 days have a high risk of serious infection and poor efficacy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1462-1474, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927793

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), also known as membrane vesicles, are vesicular bodies secreted by eukaryotic cells and bacteria. EVs can carry proteins, DNA, RNA, and various metabolites for the exchange and transmission of substances between cells. They play contents-dependent physiological functions, such as delivering nutrients, participating in immune response, and treating cancers. Currently, most studies focus on the exploration of vesicles secreted by eukaryotic cells and gram-negative bacteria, while few studies focus on gram-positive bacteria. This review summarized the production, content composition, physiological function, and engineering of EVs secreted by gram-positive bacteria, and prospected future perspectives in this area.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism
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