Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.300
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253065, 2024. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350311

ABSTRACT

Abstract Routine blood culture is used for the detection of bloodstream infections by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and by common pathogenic yeasts. A retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Maceió-AL, by collecting data of all medical records with positive blood cultures. Out of the 2,107 blood cultures performed, 17% were positive with Staphylococcus coagulase negative (51.14%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (11.21%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.32%). Gram-positive bacteria predominated among positive blood cultures, highlighting the group of Staphylococcus coagulase-negative. While Gram-negative bacteria had a higher number of species among positive blood cultures.


Resumo A cultura sanguínea de rotina é usada para a detecção de infecções na corrente sanguínea por bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias e por leveduras patogênicas comuns. Estudo retrospectivo realizado em hospital público de Maceió-AL, por meio da coleta de dados de todos os prontuários com culturas sanguíneas positivas. Das 2.107 culturas sanguíneas realizadas, 17% foram positivas com Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (51,14%), seguido por Staphylococcus aureus (11,21%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,32%). As bactérias Gram-positiva predominaram entre as culturas de sangue positivas, destacando-se o grupo das Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo. Enquanto as bactérias Gram-negativas apresentaram um número maior de espécies entre as culturas de sangue positivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sepsis , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239323, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339341

ABSTRACT

Abstract The β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) combination drugs are considered an effective alternative to carbapenems. However, there is a growing concern that the increased use of BLBLIs may lead to increased resistance. This study determined the temporal association between the consumption of BLBLI and the antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In this retrospective study, electronic data on the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, including A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae from in-patients and susceptibility testing results were retrieved from the medical records of the clinical laboratory. A linear regression and cross-correlation analysis were performed on the acquired data. Increasing trends (p<0.05) in the consumption of BIBLI and carbapenem with a median use of 27.68 and 34.46 DDD/1000 PD per quarter were observed, respectively. A decreased trend (p=0.023) in the consumption of fluoroquinolones with a median use of 29.13 DDD/1000 PD per quarter was observed. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was synchronized with the BIBLI and carbapenem consumptions with a correlation coefficient of 0.893 (p=0.012) and 0.951 (p=0.016), respectively. The cross-correlation analysis against the consumption of BIBLI and meropenem resistant K. pneumoniae was peaked at 0-quarter lag (r=951, p=0.016). There was an increasing trend in the consumption of BLBLI and carbapenems. The increasing trend in the rates of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, in line with the increasing consumption of BLBLI, suggests that BLBLI has to be used with caution and cannot be directly considered as a long-term alternative to carbapenems.


Resumo Os medicamentos combinados de β-lactâmicos / inibidores da lactamase (BLBLIs) são considerados uma alternativa eficaz aos carbapenêmicos. No entanto, existe uma preocupação crescente de que o aumento do uso de BLBLIs pode levar ao aumento da resistência. Este estudo determinou a associação temporal entre o consumo de BLBLI e a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias gram-negativas. Neste estudo retrospectivo, os dados eletrônicos sobre as bactérias gram-negativas isoladas, incluindo A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli e K. pneumoniae de pacientes internados e os resultados dos testes de suscetibilidade foram recuperados dos registros médicos do laboratório clínico. Uma regressão linear e análise de correlação cruzada foram realizadas nos dados adquiridos. Foram observadas tendências crescentes (p < 0,05) no consumo de BIBLI e carbapenem com uma mediana de uso de 27,68 e 34,46 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre, respectivamente. Foi observada uma tendência de diminuição (p = 0,023) no consumo de fluoroquinolonas com uma mediana de uso de 29,13 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre. A taxa de resistência de K. pneumoniae foi sincronizada com os consumos de BIBLI e carbapenem com coeficiente de correlação de 0,893 (p = 0,012) e 0,951 (p = 0,016), respectivamente. A análise de correlação cruzada contra o consumo de BIBLI e K. pneumoniae resistente ao meropenem atingiu o pico no intervalo de 0 quarto (r = 951, p = 0,016). Houve uma tendência de aumento no consumo de BLBLI e carbapenêmicos. A tendência crescente nas taxas de resistência a piperacilina/tazobactam, em linha com o consumo crescente de BLBLI, sugere que BLBLI deve ser usado com cautela e não pode ser considerado diretamente como alternativa de longo prazo aos carbapenêmicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248063, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339340

ABSTRACT

Abstract Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.


Resumo Persea lingue Ness é uma árvore que vive principalmente na floresta temperada do centro-sul do Chile. As folhas são usadas na etnomedicina. O fruto é uma drupa similar ao abacate e que nunca foi pesquisada anteriormente. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a citotoxicidade em células leucêmicas e as atividades antibacterianas, assim como algumas características químicas do extrato de fruto e da folha do P. lingue. As atividades antibacterianas foram determinadas pelo método da inibição do crescimento bacteriano em meio líquido empregando-se bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. As linhagens celulares leucêmicas, Kasumi-1 e Jurkat foram usadas para avaliar a atividade citotóxica em ensaios empregando-se iodeto de propídio e AlamarBlue. Foram avaliados os teores totais de fenóis, flavonóides, taninos condensados, alcalóides e lipídeos presentes nos extratos das folhas e dos frutos. As atividades antioxidantes de ambos os extratos também foram avaliadas. O extrato das folhas foi o que apresentou o maior conteúdo de fenóis, taninos condensados e flavonóides totais e a maior atividade antioxidante. Já o extrato de fruto apresentou a maior quantidade de lipídios e alcaloides e a melhor atividade antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium e Micrococcus luteus. Já o extrato das folhas apresentou apenas atividade contra M. luteus. Em relação à atividade citotóxica, apenas o extrato do fruto apresentou citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares Jurkat e Kasumi-1. Em resumo, o extrato do fruto de P. lingue é uma potencial fonte de moléculas com atividade biológica para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a serem utilizados em alguns tipos de leucemia, bem como agente antibacteriano.


Subject(s)
Lauraceae , Persea , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fruit , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233523, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153470

ABSTRACT

Abstract Microbiological studies of the sanitary and health status of psittacine birds that will be reintroduced is important in evaluating whether these animals act as carriers of pathogenic agents to other animals and humans. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a faster and more accurate method to identify bacteria than conventional microbiology methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health status of psittacines housed in captivity, by assessment of Gram-negative bacteria from fecal microbiota through MALDI- TOF MS identification. The results indicate high frequency of Gram-negative bacteria in feces (96.5%), especially from the Enterobacteriaceae family (88.7%). The most prevalent bacteria were Escherichia coli (39.0%), Proteus vulgaris (12.2%), Klebsiella spp. (12.1%) and Raoultella ornithinolytica (8.7%). Proteus hauseri, Citrobacter spp., Morganella morgannii, Providencia rettgeri, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia hermannii were isolated with lower frequency. . All these agents are potentially pathogenic for parrots and can cause systemic infections in other animals and humans. These findings reinforce that MALDI- TOF MS proved to be a rapid and accurate method of identification of the microorganism and evaluation of the health status of psittacines, providing relevant data to assist decision-making regarding the sanitary protocols in wildlife centers, and possible future reintroduction of wild birds.


Resumo Estudos microbiológicos da sanidade de psitacídeos que serão reintroduzidos são importantes para avaliar se esses animais atuam como portadores de agentes patogênicos para outros animais e humanos. A espectrometria de massa por ionização/dessorção de matriz assistida por laser/tempo de vôo (MALDI-TOF MS) é um método mais rápido e preciso para identificar bactérias na comparação com métodos convencionais de microbiologia. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o estado de saúde de psitacídeos cativos, identificando bactérias Gram-negativas da microbiota fecal por MALDI -TOF MS. Os resultados indicaram alta frequência de bactérias Gram-negativas nas fezes (96,5%), principalmente da família Enterobacteriaceae (88,7%). As mais prevalentes foram Escherichia coli (39,0%), Proteus vulgaris (12,2%), Klebsiella spp. (12,1%) e Raoultella ornithinolytica (8,7%). Proteus hauseri, Citrobacter spp., Morganella morgannii, Providencia rettgeri, Enterobacter spp. e Escherichia hermannii foram isolados com menor frequência. Todos esses agentes são potencialmente patogênicos para os papagaios e podem causar infecções sistêmicas em outros animais e seres humanos. Esses achados reforçam que o MALDI- TOF MS é um método rápido e preciso de identificação do microrganismo e avaliação do estado de saúde dos psitacídeos, fornecendo dados relevantes para auxiliar na tomada de decisões sobre os protocolos sanitários em centros de triagem de animais selvagens e sobre a possibilidade de reintrodução futura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Psittaciformes , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Proteus , Providencia , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Enterobacteriaceae
5.
Rev. Investig. Salud. Univ. Boyacá ; 8(2): 80-95, 20211201. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369442

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los biocidas son compuestos químicos que se emplean comúnmente para inhibir o eliminar el crecimiento microbiano. El triclosán es un agente biocida que afecta la estructura y función microbiana. Es am-pliamente utilizando como desinfectante y antiséptico en suturas quirúrgicas, exfoliantes, implantes y dispositivos médicos, pero se ha observado el desarrollo de múltiples mecanismos de tolerancia bacteriana a este agente. Objetivo: Determinar la tolerancia al triclosán en cepas de Escherichia coli y Klebsiella pneumoniae. Materiales y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, de tipo observacional, a partir de cepas de origen clínico que presentaran algunos genotipos de resistencia a los antibióticos como blaTEM, blaCTXM1 y blaSHV. Se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (C1, C2, C3, C4 y C5) al triclosán. Resultados: De los 32 aislamientos recuperados, 17 fueron de E. coli y 15 de K. pneumoniae. Se evidenció que el 25 % de los aislamientos evaluados presentó tolerancia a concentraciones más bajas C1 (0,00025 %) de triclosán y que el 12 % fue tolerante a la concentración más alta C1 (1 %). Adicionalmente, un mayor número de cepas de E. coli presentó mayor tolerancia al triclosán que las cepas de K. pneumoniae. Así mismo, se evidenció que la mayoría de las cepas fueron tolerantes a las concentraciones evaluadas más bajas. Conclusiones: El 37 % de los aislados presentaron tolerancia al triclosán, con predominio de la E. coli. Palabras clave: triclosán; tolerancia; bacterias; gramnegativas


Introduction: Biocides are chemical compounds that are commonly used to inhibit or eliminate mi-crobial growth. Triclosan is a biocidal agent that affects microbial structure and function. It is widely used as a disinfectant and antiseptic in surgical sutures, exfoliants, implants and medical devices. The development of multiple mechanisms of bacterial tolerance to this agent has been observed. Target. To determine the tolerance to triclosan in strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Materials and methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out using strains of clinical origin, which presented some genotypes of resistance to antibiotics such as blaTEM, blaCTXM1, and blaSHV. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (C1, C2, C3, C4, and C5) to triclosan was determined. Results: Of the 32 isolates recovered, 17 were E. coli and 15 were K. pneumoniae. It was evidenced that 25% of the evaluated isolates presented tolerance to lower concentrations C1 (0.00025%) of triclosan and 12% were tolerant to the highest concentration C1 (1%). Additionally, a greater number of E. coli strains presented greater tolerance to triclosan than the K. pneumoniae strains, likewise, it was evidenced that most of the strains were tolerant to the lowest concentrations evaluated.


Introdução: Os biocidas são compostos químicos comumente usados para inibir ou eliminar o cres-cimento microbiano. O Triclosan é um agente biocida que afeta a estrutura e função microbiana. É amplamente utilizado como desinfetante e anti-séptico em suturas cirúrgicas, esfoliantes, implantes e dispositivos médicos, mas foram observados múltiplos mecanismos de tolerância bacteriana a este agente. Objetivo: Determinar a tolerância ao Triclosan nas cepas Escherichia coli e Klebsiella pneumoniae. Materiais e métodos: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, transversal, observacional, em cepas de origem clínica com alguns genótipos de resistência a antibióticos como blaTEM, blaCTXM1 e blaSHV. A concentração inibitória mínima (C1, C2, C3, C4 e C5) de Triclosan foi determinada. Resultado: Dos 32 isolados recuperados, 17 eram E. coli e 15 eram K. pneumoniae. Verificou-se que 25% dos isolados testados eram tolerantes a menores concentrações de C1 (0,00025%) de Triclosan e 12% eram tolerantes à maior concentração C1 (1%). Além disso, um maior número de cepas de E. coli foram tolerantes a Triclosan, do que às cepas de K. pneumoniae. Foi também evidente que a maioria das cepas foi tolerante às menores concentrações testadas


Subject(s)
Triclosan , Permissiveness , Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacteria
6.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(3): 329-334, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279316

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, such as third and fourth-generation, are responsible for emergence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms in neonatal units. Furthermore, antimicrobial daily doses are not standardized in neonatology. This study aimed to investigate the association between the use of antimicrobial broad spectrum to bacterial sensitivity profile in a referral unit of neonatal progressive care. Methods This is a cohort study conducted in a referral neonatal progressive care unit from January 2008 to December 2016. The data of all hospitalized neonates was collected daily. The infection criteria used were the standardized national criteria, based on definitions of Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. In this study, the use of antimicrobials was evaluated as antimicrobial-day (ATM-day) and the ratio of multidrug-resistant microorganisms per 1000 ATM-day of broad spectrum was also calculated. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (ETIC 312/08 e CAAE 58973616.2.0000.5149). Results From 2008 to 2016, 2751 neonates were hospitalized, corresponding to 60,656 patient-days. The ratio of multidrug-resistant microorganisms per 1000 ATM-day of broad spectrum was 1,3 in the first period and 4,3 in the second period (p = 0,005). Conclusion It was observed that use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, especially those with coverage for Gram-negative bacteria, was associated with an increase of multidrug-resistant bacteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880065

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the characteristics, prognosis and risk factors of bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies in the tropics, so as to provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of bloodstream infection.@*METHODS@#The clinical features, blood culture results and prognosis of patients with bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies admitted to Hainan Hospital of PLA General Hospital were retrospectively studied.@*RESULTS@#The most common primary infection site of the 81 patients with hematological malignancies was lung (46.91%), followed by PICC (11.11%). The detection rate of Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria in the blood culture was 60.98% and 30.02%, respectively. Coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most common Gram-positive bacteria resulting in bloodstream infection in our study. Of the Gram-negatives, Klebsiella pneumoniae (34.38%) was predominant, followed by Escherichia coli (18.75%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.75%). Gram-positive bacteria was highly sensitive (100%) to vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline. Study showed that Gram-negative bacteria had low sensitive to quinolones, in particular, the resistance rate of Escherichia coli to quinolones was as high as 83.33%. In terms of overall survival (OS), the 30-days OS of patients with Gram-negative and Gram-positive septicemia was 77.42% and 92.00%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that septic shock (P=0.001, RR=269.27) was an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality, and remission status (P=0.027, RR=0.114) was an independent predictor of a favourable outcome of bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies.@*CONCLUSION@#Gram-positive bacteria are the main pathogens causing bloodstream infections in patients with hematological malignancies in the tropics. Improving the care of PICC is an important measure to reduce the incidence of bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies in the tropics. A correct treatment relieving disease and effective prevention and treatment of septic shock can reduce mortality of patients with bloodstream infection in patients with hematological malignancies in the tropics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3190-3200, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921416

ABSTRACT

The targeting of anti-tumor drugs is an important means of tumor treatment and reducing drug side effects. Oxygen-depleted hypoxic regions in the tumour, which oxygen consumption by rapidly proliferative tumour cells, are generally resistant to therapies. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are disparate array of microorganism united by the ability to biomineralize membrane-encased, single-magnetic-domain magnetic crystals (magnetosomes) of minerals magnetite or greigite. MTB by means of flagella, migrate along geomagnetic field lines and towards low oxygen concentrations. MTB have advantage of non-cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility, moreover magnetosomes (BMs) is more powerful than artificial magnetic nanoparticles(MNPs). This review has generally described the biological and physical properties of MTB and magnetosomes, More work deals with MTB which can be used to transport drug into tumor based on aerotactic sensing system as well as the competition of iron which is a key factor to proliferation of tumor. In addition, we summarized the research of magnetosomes, which be used as natural nanocarriers for chemotherapeutics, antibodies, vaccine DNA. Finally, We analyzed the problems faced in the tumor treatment using of MTB and bacterial magnetosomes and prospect development trends of this kind of therapy.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Ferrosoferric Oxide , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Magnetics , Magnetosomes , Neoplasms/therapy
9.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e01052018, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349026

ABSTRACT

Ammonium quaternary compounds are widely used in poultry and swine production as disinfectants in the control of pathogens. They act on gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, enveloped fungi and viruses. However, in some conditions of pH and presence of organic matter can be inactivated. This study evaluated the action of ammonium quaternary compounds at 1:1,000 and 1:2,000 dilutions against Salmonella enterica serovarTyphimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in the presence of three different organic matter simulators, fetal bovine serum, skim milk and whole milk concentration of 1, 3, 5, and 7% and at pH 6 and 9, with 15 min of contact. It was possible to verify that the organic matter simulators adjusted in the same conditions of contact time and percentage, in the in vitro tests, presented different results and the fetal bovine serum did not inactivate the disinfectant. However, the best result against S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis was obtained at pH 6 at the dilution of 1:1,000 in all organic matter simulators.


Subject(s)
Salmonella enteritidis , Containment of Biohazards , Salmonella enterica , Organic Matter , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Swine , Birds , In Vitro Techniques , Serum Albumin, Bovine , Milk , Disinfectants , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria
10.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e76, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289870

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To describe bacterial resistance and antimicrobial consumption ratio at the subnational level in Argentina during 2018, considering beta-lactams group as a case-study. Methods. Antimicrobial consumption was expressed as defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants. Resistance of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactams was recorded. Resistance/consumption ratio was estimated calculating "R" for each region of Argentina, and this data was compared with other countries. Results. The most widely consumed beta-lactams in Argentina were amoxicillin (3.64) for the penicillin sub-group, cephalexin (0.786) for first generation cephalosporins, cefuroxime (0.022) for second generation; cefixime (0.043) for third generation and cefepime (0.0001) for the fourth generation group. Comparison between beta-lactams consumption and bacterial resistance demonstrated great disparities between the six regions of the country. Conclusions. The case-study of Argentina shows that antimicrobial consumption and resistance of the most common pathogens differed among regions, reflecting different realities within the same country. Because this situation might also be occurring in other countries, this data should be taken into account to target local efforts towards better antimicrobial use, to improve antimicrobial stewardship programs and to propose more suitable sales strategies in order to prevent and control antimicrobial resistance.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar la razón entre la resistencia bacteriana y el consumo de antimicrobianos a nivel subnacional en Argentina en el 2018, considerando el grupo de los betalactámicos como estudio de caso. Métodos. El consumo de antimicrobianos se expresó como una dosis diaria determinada (DDD) por 1000 habitantes. Se registró la resistencia de Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Staphylococcus aureus a los betalactámicos. Se determinó la razón entre la resistencia y el consumo calculando "R" para cada región de Argentina, y estos datos se compararon con los de otros países. Resultados. Los betalactámicos más consumidos en Argentina fueron la amoxicilina (3,64) para el subgrupo de la penicilina; la cefalexina (0,786) para las cefalosporinas de primera generación; la cefuroxima (0.022) para las de segunda generación; la cefixima (0.043) para las de tercera generación, y la cefepima (0.0001) para el grupo de la cuarta generación. La comparación entre el consumo de betalactámicos y la resistencia bacteriana demostró que había grandes disparidades entre las seis regiones del país. Conclusiones. El estudio de caso en Argentina indica que el consumo de antimicrobianos y la resistencia a los patógenos más comunes difería entre las regiones; esto demuestra que hay distintas realidades dentro del mismo país. Como esta situación también se puede dar en otros países, estos datos se deben tener en cuenta para definir las actividades locales destinadas a fomentar un mejor uso de los antimicrobianos, para mejorar los programas de manejo de los antimicrobianos y para proponer estrategias de venta más adecuadas con el fin de prevenir y controlar la resistencia a los antimicrobianos.


RESUMO Objetivo. Descrever a relação entre o consumo de antimicrobianos e a resistência bacteriana no nível subnacional na Argentina em 2018, considerando o grupo dos betalactâmicos no estudo de caso. Métodos. O consumo de antimicrobianos foi representado por doses diárias definidas (DDD) por 1.000 habitantes. Foi registrada a resistência de Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Staphylococcus aureus aos betalactâmicos. A relação entre consumo e resistência foi calculada com base no "R" para cada região do país e os dados da Argentina foram comparados aos de outros países. Resultados. Os betalactâmicos de maior consumo na Argentina foram amoxicilina (3,64) no grupo das penicilinas, cefalexina (0,786) no grupo das cefalosporinas de primeira geração, cefuroxima (0.022) no grupo das cefalosporinas de segunda geração, cefixima (0.043) no grupo das cefalosporinas de terceira geração e cefepima (0.0001) no grupo das cefalosporinas de quarta geração. Ao se comparar o consumo de betalactâmicos e a resistência bacteriana, observou-se grande disparidade entre as seis regiões do país. Conclusões. O estudo de caso revela diferenças no consumo de antimicrobianos e na resistência dos patógenos mais comuns entre as regiões da Argentina, refletindo realidades distintas dentro do mesmo país. Como esta mesma situação pode estar ocorrendo em outros países, estes achados devem servir para direcionar os esforços locais a uma melhor utilização dos antimicrobianos, aperfeiçoar os programas de gestão do uso destes medicamentos e propor estratégias de venda mais apropriadas, visando a prevenir e controlar a resistência aos antimicrobianos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , beta-Lactam Resistance , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Argentina , Retrospective Studies
11.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(4): 352-358, 20201230. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223703

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: A internet e os smartphones estão fortemente presentes no cotidiano mundial. Além de proporcionarem comunicação e lazer, os smartphones, por meio de aplicativos, são portas de entrada para as tecnologias da informação e comunicação, recursos utilizados por docentes e discentes como metodologia científica de ensino-aprendizado. Além disso, atuam como ferramenta de apoio para profissionais. As evoluções científicas também abrangem a microbiologia clínica, onde é possível observar a inclusão de recursos tecnológicos com o objetivo de minimizar o tempo de análise e assegurar a qualidade dos resultados; entretanto, a automatização ainda é uma realidade distante em muitos laboratórios do Brasil, portanto, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi desenvolver e validar a funcionalidade de um aplicativo como ferramenta de apoio para discentes e profissionais de microbiologia clínica. Métodos: Pesquisa metodológica, aplicada e de produção tecnológica, realizada de abril a outubro de 2019. Foi escolhida a metodologia de Galvis-Panqueva, que compõe as etapas de construção e validação. Ao final das etapas que compõem a validação, 16 discentes da Ulbra Canoas e oito profissionais de microbiologia clínica avaliaram o aplicativo quanto às percepções como usuários. Após esta avaliação, obteve-se o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo. Resultados: O Índice de Validade de Conteúdo entre os profissionais foi de 0,97 e entre os discentes foi de 0,94, valores aceitáveis para validação. Conclusão: Os resultados atingiram o objetivo proposto e corrobora com demais pesquisas da mesma linha metodológica. O aplicativo atendeu aos critérios de desenvolvimento e validação e mostrou-se uma boa ferramenta de apoio para discentes e profissionais de microbiologia clínica.


Objective: The internet and smartphones are strongly present in the daily world. In addition to providing communication and leisure, smartphones, through applications, are the gateway to Information and Communication Technologies, a resource used by teachers and students as a scientific teaching-learning methodology. In addition, they act as a support tool for professionals. Scientific developments also include clinical microbiology, where it is possible to observe the inclusion of technological resources in order to minimize the analysis time and ensure the quality of the results. However, automation is still a distant reality in many laboratories in Brazil, therefore, the objective of this research was to develop and validate the functionality of an application as a support tool for students and professionals in clinical microbiology. Methods: Methodological, applied and technological production research, carried out from April to October 2019. The GalvisPanqueva methodology was chosen, which comprises the stages of construction and validation. At the end of the steps that make up the validation, 16 students from the Ulbra Canoas and eight professionals of clinical microbiology evaluated the application regarding their perceptions as users. Afterwards, the Content Validity Index was obtained. Results: The Content Validity Index among professiona was 0,97 and among students it was 0,94, acceptable values for validation. Conclusion: The results achieved the proposed objective and corroborates with other researches of the same methodological line. The application met the development and validation criteria and proved to be a good support tool for students and professionals in clinical microbiology.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Smartphone , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria
12.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 430-440, dez 5, 2020. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357939

ABSTRACT

Objective: evaluation of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative microbiota from ready-to-eat cheese samples. Methodology: this research applied an adapted methodology to select from a food sample viable Gram-negative microbiota displaying antibiotic resistance. The selected food was a cheese that is commonly consumed without thermal processing, the Minas Frescal cheese. The evaluation was followed by a PCR screening in this resistant microbiota, for genes that provide resistance to antibiotics and also to the quaternary ammonium. Results: all cheese samples harbored a resistant microbiota. In 13.3% of the cheese samples analyzed, the resistance reached all ten different antibiotics tested and, in 80%, 8 to 10 different antibiotics. In antibiotics considered critics as the carbapenems: ertapenem presented resistant microbiota in 86.7% of the samples. In cephalosporins, the resistance reached 100% in the third generation (ceftazidime) and almost half of the samples (46.7%) in the fourth generation (cefepime). In genotypic research, seven different resistance genes were found in 69.2% of the bacterial pools, including the beta-lactamase-producing genes ctx, tem, shv, tetracycline-resistant genes, and a high rate of integrons class 1 and 2. Conclusion: the results indicate phenotypically and genotypically that the Minas Frescal cheese can harbor potential resistant microbiota. Therefore, the methodology used is a viable possibility and with a broader answer about the food microbiota role in resistance. This research corroborates the food area as an important sector to be managed to reduce the process of antibiotic resistance.


Objetivo: avaliação da resistência a antibióticos em microbiota Gram-negativa de amostras de queijo prontas para consumo. Metodologia: esta pesquisa aplicou uma metodologia adaptada para selecionar a microbiota Gram-negativa viável apresentando resistência a antibióticos em uma amostra de alimento. O alimento selecionado foi um queijo frequentemente consumido sem processamento térmico, o queijo Minas Frescal. A avaliação foi seguida de uma triagem por PCR, nesta microbiota resistente, para genes que fornecem resistência aos antibióticos e também ao quaternário de amônio. Resultados: todas as amostras de queijo apresentaram microbiota resistente. Em 13,3% dos queijos analisados essa resistência alcançou todos os 10 diferentes antibióticos testados e em 80% entre 8 e 10 antibióticos diferentes. Em antibióticos considerados críticos como os carbapenêmicos: ertapenem apresentou microbiota resistente em 86,7% das amostras. Nas cefalosporinas, a resistência atingiu 100% na terceira geração (ceftazidima) e quase a metade das amostras (46,7%) na quarta geração (cefepime). Na pesquisa genotípica, sete diferentes genes de resistência foram encontrados em 69,2% dos pools bacterianos, incluindo o genes produtores de beta-lactamase, genes de resistência à tetraciclina, ctx, tem, shv e uma alta taxa de integron classe 1 e 2. Conclusão: os resultados indicam fenotipicamente e genotipicamente que o queijo Minas Frescal pode apresentar uma potencial microbiota resistente. Portanto, a metodologia utilizada é uma possibilidade viável e com uma resposta mais ampla sobre o papel da microbiota na resistência. Esta pesquisa corrobora a área de alimentos como um setor importante a ser gerenciado para redução no processo de resistência a antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Microbial , Carbapenems , Cephalosporins , Cheese , Food , Gram-Negative Bacteria
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 36-45, nov. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254948

ABSTRACT

Azotobacter vinelandii is a gram-negative soil bacterium that produces two biopolymers of biotechnological interest, alginate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), and it has been widely studied because of its capability to fix nitrogen even in the presence of oxygen. This bacterium is characterized by its high respiration rates, which are almost 10-fold higher than those of Escherichia coli and are a disadvantage for fermentation processes. On the other hand, several works have demonstrated that adequate control of the oxygen supply in A. vinelandii cultivations determines the yields and physicochemical characteristics of alginate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). Here, we summarize a review of the characteristics of A. vinelandii related to its respiration systems, as well as some of the most important findings on the oxygen consumption rates as a function of the cultivation parameters and biopolymer production.


Subject(s)
Respiration , Biopolymers/biosynthesis , Azotobacter vinelandii/physiology , Polyesters , Alginates , Gram-Negative Bacteria/physiology , Hydroxybutyrates , Nitrogen Fixation
14.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 258-264, set 24, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358136

ABSTRACT

Introduction: bacterial infections are a public health problem. Besides, the emergence of strains resistant to antimicrobials has contributed to the search for new alternatives, such for the terpenes with antimicrobial potential. Objectives: the objective of this study was to determine the possible interaction of isolated monoterpenes (-)-Carveol, Geraniol, Citronellol, α-terpineol, R-(-) Carvone, (-)-Menthol, Linalool, D-Dihydrocarvone, and (-)-Terpine-4-ol with conventional antimicrobials (Chloramphenicol, Minocycline, Amoxicillin and Ciprofloxacin) when they are evaluated on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Methodology: the minimum inhibitory concentrations of these test drugs were determined using the microdilution method. The Checkerboard method was used to assess the interactions, by determining the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC index). Results: aamong the monoterpenes, only Carveol, Citronellol, and Geraniol presented antimicrobial activity (MIC < 1024 µg/mL). They presented synergistic effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027 (FIC index ≤ 0.5) when in combination with Minocycline. Conclusion: this study contributes to the development of new approaches to control bacterial resistance and to the possibility of discovering new drugs.


Introdução: as infecções bacterianas são um problema de saúde pública. Além disso, o surgimento de cepas resistentes aos antimicrobianos tem contribuído para a busca de novas alternativas, como a pesquisa de terpenos com potencial antimicrobiano. Objetivos: o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a possível interação de monoterpenos isolados (-) - Carveol, Geraniol, Citronelol, α-terpineol, R - (-) Carvona, (-)-Mentol, Linalol, D-Diidrocarvona e (-)-Terpina-4-ol com antimicrobianos convencionais (cloranfenicol, minociclina, amoxicilina e ciprofloxacina) quando avaliados em Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Metodologia: as concentrações inibitórias mínimas destas drogas foram determinadas usando o método de microdiluição. O método checkerboard foi utilizado para avaliar as interações, determinando o índice de concentração inibitória fracionária (índice FIC). Resultados: entre os monoterpenos, apenas Carveol, Citronelol e Geraniol apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana (CIM < 1024 µg/mL). Eles apresentaram efeitos sinérgicos contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027 (índice FIC ≤ 0,5) quando em combinação com Minociclina. Conclusão: este estudo contribui para o desenvolvimento de novas abordagens para o controle da resistência bacteriana e para a possibilidade de descoberta de novas drogas.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Bacillus subtilis , Complementary Therapies , Monoterpenes , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Anti-Infective Agents
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(4): 329-338, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154826

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las infecciones del torrente sanguíneo (ITS) son una importante causa de morbimortalidad en pacientes oncológicos. Los objetivos del estudio fueron evaluar las características de las ITS en pacientes con neoplasia hematológica (NH) y sólida (NS) en un estudio retrospectivo realizado en dos hospitales, entre 2009 y 2016. Fueron incluidos todos los episodios de ITS en adultos con neoplasias activas, excepto cáncer de piel no melanoma. Fueron identificados 467 episodios de bacteriemia y 16 de fungemia. Un total de 200 (41.4%) bacteriemias ocurrieron en pacientes con NH y 283 (58.6%) en pacientes con NS. Las NS y NH más frecuentes fueron cáncer de colon (18.7%) y linfoma no Hodgkin (27%), respectivamente. Los principales factores de riesgo de ITS fueron el antecedente de procedimiento quirúrgico para NS y quimioterapia en los 30 días previos y uso de catéter venoso central para NH. Las infecciones fueron adquiridas principalmente en el medio intrahospitalario y la presentación más frecuente fue la bacteriemia sin foco, fundamentalmente en NH (38.0% vs. 20.8%, p < 0.001). En un total de 336 (69.5%) aislamientos predominaron bacilos Gram negativos (BGN) sobre cocos Gram positivos (CGP) sin diferencias entre grupos. Escherichia coli fue el BGN más frecuente en NS (24.7%) y NH (20.5%). El CGP más frecuente fue Staphylococcus aureus. El 15% y el 18% de los aislamientos fue multirresistente en NS y NH, respectivamente. La mortalidad global fue 40.5% en pacientes con NH y 37.5% en pacientes con NS. La mayoría de las muertes ocurrió en los primeros 30 días.


Abstract Bloodstream infections (BI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. A retrospective study was performed in two hospitals aimed to evaluate characteristics of BI episodes occurred in adult patients with hematologic (HN) and solid (SN) neoplasia other than non-melanoma skin cancers in the period 2009-2016. A total of 467 episodes of bacteremia and 16 of fungemia were identified. A total of 200 (41.4%) bacteremias occurred in patients with HN and 283 (58.6%) in patients with SN. The most frequent SN and HN were colon cancer (18.7%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (27%), respectively. The main risk factors for BI were a previous surgical procedure in SN and chemotherapy in the previous 30 days and use of central venous catheter in HN. Infections were mainly acquired in the hospital environment and the most frequent presentation was bacteremia without focus, mostly in HN (38% vs. 20.8%, p < 0.001). Gram negative bacilli (GNB) were isolated in 336 (69.5%) episodes and predominated over Gram positive cocci (GPC) in both groups. Escherichia coli was the most frequent GNB isolated in both SN (24.7%) and HN patients (20.5%). The most frequent GPC was Staphylococcus aureus. Multidrug-resistance was found in 15% of the isolates in SN and 18% in HN. The overall mortality was 40.5% in patients with HN and 37.5% in patients with SN, with the majority of deaths occurring in the first 30 days.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms , Staphylococcal Infections , Retrospective Studies , Bacteremia , Gram-Negative Bacteria
16.
Infectio ; 24(2): 55-56, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114839

ABSTRACT

En Colombia, los Enterobacterales (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp y Enterobacter spp) ocupan los primeros lugares en la epidemiología de las infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud (IAAS) y de las adquiridas en comunidad. Estas bacterias pueden desarrollar resistencia a carbapenemicos (Ertapenem, Imipenem, Meropenem y Doripenem) por una combinación de mecanismos que incluye la producción de enzimas hidrolíticas (como las betalactamasas de espectro extendido o BLEEs, las cefalosporinasas AmpC y las carbapenemasas) y las mutaciones en proteínas de la membrana externa. Desde su aparición en 1996, las carbapenemasas han sido las enzimas más temidas. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) Verona integron-mediated metallo- ß-lactamase (VIM), New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM), Imipenemase (IMP) y oxacillinase-48-like carbapenemase (OXA-48) han sido las más estudiadas por su diseminación y alta mortalidad. En 2006 se reportó por primera vez la presencia de carbapenemasas en Colombia correspondiente a una KPC-24 . Desde entonces, varios reportes de diversas enzimas han sido publicados por grupos de investigación y por el Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) en cuyo último informe 66% de los Enterobacterales resistentes a carbapenémicos expresan KPC, 23% expresan NDM y 6% expresan VIM. Llama la atención un 12% de aislamientos sin carbapenemasas detectables.


In Colombia, Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Enterobacter spp) occupy the first places in the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and community-acquired infections. These bacteria can develop resistance to carbapenemics (Ertapenem, Imipenem, Meropenem and Doripenem) by a combination of mechanisms including the production of hydrolytic enzymes (such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases or BLEEs, AmpC cephalosporinases and carbapenemases) and mutations in outer membrane proteins. Since their emergence in 1996, carbapenemases have been the most feared enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) Verona integron-mediated metallo- ß-lactamase (VIM), New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM), Imipenemase (IMP) and oxacillinase-48-like carbapenemase (OXA-48) have been the most studied because of their dissemination and high mortality. In 2006, the presence of carbapenemases in Colombia corresponding to a KPC-24 was reported for the first time. Since then, several reports of various enzymes have been published by research groups and by the National Institute of Health (INS) in whose last report 66% of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae express KPC, 23% express NDM and 6% express VIM. It is noteworthy that 12% of isolates had no detectable carbapenemases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Carbapenems , Ceftazidime , Health Care Costs , Colombia , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Substandard Drugs
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(2): 182-185, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126107

ABSTRACT

Resumen Comamonas kerstersii es un bacilo gramnegativo no fermentador, asociado a infecciones intraabdominales. Comunicamos un caso clínico de una bacteriemia por C. kerstersii en un joven con una apendicitis aguda. La primera identificación, mediante el sistema Vitek2 compact (BioMerieux) desde los hemocultivos, fue Comamonas testosteroni. Sin embargo, mediante MALDI-TOF se identificó como C. kerstersii. El paciente fue tratado con ampicilina/sulbactam y luego piperacilina/tazobactam con una evolución favorable. Dentro del género Comamonas, C. testosteroni ha sido la especie más frecuentemente reportada como causa de infecciones en humanos, describiéndose solo 23 casos de C. kerstersii. Dado los problemas en la identificación fenotípica de estos microorganismos, es posible que algunos de los reportes de C. testosteroni pudieran haber correspondido a C. kerstersii. Este caso pone en evidencia el rol patógeno de C. kerstersii y la importancia de utilizar MALDI-TOF como herramienta diagnóstica en bacilos gramnegativos no fermentadores.


Abstract Comamonas kerstersii is a non-fermenting Gram-negative bacillus. It has been associated with intra-abdominal infections. We describe a clinical case of bacteremia caused by C. kerstersii in a young man with acute appendicitis. The first identification, using the Vitek2 compact system (BioMerieux) from blood cultures, was Comamonas testosteroni. However, using MALDI-TOF was identified as C. kerstersii. The patient was treated first with ampicillin sulbactam and then piperacillin tazobactam with favorable evolution. Within the genus Comamonas, C. testosteroni has been the most frequently reported species as a cause of infections in humans, only 23 cases of C. kerstersii being described. Given the problems of phenotypic identification of these microorganisms, it is possible that some C. testosteroni reports could have corresponded to C. kerstersii. This case highlights the pathogenic role of C. kerstersii and the importance of using MALDI-TOF as a diagnostic tool for non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli identification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Appendicitis , Bacteremia , Comamonas , Gram-Negative Bacteria
18.
Med. infant ; 27(1): 3-9, Marzo de 2020. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1118423

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones bacterianas son una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en los niños con cáncer. Nuestro objetivo fue describir y comparar las características clínicas y los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias con su sensibilidad antimicrobiana en niños con diagnóstico de LLA y LMA. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo entre julio-2016 y junio-2018. Se incluyeron todos los episodios de bacteriemia (EpB) en pacientes de 0 a 18 años con diagnóstico de LLA y LMA. Se documentaron datos epidemiológicos y demográficos de los pacientes y datos microbiológicos de los aislamientos de hemocultivos positivos. Se utilizó stata13. Se incluyeron 258 EpB en 167 pacientes; el 55% eran varones. La mediana de edad fue 81 meses (RIC 39-130). En 215 EpB (83%) se registró la presencia de algún tipo de catéter; neutropenia en 193 EpB (75%), neutropenia severa en 98/258 EpB (38%). Se pudo determinar el foco clínico en 152 EpB (59%). Ciento diez pacientes tenían LLA y 57 LMA. En LLA predominaron las enterobacterias, en LMA los cocos gram positivos. Se observó asociación entre LMA y estreptococos del grupo Viridans (p<0,01) y entre LLA y P.aeruginosa (p 0,01). Con respecto a la sensibilidad hubo 11% y 17% de bacilos negativos multirresistentes en LLA y LMA respectivamente. Todos los estafilococos coagulasa negativos fueron meticilino resistentes. La mayoría de los pacientes tenía algún tipo de catéter y neutropenia. Se observó un predominio de enterobacterias con bajos niveles de resistencia antibiótica. Estos resultados son importantes para conocer la epidemiología local y establecer tratamientos empíricos adecuados (AU)


Bacterial infections are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children with cancer. Our aim was to describe and compare the clinical features and bacteremia-causing microorganisms together with their antimicrobial sensitivity in acute lymphocytic (ALL) and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). A descriptive observational study was conducted between July 2016 and June 2018. All episodes of bacteremia (EpB) in patients between 0 and 18 years of age with ALL and AML were included. All epidemiological and demographic data of the patients and microbiological information of the isolates of the positive blood cultures were recorded. For statistical analysis stata13 was used. Overall 258 EpB in 167 patients were included; 55% were boys. Median age was 81 months (IQR 39-130). In 215 EpB (83%) some type of catheter was involved; neutropenia was observed in 193 EpB (75%) and severe neutropenia in 98/258 EpB (38%). A clinical focus could be determined in 152 EpB (59%). Of all patients, 110 had ALL and 57 AML. The predominant micro-organisms were enterobacteria in ALL and gram-positive cocci in AML. An association was observed between AML and the viridans group of streptococci (p<0.01) and between ALL and P. aeruginosa (p 0.01). Regarding sensitivity, there were 11% and 17% of multiresistant negative bacilli in ALL and AML, respectively. All coagulase-negative staphylococci weer methicillin resistant. The majority of patients had some type of catheter and neutropenia. Predominance of enterobacteria with low levels of resistance to antibiotics was observed. These results are important to understand the local epidemiology and establish adequate empirical therapies (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Blood Culture , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 34-43, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089324

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Multidrug-resistant gram-negative rods (MDR GNR) represent a growing threat for patients with cancer. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of and risk factors for MDR GNR bacteremia in patients with cancer and to develop a clinical score to predict MDR GNR bacteremia. Material and Methods: Multicenter prospective study analyzing initial episodes of MDR GNR bacteremia. Risk factors were evaluated using a multiple logistic regression (forward-stepwise selection) analysis including variables with a p < 0.10 in univariate analysis. Results: 394 episodes of GNR bacteremia were included, with 168 (42.6 %) being MDR GNR. Five variables were identified as independent risk factors: recent antibiotic use (OR = 2.8, 95 % CI 1.7-4.6, p = 0.001), recent intensive care unit admission (OR = 2.9, 95 % CI 1.1-7.8, p = 0.027), hospitalization ≥ 7 days prior to the episode of bacteremia (OR = 3.5, 95 % CI 2-6.2, p = 0.005), severe mucositis (OR = 5.3, 95 % CI 1.8-15.6, p = 0.002), and recent or previous colonization/infection with MDR GNR (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI 1.2-4.3, p = 0.028). Using a cut-off value of two points, the score had a sensitivity of 66.07 % (95 % CI 58.4-73.2 %), a specificity of 77.8 % (95 % CI 71.4-82.7 %), a positive predictive value of 68 % (95 % CI 61.9-73.4 %), and a negative predictive value of 75.9 % (95 % CI 71.6-79.7 %). The overall performance of the score was satisfactory (AUROC 0.78; 95 % CI 0.73-0.82). In the cases with one or none of the risk factors identified, the negative likelihood ratio was 0.18 and the post-test probability of having MDR GNR was 11.68 %. Conclusions: With the growing incidence of MDR GNR as etiologic agents of bacteremia in cancer patients, the development of this score could be a potential tool for clinicians.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacteremia/etiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Neoplasms/microbiology , Argentina , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Statistics, Nonparametric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/complications
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 87-88, feb. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092727

ABSTRACT

Resumen Utilizando cepas clínicas de bacilos gramnegativos multi-resistentes (MDR), comparamos las CIM obtenidas de la microdilución en caldo, el método de referencia y el método de elución de sensidiscos. Encontramos que, con la excepción de A. baumannii, los resultados fueron muy similares. El método de elución de sensidiscos podría ser una buena alternativa y confiable para la determinación de la resistencia a colistín.


Abstract Using clinical strains of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacilli, we compared MICs obtained from both broth microdilution, the reference method, and sensi-disk elution method. We found that, with A. baumannii exception, results were very similar. Sensi-disk elution method could be a good and reliable alternative for colistin resistance determination.


Subject(s)
Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/standards , Colistin/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL