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1.
Med. infant ; 27(1): 3-9, Marzo de 2020. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1118423

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones bacterianas son una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en los niños con cáncer. Nuestro objetivo fue describir y comparar las características clínicas y los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias con su sensibilidad antimicrobiana en niños con diagnóstico de LLA y LMA. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo entre julio-2016 y junio-2018. Se incluyeron todos los episodios de bacteriemia (EpB) en pacientes de 0 a 18 años con diagnóstico de LLA y LMA. Se documentaron datos epidemiológicos y demográficos de los pacientes y datos microbiológicos de los aislamientos de hemocultivos positivos. Se utilizó stata13. Se incluyeron 258 EpB en 167 pacientes; el 55% eran varones. La mediana de edad fue 81 meses (RIC 39-130). En 215 EpB (83%) se registró la presencia de algún tipo de catéter; neutropenia en 193 EpB (75%), neutropenia severa en 98/258 EpB (38%). Se pudo determinar el foco clínico en 152 EpB (59%). Ciento diez pacientes tenían LLA y 57 LMA. En LLA predominaron las enterobacterias, en LMA los cocos gram positivos. Se observó asociación entre LMA y estreptococos del grupo Viridans (p<0,01) y entre LLA y P.aeruginosa (p 0,01). Con respecto a la sensibilidad hubo 11% y 17% de bacilos negativos multirresistentes en LLA y LMA respectivamente. Todos los estafilococos coagulasa negativos fueron meticilino resistentes. La mayoría de los pacientes tenía algún tipo de catéter y neutropenia. Se observó un predominio de enterobacterias con bajos niveles de resistencia antibiótica. Estos resultados son importantes para conocer la epidemiología local y establecer tratamientos empíricos adecuados (AU)


Bacterial infections are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children with cancer. Our aim was to describe and compare the clinical features and bacteremia-causing microorganisms together with their antimicrobial sensitivity in acute lymphocytic (ALL) and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). A descriptive observational study was conducted between July 2016 and June 2018. All episodes of bacteremia (EpB) in patients between 0 and 18 years of age with ALL and AML were included. All epidemiological and demographic data of the patients and microbiological information of the isolates of the positive blood cultures were recorded. For statistical analysis stata13 was used. Overall 258 EpB in 167 patients were included; 55% were boys. Median age was 81 months (IQR 39-130). In 215 EpB (83%) some type of catheter was involved; neutropenia was observed in 193 EpB (75%) and severe neutropenia in 98/258 EpB (38%). A clinical focus could be determined in 152 EpB (59%). Of all patients, 110 had ALL and 57 AML. The predominant micro-organisms were enterobacteria in ALL and gram-positive cocci in AML. An association was observed between AML and the viridans group of streptococci (p<0.01) and between ALL and P. aeruginosa (p 0.01). Regarding sensitivity, there were 11% and 17% of multiresistant negative bacilli in ALL and AML, respectively. All coagulase-negative staphylococci weer methicillin resistant. The majority of patients had some type of catheter and neutropenia. Predominance of enterobacteria with low levels of resistance to antibiotics was observed. These results are important to understand the local epidemiology and establish adequate empirical therapies (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Blood Culture , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190106, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136811

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to determine the incidence of health care-associated infections (HCAIs) and identify the main resistant microorganisms in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a Brazilian university hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a Brazilian teaching hospital between 2012 and 2014. RESULTS: Overall, 81.2% of the infections were acquired in the ICU. The most common resistant pathogenic phenotypes in all-site and bloodstream infections were oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (89.9% and 87.4%; 80.6% and 70.0%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to focus on HCAIs in ICUs in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Bacteremia/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Bacteremia/mortality , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
3.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202471, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136576

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: the purpose of this research was to identify the sociodemographic and microbiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance rates of patients with diabetic foot infections, hospitalized in an emergency reference center. Methods: it was an observational and transversal study. The sociodemographic data were collected by direct interview with the patients. During the surgical procedures, specimens of tissue of the infected foot lesions were biopsied to be cultured, and for bacterial resistance analysis. Results: the sample consisted of 105 patients. The majority of patierns were men, over 50 years of age, married and with low educational level. There was bacterial growth in 95 of the 105 tissue cultures. In each positive culture only one germ was isolated. There was a high prevalence of germs of the Enterobacteriaceae family (51,5%). Gram-negative germs were isolated in 60% of cultures and the most individually isolated germs were the Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus aureus (20%) and Enterococcus faecalis (17,9%). Regarding antibiotic resistance rates, a high frequency of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin (63,0%) and to ciprofloxacin (55,5%) was found; additionally, 43,5% of the Gram-negative isolated germs were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Conclusions: the majority of patients were men, over 50 years of age, married and with low educational level. The most prevalent isolated germs from the infected foot lesions were Gram-negative bacteria, resistant to ciprofloxacin, and the individually most isolated germ was the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.


RESUMO Objetivo: identificar o perfil sociodemográfico, microbiológico e de resistência bacteriana em pacientes com pé diabético infectado. Métodos: tratou-se de estudo observacional, transversal que avaliou os perfis sóciodemográfico e microbiológico de pacientes portadores de pé diabético infectado internados em Pronto Socorro de referência. Os dados sociodemográficos foram coletados por meio de entrevista. Foram colhidos, durante os procedimentos cirúrgicos, fragmentos de tecidos das lesões podais infectadas para realização de cultura/antibiograma. Resultados: a amostra foi composta por 105 pacientes. O perfil sociodemográfico mais prevalente foi o de pacientes do sexo masculino, acima dos 50 anos, casados e com baixa escolaridade. Das 105 amostras de fragmentos de tecidos colhidos para realização de cultura e antibiograma, 95 foram positivas, com crescimento de um único germe em cada um dos exames. Houve predomínio de germes da família Enterobacteriaceae (51,5%). Germes Gram-negativos foram isolados em 60,0% das culturas e os espécimes mais isolados individualmente foram os cocos Gram-positivos, Staphylococcus aureus (20,0%) e Enterococcus faecalis (17,9%). Considerando-se os perfis de resistência bacteriana, verificou-se alta taxa de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (63,0%) e à ciprofloxacino (55,5%); verificou-se, também, que 43,5% dos germes Gram-negativos eram resistentes à ciprofloxacino. Conclusões: o perfil sociodemográfico majoritário, foi o de homens, com mais de 50 anos e com baixa escolaridade. Concluímos que os germes mais prevalentes nas lesões podais dos pacientes diabéticos foram os Gram-negativos, resistentes ao ciprofloxacino e que o germe mais isolado individualmente foi o Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Diabetic Foot/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/drug therapy , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Infections , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(12): 871-880, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055201

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bacterial meningitis (BM) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate may be used as a prognostic marker of this condition. We hypothesized that CSF lactate levels would remain elevated in participants who died of acute BM compared with those who recovered from this disease. Objective: To evaluate the potential use of lactate and other CSF biomarkers as prognostic markers of acute BM outcome. Methods: This retrospective, longitudinal study evaluated dynamic CSF biomarkers in 223 CSF samples from 49 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of acute BM, with bacteria identified by CSF culturing. The participants were grouped according to outcome: death (n = 9; 18.37%) and survival (n = 40; 81.63%). All participants received appropriate antibiotic treatment. Results: In the logistic regression model, lactate concentration in the final CSF sample, xanthochromia, and CSF glucose variation between the first and last CSF samples were predictors of a poor outcome (death). In contrast, decrease in CSF white blood cell count and CSF percentage of neutrophils, increase in the percentage of lymphocytes, and normalization of the CSF lactate concentration in the last CSF sample were predictors of a good prognosis. Conclusion: The study confirmed the initial hypothesis. The longitudinal analysis of CSF lactate is an important predictor of prognosis in acute BM.


RESUMO As meningites bacterianas (MB) estão associadas à alta morbidade e mortalidade. O lactato no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) pode ser usado como biomarcador de prognóstico nas MB. A hipótese desse estudo é que os níveis de lactato no LCR se mantém elevados entre pacientes com MB aguda que evoluem para óbito, ao contrário do que ocorre em pacientes com bom prognóstico. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso potencial do lactato e outros marcadores no LCR como indicador de prognóstico na MB aguda. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo longitudinal da dinâmica dos biomarcadores bioquímicos, celulares e físicos no LCR. Foram analisadas 223 amostras de 49 pacientes com MB aguda com bactérias identificadas por cultura do LCR. Os participantes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o desfecho: óbito (n = 9; 18,37%) e não óbito (n = 40; 81,63%). Todos os participantes receberam antibioticoterapia adequada. Resultados: No modelo de regressão logística, as variáveis que diferiram significativamente entre os dois grupos foram concentração de lactato na amostra final de LCR, xantocromia e variação da concentração de glicose entre a primeira e a última amostra de LCR. A alteração desses fatores indicou desfechos negativos (óbito), enquanto a diminuição do número de leucócitos e da porcentagem de neutrófilos, assim como a normalização da concentração de lactato no LCR foram preditores de bom prognóstico. Conclusão: O estudo confirmou a hipótese inicial. A análise longitudinal do lactato no LCR é um importante preditor de prognóstico na MB aguda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Meningitis, Bacterial/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Bacterial/mortality , Lactic Acid/cerebrospinal fluid , Prognosis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Meningitis, Bacterial/pathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Glucose/cerebrospinal fluid , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 238-244, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013744

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study is to detect the presence of tick-borne agents of genera Rickettsia, Borrelia, Babesia, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma in ticks collected from native wild birds in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Birds were captured and observed carefully to find the ectoparasites. DNA detection of hemoparasites was performed by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were analyzed and their homologies were compared to the available isolates in the GenBank platform database. A total of 33 birds were captured from 20 different species, of which 14 were parasitized by Amblyomma longirostre (n = 22). There was absence of DNA from agents of the genera Babesia, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia in the evaluated samples. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that one sample had 100% identity with Rickettsia bellii (KJ534309), the other two samples showed 100% identity with Rickettsia sp. Aranha strain and strain AL (EU274654 and AY360216). The positive sample for R. bellii was also demonstrated to be positive for Borrelia sp., which presented a similarity of 91% with Borrelia turcica (KF422815). This is the first description of Borrelia sp. in ticks of the genus Amblyomma in South America.


Resumo Este trabalho teve como objetivo detectar evidências moleculares da presença de agentes dos gêneros Rickettsia, Borrelia, Babesia, Anaplasma e Ehrlichia transmitidos por carrapatos coletados de aves silvestres no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Aves foram capturadas e observadas cuidadosamente a procura de ectoparasitos. A detecção de DNA de hemoparasitos foi realizada por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). As sequências obtidas foram analisadas e sua homologia comparada aos isolados disponíveis na base de dados da plataforma GenBank. Foram capturadas 33 aves, de 20 espécies diferentes das quais 14 estavam parasitadas por Amblyomma longirostre (n = 22). Houve ausência de DNA de agentes dos gêneros Babesia, Anaplasma e Ehrlichia nas amostras avaliadas. A análise filogenética indicou que uma amostra apresentou 100% de identidade com Rickettsia bellii (KJ534309), as outras duas amostras apresentaram 100% de identidade com Rickettsia sp. cepa Aranha e Cepa AL (EU274654 e AY360216.). A amostra positiva para R. bellii também apresentou positividade para Borrelia sp. que apresentou similaridade de 91% com Borrelia turcica (KF422815). Esta é a primeira descrição de Borrelia sp. em carrapatos do gênero Amblyomma na América do Sul.


Subject(s)
Animals , Babesia/isolation & purification , Ticks/microbiology , Birds/parasitology , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Phylogeny , Rickettsia/genetics , Babesia/classification , Borrelia/genetics , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ehrlichia/genetics , Parks, Recreational , Anaplasma/genetics
6.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(5): 371-375, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950483

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the bacterial and fungal microbiota found in contact lens cases among two groups of patients to correlate the data on the habits of contact lens users and to evaluate whether there is a difference in the culture results between users of ridged and nonridged contact lens cases. Methods: Two groups (35 patients per group) were included, consisting of hospital workers and those who had not visited a hospital in the past 30 days, and a questionnaire regarding epidemiological data and habits related to contact lens and lens case use was administered. In addition, 140 samples collected from the right and left compartments of each lens case by swabbing the bottom of the wells were tested using bacterioscopy as well as fungal and bacterial cultures via computerized identification of the species. Results: No fungal growth was identified in any of the 70 contact lens cases; however, bacteria were found in 39 cases, and there was no statistical difference between the groups. Most bacteria (>85%) were gram-negative bacilli. Contamination inone compartment of the contact lens case elevated the risk of contamination of the other side (>80%). Moreover, contamination was statistically higher in the ridged cases than in nonridged cases (p=0.0149). Conclusion: The types of bacteria contaminating the cases are generally not seen in eye diseases associated with contact lens use, suggesting that other decisive variables are involved in eye infection from a contaminated lens or case. Fungal contamination of contact lens cases appears to be an exception. Ridged cases are commonly used by contact lens wearers and present a potential risk to eye health. In addition, the results of bacterial tests between hospital workers and those who did not visit a hospital were not significantly different.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a microbiota bacteriana e fúngica encontrada em estojos de lentes de contato em dois grupos, correlacionar os dados sobre os hábitos de uso de lentes de contato e avaliar se há diferença na positividade das culturas entre os usuários estojos de lentes de contato com ranhuras e sem ranhuras. Métodos: Dois grupos foram formados, trabalhadores do hospital e pessoas que não visitaram o hospital (35 indivíduos por grupo), e um questionário foi aplicado sobre dados epidemiológicos e hábitos relacionados ao uso de lentes de contato e estojos de lentes. Além disso, 140 amostras, coletadas do compartimento direito e esquerdo de cada estojo de lente, esfregando o fundo dos mesmos, foram testadas por bacterioscopia e por culturas de fungos e bactérias, com identificação computadorizada da espécie. Resultados: Não houve crescimento fúngico em nenhum dos 70 estojos de lentes de contato, porém bactérias foram encontradas em 39; não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos. A maioria das bactérias (>85%) eram bacilos gram-negativos. Quando um compartimento estava contaminado, o risco de contaminação do outro compartimento era elevado (>80%). A contaminação foi estatisticamente maior nos estojos com ranhuras (p=0,0149). Conclusão: A contaminação dos estojos parece ocorrer por bactérias que, em geral, não são encontradas em doenças oculares associadas ao uso de lentes de contato, sugerindo que existem outras variáveis decisivas nas infecções oculares de uma lente ou estojo contaminado. Contaminação de estojos de lentes de contato com fungos parece ser uma exceção. O uso de estojos com ranhuras é uma prática comum e apresenta um risco potencial à saúde ocular. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nos resultados dos testes bacterianos entre trabalhadores hospitalares e pessoas que não visitaram o hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Contact Lenses/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Fungi/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 422-428, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889236

ABSTRACT

Abstract Identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria (NFGNB) of cystic fibrosis patients is hard and misidentification could affect clinical outcome. This study aimed to propose a scheme using polymerase chain reaction to identify NFGNB. This scheme leads to reliable identification within 3 days in an economically viable manner when compared to other methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 401-406, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889246

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The present study attempts to examine the microbial profile and antibiotic susceptibility of diabetic foot infections in the intensive care unit of a tertiary referral centre for diabetic foot. As part of the study, we also attempted to find the prevalence of blaNDM-like gene among carbapenem-resistant gram negative infections. Methodology A prospective study of 261 patients with diabetic foot infections was performed during the period between January 2014 and June 2014. Results A total of 289 isolates were obtained from 178 tissue samples from 261 patients, 156 (59.7%) males and 105 (40.2%) females, with a mean age of 58 years (-15 years), having diabetic foot infection. No growth was seen in thirty eight (17.6%) tissue samples. Out of the total samples, 44.3% were monomicrobial and 55.7% were polymicrobial. Gram negative pathogens were predominant (58.5%). Seven of the total isolates were fungal; 0.7% showed pure fungal growth and 1.7% were mixed, grown along with some bacteria. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (26.9%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.9%). Of the 58.5% gram negative pathogens, 16.5% were Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems. Among these isolates, 4 (25%) were positive for blaNDM-like gene. Among the rest, 18.6% were carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas, among which 4 (36.3%) were blaNDM. Among the Staphylococci, 23.7% were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions Our results support the recent view that gram negative organisms, depending on the geographical location, may be predominant in DFIs. There is an increase in multidrug-resistant pathogens, especially carbapenem resistance and this is creeping rapidly. We need to be more judicious while using empiric antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/complications , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Mycoses/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , India , Methicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycoses/microbiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 155-162, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959425

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las úlceras crónicas son un problema de salud pública, agravándose por infecciones bacterianas causadas principalmente por agentes resistentes. Objetivo: Estudiar prevalencia y perfil de susceptibilidad en bacterias aisladas de úlceras crónicas en pacientes adultos. Pacientes y Métodos: Pacientes atendidos en la Fundación Instituto Nacional de Heridas entre mayo y julio de 2014, con úlceras crónicas en extremidades inferiores con signos inflamatorios clínicos. Las muestras fueron cultivadas en aerobiosis y anaerobiosis y para la identificación bacteriana se empleó el sistema de galerías API (Biomerieux). La susceptibilidad in vitro se evaluó según el método de Kirby Bauer. Resultados: Se reclutaron 73 pacientes, entre quienes 46 presentaron úlceras infectadas, diagnosticándose 33 úlceras venosas con predominio de infección polimicrobiana y 10 úlceras de pie diabético con predominio de infección monomicrobiana (p ≤ 0,05). Se aislaron 68 cepas de los 46 pacientes con úlcera infectada. Las enterobacterias predominaron en infección monomicrobiana (p ≤ 0,05) y los demás grupos bacterianos fueron levemente más frecuentes en infección polimicrobiana. La especie prevalente fue Staphylococcus aureus (24%) seguida de Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18%). Cincuenta cepas (77%) presentaron resistencia a uno o más antibacterianos. Destacamos resistencia de S. aureus a ciprofloxacina (50%) y cefoxitina (37,5%) identificándose así resistencia a meticilina en la comunidad (SARM-AC), siendo todas sensibles a cotrimoxazol. Las enterobacterias presentaron resistencia a sensibilidad a amikacina (95,5%), P. aeruginosa evidenció resistencia a ciprofloxacina (33,3%) con alta sensibilidad a gentamicina (91,7%) y amikacina (83,3%), mientras Acinetobacter spp presentó resistencia a ciprofloxacina y ceftazidima en 60%, con 100% de sensibilidad a imipenem. Streptococcus β hemolítico presentó 50% de resistencia a clindamicina y penicilina. Conclusión: Estos datos entregan información epidemiológica de infecciones de úlceras crónicas, representando un apoyo al diagnóstico, tratamiento y manejo de esta patología.


Background: Chronic wounds are considered a public health problem that may be complicated by bacterial infections, mainly caused by resistant strains. Aim: To study the bacteria prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility in samples from adult patients with chronic wounds. Methods: Patients treated at National Institute of Wounds Foundation between May and July 2014, with chronic ulcers in lower extremities with clinical inflammatory signs were recluted. Samples were cultured in aerobic and anaerobic atmosphere and species identification was performed by API (Biomerieux) galleries. The in vitro susceptibility was evaluated according to the Kirby Bauer method. Results: From 73 patients, 46 had infected wounds most of them were venous ulcers (33) with prevalence in polymicrobial infections and 10 with foot-diabetes ulcers with prevalence in monomicrobial infections (p ≤ 0.05). Sixty-eight strains were isolated and Enterobacteriaceae were predominant in monomicrobial infection (p ≤ 0.05) and the other groups were slightly higher in polymicrobial infection. The main species were Staphylococcus aureus (24%) followed by P. aeruginosa (18%). Fifty strains (77%) were resistant or multi-resistance. We emphasize resistance of S. aureus to ciprofloxacin (50%) and cefoxitin (37.5%), thus identifying resistance to methicillin in the community (CA-SAMR), all of which are sensitive to cotrimoxazole. Enterobacteria showed sensitivity to amikacin (95.5%), P. aeruginosa showed resistance to ciprofloxacin (33.3%) with high sensitivity to gentamicin (91.7%) and amikacin (83.3%), while Acinetobacter spp showed resistance to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime in 60%, with 100% sensitivity to imipenem. 50% Streptococcus β hemolytic showed resistance to clindamycin and penicillin. Conclusion: These data provide epidemiological information on chronic wound infections, representing support for diagnosis, treatment and management of this pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Wound Infection/microbiology , Wound Infection/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Wound Infection/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 140-146, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959423

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: Los microorganismos aislados de hemocultivos (HC) en pacientes con neutropenia febril (NF) varían en el tiempo, siendo necesaria su vigilancia para orientar una terapia empírica adecuada. Objetivo: Identificar microorganismos aislados de HC y su perfil de resistencia (R) a antimicrobianos en niños con cáncer y NF de alto riesgo. Método: Estudio prospectivo, multicéntrico de episodios de NF de alto riesgo en pacientes bajo 18 años de edad, de cinco hospitales en Santiago de Chile, 2012-2015. Análisis de HC positivos. Resultados: Se analizaron 206 microorganismos en 185 episodios de NF de alto riesgo con HC positivos. Los aislados principales fueron bacilos gramnegativos (BGN) (46,6%) y cocáceas grampositivas (CGP) (45,1%) y los microorganismos más frecuentes Escherichia coli (22,8%), Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa (18,0%) y Klebsiella spp (16,5%). En resistencia (R) a antimicrobianos destaca: E. coli y Klebsiella spp 4,2 y 67,6% R a cefalosporinas de tercera generación (cefotaxima/ceftriaxona) respectivamente, 10,6 y 40,6% R a ciprofloxacina y 2,1 y 26,5% a amikacina, respectivamente. S. coagulasa negativa y S. aureus 86,4% y 22,2% R a oxacilina, Streptococcus grupo viridans 71% R a penicilina. Discusión: Este estudio actualiza la etiología y el perfil de R de microorganismos aislados en HC de niños con cáncer y NF de alto riesgo, herramienta esencial para el adecuado manejo de estos pacientes.


Background: Microorganisms isolated from blood cultures (BC) in patients with febrile neutropenia (NF) vary over time, requiring systematic monitoring to guide appropriate empirical therapy. Aim: To identify microorganisms isolated from BC and their antimicrobial resistance profile in children with cancer and high risk NF. Method: Prospective, multicenter study. The analysis included episodes of high-risk FN with positive BC in children under 18 years of age treated in five hospitals in Santiago, Chile, 2012-2015. Results: A total of 206 microorganisms were analyzed in 185 episodes of high-risk FN. The main isolates were Gram negative bacilli (46.6%) and Gram positive cocci (45.1%) and the most frequent microorganisms were Escherichia coli (22.8%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus (18.0%) and Klebsiella spp. (16.5%). Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp showed 4.2% and 67.6% resistance to third generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime/ceftriaxone), 10.6% and 40.6% resistance to fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin) and 2.1% and 26.5% to amikacin, respectively. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus had 86.4% and 22.2% resistance to oxacillin, Streptococcus viridans group had 71% resistance to penicillin. Discussion: This study updates the etiology and resistance profile of microorganisms isolated in BC from children with cancer and high risk FN, an essential tool for the adequate management of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Febrile Neutropenia/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Neoplasms/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile , Prospective Studies , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Neoplasms/complications
11.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(1): 23-27, Apr.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888233

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a serious complication in cirrhotic patients, and changes in the microbiological characteristics reported in the last years are impacting the choice of antibiotic used for treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the changes in the epidemiology and bacterial resistance of the germs causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis over three different periods over 17 years. METHODS: All cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and positive culture of ascites fluid were retrospectively studied in a reference Hospital in Southern Brazil. Three periods were ramdomly evaluated: 1997-1998, 2002-2003 and 2014-2015. The most frequent infecting organisms and the sensitivity in vitro to antibiotics were registered. RESULTS: In the first period (1997-1998) there were 33 cases, the most common were: E. coli in 13 (36.11%), Staphylococcus coagulase-negative in 6 (16.66%), K. pneumoniae in 5 (13.88%), S. aureus in 4 (11.11%) and S. faecalis in 3 (8.33%). In the second period (2002-2003), there were 43 cases, the most frequent were: Staphylococus coagulase-negative in 16 (35.55%), S. aureus in 8 (17.77%), E. coli in 7 (15.55%) and K. pneumoniae in 3 (6.66%). In the third period (2014-2015) there were 58 cases (seven with two bacteria), the most frequent were: E. coli in 15 (23.1%), S. viridans in 12 (18.5%), K. pneumoniae in 10 (15.4%) and E. faecium 5 (7.7%). No one was using antibiotic prophylaxis. Considering all staphylococci, the prevalence increased to rates of the order of 50% in the second period, with a reduction in the third period evaluated. Likewise, the prevalence of resistant E. coli increased, reaching 14%. CONCLUSION: There was a modification of the bacterial population causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, with high frequency of gram-positive organisms, as well as an increase in the resistance to the traditionally recommended antibiotics. This study suggests a probable imminent inclusion of a drug against gram-positive organisms in the empiric treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A peritonite bacteriana espontânea é uma complicação séria em pacientes cirróticos e as alterações nas características microbiológicas relatadas nos últimos anos podem afetar a escolha do antibiótico utilizado no tratamento. OBJETIVO: Os objetivos do presente estudo são avaliar as mudanças na epidemiologia e perfil de resistência bacteriana dos germes causadores de peritonite bacteriana espontânea em três períodos diferentes ao longo de 17 anos. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes cirróticos com peritonite bacteriana espontânea e cultura positiva de fluido ascítico foram estudados retrospectivamente em um hospital de referência no Sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados três diferentes períodos selecionados de forma randômica: 1997-1998, 2002-2003 e 2014-2015. Os organismos infecciosos mais frequentes e a sensibilidade in vitro a antibióticos foram registados. RESULTADOS: No primeiro período (1997-1998) houve 33 casos; os mais comuns foram: E. coli em 13 (36,1%), Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo em 6 (16,7%), K. pneumoniae em 5 (13,9%), S. aureus em 4 (11,1%) e S. faecalis em 3 (8,3%). No segundo período (2002-2003), houve 43 casos, os mais frequentes foram: Staphylococus coagulase-negativo em 16 (35,5%), S. aureus em 8 (17,8%), E. coli em 7 (15,5%) e K. pneumoniae em 3 (6,7%). No terceiro período (2014-2015), houve 58 casos (sete com duas bactérias), os mais frequentes foram: E. coli em 15 (23,1%), S. viridans em 12 (18,5%), K. pneumoniae em 10 (15,4%) e E. faecium 5 (7,7%). Nenhum paciente estava usando profilaxia antibiótica. Quando considerados todos os estafilococos, a prevalência aumentou para taxas da ordem de 50% no segundo período, apresentando redução no terceiro período avaliado. Do mesmo modo, a prevalência de E coli resistente aumentou, chegando a 14%. CONCLUSÃO: Houve modificação da população bacteriana causadora de peritonite bacteriana espontânea, com alta frequência de organismos gram-positivos, bem como aumento da resistência aos antibióticos tradicionalmente recomendados. Este estudo sugere uma provável inclusão iminente de um medicamento contra organismos gram-positivos no tratamento empírico da peritonite bacteriana espontânea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritonitis/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/complications , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Peritonitis/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e6872, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889038

ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficiency of removal of cariogenic bacteria and carious dentin by ablation using two lasers: fluorescence-feedback controlled (FFC) Er:YAG laser and different pulses of Er:YAG laser based on variable square pulse technology (VSPt). The secondary objective was to measure the temperature during laser ablation of carious tissue. Seventy-two extracted human molars were used in this study. Sixty teeth with carious dentin were randomly divided into four experimental groups according to the treatment for caries removal: group 1: 400 µs (FFC group); group 2: super short pulse (SSP group, 50 µs pulse); group 3: medium short pulse (MSP group, 100 µs pulse); group 4: short pulse (SP group, 300 µs pulse) and one positive control group with no treatment. Twelve teeth without carious lesion were used as a negative control group. After caries removal, swabs were taken with cotton pellets and real-time PCR analysis was performed. During caries ablation, a thermal infrared camera was used to measure the temperature changes. In all experimental groups, specimens were free of bacterial contamination after the treatment. In the SSP, MSP and SP groups, temperatures measured during caries ablation were significantly higher compared to temperatures in the FFC group (P<0.001). In this in vitro study, laser treatment for removal of carious dentin and cariogenic bacteria was an efficient treatment modality without causing excessive temperatures that might adversely affect pulp vitality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Dental Caries/therapy , Dental Cavity Preparation/methods , Dentin/microbiology , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Dental Caries/diagnosis , Dental Pulp/physiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Infrared Rays , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Temperature , Thermography
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170631, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954522

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives Using two groups of mini-implants (successful and failed) the objectives of this in vivo study were: to evaluate the microbial contamination by the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique and to quantify the bacterial endotoxin by the limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Material and Methods The 15 successful and 10 failed mini-implants (1.6 mm diameter × 7.0 or 9.0 mm long), placed in the maxilla and/or mandible, were obtained from 15 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Data were analyzed statistically by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test using the SAS software (a=0.05). Results All 40 microbial species were detected in both groups of mini-implants, with different frequencies. No differences were observed between the groups with respect to microbial complexes (blue, purple, yellow, green, orange, red and other species) and endotoxin quantification (p>0.05). Conclusion Neither microbial contamination nor endotoxin quantification was determinant for the early loss of stability of the mini-implants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Dental Implants/microbiology , Endotoxins/analysis , Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures/methods , Reference Values , DNA, Bacterial , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Limulus Test/methods , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Hybridization/methods
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(8): e180098, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040602

ABSTRACT

β-lactamases, which are found in several bacterial species and environments, are the main cause of resistance to β-lactams in Gram-negative bacteria. In 2009, a protein (LRA-13) with two β-lactamase domains (one class C domain and one class D domain) was experimentally characterised, and an extended action spectrum against β-lactams consistent with two functional domains was found. Here, we present the results of searches in the non-redundant NCBI protein database that revealed the existence of a group of homologous bifunctional β-lactamases in the genomes of environmental bacteria. These findings suggest that bifunctional β-lactamases are widespread in nature; these findings also raise concern that bifunctional β-lactamases may be transferred to bacteria of clinical importance through lateral gene transfer mechanisms.


Subject(s)
beta-Lactamases/genetics , Catalytic Domain/genetics , Genomics , Environmental Microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/enzymology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification
15.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 36(3): 221-231, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899589

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Hallazgos clínicos y ecocardiográficos en pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa (E.I.) asociada a catéter de hemodiálisis (CHD) fueron comparados con sujetos controles con E.I. "habitual". Pacientes y métodos: Del total de registros ecocardiográficos de una Clínica privada de Antofagasta entre 2009 y 2014, 4 pacientes presentaban E.I. asociada CHD (E.I.-CHD) y 16 otro tipo de E.I. (controles). Se compararon ambos grupos clínicamente y en las distintas modalidades de ecografía, para evaluar el aporte de cada una de ellas en el diagnóstico, manejo y comprensión del mecanismo de producción de la E.I. Resultados: El periodo del inicio de los síntomas hasta la hospitalización y el comprendido entre ésta hasta el fallecimiento fue variable, con tendencia a fallecimiento más precoz en el grupo E.I.-CHD (promedio 14,6 vs 20,6 días en el grupo control). La edad en E.I.-CHD fue mayor (65 versus 62.2 años), con mayor incidencia de las 3 comorbilidades más frecuentes: hipertensión arterial (100% versus 56,25%), diabetes mellitus (75% versus 50%) e insuficiencia cardíaca (75% versus 31,25%). La mortalidad fue 18.75% en el grupo control y 75% en la E.I.-CHD. En los pacientes con E.I.-CHD se aisló: Cándida (50%), Bacilos gram negativo (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) (25%) y SAMR (25%) mientras que en el grupo control fueron aislados Enterococcus faecalis (25%), Streptococcus viridans (12.5%), Streptococcus spp (6.25%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.25%), Streptococcus grupo C (6.25%), Abiotrophia defectiva (6.25%) y Streptococcus pneumoniae (6.25). En 31.25% de los casos los hemocultivos fue-ron negativos. La localización más frecuente de las vegetaciones en los pacientes con E.I.-CHD correspondió a la pared de AD, sitio de impacto del jet del CHD, en un 100%, seguida por CHD 50%, tricúspide 25% y aórtica 25%. En los controles las localizaciones fueron 75% en válvula aórtica y 25% en válvula mitral. En el grupo de E.I.-CHD, la mitad presentó disfunción sistólica e insuficiencia valvular, mientras que en el grupo control fue predominante la insuficiencia valvular (62,5%) seguida por la perforación de velo (25%). Conclusión: En las E.I.-CHD se aislaron gérmenes asociados a un peor pronóstico (hongos o bacterias atípicas), con altísima mortalidad. La localización principal de las vegetaciones fue en la pared de la aurícula derecha (AD), alrededor de la desembocadura de la vena cava inferior (VCI), sitio de impacto del jet del CHD, y en el tercio distal del catéter. Clinical and echocardiographic findings in patients with infective endocarditis (I.E.) associated to the presence of hemodialysis catheters (HDC) were compared to those in subjects with other types of I.E.


Abstracts: Methods: Between 2009 and 2014 an echocardiographic diagnosis of I.E. was established in 4 subjects with a hemodialysis catheter in place and 16 patients had a common variety of I.E. (controls). Clinical and echocardiographic findings, including echocardiographic modalities were compared between groups. Results: Time from onset of symptoms and time to patient death were shorter in I.E.-HDC patients compared to controls (mean 14.6 vs 20.6 days, respectively. I.E. -HDC patients tended to be older (65.0 vs 62.2 years old). The incidence of main comorbidities was higher in I.E.-HDC: hypertension (100% vs 56.2%), diabetes (75 vs 59%) and heart failure (75% vs 31.2%), respectively. Mortality was much higher in I.E-HDC (74% vs 18%). Infective agents also differed between groups: I.E.-HDC was associate to C albicans (50%), Gram negative rods (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) (25%) y SAMR (25%). In contrast, the agents involved in controls were E faecalis (25%), S viridans (12.5%), S. group C (6.25%), S aureus (6,25%), group C Streptococcus (6.25%), Abiotrophic defectiva (6.25%) and S pneumoniae (6.25%). Overall, blood cultures were negative in 31.2% patients. Among patients with I.E.-HDC vegetations were most commonly found at the right atrial wall (100%), on the catheter (50%), at the tricuspid valve (25%) and at the aortic valve (25%). In non I.E.-HDC, vegetations were located at the aortic valve (75%) and the mitral valve (25%). Half the patients with I.E.- HDC patients presented ventricular dysfunction and valvular regurgitation while control patients had predominantly valvular insufficiency (62.5%) or leaflet perforation (25%). Conclusion: Mortality in I.E.-HDC patients was very high, associated to the presence of aggressive microbial or fungal agents. Vegetations were most commonly located at the right atrial wall, around de junction with the inferior vena cava and on the catheter itself.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Endocarditis/microbiology , Endocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Catheter-Related Infections/complications , Candida/isolation & purification , Echocardiography , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification
16.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(6): 468-474, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897962

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has become a standard technique over the past few decades in intensive care unit (ICU). Objective: A review of pediatric patients who received ECMO support in the pediatric cardiac ICU was conducted to determine the incidence, risk factors and causal organisms related to acquired infections and assess the survival rates of ECMO patients with nosocomial infections. Methods: Sixty-six patients who received ECMO support in the pediatric cardiac ICU between January 2011 and June 2014 were included in the study. Demographic, echocardiographic, hemodynamic features and surgical procedures were reviewed. Results: Sixty-six patients received a total of 292.5 days of venoarterial ECMO support. Sixty were postoperative patients. Forty-five patients were weaned from ECMO support with an ECMO survival rate of 68.2%. The rate of infection was 116.2/1000 ECMO days. Prolonged ICU stay, duration of ventilation and ECMO were found associated with development of nosocomial infection and only the duration of ECMO was an independent risk factor for nosocomial infections in ECMO patients. Conclusion: The correction of the underlying process leading to ECMO support and shortening the length of ECMO duration together with stricter application of ECMO indications would improve the infection incidence and hospital surveillance of the patient group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Cross Infection/etiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/classification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 680-684, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041427

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: With the advancement of medicine and surgery, various types of medical devices have become part of treatment strategies. METHODS: Identification and antimicrobial sensitivity testing were done according to CLSI guidelines following standard microbiological practices. RESULTS: Urinary catheter infections (31%) were most frequent followed by central venous catheter (18%) and orthopedic implants (15%). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was a major cause of device-related infection after Escherichia coli (21%); other pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%), Pseudomonas spp. (10%), Acinetobacter spp. (8%) and Candida species (7%). None of MRSA was resistant to vancomycin (MIC ≥16µg/mL). Resistance rates were 98% and 97% for ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Escherichia coli and MRSA are major pathogens of medical device-related infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/microbiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Time Factors , Candida/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Equipment and Supplies/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Middle Aged
19.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(4): 304-308, ago. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894483

ABSTRACT

La infección urinaria no complicada en mujeres es un motivo frecuente de consulta e indicación de antimicrobianos. El objetivo de este estudio fue definir etiología y resistencia a antimicrobianos en episodios de infección urinaria no complicada. Este estudio prospectivo incluyó mujeres premenopáusicas no embarazadas, con infección urinaria no complicada, que consultaron en un hospital público y tres centros privados de las ciudades de Buenos Aires y La Plata (2011-2013). La edad media de 138 pacientes con infección confirmada por urocultivo fue 28 años. El diagnóstico fue cistitis en 97 (70%) y pielonefritis en 41 (30%). Las frecuencias de los microorganismos aislados fueron: Escherichia coli 97 (70%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus 24 (17%), Proteus spp. 10 (7%), Klebsiella spp. 5 (4%), Enterococcus spp. 1 (0.7%) y Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1 (0.7%). Las frecuencias de resistencia a antimicrobianos fueron: ampicilina-sulbactam 51 (37%), cefalexina 39 (28%), trimetoprima/sulfametoxazol 31 (22%), nitrofurantoína 17 (12%), gentamicina 10 (7%) y ciprofloxacina 7 (5%). La frecuencia de resistencia a ampicilina-sulbactam, trimetoprima/sulfametoxazol y cefalexina es mayor que las previamente publicadas en Argentina, lo que limita su recomendación para el tratamiento empírico. Una mejor comprensión de la etiología y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana local permite el diseño de pautas más adecuadas para el tratamiento empírico.


Uncomplicated urinary tract infections rank among the most frequent bacterial infections in women in the outpatient setting and represent a major cause of antimicrobial prescription. The aims of this study were to assess frequencies and antimicrobial resistance of current uropathogens causing uncomplicated urinary tract infection. In a prospective multicenter study, patients were recruited in ambulatory settings of four participating hospitals between June 2011 and December 2013. We analyzed 138 patients that met clinical and bacteriological diagnostic criteria. The mean age was 28 years. Cystitis was defined in 70% (n: 97) and pyelonephritis in 30% (n: 41). Frequencies of isolated microorganisms were: Escherichia coli 70% (n: 97), Staphylococcus saprophyticus 17% (n: 24), Proteus spp. 7% (n: 10), Klebsiella spp. 4% (n: 5), Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1 (0.7%) each. The antimicrobial resistance was: ampicillin-sulbactam 37% (n: 51) cephalexin 28% (n: 39), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 22% (n: 31), nitrofurantoin 12% (n: 17), gentamicin 7% (n: 10) and ciprofloxacin 5% (n: 7). The levels of resistance found for ampicillin-sulbactam, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and cephalexin were higher than those previously reported in Argentina. A better knowledge of the etiology and local antimicrobial susceptibility allows the design of more adequate guidelines for empirical treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Argentina , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(3): 343-348, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039193

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are important etiologic agents of nosocomial infection that are frequently resistant to broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens were collected from hospitalized patients in 11 Latin American countries from 2013 to 2015 as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) global surveillance program. In total, 2113 isolates from intra-abdominal infections (IAI) and 970 isolates from urinary tract infections (UTI) were tested against antimicrobial agents using standardized CLSI broth microdilution methodology. Of the agents tested, amikacin demonstrated the highest rates of susceptibility (%) for K. pneumoniae (92.2, 92.3), Enterobacter spp. (97.5, 92.1), and P. aeruginosa (85.3, 75.2) isolates from both IAI and UTI, respectively. Ertapenem (68.5, 62.6) and imipenem (79.2, 75.9) showed substantially higher rates of susceptibility (%) than other β-lactams, including piperacillin-tazobactam (35.9, 37.4) against ESBL-positive isolates of K. pneumoniae from IAI and UTI, respectively. Rates of susceptibility to all agents tested against A. baumannii were ≤30.9%. Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from Latin America demonstrated compromised in vitro susceptibility to commonly prescribed broad-spectrum, parenteral antimicrobial agents. Continued surveillance is warranted. New antimicrobial agents with potent activity against Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Intraabdominal Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Latin America
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