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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248063, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339340

ABSTRACT

Abstract Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.


Resumo Persea lingue Ness é uma árvore que vive principalmente na floresta temperada do centro-sul do Chile. As folhas são usadas na etnomedicina. O fruto é uma drupa similar ao abacate e que nunca foi pesquisada anteriormente. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a citotoxicidade em células leucêmicas e as atividades antibacterianas, assim como algumas características químicas do extrato de fruto e da folha do P. lingue. As atividades antibacterianas foram determinadas pelo método da inibição do crescimento bacteriano em meio líquido empregando-se bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. As linhagens celulares leucêmicas, Kasumi-1 e Jurkat foram usadas para avaliar a atividade citotóxica em ensaios empregando-se iodeto de propídio e AlamarBlue. Foram avaliados os teores totais de fenóis, flavonóides, taninos condensados, alcalóides e lipídeos presentes nos extratos das folhas e dos frutos. As atividades antioxidantes de ambos os extratos também foram avaliadas. O extrato das folhas foi o que apresentou o maior conteúdo de fenóis, taninos condensados e flavonóides totais e a maior atividade antioxidante. Já o extrato de fruto apresentou a maior quantidade de lipídios e alcaloides e a melhor atividade antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium e Micrococcus luteus. Já o extrato das folhas apresentou apenas atividade contra M. luteus. Em relação à atividade citotóxica, apenas o extrato do fruto apresentou citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares Jurkat e Kasumi-1. Em resumo, o extrato do fruto de P. lingue é uma potencial fonte de moléculas com atividade biológica para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a serem utilizados em alguns tipos de leucemia, bem como agente antibacteriano.


Subject(s)
Lauraceae , Persea , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fruit , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(1): 50-59, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1368371

ABSTRACT

Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory condition that can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract due to an exacerbated and inadequate immune system response. Objective. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review, through clinical trials, about the use of probiotics in humans with CD. Materials and methods. Research was carried out in the PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct databases using the keywords "Crohn's disease" and "probiotics". We conducted the review by searching clinical trials published from 2000 to December 2019. Results. Of 2,164 articles found, only nine were considered eligible for this review. The studies investigated patients with CD at different stages of the pathology, and in three studies the potential effect of probiotics in the active phase was observed; in two, in the remission phase; and in four, after intestinal surgery. The sample size of the studies ranged from 11 to 165 individuals and the age of the participants between 5 and 71 years. Gram-positive bacteria were used in six clinical interventions and in two studies yeasts were used. As for the significant results obtained with the treatment with probiotics, in one study there was beneficial clinical effects in patients and, in another, there was an improvement in intestinal permeability. Conclusion. Currently, it is not possible to establish a recommendation for probiotic therapy to control CD due to the few clinical trials with significant results. There is a need for more research on clinical intervention with probiotics in CD to clarify the action, define doses and time of use(AU)


La enfermedad de Crohn (EC) es una afección inflamatoria que puede afectar todo el tracto gastrointestinal debido a una respuesta del sistema inmunitario exacerbada e inadecuada. Objetivo. Realizar una revisión sistemática, a través de ensayos clínicos, sobre el uso de probióticos en humanos con EC. Materiales y métodos. La investigación se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus y Science Direct utilizando las palabras clave "enfermedad de Crohn" y "probióticos". La revisión se hizo en ensayos clínicos publicados desde 2000 hasta diciembre 2019. Resultados. De 2164 artículos encontrados, solo nueve fueron considerados elegibles. Los estudios investigaron pacientes con EC en diferentes etapas de la patología, y en tres estudios se observó el efecto potencial de los probióticos en la fase activa; en dos, en remisión; y en cuatro, tras cirugía intestinal. El tamaño de la muestra fue entre 11 y 165 individuos y la edad entre 5 y 71 años. Se utilizaron bacterias grampositivas en seis intervenciones clínicas y en dos estudios se utilizaron levaduras. En cuanto a los resultados significativos obtenidos con el tratamiento con probióticos, en un estudio hubo efectos clínicos beneficiosos en los pacientes y, en otro, hubo una mejora en la permeabilidad intestinal. Conclusión. Actualmente, no es posible establecer una recomendación de terapia con probióticos para el control de la EC debido a los pocos ensayos clínicos con resultados significativos. Existe la necesidad de más investigación sobre la intervención clínica con probióticos en EC para aclarar la acción, definir dosis y tiempo de uso(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Crohn Disease , Probiotics , Gastrointestinal Tract , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Permeability , Yeasts , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , PubMed , Immune System
3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.2): 13-20, oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355755

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Bacillus clausii is a gram-positive rod used as a probiotic to treat diarrhea and the side effects of antibiotics such as pseudomembranous colitis. We report a case of B. clausii bacteremia in a non-immunocompromised patient with active peptic ulcer disease and acute diarrhea. The probiotic was administered during the patient's hospitalization due to diarrhea of infectious origin. B. clausii was identified in the bloodstream of the patient through Matrix- Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) days after her discharge. Given the wide use of probiotics, we alert clinicians to consider this microorganism as a causative agent when signs of systemic infection, metabolic compromise, and hemodynamic instability establish after its administration and no pathogens have been identified that could explain the clinical course.


Resumen | Bacillus clausii es un bacilo Gram positivo usado como probiótico para tratar la diarrea y efectos adversos de los antibióticos, como la colitis pseudomembranosa. Se reporta un caso de bacteriemia por B. clausii en una paciente inmunocompetente con enfermedad ulcerosa péptica activa y diarrea aguda. El probiótico le fue administrado durante la hospitalización debido al origen infeccioso de la diarrea. B. clausii se identificó en el torrente sanguíneo de la paciente, utilizando espectrometría de desorción/ionización mediante láser asistido por matriz (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization, MALDI), acoplada a un detector de iones (Time of Flight, TOF) (MALDI-TOF), días después de haber sido dada de alta. Dado el amplio uso de los probióticos, alertamos a los clínicos para que consideren este microorganismo como agente causal cuando se detecten signos de infección sistémica, compromiso metabólico, e inestabilidad hemodinámica tras su administración, y no se haya identificado ningún patógeno que pueda explicar el cuadro clínico.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bacillus clausii , Probiotics , Diarrhea , Gram-Positive Bacteria
4.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1336, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357306

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En la medicina militar, la aplicación de las sustancias antibacterianas en las infecciones tópicas, es importante en el tratamiento de las tropas. Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto antibacteriano sinérgico de rifamicina en propóleo sobre bacterias grampositivas. Métodos: Estudio experimental in vitro y comparativo. Se efectuó el análisis fitoquímico preliminar del propóleo de Apis mellífera. Se utilizaron 96 placas de agar Muller Hinton (Britania®) (48 placas para cada especie bacteriana) repartidas en 6 grupos (n = 8). grupo I (agua destilada), grupo II (alcohol etílico al 96 por ciento), grupo III (rifamicina al 0,5 por ciento), grupo IV (rifamicina al 1 por ciento), grupo V (propóleo al 20 por ciento) y grupo VI (rifamicina al 1 por ciento en propóleo al 40 por ciento); se empleó la metodología de Kirby - Bauer; las cepas usadas fueron Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 y las mediciones de las zonas de inhibición se efectuaron a las 24 horas. Resultados: Se detectaron compuestos fenólicos, taninos, flavonoides, alcaloides y triterpenoides en propóleo. Se comprobó el efecto antibacteriano del grupo V con 18,627 ± 0,1008 mm (92,59 por ciento) y 19,247 ± 0,0762 mm (96,74 por ciento), y el efecto antibacteriano sinérgico del grupo VI con 19,316 ± 0,1202 mm (96,02 por ciento) y 19,613 ± 0,0820 mm (98,58 por ciento), comparados con rifamicina al 1 por ciento (100 por ciento) sobre S. aureus ATCC 25923 y S. pyogenes ATCC 19615. Conclusiones: La combinación de rifamicina al 1 por ciento unida al propóleo al 40 por ciento presenta una mayor actividad antibacteriana in vitro sobre bacterias grampositivas debido a su efecto sinérgico(AU)


Introduction: In military medicine, the application of antibacterial substances in topical infections are important in the treatment of troops. Objectives: To evaluate the synergistic antibacterial effect of rifamycin in propolis on gram-positive bacteria. Methods: In vitro and comparative experimental study. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of Apis mellifera propolis was carried out. 96 Muller Hinton agar plates (Britania®) (48 plates for each bacterial species) divided into 6 groups (n = 8) were used group I (distilled water), group II (96 percent ethyl alcohol), group III (rifamycin 0,5 percent), group IV (rifamycin 1 percent), group V (propolis 20 percent) and group VI (rifamycin 1 percent in 40 percent propolis); Kirby-Bauer methodology was used; the strains used were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 and the measurements of the zones of inhibition were carried out at 24 hours. Results: Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and triterpenoids were detected in propolis. The antibacterial effect of group V was verified with 18,627 ± 0,1008 mm (92,59 percent) and 19,247 ± 0,0762 mm (96,74 percent), and the synergistic antibacterial effect of group VI with 19,316 ± 0,1202 mm (96,02 percent) and 19,613 ± 0,0820 mm (98,58 percent), compared with rifamycin 1 percent (100 percent) on S. aureus ATCC 25923 y S. pyogenes ATCC 19615. Conclusions: The combination of rifamycin 1 percent together with propolis 40 percent has a greater antibacterial activity in vitro on gram-positive bacteria due to its synergistic effect(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Rifamycins , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Military Medicine , In Vitro Techniques , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis
5.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 93-103, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1352961

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades infecciosas son un problema de salud que a pesar de los avances médicos siguen cobrando vi-das en todo el mundo; como las septicemias. La presente investigación tuvo por objetivo diseñar, estandarizar e implementar un protocolo inexistente en Guatemala, para el diagnóstico rutinario de hemocultivos positivos dentro de las instalaciones del Laboratorio Clínico del Hospital General San Juan de Dios, lugar en donde se encuentra el único espectrómetro de masas de tipo Maldi-tof (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of flight-mass spectrometry).Se utilizaron 240 muestras de pacientes de los diferentes servicios. El diagnóstico se realizó compa-rando las identificaciones obtenidas a partir de cultivos microbiológicos puros con muestras directas de botellas con caldo BHI(Brain Heart Infusion).Los resultados de las dos metodologías fueron evaluados con el diseño estadístico "apareado o emparejado en grupo". La comparación no evidenció discordancia en las identificaciones; pero sí en los tiempos de respuesta. La reducción de tiempo fue de 42.9 h para bacterias Gram positivo, 45.0 h para bacterias Gram negativo y 126.2 h para levaduras, todos a favor de identificaciones a partir de muestras directas. Con esta investigación se pretende ofrecer una nueva alternativa que permitirá brindar un diagnóstico rápido, confiable y certero a la población guatemalteca. También permitirá reducir la morbimortalidad de los pacientes con septicemias, promover el ahorro de insumos hospitalarios, disminuir el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria, ahorrar el consumo de antibióticos innecesarios y contribuir indirectamente a combatir la resistencia antimicrobiana; un problema actual de gran importancia a nivel mundial.


Infectious diseases are a health problem that despite medical advances in terms of diagnosis continue to take lives worldwide, such is the case of sepsis. The purpose of this research was to design, standardize and implement a non-existent protocol in Guatemala, for the routine diagnosis of positive blood cultures, within the facilities of the clinical laboratory of the San Juan de Dios General Hospital; where the only Maldi-tof (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorp-tion Ionization-Time of flight-mass spectrometry) type mass spectrometer is located. For this, 240 samples of positive blood cultures were used, coming from patients of the different services. The microbiological diagnosis was made by comparing the identification data obtained from pure microbiological cultures and direct samples of BHI broth (Brain Heart Infusion) bottles. The results of the two methodologies were evaluated based on "paired or matched in groups" statistical design. The Maldi-tof technique did not show disagreement regarding identification between the two types of samples; but it did in the response time. The time reduction was 42.9 h for Gram positive bacteria, 45.0 h for Gram negative and 126.2 h for yeasts, supporting identification from direct samples. This research aims to provide a new diagnostic alternative that will allow access to fast, reliable, and accurate results for the Guatemalan population. It will also help to reduce e morbidity and mortality rates of patients with sepsis, to promote hospital supplies savings, decrease the patient length of stay, save unnecessary antibiotics and indirectly contribute to combating antimicrobial resistance; a critical problem faced by the world today.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/instrumentation , Blood Culture/methods , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Sepsis/blood
6.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e76, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289870

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To describe bacterial resistance and antimicrobial consumption ratio at the subnational level in Argentina during 2018, considering beta-lactams group as a case-study. Methods. Antimicrobial consumption was expressed as defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants. Resistance of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactams was recorded. Resistance/consumption ratio was estimated calculating "R" for each region of Argentina, and this data was compared with other countries. Results. The most widely consumed beta-lactams in Argentina were amoxicillin (3.64) for the penicillin sub-group, cephalexin (0.786) for first generation cephalosporins, cefuroxime (0.022) for second generation; cefixime (0.043) for third generation and cefepime (0.0001) for the fourth generation group. Comparison between beta-lactams consumption and bacterial resistance demonstrated great disparities between the six regions of the country. Conclusions. The case-study of Argentina shows that antimicrobial consumption and resistance of the most common pathogens differed among regions, reflecting different realities within the same country. Because this situation might also be occurring in other countries, this data should be taken into account to target local efforts towards better antimicrobial use, to improve antimicrobial stewardship programs and to propose more suitable sales strategies in order to prevent and control antimicrobial resistance.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Determinar la razón entre la resistencia bacteriana y el consumo de antimicrobianos a nivel subnacional en Argentina en el 2018, considerando el grupo de los betalactámicos como estudio de caso. Métodos. El consumo de antimicrobianos se expresó como una dosis diaria determinada (DDD) por 1000 habitantes. Se registró la resistencia de Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Staphylococcus aureus a los betalactámicos. Se determinó la razón entre la resistencia y el consumo calculando "R" para cada región de Argentina, y estos datos se compararon con los de otros países. Resultados. Los betalactámicos más consumidos en Argentina fueron la amoxicilina (3,64) para el subgrupo de la penicilina; la cefalexina (0,786) para las cefalosporinas de primera generación; la cefuroxima (0.022) para las de segunda generación; la cefixima (0.043) para las de tercera generación, y la cefepima (0.0001) para el grupo de la cuarta generación. La comparación entre el consumo de betalactámicos y la resistencia bacteriana demostró que había grandes disparidades entre las seis regiones del país. Conclusiones. El estudio de caso en Argentina indica que el consumo de antimicrobianos y la resistencia a los patógenos más comunes difería entre las regiones; esto demuestra que hay distintas realidades dentro del mismo país. Como esta situación también se puede dar en otros países, estos datos se deben tener en cuenta para definir las actividades locales destinadas a fomentar un mejor uso de los antimicrobianos, para mejorar los programas de manejo de los antimicrobianos y para proponer estrategias de venta más adecuadas con el fin de prevenir y controlar la resistencia a los antimicrobianos.


RESUMO Objetivo. Descrever a relação entre o consumo de antimicrobianos e a resistência bacteriana no nível subnacional na Argentina em 2018, considerando o grupo dos betalactâmicos no estudo de caso. Métodos. O consumo de antimicrobianos foi representado por doses diárias definidas (DDD) por 1.000 habitantes. Foi registrada a resistência de Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Staphylococcus aureus aos betalactâmicos. A relação entre consumo e resistência foi calculada com base no "R" para cada região do país e os dados da Argentina foram comparados aos de outros países. Resultados. Os betalactâmicos de maior consumo na Argentina foram amoxicilina (3,64) no grupo das penicilinas, cefalexina (0,786) no grupo das cefalosporinas de primeira geração, cefuroxima (0.022) no grupo das cefalosporinas de segunda geração, cefixima (0.043) no grupo das cefalosporinas de terceira geração e cefepima (0.0001) no grupo das cefalosporinas de quarta geração. Ao se comparar o consumo de betalactâmicos e a resistência bacteriana, observou-se grande disparidade entre as seis regiões do país. Conclusões. O estudo de caso revela diferenças no consumo de antimicrobianos e na resistência dos patógenos mais comuns entre as regiões da Argentina, refletindo realidades distintas dentro do mesmo país. Como esta mesma situação pode estar ocorrendo em outros países, estes achados devem servir para direcionar os esforços locais a uma melhor utilização dos antimicrobianos, aperfeiçoar os programas de gestão do uso destes medicamentos e propor estratégias de venda mais apropriadas, visando a prevenir e controlar a resistência aos antimicrobianos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , beta-Lactam Resistance , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Argentina , Retrospective Studies
7.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e01052018, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349026

ABSTRACT

Ammonium quaternary compounds are widely used in poultry and swine production as disinfectants in the control of pathogens. They act on gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, enveloped fungi and viruses. However, in some conditions of pH and presence of organic matter can be inactivated. This study evaluated the action of ammonium quaternary compounds at 1:1,000 and 1:2,000 dilutions against Salmonella enterica serovarTyphimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in the presence of three different organic matter simulators, fetal bovine serum, skim milk and whole milk concentration of 1, 3, 5, and 7% and at pH 6 and 9, with 15 min of contact. It was possible to verify that the organic matter simulators adjusted in the same conditions of contact time and percentage, in the in vitro tests, presented different results and the fetal bovine serum did not inactivate the disinfectant. However, the best result against S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis was obtained at pH 6 at the dilution of 1:1,000 in all organic matter simulators.


Subject(s)
Salmonella enteritidis , Containment of Biohazards , Salmonella enterica , Organic Matter , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Swine , Birds , In Vitro Techniques , Serum Albumin, Bovine , Milk , Disinfectants , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria
8.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(4): 352-358, 20201230. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223703

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: A internet e os smartphones estão fortemente presentes no cotidiano mundial. Além de proporcionarem comunicação e lazer, os smartphones, por meio de aplicativos, são portas de entrada para as tecnologias da informação e comunicação, recursos utilizados por docentes e discentes como metodologia científica de ensino-aprendizado. Além disso, atuam como ferramenta de apoio para profissionais. As evoluções científicas também abrangem a microbiologia clínica, onde é possível observar a inclusão de recursos tecnológicos com o objetivo de minimizar o tempo de análise e assegurar a qualidade dos resultados; entretanto, a automatização ainda é uma realidade distante em muitos laboratórios do Brasil, portanto, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi desenvolver e validar a funcionalidade de um aplicativo como ferramenta de apoio para discentes e profissionais de microbiologia clínica. Métodos: Pesquisa metodológica, aplicada e de produção tecnológica, realizada de abril a outubro de 2019. Foi escolhida a metodologia de Galvis-Panqueva, que compõe as etapas de construção e validação. Ao final das etapas que compõem a validação, 16 discentes da Ulbra Canoas e oito profissionais de microbiologia clínica avaliaram o aplicativo quanto às percepções como usuários. Após esta avaliação, obteve-se o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo. Resultados: O Índice de Validade de Conteúdo entre os profissionais foi de 0,97 e entre os discentes foi de 0,94, valores aceitáveis para validação. Conclusão: Os resultados atingiram o objetivo proposto e corrobora com demais pesquisas da mesma linha metodológica. O aplicativo atendeu aos critérios de desenvolvimento e validação e mostrou-se uma boa ferramenta de apoio para discentes e profissionais de microbiologia clínica.


Objective: The internet and smartphones are strongly present in the daily world. In addition to providing communication and leisure, smartphones, through applications, are the gateway to Information and Communication Technologies, a resource used by teachers and students as a scientific teaching-learning methodology. In addition, they act as a support tool for professionals. Scientific developments also include clinical microbiology, where it is possible to observe the inclusion of technological resources in order to minimize the analysis time and ensure the quality of the results. However, automation is still a distant reality in many laboratories in Brazil, therefore, the objective of this research was to develop and validate the functionality of an application as a support tool for students and professionals in clinical microbiology. Methods: Methodological, applied and technological production research, carried out from April to October 2019. The GalvisPanqueva methodology was chosen, which comprises the stages of construction and validation. At the end of the steps that make up the validation, 16 students from the Ulbra Canoas and eight professionals of clinical microbiology evaluated the application regarding their perceptions as users. Afterwards, the Content Validity Index was obtained. Results: The Content Validity Index among professiona was 0,97 and among students it was 0,94, acceptable values for validation. Conclusion: The results achieved the proposed objective and corroborates with other researches of the same methodological line. The application met the development and validation criteria and proved to be a good support tool for students and professionals in clinical microbiology.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Smartphone , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria
9.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 258-264, set 24, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358136

ABSTRACT

Introduction: bacterial infections are a public health problem. Besides, the emergence of strains resistant to antimicrobials has contributed to the search for new alternatives, such for the terpenes with antimicrobial potential. Objectives: the objective of this study was to determine the possible interaction of isolated monoterpenes (-)-Carveol, Geraniol, Citronellol, α-terpineol, R-(-) Carvone, (-)-Menthol, Linalool, D-Dihydrocarvone, and (-)-Terpine-4-ol with conventional antimicrobials (Chloramphenicol, Minocycline, Amoxicillin and Ciprofloxacin) when they are evaluated on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Methodology: the minimum inhibitory concentrations of these test drugs were determined using the microdilution method. The Checkerboard method was used to assess the interactions, by determining the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC index). Results: aamong the monoterpenes, only Carveol, Citronellol, and Geraniol presented antimicrobial activity (MIC < 1024 µg/mL). They presented synergistic effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027 (FIC index ≤ 0.5) when in combination with Minocycline. Conclusion: this study contributes to the development of new approaches to control bacterial resistance and to the possibility of discovering new drugs.


Introdução: as infecções bacterianas são um problema de saúde pública. Além disso, o surgimento de cepas resistentes aos antimicrobianos tem contribuído para a busca de novas alternativas, como a pesquisa de terpenos com potencial antimicrobiano. Objetivos: o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a possível interação de monoterpenos isolados (-) - Carveol, Geraniol, Citronelol, α-terpineol, R - (-) Carvona, (-)-Mentol, Linalol, D-Diidrocarvona e (-)-Terpina-4-ol com antimicrobianos convencionais (cloranfenicol, minociclina, amoxicilina e ciprofloxacina) quando avaliados em Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Metodologia: as concentrações inibitórias mínimas destas drogas foram determinadas usando o método de microdiluição. O método checkerboard foi utilizado para avaliar as interações, determinando o índice de concentração inibitória fracionária (índice FIC). Resultados: entre os monoterpenos, apenas Carveol, Citronelol e Geraniol apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana (CIM < 1024 µg/mL). Eles apresentaram efeitos sinérgicos contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027 (índice FIC ≤ 0,5) quando em combinação com Minociclina. Conclusão: este estudo contribui para o desenvolvimento de novas abordagens para o controle da resistência bacteriana e para a possibilidade de descoberta de novas drogas.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Bacillus subtilis , Complementary Therapies , Monoterpenes , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Anti-Infective Agents
10.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 391-397, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138519

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a efetividade da vancomicina contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L em pacientes pediátricos com base na razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima > 400. Métodos: População de 22 pacientes pediátricos (13 meninos) internados no centro de terapia intensiva pediátrica, com função renal preservada, que foram distribuídos em dois grupos (G1 < 7 anos e G2 ≥ 7 anos). Após a quarta dose de vancomicina (10 - 15mg/kg a cada 6 horas), duas amostras de sangue foram colhidas (terceira e quinta horas), seguidas da dosagem sérica por imunoensaios para investigação da farmacocinética e da cobertura do antimicrobiano. Resultados: Não se registrou diferença entre os grupos com relação à dose, ao nível de vale ou ainda na área sob a curva. A cobertura contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L ocorreu em apenas 46% dos pacientes em ambos os grupos. A farmacocinética se mostrou alterada nos dois grupos diante dos valores de referência, mas a diferença entre grupos foi registrada pelo aumento da depuração total corporal e pelo encurtamento da meia-vida biológica, mais pronunciados nos pacientes mais novos. Conclusão: A dose empírica mínima de 60mg/kg ao dia deve ser prescrita ao paciente pediátrico de unidade de terapia intensiva com função renal preservada. A utilização da razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima na avaliação da cobertura da vancomicina é recomendada para se atingir o desfecho desejado, uma vez que a farmacocinética está alterada nesses pacientes, podendo impactar na efetividade do antimicrobiano.


Abstract Objective: To investigate the vancomycin effectiveness against gram-positive pathogens with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L in pediatric patients based on the area under the curve and the minimum inhibitory concentration ratio > 400. Methods: A population of 22 pediatric patients (13 boys) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with preserved renal function was stratified in two groups (G1 < 7 years and G2 ≥ 7 years). After the fourth dose administered of vancomycin (10 - 15mg/kg every 6 hours) was administered, two blood samples were collected (third and fifth hours), followed by serum measurement by immunoassays to investigate the pharmacokinetics and antimicrobial coverage. Results: There was no difference between the groups regarding dose, trough level or area under the curve. Coverage against gram-positive pathogens with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L occurred in only 46% of patients in both groups. The pharmacokinetics in both groups were altered relative to the reference values, and the groups differed in regard to increased total body clearance and shortening of the biological half-life, which were more pronounced in younger patients. Conclusion: A minimum empirical dose of 60mg/kg per day should be prescribed for pediatric patients in intensive care units with preserved renal function. The use of the ratio between the area under the curve and minimum inhibitory concentration in the evaluation of vancomycin coverage is recommended to achieve the desired outcome, since the pharmacokinetics are altered in these patients, which may impact the effectiveness of the antimicrobial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pilot Projects , Age Factors , Area Under Curve , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Half-Life
11.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 66-71, jun 17, 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358751

ABSTRACT

Introdução: na área da saúde, a resistência aos antimicrobianos tem se constituído um grave problema, fazendo com que a busca por alternativas farmacológicas assuma grande importância. Produtos de origem natural, como extratos de plantas, têm sido pesquisados para uso potencial no tratamento antibacteriano. Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) é uma árvore nativa do Brasil que tem sido utilizada como medicinal. Objetivo: investigar o perfil fitoquímico e a atividade antimicrobiana de amostras obtidas a partir de extratos da casca do caule de Drimys brasiliensis. Metodologia: frações de características químicas variadas foram obtidas a partir de extratos da casca do caule da planta. Realizou-se o screening fitoquímico destas frações através de reações gerais de caracterização e cromatografia em camada delgada. As amostras foram testadas por difusão em ágar e por microdiluição contra bactérias Grampositivas e Gram-negativas e contra uma levedura. Resultados: o perfil fitoquímico mostrou diferenças entre as frações analisadas. Alcaloides foram detectados nas frações mais apolares. Taninos e flavonoides estavam presentes nas amostras mais polares e obtidas sem o uso de calor. As amostras com maior atividade antimicrobiana foram as obtidas com os solventes hexano e diclorometano, de características mais apolares. Destaca-se a atividade contra Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina e Candida albicans. Conclusão: extratos da casca do caule de Drimys brasiliensis apresentam potencial ntimicrobiano, com destaque para as frações mais apolares contra bactérias gram positivas.


Introduction: in the health field, antimicrobial resistance has been a serious issue, making the search for pharmacological alternatives very important. Natural products, such as plant extracts, have been researched for potential use in antibacterial treatment. Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) is a tree native to Brazil that has been medicinally used. Objective: to investigate the phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of samples obtained from Drimys brasiliensis stem bark extracts. Methodology: fractions of different chemical characteristics were obtained from extracts of the stem bark. Phytochemical screening of these fractions was performed by general reactions and thin layer chromatography. Samples were tested by agar diffusion and microdilution against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeast. Results: the phytochemical profile showed differences between the analyzed fractions. Alkaloids were detected in the most nonpolar fractions. Tannins and flavonoids were present in the most polar samples and obtained without the use of heat. The samples with the highest antimicrobial activity were those obtained with hexane and dichloromethane solvents, which present the most nonpolar characteristics. We highlight the activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Conclusion: Drimys brasiliensis stem bark extracts have antimicrobial potential, especially the most nonpolar fractions against gram positive bacteria.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drimys , Gram-Positive Bacteria
12.
Med. infant ; 27(1): 3-9, Marzo de 2020. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1118423

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones bacterianas son una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en los niños con cáncer. Nuestro objetivo fue describir y comparar las características clínicas y los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias con su sensibilidad antimicrobiana en niños con diagnóstico de LLA y LMA. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo entre julio-2016 y junio-2018. Se incluyeron todos los episodios de bacteriemia (EpB) en pacientes de 0 a 18 años con diagnóstico de LLA y LMA. Se documentaron datos epidemiológicos y demográficos de los pacientes y datos microbiológicos de los aislamientos de hemocultivos positivos. Se utilizó stata13. Se incluyeron 258 EpB en 167 pacientes; el 55% eran varones. La mediana de edad fue 81 meses (RIC 39-130). En 215 EpB (83%) se registró la presencia de algún tipo de catéter; neutropenia en 193 EpB (75%), neutropenia severa en 98/258 EpB (38%). Se pudo determinar el foco clínico en 152 EpB (59%). Ciento diez pacientes tenían LLA y 57 LMA. En LLA predominaron las enterobacterias, en LMA los cocos gram positivos. Se observó asociación entre LMA y estreptococos del grupo Viridans (p<0,01) y entre LLA y P.aeruginosa (p 0,01). Con respecto a la sensibilidad hubo 11% y 17% de bacilos negativos multirresistentes en LLA y LMA respectivamente. Todos los estafilococos coagulasa negativos fueron meticilino resistentes. La mayoría de los pacientes tenía algún tipo de catéter y neutropenia. Se observó un predominio de enterobacterias con bajos niveles de resistencia antibiótica. Estos resultados son importantes para conocer la epidemiología local y establecer tratamientos empíricos adecuados (AU)


Bacterial infections are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children with cancer. Our aim was to describe and compare the clinical features and bacteremia-causing microorganisms together with their antimicrobial sensitivity in acute lymphocytic (ALL) and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). A descriptive observational study was conducted between July 2016 and June 2018. All episodes of bacteremia (EpB) in patients between 0 and 18 years of age with ALL and AML were included. All epidemiological and demographic data of the patients and microbiological information of the isolates of the positive blood cultures were recorded. For statistical analysis stata13 was used. Overall 258 EpB in 167 patients were included; 55% were boys. Median age was 81 months (IQR 39-130). In 215 EpB (83%) some type of catheter was involved; neutropenia was observed in 193 EpB (75%) and severe neutropenia in 98/258 EpB (38%). A clinical focus could be determined in 152 EpB (59%). Of all patients, 110 had ALL and 57 AML. The predominant micro-organisms were enterobacteria in ALL and gram-positive cocci in AML. An association was observed between AML and the viridans group of streptococci (p<0.01) and between ALL and P. aeruginosa (p 0.01). Regarding sensitivity, there were 11% and 17% of multiresistant negative bacilli in ALL and AML, respectively. All coagulase-negative staphylococci weer methicillin resistant. The majority of patients had some type of catheter and neutropenia. Predominance of enterobacteria with low levels of resistance to antibiotics was observed. These results are important to understand the local epidemiology and establish adequate empirical therapies (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Blood Culture , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
13.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101297

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the effectiveness of two types of commercially available photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP) protective barrier envelopes to prevent microbiological contamination. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 barrier envelopes were tested in 40 volunteers. The PSP plates were placed individually in Asia Teb and Soredex protective barrier envelopes and were placed in the mouth for two minutes, similar to periapical films. The protective barrier envelopes were then removed under sterile conditions, and the sensors were placed on different culture media. The number of colonies on each plate was counted. Data were analyzed using SPSS via McNemar and Wilcoxon tests. Results: Bacterial growth was noted in 17.5% of PSPs with Soredex, and 32.5% of PSPs with Asia Teb barrier envelopes. Gram-positive bacilli were the most commonly isolated bacteria. The difference between the Asia Teb and Soredex barrier envelopes for the protection of microbiological contamination was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The use of different types of protective barrier envelopes was not sufficient for prevention of microbiological contamination of PSP plates, and some adjunct modalities were required to decrease microbiological contamination of PSP plates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Effectiveness , Radiography, Dental, Digital/instrumentation , Gram-Positive Bacteria/immunology , Microbiology , Mouth , Plastics , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Iran
14.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190674, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132236

ABSTRACT

Abstract Clusia grandiflora belongs to an important botanical family which is known for its medicinal value, however there are few reports in literature about the species, highlighting the relevance of this study. Anatomical studies with leaves and stems were performed using traditional techniques. In this investigation it was identified particularities of the species such as the presence of vascular system arranged in an opened arc-shaped with the flexed ends towards the inside of the arch with accessory bundles in the petiole. In histochemical studies, performed with different reagents, alkaloids, phenols substances, carbohydrates and lipids were located. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was performed by tetrazole salt and showed promising results for ethanolic extracts of stems (IC50 human colon cells of 24.30 μg/ mL) and leaves (IC50 ascites gastric cells of 44.15 μg/ mL), without cell membrane disruption of erythrocytes. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by tryptic soy agar and minimal inhibitory concentration assays and showed positive results for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, with better result for adventitious roots (32 μg/ mL and 16 μg/ mL, respectively), stems (64 μg/ mL and 32 μg/ mL, respectively) and leaves (64 μg/ mL and 32 μg/ mL, respectively) ethanolic extracts. Thus, these studies were able to characterize the species and show its potential as promising source of active substances.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Clusia/anatomy & histology , Clusia/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Toxicity Tests , Cell Line, Tumor , Lethal Dose 50 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
15.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202471, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136576

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: the purpose of this research was to identify the sociodemographic and microbiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance rates of patients with diabetic foot infections, hospitalized in an emergency reference center. Methods: it was an observational and transversal study. The sociodemographic data were collected by direct interview with the patients. During the surgical procedures, specimens of tissue of the infected foot lesions were biopsied to be cultured, and for bacterial resistance analysis. Results: the sample consisted of 105 patients. The majority of patierns were men, over 50 years of age, married and with low educational level. There was bacterial growth in 95 of the 105 tissue cultures. In each positive culture only one germ was isolated. There was a high prevalence of germs of the Enterobacteriaceae family (51,5%). Gram-negative germs were isolated in 60% of cultures and the most individually isolated germs were the Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus aureus (20%) and Enterococcus faecalis (17,9%). Regarding antibiotic resistance rates, a high frequency of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin (63,0%) and to ciprofloxacin (55,5%) was found; additionally, 43,5% of the Gram-negative isolated germs were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Conclusions: the majority of patients were men, over 50 years of age, married and with low educational level. The most prevalent isolated germs from the infected foot lesions were Gram-negative bacteria, resistant to ciprofloxacin, and the individually most isolated germ was the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.


RESUMO Objetivo: identificar o perfil sociodemográfico, microbiológico e de resistência bacteriana em pacientes com pé diabético infectado. Métodos: tratou-se de estudo observacional, transversal que avaliou os perfis sóciodemográfico e microbiológico de pacientes portadores de pé diabético infectado internados em Pronto Socorro de referência. Os dados sociodemográficos foram coletados por meio de entrevista. Foram colhidos, durante os procedimentos cirúrgicos, fragmentos de tecidos das lesões podais infectadas para realização de cultura/antibiograma. Resultados: a amostra foi composta por 105 pacientes. O perfil sociodemográfico mais prevalente foi o de pacientes do sexo masculino, acima dos 50 anos, casados e com baixa escolaridade. Das 105 amostras de fragmentos de tecidos colhidos para realização de cultura e antibiograma, 95 foram positivas, com crescimento de um único germe em cada um dos exames. Houve predomínio de germes da família Enterobacteriaceae (51,5%). Germes Gram-negativos foram isolados em 60,0% das culturas e os espécimes mais isolados individualmente foram os cocos Gram-positivos, Staphylococcus aureus (20,0%) e Enterococcus faecalis (17,9%). Considerando-se os perfis de resistência bacteriana, verificou-se alta taxa de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (63,0%) e à ciprofloxacino (55,5%); verificou-se, também, que 43,5% dos germes Gram-negativos eram resistentes à ciprofloxacino. Conclusões: o perfil sociodemográfico majoritário, foi o de homens, com mais de 50 anos e com baixa escolaridade. Concluímos que os germes mais prevalentes nas lesões podais dos pacientes diabéticos foram os Gram-negativos, resistentes ao ciprofloxacino e que o germe mais isolado individualmente foi o Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Diabetic Foot/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/drug therapy , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Infections , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190106, 2020. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136811

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to determine the incidence of health care-associated infections (HCAIs) and identify the main resistant microorganisms in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a Brazilian university hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a Brazilian teaching hospital between 2012 and 2014. RESULTS: Overall, 81.2% of the infections were acquired in the ICU. The most common resistant pathogenic phenotypes in all-site and bloodstream infections were oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (89.9% and 87.4%; 80.6% and 70.0%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to focus on HCAIs in ICUs in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Bacteremia/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Bacteremia/mortality , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens causing periprosthetic infections after hip and knee arthroplasty, and to formulate prevention and treatment strategies for drug-resistant bacteria.@*METHODS@#The data of 146 cases of periprosthetic infection after primary hip and knee arthroplasty from 2010 to 2015 were collected, including 111 cases of periprosthetic infection after hip arthroplasty and 35 cases of periprosthetic infection after knee arthroplasty. The culture positive rate, pathogenic bacteria composition and drug resistance rate were counted over the years, and the change trend of pathogen distribution and drug resistance was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#One hundredand eight strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected in 146 cases, and the positive rate of culture was 73.97%. Gram positive bacteria accounted for 55.48%, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 25.34% and 15.07% respectively. Gram negative bacteria accounted for 13.01%, including Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. There were 4 cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and mixed infection. The results of culture over the years showed that the constituent ratio of Gram positive bacteria had an increasing trend, fluctuating from 39.13% to 76.47%. The results of drug sensitivity showed that the pathogens were highly resistant to β-lactams, quinolones, clindamycin and gentamicin, and the drug resistance rate was increasing, but it was still sensitive to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, linezolid and vancomycin.@*CONCLUSION@#Gram positive bacteria are the main pathogens of periprosthetic infection, and the proportion is increasing gradually.The pathogens have high resistance to many kinds of antibiotics, and the resistance rate is still increasing. To strengthen the monitoring of the distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria is helpful to grasp its change trend and formulate targeted prevention and control strategies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies
19.
Homeopatia Méx ; 88(719): 29-37, oct.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1147366

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: en sistemas homeopáticos de medicina, las tinturas madre se prescriben para varias enfermedades y especialmente para condiciones sépticas y la cura de muchos padecimientos. Este estudio se llevó a cabo para evaluar el potencial antioxidante y antibacterial de las diez tinturas madre homeopáticas que se utilizan con mayor frecuencia. Materiales y métodos: diez tinturas madre fueron preparadas y puestas a prueba contra cinco bacterias de importancia clínica patogénica en los humanos (Sal­ monella typhi [ST], Escherichia coli [EC], Bacillus subtilis [BS], Straphylococus aureus [SA], y Pseudomonas aeruiginosa [PA]) mediante el método de microdilución con ciprofloxacina como control positivo. La actividad antioxidante se estimó con un ensayo de inhibición 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH). El ácido ascórbico se tomó como estándar positivo en actividad antioxidante. Resultados: todas las tinturas madre mostraron cierto nivel de actividad antibacterial. Chinchona officinalis tuvo la actividad máxima (inhibición del 89%) contra Salmonella typhi que las demás tinturas madre en el estudio. Pulsatilla nigricans mostró la inhibición más alta de DPPH (85%) entre las demás tinturas madre de origen vegetal. Conclusión: este estudio revela que las tinturas madre ya mencionadas tienen potencial antibacteriano y antioxidante contra el microorganismo particular y 2,2-difenil-1-picrilidracil (DPPH), respectivamente. (AU)


Subject(s)
Homeopathic Remedy , Mother Tincture , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Pulsatilla nigricans/pharmacology , China officinalis/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(12): 871-880, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055201

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bacterial meningitis (BM) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate may be used as a prognostic marker of this condition. We hypothesized that CSF lactate levels would remain elevated in participants who died of acute BM compared with those who recovered from this disease. Objective: To evaluate the potential use of lactate and other CSF biomarkers as prognostic markers of acute BM outcome. Methods: This retrospective, longitudinal study evaluated dynamic CSF biomarkers in 223 CSF samples from 49 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of acute BM, with bacteria identified by CSF culturing. The participants were grouped according to outcome: death (n = 9; 18.37%) and survival (n = 40; 81.63%). All participants received appropriate antibiotic treatment. Results: In the logistic regression model, lactate concentration in the final CSF sample, xanthochromia, and CSF glucose variation between the first and last CSF samples were predictors of a poor outcome (death). In contrast, decrease in CSF white blood cell count and CSF percentage of neutrophils, increase in the percentage of lymphocytes, and normalization of the CSF lactate concentration in the last CSF sample were predictors of a good prognosis. Conclusion: The study confirmed the initial hypothesis. The longitudinal analysis of CSF lactate is an important predictor of prognosis in acute BM.


RESUMO As meningites bacterianas (MB) estão associadas à alta morbidade e mortalidade. O lactato no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) pode ser usado como biomarcador de prognóstico nas MB. A hipótese desse estudo é que os níveis de lactato no LCR se mantém elevados entre pacientes com MB aguda que evoluem para óbito, ao contrário do que ocorre em pacientes com bom prognóstico. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso potencial do lactato e outros marcadores no LCR como indicador de prognóstico na MB aguda. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo longitudinal da dinâmica dos biomarcadores bioquímicos, celulares e físicos no LCR. Foram analisadas 223 amostras de 49 pacientes com MB aguda com bactérias identificadas por cultura do LCR. Os participantes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o desfecho: óbito (n = 9; 18,37%) e não óbito (n = 40; 81,63%). Todos os participantes receberam antibioticoterapia adequada. Resultados: No modelo de regressão logística, as variáveis que diferiram significativamente entre os dois grupos foram concentração de lactato na amostra final de LCR, xantocromia e variação da concentração de glicose entre a primeira e a última amostra de LCR. A alteração desses fatores indicou desfechos negativos (óbito), enquanto a diminuição do número de leucócitos e da porcentagem de neutrófilos, assim como a normalização da concentração de lactato no LCR foram preditores de bom prognóstico. Conclusão: O estudo confirmou a hipótese inicial. A análise longitudinal do lactato no LCR é um importante preditor de prognóstico na MB aguda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Meningitis, Bacterial/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Bacterial/mortality , Lactic Acid/cerebrospinal fluid , Prognosis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Meningitis, Bacterial/pathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Glucose/cerebrospinal fluid , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification
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