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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190106, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136811

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to determine the incidence of health care-associated infections (HCAIs) and identify the main resistant microorganisms in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a Brazilian university hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a Brazilian teaching hospital between 2012 and 2014. RESULTS: Overall, 81.2% of the infections were acquired in the ICU. The most common resistant pathogenic phenotypes in all-site and bloodstream infections were oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (89.9% and 87.4%; 80.6% and 70.0%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to focus on HCAIs in ICUs in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Bacteremia/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Time Factors , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Bacteremia/mortality , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(3): 164-172, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019558

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are serious infections associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Every hour delay in initiation of an effective antibiotic increases mortality due to sepsis by 7%. Turnaround time (TAT) for conventional blood cultures takes 48 h, forcing physicians to streamline therapy by exposing patients to broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Our objective was (1) to evaluate the accuracy and TAT of an optimized workflow combining direct matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial identification and antimicrobial resistance profiling directly from positive blood bottles for diagnosing bloodstream infections and (2) to verify the effect of reporting results to medical staff. A total of 103 BSI episodes from 91 patients admitted to three hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil were included. TAT from molecular versus conventional methods was measured and compared. Our protocol showed an overall agreement of 93.5% for genus and 78.5% for species identification; 74.2% for methicillin resistance detection, 89.2% for extended-spectrum β-lactamase profiling, 77.8% for metallo-β-lactamase profiling, and 100% for carbapenemase profile and vancomycin-resistance detection when compared with conventional testing. TAT of molecular sample processing according to our protocol was 38 h shorter than conventional methods. Antimicrobial interventions were possible in 27 BSI episodes. Antimicrobial discontinuation was achieved in 12 BSI episodes while escalation of therapy occurred in 15 episodes. Antimicrobial therapy was inadequate in three (12%) BSI episodes diagnosed using results of molecular testing. Our in-house rapid protocol for identifying both bacteria and antimicrobial resistance provided rapid and accurate results, having good agreement with conventional testing results. These results could contribute to faster antimicrobial therapy interventions in BSI episodes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacteria/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
3.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(5): 371-375, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950483

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the bacterial and fungal microbiota found in contact lens cases among two groups of patients to correlate the data on the habits of contact lens users and to evaluate whether there is a difference in the culture results between users of ridged and nonridged contact lens cases. Methods: Two groups (35 patients per group) were included, consisting of hospital workers and those who had not visited a hospital in the past 30 days, and a questionnaire regarding epidemiological data and habits related to contact lens and lens case use was administered. In addition, 140 samples collected from the right and left compartments of each lens case by swabbing the bottom of the wells were tested using bacterioscopy as well as fungal and bacterial cultures via computerized identification of the species. Results: No fungal growth was identified in any of the 70 contact lens cases; however, bacteria were found in 39 cases, and there was no statistical difference between the groups. Most bacteria (>85%) were gram-negative bacilli. Contamination inone compartment of the contact lens case elevated the risk of contamination of the other side (>80%). Moreover, contamination was statistically higher in the ridged cases than in nonridged cases (p=0.0149). Conclusion: The types of bacteria contaminating the cases are generally not seen in eye diseases associated with contact lens use, suggesting that other decisive variables are involved in eye infection from a contaminated lens or case. Fungal contamination of contact lens cases appears to be an exception. Ridged cases are commonly used by contact lens wearers and present a potential risk to eye health. In addition, the results of bacterial tests between hospital workers and those who did not visit a hospital were not significantly different.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a microbiota bacteriana e fúngica encontrada em estojos de lentes de contato em dois grupos, correlacionar os dados sobre os hábitos de uso de lentes de contato e avaliar se há diferença na positividade das culturas entre os usuários estojos de lentes de contato com ranhuras e sem ranhuras. Métodos: Dois grupos foram formados, trabalhadores do hospital e pessoas que não visitaram o hospital (35 indivíduos por grupo), e um questionário foi aplicado sobre dados epidemiológicos e hábitos relacionados ao uso de lentes de contato e estojos de lentes. Além disso, 140 amostras, coletadas do compartimento direito e esquerdo de cada estojo de lente, esfregando o fundo dos mesmos, foram testadas por bacterioscopia e por culturas de fungos e bactérias, com identificação computadorizada da espécie. Resultados: Não houve crescimento fúngico em nenhum dos 70 estojos de lentes de contato, porém bactérias foram encontradas em 39; não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos. A maioria das bactérias (>85%) eram bacilos gram-negativos. Quando um compartimento estava contaminado, o risco de contaminação do outro compartimento era elevado (>80%). A contaminação foi estatisticamente maior nos estojos com ranhuras (p=0,0149). Conclusão: A contaminação dos estojos parece ocorrer por bactérias que, em geral, não são encontradas em doenças oculares associadas ao uso de lentes de contato, sugerindo que existem outras variáveis decisivas nas infecções oculares de uma lente ou estojo contaminado. Contaminação de estojos de lentes de contato com fungos parece ser uma exceção. O uso de estojos com ranhuras é uma prática comum e apresenta um risco potencial à saúde ocular. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nos resultados dos testes bacterianos entre trabalhadores hospitalares e pessoas que não visitaram o hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Contact Lenses/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Fungi/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 401-406, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889246

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The present study attempts to examine the microbial profile and antibiotic susceptibility of diabetic foot infections in the intensive care unit of a tertiary referral centre for diabetic foot. As part of the study, we also attempted to find the prevalence of blaNDM-like gene among carbapenem-resistant gram negative infections. Methodology A prospective study of 261 patients with diabetic foot infections was performed during the period between January 2014 and June 2014. Results A total of 289 isolates were obtained from 178 tissue samples from 261 patients, 156 (59.7%) males and 105 (40.2%) females, with a mean age of 58 years (-15 years), having diabetic foot infection. No growth was seen in thirty eight (17.6%) tissue samples. Out of the total samples, 44.3% were monomicrobial and 55.7% were polymicrobial. Gram negative pathogens were predominant (58.5%). Seven of the total isolates were fungal; 0.7% showed pure fungal growth and 1.7% were mixed, grown along with some bacteria. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (26.9%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.9%). Of the 58.5% gram negative pathogens, 16.5% were Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems. Among these isolates, 4 (25%) were positive for blaNDM-like gene. Among the rest, 18.6% were carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas, among which 4 (36.3%) were blaNDM. Among the Staphylococci, 23.7% were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions Our results support the recent view that gram negative organisms, depending on the geographical location, may be predominant in DFIs. There is an increase in multidrug-resistant pathogens, especially carbapenem resistance and this is creeping rapidly. We need to be more judicious while using empiric antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/complications , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Mycoses/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , India , Methicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycoses/microbiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 155-162, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959425

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las úlceras crónicas son un problema de salud pública, agravándose por infecciones bacterianas causadas principalmente por agentes resistentes. Objetivo: Estudiar prevalencia y perfil de susceptibilidad en bacterias aisladas de úlceras crónicas en pacientes adultos. Pacientes y Métodos: Pacientes atendidos en la Fundación Instituto Nacional de Heridas entre mayo y julio de 2014, con úlceras crónicas en extremidades inferiores con signos inflamatorios clínicos. Las muestras fueron cultivadas en aerobiosis y anaerobiosis y para la identificación bacteriana se empleó el sistema de galerías API (Biomerieux). La susceptibilidad in vitro se evaluó según el método de Kirby Bauer. Resultados: Se reclutaron 73 pacientes, entre quienes 46 presentaron úlceras infectadas, diagnosticándose 33 úlceras venosas con predominio de infección polimicrobiana y 10 úlceras de pie diabético con predominio de infección monomicrobiana (p ≤ 0,05). Se aislaron 68 cepas de los 46 pacientes con úlcera infectada. Las enterobacterias predominaron en infección monomicrobiana (p ≤ 0,05) y los demás grupos bacterianos fueron levemente más frecuentes en infección polimicrobiana. La especie prevalente fue Staphylococcus aureus (24%) seguida de Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18%). Cincuenta cepas (77%) presentaron resistencia a uno o más antibacterianos. Destacamos resistencia de S. aureus a ciprofloxacina (50%) y cefoxitina (37,5%) identificándose así resistencia a meticilina en la comunidad (SARM-AC), siendo todas sensibles a cotrimoxazol. Las enterobacterias presentaron resistencia a sensibilidad a amikacina (95,5%), P. aeruginosa evidenció resistencia a ciprofloxacina (33,3%) con alta sensibilidad a gentamicina (91,7%) y amikacina (83,3%), mientras Acinetobacter spp presentó resistencia a ciprofloxacina y ceftazidima en 60%, con 100% de sensibilidad a imipenem. Streptococcus β hemolítico presentó 50% de resistencia a clindamicina y penicilina. Conclusión: Estos datos entregan información epidemiológica de infecciones de úlceras crónicas, representando un apoyo al diagnóstico, tratamiento y manejo de esta patología.


Background: Chronic wounds are considered a public health problem that may be complicated by bacterial infections, mainly caused by resistant strains. Aim: To study the bacteria prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility in samples from adult patients with chronic wounds. Methods: Patients treated at National Institute of Wounds Foundation between May and July 2014, with chronic ulcers in lower extremities with clinical inflammatory signs were recluted. Samples were cultured in aerobic and anaerobic atmosphere and species identification was performed by API (Biomerieux) galleries. The in vitro susceptibility was evaluated according to the Kirby Bauer method. Results: From 73 patients, 46 had infected wounds most of them were venous ulcers (33) with prevalence in polymicrobial infections and 10 with foot-diabetes ulcers with prevalence in monomicrobial infections (p ≤ 0.05). Sixty-eight strains were isolated and Enterobacteriaceae were predominant in monomicrobial infection (p ≤ 0.05) and the other groups were slightly higher in polymicrobial infection. The main species were Staphylococcus aureus (24%) followed by P. aeruginosa (18%). Fifty strains (77%) were resistant or multi-resistance. We emphasize resistance of S. aureus to ciprofloxacin (50%) and cefoxitin (37.5%), thus identifying resistance to methicillin in the community (CA-SAMR), all of which are sensitive to cotrimoxazole. Enterobacteria showed sensitivity to amikacin (95.5%), P. aeruginosa showed resistance to ciprofloxacin (33.3%) with high sensitivity to gentamicin (91.7%) and amikacin (83.3%), while Acinetobacter spp showed resistance to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime in 60%, with 100% sensitivity to imipenem. 50% Streptococcus β hemolytic showed resistance to clindamycin and penicillin. Conclusion: These data provide epidemiological information on chronic wound infections, representing support for diagnosis, treatment and management of this pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Wound Infection/microbiology , Wound Infection/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Wound Infection/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(2): 140-146, abr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959423

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: Los microorganismos aislados de hemocultivos (HC) en pacientes con neutropenia febril (NF) varían en el tiempo, siendo necesaria su vigilancia para orientar una terapia empírica adecuada. Objetivo: Identificar microorganismos aislados de HC y su perfil de resistencia (R) a antimicrobianos en niños con cáncer y NF de alto riesgo. Método: Estudio prospectivo, multicéntrico de episodios de NF de alto riesgo en pacientes bajo 18 años de edad, de cinco hospitales en Santiago de Chile, 2012-2015. Análisis de HC positivos. Resultados: Se analizaron 206 microorganismos en 185 episodios de NF de alto riesgo con HC positivos. Los aislados principales fueron bacilos gramnegativos (BGN) (46,6%) y cocáceas grampositivas (CGP) (45,1%) y los microorganismos más frecuentes Escherichia coli (22,8%), Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa (18,0%) y Klebsiella spp (16,5%). En resistencia (R) a antimicrobianos destaca: E. coli y Klebsiella spp 4,2 y 67,6% R a cefalosporinas de tercera generación (cefotaxima/ceftriaxona) respectivamente, 10,6 y 40,6% R a ciprofloxacina y 2,1 y 26,5% a amikacina, respectivamente. S. coagulasa negativa y S. aureus 86,4% y 22,2% R a oxacilina, Streptococcus grupo viridans 71% R a penicilina. Discusión: Este estudio actualiza la etiología y el perfil de R de microorganismos aislados en HC de niños con cáncer y NF de alto riesgo, herramienta esencial para el adecuado manejo de estos pacientes.


Background: Microorganisms isolated from blood cultures (BC) in patients with febrile neutropenia (NF) vary over time, requiring systematic monitoring to guide appropriate empirical therapy. Aim: To identify microorganisms isolated from BC and their antimicrobial resistance profile in children with cancer and high risk NF. Method: Prospective, multicenter study. The analysis included episodes of high-risk FN with positive BC in children under 18 years of age treated in five hospitals in Santiago, Chile, 2012-2015. Results: A total of 206 microorganisms were analyzed in 185 episodes of high-risk FN. The main isolates were Gram negative bacilli (46.6%) and Gram positive cocci (45.1%) and the most frequent microorganisms were Escherichia coli (22.8%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus (18.0%) and Klebsiella spp. (16.5%). Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp showed 4.2% and 67.6% resistance to third generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime/ceftriaxone), 10.6% and 40.6% resistance to fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin) and 2.1% and 26.5% to amikacin, respectively. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus had 86.4% and 22.2% resistance to oxacillin, Streptococcus viridans group had 71% resistance to penicillin. Discussion: This study updates the etiology and resistance profile of microorganisms isolated in BC from children with cancer and high risk FN, an essential tool for the adequate management of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Febrile Neutropenia/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Neoplasms/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile , Prospective Studies , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Neoplasms/complications
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(5): 547-552, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978068

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La sepsis neonatal nosocomial (SNN) es una entidad frecuente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, donde causa una gran morbimortalidad. La ubicación más frecuente es bacteriemia, seguido de neumonía asociada a ventilador mecánico y vía urinaria. Objetivo: Conocer la etiología y localización más frecuente de la infección en el SNN. Población, Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, de prevalencias de enero a diciembre de 2015, realizado en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal de un hospital de alta complejidad. Fueron incluidos todos los neonatos. Resultados: Se incluyeron 70 pacientes, se analizaron 88 episodios de SNN. La localización más frecuente fue sangre 40% de los casos, seguido de orina y aspirado traqueal en 25% respectivamente. Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados fueron Staphylococcus de diferentes tipos, seguido de Acinetobacter baumannii multi-resistente. La afectación del SNC fue de 32%. La mortalidad fue de 34%, elevándose a 50% ante un segundo episodio de SNN. La terapia empírica de elección fue vancomicina y carbapenem, ajustándose a antibiograma. Conclusiones: La infección más frecuente fue la bacteremia, principalmente por Staphylococcus resistentes a meticilina. La afectación del SNC fue elevada, lo mismo que la mortalidad.


Introduction: Nosocomial neonatal sepsis (NNS) is a frequent entity in intensive care units, causing great morbidity and mortality. The most frequent site is blood, followed by lungs and urine. Objective: To know the etiology and most frequent localization of infection in the NNS. Population, Material and Methods: Cross sectional study, from January to December 2015, performed in a teaching hospital. All newborns infants were included. Results: 70 patients were included, 88 episodes of NNS were analyzed. The most frequent localization was bacteremia in 40% of cases, followed by urinary tract infection and VAP in 25% respectively. The bacteria most frequently isolated were staphylococci of different types, followed by multiresistant Acinetobacter. The CNS involvement was 32%. Mortality was 34%, rising up to 50% with a second episode of NNS. The empirical therapy of choice was vancomycin and carbapenem, adjusting to antibiogram. Conclusions: The most frequent infection was bacteremia, mainly by staphylococci resistant to methicillin. CNS involvement was elevated, as well as mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Cross Infection/microbiology , Neonatal Sepsis/microbiology , Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Gestational Age , Bacteremia/microbiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria/classification , Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7118, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889111

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) from Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Chemical composition of EEP was determined by colorimetry and chromatographic (HPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS) analysis. Antimicrobial activity of EEP was evaluated against gram-positive (S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, E. faecalis) and gram-negative (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) bacteria by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test using the microdilution method. Furthermore, the growth curve and integrity of cell membrane of S. aureus and E. coli were investigated using standard microbiological methods. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the EEP of M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata has a more complex chemical composition than the EEP of T. angustula. Moreover, UPLC-MS analyses of M. quadrifasciata quadrifascita indicated flavonoids and terpenes as major constituents. The bactericidal activity of both EEPs was higher against gram-positive bacteria than for gram-negative bacteria. The EEP from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata presented MIC values lower than the EEP from T. angustula for all tested bacteria. The EEP from M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata caused lysis of the bacterial wall and release of intracellular components from both E. coli and S. aureus. Our findings indicate that the chemical composition of propolis from stingless bees is complex and depends on the species. The extract from M. quadrifasciata quadrifascita was more effective against gram-positive than gram-negative strains, especially against S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus compared to T. angustula extract, by a mechanism that involves disturbance of the bacterial cell membrane integrity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Bees/classification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Propolis/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Colorimetry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e42, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889494

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Based on aroeira's (Myracrodruon urundeuva) antimicrobial activity and a future trend to compose intracanal medication, the aim of this study was to assess in vivo inflamatory tissue response to the extracts by edemogenic and histological analysis containing inactivated facultative and anaerobic microorganisms. For edema quantification, eighteen animals were divided into three groups (n = 3, periods: 3 and 6 hours) and 0.2 mL of 1% Evans blue per 100 g of body weight was injected into the penile vein under general anesthesia. After 30 min the animals received a subcutaneous injection in the dorsal region of aqueous or ethanolic extract of aroeira or saline (control) containing inactivated bacteria. Samples were collected, immersed in formamide for 72h, and evaluated by spectrophotometry (630 m). For histological analysis, polyethylene tubes with the extracts were implanted in the dorsal of 30 male rats. Analysis of the fibrous capsule and inflammatory infiltrate were performed after 7 and 30 days. The aqueous extract group induced less edema in both postoperative periods compared to the other groups, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Tissue repair was significantly better after 30 days than after 7 days (p < 0.01). The aqueous solution showed less inflammatory response than the ethanolic solution (p < 0.05), with tendency for better results than control after 7 days. After 30 days, the response to both extracts was similar to control. The aqueous and ethanolic aroeira extracts containing inactivated microorganisms showed a trend for better results than saline, even when associated with microorganisms, and facilitated the tissue repair process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Edema/prevention & control , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Subcutaneous Tissue/microbiology , Edema/pathology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Inflammation/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Subcutaneous Tissue/drug effects , Subcutaneous Tissue/pathology , Time Factors
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(4): 408-417, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888893

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: In India, Elores (CSE-1034: ceftriaxone + sulbactam + disodium edetate) was approved as a broad spectrum antibiotic in year 2011 and is used for management of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases/Metallo Beta lactamases infections in tertiary care centers. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this drug in patients with Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases/Metallo Beta lactamases infections and identify the incidence of adverse events in real clinical settings. Methods: This Post Marketing Surveillance study was conducted at 17 centers across India and included 2500 patients of all age groups suffering from various bacterial infections and treated with Elores (CSE1034). Information regarding demographic, clinical and microbiological parameters, dosage and treatment duration, efficacy and adverse events (AEs) associated with the treatment were recorded. Results: A total of 2500 patients were included in the study and efficacy was evaluated in 2487 patients. In total, 409 AEs were reported in 211 (8.4%) patients. The major AEs reported were vomiting (3.0%), pain at injection site (2.5%), nausea (2.3%), redness at site (1.96%), thrombophlebitis (1.4%). Of total reported AEs, 40 (5.3%) AEs were reported in pediatric, 310 (20.6%) in adult, and 59 (23.6%) in geriatric group. No AE belonging to grade IV or V was reported in any patient. In terms of efficacy, 1977 (79.4%) patients were cured, 501 (20.1%) patients showed clinical improvement and 5 (0.2%) patients were complete failure. The treatment duration varied from 5 to 7 days in different patients depending on the infection type. Conclusion: In this post-marketing surveillance study, CSE-1034 was found to be an effective and safe option against Pip tazo and meropenem in management of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections under routine ward settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Aged , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Ceftriaxone/adverse effects , Sulbactam/administration & dosage , Sulbactam/adverse effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Edetic Acid/administration & dosage , Edetic Acid/adverse effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Combinations , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , India , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(3): 339-342, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039192

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are among the most concerning bacterial infections. They are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, and occur in 30-70% of critical care patients. The prompt identification of the causative microorganism can help choosing the appropriate antimicrobial therapy that will lead to better clinical outcomes. Blood culture is one of the most relevant tests for microbiological diagnosis of bacterial infections. The introduction of the MALDI-TOF microbiological diagnosis significantly decreased the time of identifying microorganisms. However, it depends on the growth on solid culture medium. In this study, 538 bottles of positive blood cultures were evaluated to test the accuracy of an in house modified protocol. The study sample consisted of 198 Gram-negative and 350 Gram-positive bacteria. In all, 460 (83.94%) species were identified based on the direct plate findings. The protocol allowed the identification of 185/198 (93.43%) of the Gram-negative bacteria, including aerobes, anaerobes, and non-fermenters, and 275/350 (78.85%) of the Gram-positive bacteria. The proposed method has the potential to provide accurate results in comparison to the traditional method with the potential to reduce the turnaround time for the results and optimize antimicrobial therapy in BSI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood/microbiology , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(2): 121-124, Apr. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894444

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento antibiótico de las apendicitis agudas se decide empíricamente basándose en la información epidemiológica. Las resistencias son variables entre regiones y los datos de Argentina son escasos. En el contexto de un estudio multicéntrico, observacional, de infecciones abdominales, se efectuó el análisis de los pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de apendicitis, incorporados al estudio entre enero 2014 y junio 2015, en 16 centros de 5 provincias argentinas. El objetivo fue analizar los gérmenes aeróbicos prevalentes, su resistencia a antibióticos y el patrón de prescripción antimicrobiana. Se estudiaron 131 apendicitis. Se aislaron 184 bacterias aerobias (1.4 bacterias/episodio): Escherichia coli 106 (57.6%), Klebsiella spp 16 (8.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 19 (10.3%), Enterobacter spp. 2 (1%), otros bacilos Gram negativos 5 (2.7%). Enterococcus spp. 16 (8.7%) y otros cocos Gram positivos 20 (10.9%). La resistencia de E. coli y enterobacterias a ampicilina/sulbactam fue mayor a 34% y a ciprofloxacina mayor a 31%. En cambio, la resistencia de enterobacterias a piperacilina/tazobactam fue 4.8%, a ceftriaxona 9.5% y no se halló resistencia a carbapenemes. Respecto a amikacina fue 3.6% y a gentamicina 8.2%. En función de los resultados, el uso de quinolonas o de ampicilina/sulbactam para el tratamiento de las apendicitis debiera ser desaconsejado. Los esquemas basados en aminoglucósidos debieran ser jerarquizados en función de la sensibilidad hallada y su bajo impacto en la inducción de resistencias.


Antibiotic treatment for acute appendicitis is empirically chosen, based on epidemiological information. Resistance rates are different between regions and there are limited data on the situation in Argentina. As a part of a multicenter, observational study of abdominal infections, we performed the analysis of adult patients diagnosed with appendicitis, enrolled in 16 centers of 5 provinces, between Jan/01/2014 and Jun/30/2015. The aim was to analyze the prevalent aerobic pathogens, their resistance rates and the antimicrobial prescription pattern. On a total of 131 appendicitis cases analyzed, we found 184 aerobic pathogens (1.4 bacteria/episode): Escherichia coli 106 (57.6%), Klebsiella spp 16 (8.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 19 (10.3%), Enterobacter spp. 2 (1%), other Gram negative bacilli 5 (2.7%); Enterococcus spp. 16 (8.7%) and other Gram positive cocci 20 (10.9%). The resistance rate of E. coli and enterobacteria to ampicillin/sulbactam was greater than 34% and greater than 31% to ciprofloxacin. However, the resistance of enterobacteria to piperacillin/tazobactam was 4.8%, to ceftriaxone 9.5%, to amikacin 3.6% and 8.2% to gentamicin. No resistance to carbapenems was found. The choice of quinolones or ampicillin/sulbactam for the treatment of appendicitis should be discouraged in our context, due to the high rates of resistance found in this prevalent etiology. Aminoglycoside-based treatments should be considered, given the findings of high antibiotic susceptibility and their low impact on the induction of resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Appendicitis/microbiology , Sepsis/microbiology , Intraabdominal Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Argentina , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Acute Disease , Prospective Studies , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects
13.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(1): 21-24, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838767

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the changes in aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora and to correlate culture results with physical health and the duration of patients' hospitalization in an intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: Patients hospitalized in the ICU were included in this study. Conjunctival cultures from all patients were obtained using a standard technique on days 1, 3, 7, and 14. Swabs were plated on nonselective (blood agar) and enriched (chocolate agar) media within one hour. Visible colonies were isolated, and standard microbiological techniques were used to identify the bacteria. The frequency, identity, and correlation of culture results with patients' physical findings and the duration of hospitalization were determined. Results: We obtained 478 cultures (day 1, 270; day 3, 156; day 7, 36; and day 14, 16) from 135 patients; 288 (60.2%) cultures were positive, and 331 microorganisms were isolated. The most frequently isolated microorganism from the cultures was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (n=210/331, 63.5%), and the others were Corynebacterium diphtheriae (n=52/331, 15.7%), S. aureus (n=26/331, 7.9%), gram-negative bacilli other than Pseudomonas (n=14/331, 4.2%), Neisseria species (n=8/331, 2.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=6/331, 1.8%), Haemophilus influenzae (n=7/331, 2.1%), Acinetobacter species (n=6/331, 1.8%), and Streptococcus species (n=2/331, 0.6%). The frequency of positive cultures significantly increased (p<0.03) with time. Conclusions: Prolonged hospitalization significantly predisposes to bacterial colonization. The colonization rate of S. aureus and Neisseria spp. increased significantly after one week.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar as mudanças na flora bacteriana aeróbia da conjuntiva e correlacionar os resultados da cultura com o estado de saúde física e a duração da hospitalização em pacientes em uma unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI). Método: Pacientes que estavam na UTI foram incluídos neste estudo. Culturas conjuntivais foram obtidas nos dias 1, 3, 7 e 14 de todos os pacientes com uma técnica normalizada. Zaragatoas foram semeadas em placas não seletivas (ágar sangue) e enriquecidas (ágar chocolate) dentro de uma hora. Colônias visíveis foram separadas, isoladas, e identificadas utilizando técnicas microbiológicas convencionais. A frequência, identificação e correlação da cultura resulta com achados físicos e a duração da hospitalização foram determinados. Resultados: Um total de 478 culturas (no primeiro dia 270, terceiro dia 156, sétimo dia 36 e dia catorze 16 culturas) foram obtidas de 135 pacientes hospitalizados durante o estudo. Duzentos e oitenta e oito (60,2% de todas as culturas obtidas) culturas foram positivas. Trezentos e trinta e um microrganismos foram isolados a partir dessas culturas. Em todos os grupos, o microrganismo mais frequentemente isolado foi o Staphylococcus species coagulase negativo (n=210/331, 63,5% de todos os microrganismos isolados). Outras bactérias isoladas foram Corynebacterium diphteriae (n=52/331, 15,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (n=26/331, 7,9%), bacilos Gram-negativos que não sejam Pseudomonas (n=14/331, 4,2%), Neisseria species (n=8/331, 2,4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=6/331, 1,8%), Haemophilus influenzae (n=7/331, 2,1%), Acinetobacter species (n=6/331, 1,8%), e Streptococcus species (n=2/331, 0,6%). Como o tempo de hospitalização prolongada, a positividade em culturas aumentou significativamente (p<0,03). Conclusões: hospitalização prolongada predispõe significativamente a frequência de colonização bacteriana. A taxa de colonização de S. aureus e Neisseria spp. aumentou significativamente depois de uma semana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Conjunctiva/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Intensive Care Units , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Length of Stay
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(6): 746-751, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829663

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mycolactones, secreted by Mycobacterium ulcerans, were previously believed to prevent super infection in Buruli ulcer lesions. However, little is known about secondary bacterial infections in these lesions. This study evaluated contaminating bacterial flora and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in cases of previously untreated Buruli ulcer disease from three states in Southern Nigeria. METHODS A prospective analysis was conducted between January and June of 2015 using wound swabs from eligible patients with Buruli ulcer disease, confirmed by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction, with active ulcers. Microbiological analyses including isolation of bacteria, species identification of isolates, and drug susceptibility tests were performed. RESULTS Of 51 patients, 27 (52.9%) were female. One or more bacterial species of clinical importance was isolated from each patient. A total of 17 different microbial species were isolated; 76.4% were Gram-negative and 23.6% were Gram-positive isolates. The most common bacterial species detected was Staphylococcus aureus (24%), followed by Aeromonas hydrophila (13%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (11%). Drug susceptibility tests showed a particularly high frequency of resistance to commonly used antimicrobials in Nigeria for Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS Super bacterial infections occur in Buruli ulcer lesions in Nigeria, and these infections are associated with high rates of resistance to commonly used antibiotics in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Buruli Ulcer/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Coinfection , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Middle Aged , Nigeria
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(4): 241-251, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779002

ABSTRACT

Localised cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is the most common form of cutaneous leishmaniasis characterised by single or multiple painless chronic ulcers, which commonly presents with secondary bacterial infection. Previous culture-based studies have found staphylococci, streptococci, and opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in LCL lesions, but there have been no comparisons to normal skin. In addition, this approach has strong bias for determining bacterial composition. The present study tested the hypothesis that bacterial communities in LCL lesions differ from those found on healthy skin (HS). Using a high throughput amplicon sequencing approach, which allows for better populational evaluation due to greater depth coverage and the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology pipeline, we compared the microbiological signature of LCL lesions with that of contralateral HS from the same individuals.Streptococcus, Staphylococcus,Fusobacterium and other strict or facultative anaerobic bacteria composed the LCL microbiome. Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria found in HS, including environmental bacteria, were significantly decreased in LCL lesions (p < 0.01). This paper presents the first comprehensive microbiome identification from LCL lesions with next generation sequence methodology and shows a marked reduction of bacterial diversity in the lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/microbiology , Skin/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Skin/parasitology
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(1): 19-25, feb. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-776955

ABSTRACT

Healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) are a problem worldwide. In our country, the estimated incidence of HCAI is 70,000 per year. This results in an increase in the average length of hospital stay by 10 days per patient, an estimated annual cost of US $ 70 million and an overstay of 700 thousand bed days a year. For over 30 years stethoscopes have been considered as potential HCAI vectors, since pathogens like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus strains adhere and colonize them. These organisms can be transmitted between patients if the instruments are not sanitized. Several studies conclude that disinfecting the stethoscope with isopropyl alcohol eliminates up to 99% of bacteria. Simple, economic measures such as implementation of guidelines for stethoscope disinfection are a clear opportunity for preventing infections.


Las infecciones asociadas a la atención de la salud (IAAS) son un problema a mundial. Sólo en nuestro país se estima una incidencia de 70.000 al año, lo que se traduce en un aumento de la estadía hospitalaria en 10 días promedio por paciente, un costo anual estimado en 70 millones de dólares y una sobre-estadía de 700 mil días cama al año. La evidencia señala que diferentes instrumentos de uso hospitalario resultan contaminados por patógenos; entre ellos, el estetoscopio se ha identificado como potencial vector de IAAS hace más de 30 años y adquiere gran relevancia al ser de uso generalizado. Microorganismos patógenos, incluyendo cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina y cepas de Enterococcus resistente a vancomicina se adhieren y contaminan los estetoscopios, pudiendo transmitirse a otros pacientes si no son desinfectados. Diversos estudios concluyen que la desinfección del estetoscopio con alcohol isopropílico elimina hasta 99% de estas y otras bacterias, por lo que existe una clara oportunidad para aportar a la prevención de las IAAS, interviniendo a través de la implementación de medidas sencillas, económicas y operativas al corto plazo, normando por ejemplo la limpieza del estetoscopio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disinfection/statistics & numerical data , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Stethoscopes/microbiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Disinfection/methods , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(1): 19-25, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776460

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The timing of most recurrences after neonatal urinary tract infection is during the first year of life, with peak incidence 2–6 months after the initial infection. Information on the microbiologic characteristics of recurrent urinary tract infection episodes in relation to the microbiology of the initial episodes is limited. Objectives To analyze the epidemiologic/microbiological characteristics of 1st and recurrent urinary tract infection in infants <2 months of age. Methods A retrospective study including all infants <2 months of age with urinary tract infection admitted during 2005–2009 and followed till the age of 1 year. Results 151 neonates were enrolled (2.7% of all 5617 febrile infants <2 months of age admitted). The overall incidence of urinary tract infection occurring during the first 2 months of life was 151/73,480 (0.2%) live births during 2005–2009 in southern Israel (2.1 cases/1000 live births). One pathogen was isolated in 133 (88.1%); Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., Morganella morganii, Proteus spp., and Enterobacter spp. represented the most common pathogens (57.9%, 12.2%, 7.9%, 6.7%, 6.1%, and 5%, respectively). Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, and cefuroxime-axetil were the most commonly recommended prophylactic antibiotics (45%, 13.2%, and 8%, respectively). Twenty-three recurrent urinary tract infection episodes were recorded in 20 (13.2%) patients; 6/23 (26%) were diagnosed within one month following 1st episode. E. coli was the most frequent recurrent urinary tract infection pathogen (12/23, 52.2%). No differences were recorded in E. coli distribution between first urinary tract infection vs. recurrent urinary tract infection. Seventeen (74%) recurrent urinary tract infection episodes were caused by pathogens different (phenotypically) from those isolated in 1st episode. Recurrent urinary tract infection occurred in 25.0%, 8.3%, and 0 patients recommended trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefuroxime-axetil, or amoxicillin prophylaxis, respectively. Conclusions (1) The study determined the incidence of urinary tract infection in febrile infants <2 months of age in Southern Israel; (2) E. coli was responsible for the majority of first and recurrent urinary tract infection; (3) recurrent urinary tract infection was caused mostly by pathogens different than the pathogens isolated at initial episode.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Follow-Up Studies , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Israel/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
18.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774567

ABSTRACT

Urinary tract infection is a common problem worldwide. Its clinical characteristics and susceptibility rates of bacteria are important in determining the treatment of choice and its duration. This study assessed the frequency and susceptibility to antimicrobials of uropathogens isolated from community-acquired urinary tract infections in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State capital, northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2010. A total of 1,082 positive samples were evaluated; E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen (60.4%). With respect to the uropathogens susceptibility rates, the resistance of enterobacteria to ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was 24.4% and 50.6%, respectively. Susceptibility was over 90% for nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides and third-generation cephalosporins. High resistance rates of uropathogens to quinolones and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim draws attention to the choice of these drugs on empirical treatments, especially in patients with pyelonephritis. Given the increased resistance of community bacteria to antimicrobials, local knowledge of susceptibility rates of uropathogens is essential for therapeutic decision making regarding patients with urinary tract infections.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Brazil , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(6): 571-577, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769634

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Disposal of Umbilical Cord Blood Units due to microbial contamination is a major problem in Cord Blood Banks worldwide as it reduces the number of units available for transplantation. Additionally, economic losses are generated as result of resources and infrastructure used to obtain such units. Umbilical Cord Blood Units that showed initial microbial contamination were subject to strains isolation, identification, and characterization by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR). Moreover, tests of antimicrobial resistance/sensitivity and phenotypic activities that may play an important role in microbial infection were performed. Microbial contamination was detected in 120 Umbilical Cord Blood Units (2.31%) in the period from 2003 to 2013. The most frequently isolated strains were Enterococcus faecium, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus haemoliticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus durans, Lactobacillus helveticus, Enterococcus hiriae and Roseomonas genomospecies 5. The ERIC-PCR assays revealed a wide genetic diversity in some strains although belonging to the same genus and specie, indicating different sources of contamination. Broad-spectrum penicillins, third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones showed lower inhibitory activity on the tested strains. All strains were proteolytic, 67.69% were amylase-positive, 27.6% hemolysis-positive, and 34.71% nuclease-positive. The most common sources of contamination were: vaginal flora, digestive tract, and skin flora, highlighting the need for staff training in good manufacturing practices in collection SCU since all contaminants identified are part of the microbial flora of the donors. Implications and consequences in the therapeutic use of Umbilical Cord Blood Units for transplantation contaminated by multiresistant bacteria in immunocompromised patients are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Preservation , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Fetal Blood/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Blood Banks , Genetic Markers , Genotype , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Typing , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(6): 596-603, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769626

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT As part of the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) surveillance program in 2012 the in vitro activity of ceftaroline and relevant comparator antimicrobials was evaluated in six Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela) against pathogens isolated from patients with hospital associated skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). The study documented that ceftaroline was highly active (MIC90 0.25 mg/L/% susceptible 100%) against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MIC90 2 mg/L/% susceptible 83.3%) and ß-hemolytic streptococci (MIC90 0.008-0.015 mg/L/% susceptible 100%). The activity of ceftaroline against selected species of Enterobacteriaceae was dependent upon the presence or absence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs). Against ESBL screen-negativeEscherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, andKlebsiella oxytoca the MIC90 and percent susceptible for ceftaroline were (0.5 mg/L/94.1%), (0.5 mg/L/99.0%) and (0.5 mg/L/91.5%), respectively. Ceftaroline demonstrated potent activity against a recent collection of pathogens associated with SSTI in six Latin American countries in 2012.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Epidemiological Monitoring , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Latin America , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Soft Tissue Infections/microbiology
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