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1.
Infectio ; 25(3): 200-205, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250094

ABSTRACT

Abstract Streptococcus constellatus is a member of the group now called Streptococcus anginosus. This microorganism is part of the normal oropharyngeal, gastrointestinal and genitourinary microbiota. However, it may cause serious infections such as pharyngitis, bacteremia and invasive pyogenic infections in immunocompromised patients. We report the first case in Colombia of an adult male with no relevant medical history and with an unusual presentation of infection by S. constellatus and whose laboratory results showed an important systemic inflammatory response and radiographic evidence of abdominal involvement with poor response to medical and surgical management. Since there are few reports in international medical journals about intra-abdominal infection by S. constellatus and taking into consideration the need of a multidisciplinary intervention, this report may be of interest for both clinical and surgical practitioners.


Resumen Streptococcus constellatus es un miembro del grupo ahora llamado Streptococcus anginosus. Este microorganismo es parte de la microbiota orofaríngea, gastrointestinal y genitourinaria normal. Sin embargo, puede causar infecciones graves como faringitis, bacteriemia e infecciones piógenas invasivas en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Presentamos el primer caso en Colombia de un hombre adulto sin antecedentes médicos relevantes y con una presentación inusual de infección por S. constellatus, dada por una gran respuesta inflamatoria sistémica y evidencia radiográfica de afectación abdominal con mala respuesta al tratamiento médico y quirúrgico. Dado que hay pocos informes en revistas médicas internacionales sobre la infección intraabdominal por S. constellatus y teniendo en cuenta la necesidad de intervenciones multidisciplinarias, este reporte puede ser de interés tanto para los médicos clínicos como para los quirúrgicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Streptococcus anginosus , Streptococcus constellatus , Intraabdominal Infections , Shock, Septic , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Abdominal Abscess , Infections
2.
Rev. ADM ; 78(1): 13-21, ene.-feb- 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152240

ABSTRACT

Existe una creciente preocupación sobre el tema de la infección cruzada en clínicas y laboratorios dentales. El laboratorio odontológico debe seguir normas de bioseguridad que garanticen a todo el equipo de salud la prevención de estas infecciones. Los técnicos que allí laboran corren el riesgo de exponer su cara a salpicaduras, así como a rocíos de sangre y saliva. Este estudio fue diseñado para saber si los laboratorios a los que recurrimos cumplen con estas normas de bioseguridad, y qué tan confiados podemos estar de la desinfección por parte de ellos, ya que las prótesis deberían estar desinfectadas correctamente antes de colocarlas en boca (AU)


There is growing concern about the issue of cross infection in dental clinics and laboratories. The dental laboratory must follow biosafety standards that guarantee the prevention of these infections to the entire health team. The technicians who work there run the risk of exposing their face to splashes and spray of blood and saliva. This study was designed to find out if the laboratories we use comply with these biosafety standards, and how confident we can be of their disinfection by them, since the prostheses should be properly disinfected before placing them in the mouth (AU)


Subject(s)
Disinfection , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Dental Prosthesis/adverse effects , Infection Control, Dental/methods , Laboratories, Dental , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Dental Offices/standards , Culture Techniques
3.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(1): e-081080, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147043

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A Gardnerella vaginalis facilita a infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV). Objetivo: Verificar a associação entre anormalidades citológicas e presença de Gardnerella vaginalis nos esfregaços cervicovaginais encaminhados ao Laboratório Clínico da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Goiás (LAC/PUC Goiás) estratificadas por faixa etária. Método: Estudo transversal realizado no LAC/PUC Goiás entre janeiro de 2013 a dezembro de 2015. Para análises estatísticas, a variável idade foi categorizada em ≤39 anos e >40 anos, utilizando o programa IBM SPSS Statistics (Version 2.0, 2011®) para o teste de qui-quadrado (X²), com intervalo de confiança de 95% e valor p<0,05. Resultados: Foram analisados 4.558 exames citopatológicos, a maioria com presença de Lactobacillus spp. (46,97%). A prevalência dos agentes patogênicos foi a Gardnerella vaginalis (79,6%), seguida de Candida spp. (16,8%), Trichomonas vaginalis (2,2%), Herpes simplex (0,4 %) e Chlamydia trachomatis (0,1%). As anormalidades citológicas foram observadas em 9,1%, sendo atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 2,57%, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) 1,78%, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) 3,52%, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 1,08%, atypical endocervical cells, favor neoplastic (AGC-NEO) 0,22% e carcinoma 0,02%. Houve uma associação significante entre anormalidades citológicas graves e mulheres ≥40 anos, OR 3,01 (IC 95% 2,0-4,58) (p<0,0001). Mulheres ≤40 anos mostraram significância à presença de Gardnerella vaginalis (p<0,0004). Conclusão: Uma elevada prevalência de Gardnerella vaginalis foi encontrada associada com as anormalidades citológicas, principalmente em mulheres sexualmente ativas.


Introduction:Gardnerella vaginalis facilitates human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Objective: To verify the association between cytological abnormalities and the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis in cervicovaginal smears sent to the Clinical Laboratory of the Pontifical Catholic University of Goiás (LAC/PUC Goiás) stratified by age range. Method: Cross-sectional study carried out at LAC/PUC Goiás from January 2013 to December 2015. For statistical analysis, the variable age was categorized as ≤39 years and >40 years, using the IBM SPSS Statistics program (Version 2.0, 2011®) for the chi-square test (X²), with a 95% confidence interval and p<0.05. Results:4,558 cytopathological exams were analyzed, most of them with the presence of Lactobacillus spp (46.97%). The prevalence of pathogens was Gardnerella vaginalis (79.6%), followed by Candida spp. (16.8%), Trichomonas vaginalis (2.2%), Herpes simplex (0.4%) and Chlamydia trachomatis (0.1%). Cytological abnormalities were observed in 9.1%, being atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 2.57%, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) 1.78%, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cannot exclude high intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) 3.52%, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 1.08%, atypical endocervical cells, neoplastic favor (AGC-NEO) 0.22% and carcinoma 0.02%. There was a significant association between severe cytological abnormalities and women >40 years old OR 3.01 (95% CI 2.0-4.58) (p<0.0001). Women ≤40 years old showed the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis (p<0.0004). Conclusion:A high prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis was found and its association with cytological abnormalities, especially in sexually active women.


Introducción:Gardnerella vaginalis facilita la infección por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH). Objetivo: Verificar la asociación entre anormalidades citológicas y la presencia de Gardnerella vaginalis en frotis cervicovaginales enviadas al Laboratorio Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Goiás (LAC/PUC Goiás) estratificadas por grupo de edad. Método: Estudio transversal realizado en LAC/PUC Goiás desde enero de 2013 hasta diciembre de 2015. Para el análisis estadístico, la edad variable se clasificó como ≤39 años y >40 años, utilizando el programa IBM SPSS Statistics (Versión 2.0, 2011®) para la prueba de chi-cuadrado (X²), con un intervalo de confianza del 95% y p <0,05. Resultados: Se analizaron 4.558 exámenes citopatológicos. La prevalencia de Lactobacillusspp. con 46,97%. Los patógenos como Gardnerella vaginalis fueron 79,6%, Candidaspp. 16,8%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2,2%, Herpes simplex 0,4%, y Chlamydia trachomatis 0,1%. Se observaron anormalidades citológicas en 9,1%, con células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado (ASC-US) 2,57%, lesión intraepitelial escamosa de bajo grado (LSIL) 1,78%, células escamosas atípicas de significación indeterminada no pueden excluir lesión intraepitelial (ASC-H) 3,52%, lesión intraepitelial escamosa de alto grado (HSIL) 1,08%, células endocervicales atípicas, favor neoplásico (AGC-NEO) 0,22% y carcinoma 0,02%. Hubo una asociación significativa entre anormalidades citológicas severas y mujeres >40 años OR 3,01 (IC 95% 2,0-4,58) (p<0,0001). Las mujeres ≤40 años mostraron la presencia de Gardnerella vaginalis (p<0,0004). Conclusión: Se encontró una alta prevalencia de Gardnerella vaginalis y su asociación con anomalías citológicas, especialmente en mujeres sexualmente activas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vaginal Smears , Gardnerella vaginalis/isolation & purification , Vaginosis, Bacterial/pathology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/pathology , Papanicolaou Test , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 391-397, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138519

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a efetividade da vancomicina contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L em pacientes pediátricos com base na razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima > 400. Métodos: População de 22 pacientes pediátricos (13 meninos) internados no centro de terapia intensiva pediátrica, com função renal preservada, que foram distribuídos em dois grupos (G1 < 7 anos e G2 ≥ 7 anos). Após a quarta dose de vancomicina (10 - 15mg/kg a cada 6 horas), duas amostras de sangue foram colhidas (terceira e quinta horas), seguidas da dosagem sérica por imunoensaios para investigação da farmacocinética e da cobertura do antimicrobiano. Resultados: Não se registrou diferença entre os grupos com relação à dose, ao nível de vale ou ainda na área sob a curva. A cobertura contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L ocorreu em apenas 46% dos pacientes em ambos os grupos. A farmacocinética se mostrou alterada nos dois grupos diante dos valores de referência, mas a diferença entre grupos foi registrada pelo aumento da depuração total corporal e pelo encurtamento da meia-vida biológica, mais pronunciados nos pacientes mais novos. Conclusão: A dose empírica mínima de 60mg/kg ao dia deve ser prescrita ao paciente pediátrico de unidade de terapia intensiva com função renal preservada. A utilização da razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima na avaliação da cobertura da vancomicina é recomendada para se atingir o desfecho desejado, uma vez que a farmacocinética está alterada nesses pacientes, podendo impactar na efetividade do antimicrobiano.


Abstract Objective: To investigate the vancomycin effectiveness against gram-positive pathogens with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L in pediatric patients based on the area under the curve and the minimum inhibitory concentration ratio > 400. Methods: A population of 22 pediatric patients (13 boys) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with preserved renal function was stratified in two groups (G1 < 7 years and G2 ≥ 7 years). After the fourth dose administered of vancomycin (10 - 15mg/kg every 6 hours) was administered, two blood samples were collected (third and fifth hours), followed by serum measurement by immunoassays to investigate the pharmacokinetics and antimicrobial coverage. Results: There was no difference between the groups regarding dose, trough level or area under the curve. Coverage against gram-positive pathogens with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L occurred in only 46% of patients in both groups. The pharmacokinetics in both groups were altered relative to the reference values, and the groups differed in regard to increased total body clearance and shortening of the biological half-life, which were more pronounced in younger patients. Conclusion: A minimum empirical dose of 60mg/kg per day should be prescribed for pediatric patients in intensive care units with preserved renal function. The use of the ratio between the area under the curve and minimum inhibitory concentration in the evaluation of vancomycin coverage is recommended to achieve the desired outcome, since the pharmacokinetics are altered in these patients, which may impact the effectiveness of the antimicrobial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pilot Projects , Age Factors , Area Under Curve , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Half-Life
5.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(3): 1-14, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247345

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e objetivos: A Monitorização Terapêutica de Fármacos (MTF) é uma importante ferramenta na otimização da terapia com vancomicina, utilizada no tratamento de infecções graves causadas por bactérias Gram-positivas. O objetivo deste estudo foi implementar um protocolo de monitoramento terapêutico de vancomicina em um hospital e descrever as características clínicas, laboratoriais e de uso deste medicamento após sua implementação. Métodos: Para o desenvolvimento do protocolo, foram utilizados os consensos internacionais sobre MTF de vancomicina. Os dados dos pacientes adultos foram coletados dos prontuários e das estimativas do software farmacocinético. Resultados: O protocolo de vancomicina foi implementado na instituição hospitalar e disponibilizado ao corpo clínico. Foram avaliados 49 pacientes. A vancomicina foi indicada principalmente para tratar pneumonia 15 (30,6%). Entre os microrganismos identificados, Staphylococcus aureus foi o mais presente ­ 8 (50%), e 9 (56,3%) das culturas eram resistentes à oxacilina. Média de uso de vancomicina foi 10,6 (± 6,6) dias, e dose de ataque foi administrada em 33 (67,3%) dos pacientes. Apresentaram insuficiência renal aguda 5 (11,1%) pacientes. O monitoramento das concentrações mínimas no vale (Cmin) de vancomicina ocorreu em 43 (87,8%) pacientes. Na primeira medição, 16 deles (37,2%) apresentaram Cmin inferiores a 10 mcg/dL, e 11 (25,6%), superiores a 20 mcg/dL, dados considerados fora da faixa terapêutica. Conclusão: A elaboração de um protocolo de MTF para a vancomicina orienta o uso racional e seguro desse antibiótico. Formação continuada em recursos humanos e investimento em softwares farmacocinéticos para ajustes de doses podem contribuir para a otimização da terapia com vancomicina.(AU)


Background and objectives: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is an important tool in optimizing vancomycin therapy, a drug used to treat serious infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. The aim of this study was to implement a protocol for the therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin in hospitals and to describe the clinical, laboratory and use characteristics of this drug after its implementation. Methods: The international consensus on vancomycin TDM was used for protocol development. Patient data were collected from medical records and pharmacokinetic software estimates. Results: The vancomycin protocol was implemented at a hospital and made available to the clinical staff. We evaluated 49 patients. Vancomycin was prescribed mainly to treat pneumonia 15 (30.6%). Among the identified microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus was the most common with 8 cases (50%), and 9 (56.3%) patients were resistant to oxacillin. The average use of vancomycin was 10.6 (± 6.6) days and the loading dose was administered in 33 (67.3%) patients. A total of 5 (11.1%) patients had acute renal failure. Monitoring of Minimal Concentrations in the vancomycin valley (Cmin) occurred in 43 (87.8%) patients. In the first measurement, 16 of them (37.2%) presented Cmin below 10 mcg/dL and 11 (25.6%) above 20 mcg/dL, data considered outside the therapeutic range. Conclusion: The elaboration of an MTF protocol for vancomycin guides the rational and safe use of this antibiotic. Continued training in human resources and investment in dose-adjusting pharmacokinetic software may contribute to the optimization of vancomycin therapy.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: La monitorización terapéutica de medicamentos (MTF) es una importante herramienta para optimizar la terapia con vancomicina, utilizada para tratar infecciones graves causadas por bacterias grampositivas. El objetivo de este estudio fue implementar un protocolo de MTF de vancomicina en el hospital y describir las características clínicas, de laboratorio y de uso de vancomicina después de su implementación. Métodos: El consenso internacional sobre vancomicina MTF se utilizó para el desarrollo del protocolo. Los datos de los pacientes adultos se obtuvieron de los registros médicos y las estimaciones del software farmacocinético. Resultados: El protocolo se implementó en el hospital y se puso a disposición al personal clínico. Se evaluaron 49 pacientes. La vancomicina fue indicada para pneumonía 15 (30,6%). Entre los microorganismos identificados, Staphylococcus aureus fue el más presente 8 (50%) y 9 (56,3%) de los cultivos fueron resistentes a oxacilina. El promedio del uso de vancomicina fue de 10,6 (± 6,6) días, y la dosis de ataque se administró en 33 (67,3%) pacientes. La insuficiencia renal aguda se encontró en 5 (11,1%) pacientes. El monitoreo de concentraciones mínimas en el valle de vancomicina (Cmin) ocurrió en 43 (87,8%) pacientes. En la primera medición, 16 de ellos (37,2%) presentaron Cmin por debajo de 10 mcg/dL, y 11 (25,6%), por encima de 20 mcg/dL, datos considerados fuera del rango terapéutico. Conclusión: La elaboración de un protocolo de MTF para vancomicina guía el uso racional y seguro de ese antibiótico. La capacitación continua en recursos humanos y la inversión en softwares farmacocinéticos de ajuste de dosis pueden contribuir a la optimización de la terapia con vancomicina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vancomycin , Clinical Protocols , Drug Monitoring , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
6.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 8(2): e017, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1119286

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la contaminación bacteriana de los conos de gutapercha de tipo beta (ß) en los tiempos 0, 24, 47 y 72 horas de las diferentes proveedurías de la Clínica Odontológica de la Universidad Científica del Sur (Lima, 2020). Materiales y métodos: Se obtuvo 16 conos de gutapercha tipo beta (ß) de empaques cerrados bajo medidas asépticas, los cuales fueron colocados en viales con 2 ml de caldo BHI y, posteriormente, fueron sembrados en agar BHI, así como en medios selectivos agar manitol salado y agar MacConkey. Pasadas las 24 horas de incubación a 37 °C, se realizó la lectura de las placas y el conteo de UFC. El mismo procedimiento se realizó para los tiempos 24, 48 y 72 horas, lo que dio un total de 64 conos de gutapercha tipo ß. Resultados: Se observó que el nivel de contaminación bacteriana fue el mismo tanto entre las distintas proveedurías como a las 0, 24, 48 y 72 horas. Solo se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p = 0,044) entre los distintos tiempos de la proveeduría número 5. Finalmente, todas las muestras sometidas a la prueba de la coagulasa arrojaron resultados negativos. Conclusión: Los conos de gutapercha de tipo beta (ß) se contaminaron por igual producto de su almacenamiento y manipulación, independientemente de la proveeduría en la que permanecieron. (AU)


Objective: The purpose of this study was to determinate the bacterial contamination of Beta (ß) gutta-percha cones at 0, 24, 47 and 72 hours of the different supplies of the Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima 2020. Materials and Methods: 16 ß-type gutta-percha cones were obtained of sealed packages under aseptic measurements, they were placed in vials with 2ml BHI and subsequently planted in BHI agar plates as well as in selective medias as Salted mannitol agar and MacConkey agar after 24 hours of incubation at 37 ° the plates were read and count in CFU, the same procedure was performed for the other times evaluated 24, 48 and 72 hours, giving a total of 64 ß-type gutta-percha cones. Results: It was observed that the level of bacterial contamination was the same among the different supplies in all the establish times of in this study 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Therefore, there were no significant differences in the level of bacterial contamination between the supplies. On the other hand, only statistically significant differences (p = 0.044) were found between the different times of the supply number 5. Finally, all the samples submitted to the coagulase test had a negative result. Conclusion: The gutta-percha cones of type ß were contaminated equally regardless of the supply in which they were stored or manipulated. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Coagulase , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Gutta-Percha
7.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 553-560, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138670

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones graves son la principal causa de ingreso a cuidados intensivos pediátricos. El panel FilmArray BCID permite identificar rápidamente a microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias. OBJETIVO: evaluar la eficacia de la identificación rápida de microorganismos asociado a un Programa de Uso Racional de Antibióticos (URA) en reducir los tiempos de terapias antibióticas, en un hospital pediátrico. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo, que incluyó 100 pacientes, en su primer episo dio de bacteriemia, divididos en 2 grupos de 50 cada uno: Intervención (FilmArray BCID y programa URA) y Controles históricos pareados para la misma especie del microrganismo identificado (microbiología convencional). Las variables evaluadas fueron los tiempos de identificación microbiana, latencia de la terapia dirigida y de desescalar antibióticos. RESULTADOS: Los grupos fueron comparables en características demográficas, foco de infección y etiología de bacteriemia. El tiempo promedio de identificación de microorganismos fue de 23 h (IC 95% 12,4-26,7) en el grupo intervención, y 70,5 h (IC 95% 65,2-78,6) en el control (p < 0,05), mientras que la latencia de inicio de terapia dirigida fue de 27,9 h (IC 95% 22,3-32,8) y 71,9 h (IC 95% 63,2-77,8) respectivamente (p < 0,05). El tiempo de desescalar o suspender antibióticos fue de 6,4 h (IC 95% 2,76-9,49) y 22 h (IC 95% 6,74-35,6) en los grupos mencionados (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: El panel FilmArray BCID articulado a un programa URA, contribuye a la identificación de los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias en menor tiempo que los métodos convencionales, siendo una herramienta que optimiza las terapias antibióti cas en niños críticamente enfermos.


INTRODUCTION: Severe infections are the leading cause of admission to pediatric intensive care. The FilmArray BCID panel quickly identifies microorganisms that cause bacteremia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the rapid identification of the microorganisms that cause bacteremia, along with a Rational Use of Antibio tics (RUA) Program, allows optimizing the time of antibiotic therapy in a pediatric hospital. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective study which included 100 patients presenting their first episode of bacteremia, divided into 2 groups of 50 each. The first one was Intervention (FilmArray BCID and RUA program) and the second one was Historical Controls (conventional automated ID/AST). The variables evaluated were the time required for microbial identification, duration of appropriate therapy, and antibiotic de-escalation. RESULTS: The groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics, focus of infection, and etiology of bacteremia. The average time of microorganisms' identification of the control group was 70.5 hours (IC 95% 65.2-78.6) and 23.0 hours (IC 95% 12.4 -26.7) in the intervention one (p < 0.05). The average time of targeted therapy onset was shorter in the intervention group (27.9 h [IC 95% 22.3-32.8]) than that of the control one (71.9 h [IC 95% 63.2-77.8]) (p < 0.05). Finally, the time to de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics in the intervention group and the control one was 6.4 hours (IC 95% 2.76-9.49) hours and 22.0 hours (IC 95% 6.74-35.6 h) respectively (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The FilmArray panel along with the RUA Program allows the identification of the microorganisms causing bacteremia faster than conventional methods, which positions it as a tool that optimizes antibiotic therapy of critical patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Molecular Typing/methods , Blood Culture/methods , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 298-306, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130892

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The increasingly frequent use of dermoscopy makes us think about the possibility of transfer of microorganisms, through the dermatoscope, between doctor and patients. Objectives: To identify the most frequent gram-positive cocci in dermatoscopes and smartphone adapters, as well as the resistance profile, and to evaluate the factors associated with a higher risk of bacterial contamination of the dermatoscopes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 118 dermatologists from Porto Alegre/Brazil between September 2017 and July 2018. Gram-positive cocci were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and habits of use of the dermatoscope were evaluated through an anonymous questionnaire. Results: Of the dermatoscopes analysed, 46.6% had growth of gram-positive cocci on the lens and 37.3% on the on/off button. The microorganisms most frequently found were S. epidermidis, S. hominis and S. warneri. Attending a hospital, using the dermatoscope at the hospital, with inpatients and in the intensive care unit were significantly associated with colonisation by gram-positive cocci. The highest resistance rates were observed for penicillin, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Study limitations: The non-search of gram-negative bacilli, fungi and viruses. Moreover, the small number of adapters did not make it possible to better define if the frequency differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Coagulase-negative staphylococci were frequently identified. S. aureus was detected only on the lens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Cocci/isolation & purification , Dermoscopy/instrumentation , Smartphone , Dermatologists/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Cocci/growth & development , Gram-Positive Cocci/drug effects , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
9.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(3): 281-286, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132589

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Clinicians rely on clinical presentations to select therapeutic agents for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are common in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae require different antibiotics. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the associations between clinical features of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Sixty-four patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Clinical features including nasal obstruction, discolored discharge, facial pain, smell disturbance, fever and laboratory findings of patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis were collected. The bacterial cultures of endoscopic middle meatal swabs were used as a reference. Results: Serum C-reactive protein level elevation correlated with the bacterial species (p = 0.03), by which was increased in 80.0% of Haemophilus influenzae rhinosinusitis and 57.1% of Streptococcus pneumoniae rhinosinusitis. The elevated C-reactive protein was the significant predictor for Haemophilus influenzae rhinosinusitis with the Odds Ratio of 18.06 (95% CI 2.36-138.20). The sensitivity of serum C-reactive protein level elevation for diagnosing Haemophilus influenzae rhinosinusitis was 0.80 (95% CI 0.49-0.94). Conclusion: Elevation of serum C-reactive protein level was associated with and predicted acute bacterial rhinosinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae.


Resumo: Introdução: Os médicos se baseiam nas características clínicas para a escolha dos agentes terapêuticos para o tratamento da rinossinusite bacteriana aguda. Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae são agentes comuns na rinossinusite bacteriana aguda. Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae resistentes a antibióticos requerem medicamentos diferentes. Objetivo: Avaliar as associações entre as características clínicas da rinossinusite bacteriana aguda e bactérias patogênicas. Método: O estudo incluiu 64 pacientes com rinossinusite bacteriana aguda. Foram coletadas e registradas as características clínicas, inclusive obstrução nasal, secreção com cor alterada, dor facial, distúrbios do olfato, febre e achados laboratoriais de pacientes com rinossinusite bacteriana aguda. As culturas bacterianas obtidas por swab endoscópico do meato médio foram usadas como referência. Resultados: A elevação do nível sérico de proteína C-reativa estava correlacionada com a espécie bacteriana (p = 0,03); ela estava aumentada em 80,0% das rinossinusites por Haemophilus influenzae e em 57,1% das rinossinusites por Streptococcus pneumoniae. A proteína C-reativa elevada foi um significativo fator preditor de rinossinusite por Haemophilus influenzae, com razão de probabilidade de 18,06 (IC 95% 2,36-138,20). A sensibilidade da elevação dos níveis séricos de proteína C-reativa para o diagnóstico de rinossinusite por Haemophilus influenzae foi de 0,80 (IC 95% 0,49 ± 0,94). Conclusão: A elevação dos níveis séricos de proteína C-reativa é um preditor de rinossinusite bacteriana aguda causada por Haemophilus influenzae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Sinusitis/microbiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Acute Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879935

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the functional pathways enriched and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with gram-positive and gram-negative sepsis.@*METHODS@#Dataset GSE9960 obtained from NCBI GEO database containing PBMC samples from 16 non-infectious systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) patients, 17 gram-positive septic patients and 18 gram-negative septic patients were included in the study. Functional pathway annotations were conducted by gene set enrichment analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis. DEGs were filtered and master DEGs were then validated in PBMCs of gram-positive septic, gram-negative septic and non-infectious SIRS patients.@*RESULTS@#The enriched gene sets in gram-positive sepsis and gram-negative sepsis were significantly different. The results indicated the opposite co-expression networks in SIRS and gram-negative sepsis, and the entirely different co-expression networks in gram-positive and gram-negative sepsis. Furthermore, we validated that @*CONCLUSIONS@#The results indicate that there are differences in the mechanism and pathogenesis of gram-positive and gram-negative sepsis, which may provide potential markers for sepsis diagnosis and empirical antimicrobial therapy.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , Gene Expression Profiling , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/physiopathology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Sepsis/physiopathology
11.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202471, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136576

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: the purpose of this research was to identify the sociodemographic and microbiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance rates of patients with diabetic foot infections, hospitalized in an emergency reference center. Methods: it was an observational and transversal study. The sociodemographic data were collected by direct interview with the patients. During the surgical procedures, specimens of tissue of the infected foot lesions were biopsied to be cultured, and for bacterial resistance analysis. Results: the sample consisted of 105 patients. The majority of patierns were men, over 50 years of age, married and with low educational level. There was bacterial growth in 95 of the 105 tissue cultures. In each positive culture only one germ was isolated. There was a high prevalence of germs of the Enterobacteriaceae family (51,5%). Gram-negative germs were isolated in 60% of cultures and the most individually isolated germs were the Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus aureus (20%) and Enterococcus faecalis (17,9%). Regarding antibiotic resistance rates, a high frequency of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin (63,0%) and to ciprofloxacin (55,5%) was found; additionally, 43,5% of the Gram-negative isolated germs were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Conclusions: the majority of patients were men, over 50 years of age, married and with low educational level. The most prevalent isolated germs from the infected foot lesions were Gram-negative bacteria, resistant to ciprofloxacin, and the individually most isolated germ was the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.


RESUMO Objetivo: identificar o perfil sociodemográfico, microbiológico e de resistência bacteriana em pacientes com pé diabético infectado. Métodos: tratou-se de estudo observacional, transversal que avaliou os perfis sóciodemográfico e microbiológico de pacientes portadores de pé diabético infectado internados em Pronto Socorro de referência. Os dados sociodemográficos foram coletados por meio de entrevista. Foram colhidos, durante os procedimentos cirúrgicos, fragmentos de tecidos das lesões podais infectadas para realização de cultura/antibiograma. Resultados: a amostra foi composta por 105 pacientes. O perfil sociodemográfico mais prevalente foi o de pacientes do sexo masculino, acima dos 50 anos, casados e com baixa escolaridade. Das 105 amostras de fragmentos de tecidos colhidos para realização de cultura e antibiograma, 95 foram positivas, com crescimento de um único germe em cada um dos exames. Houve predomínio de germes da família Enterobacteriaceae (51,5%). Germes Gram-negativos foram isolados em 60,0% das culturas e os espécimes mais isolados individualmente foram os cocos Gram-positivos, Staphylococcus aureus (20,0%) e Enterococcus faecalis (17,9%). Considerando-se os perfis de resistência bacteriana, verificou-se alta taxa de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (63,0%) e à ciprofloxacino (55,5%); verificou-se, também, que 43,5% dos germes Gram-negativos eram resistentes à ciprofloxacino. Conclusões: o perfil sociodemográfico majoritário, foi o de homens, com mais de 50 anos e com baixa escolaridade. Concluímos que os germes mais prevalentes nas lesões podais dos pacientes diabéticos foram os Gram-negativos, resistentes ao ciprofloxacino e que o germe mais isolado individualmente foi o Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Diabetic Foot/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/drug therapy , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Infections , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 556-564, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058081

ABSTRACT

Resumen Durante las últimas décadas, especies del género Enterococcus han emergido como importantes agentes etiológicos de bacteriemia, osteomielitis, endocarditis e infecciones de tejidos blandos. La combinación de antibacterianos ha sido la estrategia terapéutica más utilizada para dichas infecciones, buscando un potencial efecto sinérgico bactericida. Sin embargo, aparte de los modelos in vitro e in vivo, la utilidad clínica del tratamiento combinado genera controversia, especialmente en infecciones sistémicas no endocárdicas. Aunque las combinaciones entre β-lactámicos y aminoglucósidos o el tratamiento dual con β-lactámicos, han mejorado las tasas de curación de la endocarditis, aún no se ha esclarecido cuál es su tratamiento óptimo o si estas combinaciones también son útiles en otro tipo de infecciones graves sistémicas. El propósito de esta revisión es analizar y resumir los resultados obtenidos de diferentes modelos experimentales de combinaciones anti-enterocócicas y de los estudios clínicos disponibles en PubMed/Medline, a fin de evaluar mejor la evidencia que soporta la utilización de estas combinaciones. En conclusión, la información disponible es escasa, e indica la necesidad de mejores modelos in vivo y estudios clínicos que permitan comprobar la potencial actividad sinérgica de las combinaciones anti-enterocóciccas.


During the last decades, enterococci have emerged as important etiological agents in bacteremia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis and soft tissue infections. Antimicrobial combinations have been the most used therapeutic strategies for these infections, aiming for a bactericidal synergistic effect. However, besides in vitro and in vivo models, the clinical usefulness of such combinations is controversial, especially in non-endocardic systemic infections. For example, although beta-lactam and aminoglycoside combinations or double beta-lactam treatment have achieved high cure rates in endocarditis, the optimal treatment has not yet been clarified or if these combinations are useful in other infections. The aim of this review was to analyze and summarize the results from several experimental models of antienterococcal combined therapy and from clinical trials available in PubMed/Medline, to better assess the evidence that supports the use of these combinations. In conclusion, the available information is scarce, and more and better in vivo models and clinical studies are required to confirm the potential synergistic activity of antienterococcal combinations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Enterococcus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Clinical Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Endocarditis/chemically induced
13.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 16(2): 3-7, ago. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021327

ABSTRACT

Los pacientes inmunocomprometidos presentan un riesgo aumentado de colonización e infecciones por microorganismos multirresistentes (MOR), entre ellos Enterococcus spp resistentes a vancomicina (ERV) y bacterias productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE), las cuales son causa importante de morbimortalidad. OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de MOR en Servicio de Oncología del Hospital Roberto del Río. MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de los niños hospitalizados en el servicio de oncología desde enero a diciembre del 2016 a los cuales se les realizó vigilancia de portación de ERV y BLEE. RESULTADOS: De los 97 pacientes hospitalizados, se identificó un 8% de portación de ERV, un 13,7% de BLEE y un 6,8% presentó portación de ambos microorganismos. DISCUSIÓN: Entre enero 2012 a diciembre del 2013 se observó en nuestro centro que un 52% de los pacientes hospitalizados en oncología estaban colonizados por ERV, la disminución significativa de la portación podría deberse a la mejor adherencia de normas de prevención de infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud (IAAS), programa de uso racional de antimicrobianos y a la nueva infraestructura del servicio.


The inmunosupressed patients are at increased risk of colonization and infection with vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and extended- spectrum b-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL), which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of VRE and ESBL in the Oncology Unit of Roberto del Río Hospital. METHODS: Descriptive and retrospective study of hospitalized children since January to December 2016 in the Oncology Unit, that underwent VRE and ESBL colonization surveillance. RESULTS: From the 97 hospitalized patients, there were 8% of VRE colonization, 13.7% of ESBL and 6.8% of colonization from both microorganism. DISCUSSION: Between January 2012 and December 2013, we observed that 52% of hospitalized patients in the Oncology Unit were colonized by VRE. The significant decrease in colonization may be due to better fulfillment of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) normative, antibiotics stewardship and new infraestructure of our unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/enzymology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Oncology Service, Hospital , Infection Control , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Hospitals, Pediatric
14.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e021, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001593

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study investigated the effectiveness of XP-Endo Finisher (XPF) associated with XP-Endo Shaper (XPS) or Reciproc Blue (RB) files in reducing bacterial load in oval-shaped root canals (RC) during chemomechanical preparation (CMP) using 0.9% saline solution (NaCl) or 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Eighty mandibular incisors with single oval-shaped RC were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. The teeth were randomly assigned to eight experimental groups (n = 10) according to the CMP, as follows: G1: XPS, G2: XPS + XPF, G3: RB, and G4: RB + XPF. CMP was performed with NaCl or NaOCl. The reduction of bacterial load was assessed by colony-forming unit count before (S1) and after (S2) CMP. Data normality was verified by using Shapiro-Wilk test. ANOVA, Tukey's test, and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used at a 5% significance level. Culturable bacteria were present in all S1 samples (p>0.05). All instrumentation techniques were effective in reducing bacterial load, irrespective of the irrigating solution (p < 0.05). With the use of NaCl, RB was more effective than XPS (p = 0.035). With the use of NaOCl, XPS and RB presented similar effectiveness (p = 0.779). XPF enhanced the bacterial reduction of both systems tested (p < 0.05). The use of NaOCl improved the CMP, irrespective of the instrumentation technique used (p < 0.05). In conclusion, XPS and RB files are effective in reducing bacterial levels in oval-shaped RC. The use of XPF as a method of agitation of the irrigating solution improved the cleaning efficiency of both file systems tested. Mechanical preparation performed with saline solution decreased culturable bacteria from the root canal, but antimicrobial substances such as NaOCl should be used to achieve a significantly better disinfection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Instruments , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Bacterial Load , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Materials Testing , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Disinfectants/therapeutic use , Saline Solution/therapeutic use , Incisor
15.
Medwave ; 19(8): e7694, 2019.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021435

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Las infecciones por Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina se han diseminado y generan un desafío clínico-terapéutico en los pacientes hospitalizados. La amenaza de que la infección por enterococos intratables y la posibilidad que la resistencia a la vancomicina pueda propagarse a neumococos o estafilococos, abogan por la vigilancia atenta de las cepas resistentes. OBJETIVO Determinar los factores de riesgos asociados a la portación de Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina en pacientes pediátricos ingresados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos del Paraguay en el periodo entre enero de 2012 y junio de 2013. MÉTODOS Estudio transversal. Se analizaron las historias clínicas previas de 140 pacientes ingresados a terapia intensiva (niños de un mes a 18 años), a quienes se realizaron cultivos de hisopado rectal dentro de las 48 horas del ingreso, para determinar los factores asociados a la portación de Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina en unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Se calculó el Odd ratio con sus intervalos de confianza y p < 0,05 para las variables de estudio. Posteriormente, se realizó regresión logística múltiple para las variables estadísticamente significativas. RESULTADOS La portación de Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina se observó en 18,6% de los pacientes. Se identificaron como factores asociados: la hospitalización previa durante el último año (Odds ratio: 10,8; intervalo de confianza 95%: 2,43 a 47,8; p = 0,001), uso previo de antibióticos de amplio espectro (Odds ratio: 5,05; intervalo de confianza 95%: 2,04 a 12,5; p = 0,000), uso de dos o más antibióticos de amplio espectro en el último año (Odds ratio: 5,4; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,5 a 18,4; p = 0,009), internación previa en área de alto riesgo (Odds ratio: 4,91; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,83 a 13,2; p = 0,000), internación por igual o mayor a seis días en área de alto riesgo (Odds ratio: 5,64; intervalo de confianza 95%: 2,18 a 14,6; p = 0,000) y uso de inmunosupresores (Odds ratio: 4,84; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,92 a 11,9; p = 0,001). La regresión múltiple señala a la utilización de dos o más antibióticos de amplio espectro (Odds ratio: 4,81; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,01 a 22,8; p = 0,047) y a la historia de hospitalización previa dentro del año (Odds ratio: 7,84; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,24 a 49,32; p = 0,028) como factores independientes asociados estadísticamente con la portación de Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina. CONCLUSIÓN Los pacientes pediátricos ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos con historia de internación previa dentro del año y la exposición a dos o más antibióticos de amplio espectro, tienen mayor riesgo de colonización por el enterococo resistente a vancomicina.


INTRODUCTION Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) infections have become widespread and a challenge in hospitalized patients. The threat of infection by intractable enterococci and the possibility that vancomycin resistance could involve pneumococci or staphylococci advocate for careful surveillance of resistant strains. OBJECTIVE To determine the risk factors associated with VRE colonization in pediatric patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) in the period between January 2012 and June 2013. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study analyzing the clinical histories of 140 patients admitted to the PICU (children from 1 month to 18 years), who underwent rectal swab cultures within 48 hours of admission. We calculated the odds ratios and confidence intervals of the risk factors for VRE colonization in the PICU, and then we used multiple logistic regression for the statistically significant variables. RESULTS VRE colonization was present in 18.6% of patients. The following were identified as risk factors associated to VRE colonization: hospitalization during the previous year (odds ratio: 10.8, 95% confidence interval: 2.43 to 47.8; p = 0.001), prior use of one broad-spectrum antibiotic (odds ratio: 5.05; 95% confidence interval: 2.04 to 12.5; p = 0.000), use of two or more broad-spectrum antibiotics in the last year (odds ratio: 5.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 18.4; p = 0.009), prior hospitalization in the risk area (odds ratio: 4.91, 95% confidence interval: 1.83 to 13.2; p = 0.000), hospitalization for more than five days in high-risk area (odds ratio: 5.64, 95% confidence interval: 2.18 to 14.6; p = 0.000), and use of immunosuppressant drugs (odds ratio: 4.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.92 to 11.9; p = 0.001). In a logistic multiple regression the use of two or more broad-spectrum antibiotics (odds ratio: 4.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 22.8; p = 0.047) and the history of prior hospitalization in the last year (odds ratio: 7.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.24 to 49.32, p = 0.028) were identified as independent factors statistically associated with VRE colonization. CONCLUSION Pediatric patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with a history of prior hospitalization in the previous year, and exposure to two or more broad-spectrum antibiotics have a greater risk of colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococcus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Paraguay/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190081, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013301

ABSTRACT

Abstract Eggerthella lenta is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that has been associated with life-threatening infections. Bacteremia is always clinically significant and is mostly but not always associated with gastrointestinal disease. We present a unique case of abrupt deterioration and rapid development of septic shock secondary to periurethral abscess caused by E. lenta infection. This case highlights the atypical clinical presentation, risk factors, uncommon source of infection, challenges in therapy, and outcome of this infrequent infection. There is still a gap in the understanding of E. lenta pathogenicity, and more literature is needed to establish clear management recommendations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Urethral Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Bacteremia/microbiology , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Urethral Diseases/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Risk Factors , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Actinobacteria/classification , Pelvic Infection/diagnosis , Pelvic Infection/microbiology , Abscess/microbiology , Abscess/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190205, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020444

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug-resistant bacteria surveillance (MDR) systems are used to identify the epidemiology of MDR bacteria in neonates and children. This study aimed to describe the patterns by which MDR bacteria colonize and infect neonatal (NICU) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients in the state of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was performed using electronic data on NICU and PICU patients reported to the Rio de Janeiro State MDR bacteria surveillance system. All healthcare institutions that reported at least one case during the study period were included. RESULTS Between 2014 and 2017, 10,210 MDR bacteria cases, including 9261 colonizations and 949 infections, were reported. Among the colonizations, 5379 occurred in NICUs and 3882 in PICUs, while 405 infections occurred in NICUs and 544 in PICUs. ESBL producing Klebsiella sp and E. coli were the most reported colonization-causing agents in NICUs (1983/5379, 36.9%) and PICUs (1494/3882; 38.5%). The main causing bacteria reported in catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), ventilator associated pneumonia, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection in NICUs were Klebsiella sp and E.coli (56/156, 35.9%), carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) (22/65, 33.9%), and CRGNB (11/36, 30.6%) respectively, while in PICUs, they were MRSA (53/169, 31.4%), CRGNB (50/87, 57.4%), Klebsiella sp and E.coli (18/52, 34.6%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS MDR Gram-negative bacteria (ESBL producers and carbapenem-resistant bacteria) were the most reported agents among MDR bacteria reported to Rio de Janeiro surveillance system. Except for CLABSI in children, they caused all device-associated infections in NICUs and PICUs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/classification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/classification , Epidemiological Monitoring
18.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(4): 355-361, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975757

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto antibacteriano in vitro de la oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata (C. reticulata) "copaiba" y del aceite esencial de Oreganum majoricum (O. majoricum) "orégano" frente a Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) y Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Se desarrollaron pruebas de sensibilidad activando primero las cepas bacterias a enfrentar. La oleorresina de copaiba fue diluida con dimetilsulfósido (DMSO), obteniéndose al final concentraciones a probar de 100 %, 50 %, 25 %, y 12,5 %. En relación al aceite esencial de orégano este se probó solamente al 100 %. Para la prueba de difusión en agar con discos, se tomaron inóculos 100 µL de cada cepa bacteriana a una turbidez de 0,5 de Mc Farlam, para ser sembrados por diseminación en placas de tripticasa soya agar, para luego colocar los discos de forma equidistante cargados con las diferentes concentraciones de los productos naturales, se utilizaron como control positivo a la clorhexidina al 0,12 % y al DMSO como control negativo. Se incubaron las placas por el método de la vela en extinción a 37 °C, por un periodo de 24 horas, pasado el tiempo se realizó la lectura de los halos de inhibición. Los resultados obtenidos por la copaiba, determinaron un efecto antibacteriano en sus cuatro concentraciones, siendo los mayores halos de inhibición a la concentración del 100 %, copaiba genero mayores halos promedios para S, mutans de 30,00 ± 0,00 mm y para E. faecalis de 8,3 ± 0,50 mm. Para el caso del orégano se producen halos a la concentración del 100 % con un promedio de 25,3 ± 0,96 mm para S. mutans y para E. faecalis de 9,5 ± 1,29 mm. Se concluye del estudio que tanto copaiba como el orégano presentan un efecto antibacteriano para ambas bacterias, siendo su mayor efecto antibacteriano para ambos productos naturales sobre S. mutans.


ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to determine the in vitro antibacterial effect of the oleoresin of Copaifera reticulata (C. reticulata) "copaiba" and of the essential oil of Oreganum majoricum (O. majoricum) "oregano" against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Sensitivity tests were developed by first activating the bacteria strains to be confronted. The oleoresin of copaiba was diluted with dimethylsulphoside (DMSO), obtaining final concentrations to be tested of 100 %, 50 %, 25 %, and 12.5 %. In relation to the essential oil of oregano, it was only 100 % tested. For the disk agar diffusion test, 100 mL of each bacterial strain was taken at a turbidity of 0.5 of Mc Farlam, to be planted by dissecting trypticase soy agar plates, and then placing the disks equidistantly loaded with the different concentrations of natural products; 0.12 % chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and DMSO as negative control. The plates were incubated by the candle method in extinction at 37 °C, for a period of 24 hours, after which time the inhibition halos were read. The results obtained by the copaiba, determined an antibacterial effect in its four concentrations, being the biggest halos of inhibition at the concentration of 100 %, copaiba genus higher average halos for S. mutans of 30.00 ± 0.00 mm and for E. faecalis of 8.3 ± 0.50 mm. In the case of oregano, haloes are produced at a concentration of 100 % with an average of 25.3 ± 0.96 mm for S. mutans and for E. faecalis 9.5 ± 1.29 mm. It is concluded from the study that both copaiba and oregano present an antibacterial effect for both bacteria, being its greater antibacterial effect for both natural products on S. mutans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Streptococcus mutans/physiology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/pathology , Enterococcus faecalis/pathogenicity , Origanum/chemistry , Peru , Streptococcus mutans/immunology , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Epidemiology, Experimental , Anti-Bacterial Agents
19.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(5): 532-539, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974360

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Peritonsillar abscess is the most common deep neck infection. The infectious microorganism may be different according to clinical factors. Objective: To identify the major causative pathogen of peritonsillar abscess and investigate the relationship between the causative pathogen, host clinical factors, and hospitalization duration. Methods: This retrospective study included 415 hospitalized patients diagnosed with peritonsillar abscess who were admitted to a tertiary medical center from June 1990 to June 2013. We collected data by chart review and analyzed variables such as demographic characteristics, underlying systemic disease, smoking, alcoholism, betel nut chewing, bacteriology, and hospitalization duration. Results: A total of 168 patients had positive results for pathogen isolation. Streptococcus viridans (28.57%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.21%) were the most common microorganisms identified through pus culturing. The isolation rate of anaerobes increased to 49.35% in the recent 6 years (p = 0.048). Common anaerobes were Prevotella and Fusobacterium spp. The identification of K. pneumoniae increased among elderly patients (age > 65 years) with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.76 (p = 0.03), and decreased in the hot season (mean temperature > 26 °C) (OR = 0.49, p = 0.04). No specific microorganism was associated with prolonged hospital stay. Conclusion: The most common pathogen identified through pus culturing was S. viridans, followed by K. pneumoniae. The identification of anaerobes was shown to increase in recent years. The antibiotics initially selected should be effective against both aerobes and anaerobes. Bacterial identification may be associated with host clinical factors and environmental factors.


Resumo Introdução: O Abscesso Peritonsilar é a infecção cervical profunda mais comum. O microrganismo infeccioso pode ser diferente de acordo com os fatores clínicos. Objetivo: Identificar o principal agente causador do abscesso peritonsilar e investigar a relação entre o patógeno causador, os fatores clínicos do hospedeiro e a duração da hospitalização. Método: Este estudo retrospectivo incluiu 415 pacientes hospitalizados diagnosticados com abscesso peritonsilar que foram internados em um centro médico terciário de junho de 1990 a junho de 2013. Coletamos dados através da análise dos arquivos médicos dos pacientes e analisamos variáveis como características demográficas, doença sistêmica subjacente, tabagismo, alcoolismo, hábito de mascar noz de betel, bacteriologia e duração da hospitalização. Resultados: Um total de 168 pacientes apresentaram resultados positivos para isolamento de patógenos. Streptococcus viridans (28,57%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (23,21%) foram os microrganismos mais comuns identificados pela cultura da secreção. A taxa de isolamento de anaeróbios aumentou para 49,35% nos últimos 6 anos (p = 0,048). Os anaeróbios comuns foram Prevotella e Fusobacterium spp. A identificação de K. pneumoniae aumentou em pacientes idosos (idade > 65 anos) com razão de chances (Odds Ratio - OR) de 2,76 (p = 0,03) e diminuiu na estação do calor (temperatura média > 26 °C) (OR = 0,49, p = 0,04). Nenhum microrganismo específico foi associado à hospitalização prolongada. Conclusão: O patógeno mais comumente identificado através da cultura de secreção foi S. viridans, seguido por K. pneumoniae. A identificação de anaeróbios mostrou ter aumentado nos últimos anos. Os antibióticos selecionados inicialmente devem ser efetivos contra aeróbios e anaeróbios. A identificação bacteriana pode estar associada a fatores clínicos e fatores ambientais do hospedeiro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Peritonsillar Abscess/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Fusobacterium necrophorum/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Klebsiella Infections , Peritonsillar Abscess/diagnosis , Peritonsillar Abscess/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/therapy , Prevotella , Viridans Streptococci/isolation & purification , Fusobacterium Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Prensa méd. argent ; 104(5): 252-259, jul2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1049318

ABSTRACT

Hon en día entre el 5-10% de los pacientes que ingresan a un hospital adquiere una infección nosocomial, 20% de estas son reportadas en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. La incidencia es 2 a 5 veces más alta que en otros servicios hospitalarios. Objetivos: Describir la epidemiología de los patógenos intrahospitalarios en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos y su resistencia antibiótica. Material y métoos: Estudio transversal. La información se obtuvo de expedientes en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos siendo considerados solos los pacientes que desarrollaron una infección nosocomial. Resultados: Un total de 35 muestras fueron analizadas, dos grupos se obtuvieron, 24 gram positivos y 11 gram negativos. La edad media de los pacientes fue de 41.79 (78-18) ± 21.22 años. El principal sitio de infección reportado en ambos grupos, gram-negativos y gram-positivos fue la vía respiratoria baja en un 58,.3% y 81.1% respectivamente. Para el grupo de gram negativos los tres principales organismos aislados en los cultivos fueron: Klebsiella pneumoniae in 29.2% (n=7)., Acinetobacter baumanii en 25% (n=6) y Pseudomonas aeruginosa en 16.7% (n=4) por otra parte para el grupo de gram positivos la principal bacteria aislada fue: Enterococcus facalis in 27.3% (n=3). A su vez, con respecto al tratamiento inicial en el grupo de gram negativos fue en un 79.2% con dos o más antibióticos, 16.7% con ceftriaxona y 4.2% con cefazolina. Aunado a ello el tratamiento inicial para el grupo de gram positivos en ocho casos, dos o más antibióticos fueron usados, en 2 metropenem fue usado y en uno con ceftriaxona. En relación con la resistencia antibiótica para gram negativos el principal fue para ampicilina y ceftriaxona en un 100%, cefazolina y aztreonam en un 95.8%. A su vez par el grupo de gram positivos, los antibióticos asociados a resistencia fueron eritromicina y claritromicina en un 90.9%. Conclusión: De esta investigación, los médicos podrán orientarse en esta unidad, para el tratamiento de las infecciones nosocomiales, las guías nacionales establecen que el tratamiento empírico debe ser realizado con el conocimiento de las resistencias bacterianas a antibióticos


Nowadays, between 5-10% of the general in-patient hospital population gets a nosocomial inflection, 20% of these infections are reported in the Intensive Care Unit. It has been reportd that the incidence of nosocomial infections at the Intensive Care Unit is about 2 to 5 times higher than in other hospital services. Objectives: Describe the epidemiology of intrahospital pathogens in the Intensive Care Unit and their antimicrobial resistance. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study. Information was obtained from medical records of patients at the Intensive Care Unit considering only the ones whom developed a nosocomial infection. Thirty-five samples were considered, from these, two groups, were obtained. The period of time considered for this study was from June to December 2016 at the High Specialty Medical Unit, Hospital of Trauma and Orthopedic of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Results: A total of 35 samples were analyzed, two groups were obtained, 24 gram positive and 11 gram negative. The mean age of the patients was of 41.79 (78-18) ±21.22 years old. Principal site of infection reported in both groups, gram- negative and gram-positive was the respiratory low tract in a 58.3% and 81.1% respectively. For gram negative group three main organisms were isolated in cultures Klebsiella pneumoniae in 29.2% (n=7). Acinetobacter baumannii in 25% (n=6) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a 16.7% (n=4) besides for gram pisitive group the main bactria isolated in cultures was. Enterococcus faecalis in 27.3% (n=3). On the other band, corresponding to initial treatment in gram negative group 79.2% were treated sith two or more antibiotics, 16.7% with ceftriaxone and 4.2% with cefazolin. In addition to initial treatment for gram positive group in 8 cases, 2 or ore antibiotics were used, in 2 meropenem was used and 1 with ceftriaxone. In relation to antibiotic resistance for gram negative group the greatest was for ampicillin and ceftriaxone with a 100% resistance, cefazolin and aztreonam in a 95.8%. As well, for gram positive group, antibiotics associated with resistance were erythomycin and clarithromycin 980.9%. Conclusion: From this investigation, medical practitiioners could be oriented for the treatment of nosocomial infections in this unit, as a matter of fact national guidelines establish that empirical treatmente should be assed with the knowledge of the microorganism's resistences


Subject(s)
Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , R Factors , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
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