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Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 553-560, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138670


INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones graves son la principal causa de ingreso a cuidados intensivos pediátricos. El panel FilmArray BCID permite identificar rápidamente a microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias. OBJETIVO: evaluar la eficacia de la identificación rápida de microorganismos asociado a un Programa de Uso Racional de Antibióticos (URA) en reducir los tiempos de terapias antibióticas, en un hospital pediátrico. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo, que incluyó 100 pacientes, en su primer episo dio de bacteriemia, divididos en 2 grupos de 50 cada uno: Intervención (FilmArray BCID y programa URA) y Controles históricos pareados para la misma especie del microrganismo identificado (microbiología convencional). Las variables evaluadas fueron los tiempos de identificación microbiana, latencia de la terapia dirigida y de desescalar antibióticos. RESULTADOS: Los grupos fueron comparables en características demográficas, foco de infección y etiología de bacteriemia. El tiempo promedio de identificación de microorganismos fue de 23 h (IC 95% 12,4-26,7) en el grupo intervención, y 70,5 h (IC 95% 65,2-78,6) en el control (p < 0,05), mientras que la latencia de inicio de terapia dirigida fue de 27,9 h (IC 95% 22,3-32,8) y 71,9 h (IC 95% 63,2-77,8) respectivamente (p < 0,05). El tiempo de desescalar o suspender antibióticos fue de 6,4 h (IC 95% 2,76-9,49) y 22 h (IC 95% 6,74-35,6) en los grupos mencionados (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: El panel FilmArray BCID articulado a un programa URA, contribuye a la identificación de los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias en menor tiempo que los métodos convencionales, siendo una herramienta que optimiza las terapias antibióti cas en niños críticamente enfermos.

INTRODUCTION: Severe infections are the leading cause of admission to pediatric intensive care. The FilmArray BCID panel quickly identifies microorganisms that cause bacteremia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the rapid identification of the microorganisms that cause bacteremia, along with a Rational Use of Antibio tics (RUA) Program, allows optimizing the time of antibiotic therapy in a pediatric hospital. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective study which included 100 patients presenting their first episode of bacteremia, divided into 2 groups of 50 each. The first one was Intervention (FilmArray BCID and RUA program) and the second one was Historical Controls (conventional automated ID/AST). The variables evaluated were the time required for microbial identification, duration of appropriate therapy, and antibiotic de-escalation. RESULTS: The groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics, focus of infection, and etiology of bacteremia. The average time of microorganisms' identification of the control group was 70.5 hours (IC 95% 65.2-78.6) and 23.0 hours (IC 95% 12.4 -26.7) in the intervention one (p < 0.05). The average time of targeted therapy onset was shorter in the intervention group (27.9 h [IC 95% 22.3-32.8]) than that of the control one (71.9 h [IC 95% 63.2-77.8]) (p < 0.05). Finally, the time to de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics in the intervention group and the control one was 6.4 hours (IC 95% 2.76-9.49) hours and 22.0 hours (IC 95% 6.74-35.6 h) respectively (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The FilmArray panel along with the RUA Program allows the identification of the microorganisms causing bacteremia faster than conventional methods, which positions it as a tool that optimizes antibiotic therapy of critical patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Molecular Typing/methods , Blood Culture/methods , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190081, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013301


Abstract Eggerthella lenta is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that has been associated with life-threatening infections. Bacteremia is always clinically significant and is mostly but not always associated with gastrointestinal disease. We present a unique case of abrupt deterioration and rapid development of septic shock secondary to periurethral abscess caused by E. lenta infection. This case highlights the atypical clinical presentation, risk factors, uncommon source of infection, challenges in therapy, and outcome of this infrequent infection. There is still a gap in the understanding of E. lenta pathogenicity, and more literature is needed to establish clear management recommendations.

Humans , Male , Urethral Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Bacteremia/microbiology , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Urethral Diseases/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Risk Factors , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Actinobacteria/classification , Pelvic Infection/diagnosis , Pelvic Infection/microbiology , Abscess/microbiology , Abscess/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(3): 341-344, July-Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893776


Abstract Granulicatella and Abiotrophia are genera of fastidious Gram-positive cocci commensal of the oral, genitourinary, and intestinal flora. We report the first case of infective endocarditis caused by Granulicatella sp. in a kidney transplant recipient. A 67-year-old male kidney transplant recipient was admitted to the hospital for investigation of fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. On physical examination, he was dehydrated. Laboratory tests identified impaired renal function (creatinine level of 15.5 mg/dl; reference, 3.0 mg/dl), metabolic acidosis, and electrolyte disturbances. Cryptosporidium sp. was identified as the cause of the diarrhea, and the infection was treated with nitazoxanide. On admission, cultures of blood, urine, and stool samples were negative. Echocardiography results were normal. Despite the antimicrobial treatment, the fever persisted. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed infective endocarditis of the mitral valve, and Granulicatella spp. were isolated in blood cultures. Although the patient was treated with penicillin and amikacin, he evolved to septic shock of pulmonary origin and died. Infective endocarditis caused by Granulicatella sp. should be suspected in cases of culture-negative endocarditis.

Resumo Granulicatella e Abiotrophia são gêneros de cocos gram-positivos fastidiosos comensais das floras oral, genitourinária e intestinal. Relatamos o primeiro caso de endocardite infecciosa por Granulicatella sp. em paciente transplantado renal. Paciente do sexo masculino, 67 anos, foi admitido no hospital para investigação de febre, dor abdominal e diarreia. Ao exame físico encontrava-se desidratado. Exames laboratoriais identificaram piora de função renal (creatinina: 15,5mg/dL - níveis basais: 3mg/dL), acidose metabólica e distúrbios eletrolíticos. Cryptosporidium sp foi identificado como causa da diarréia e tal germe foi tratado com nitazoxanida. À admissão, hemoculturas, urocultura e coprocultura negativas além de ecocardiograma normal. A despeito do tratamento antimicrobiano, paciente persistiu febril. Um ecocardiograma transtorácico posterior foi realizado, revelando endocardite em válvula mitral, sendo então identificada em hemocultura Granulicatella sp. Apesar do tratamento com penicilina e amicacina, o paciente evoluiu com quadro de choque séptico de foco pulmonar e óbito. Endocardite infecciosa por Granulicatela sp. deve ser suspeitada em casos de endocardite com hemoculturas negativas.

Humans , Male , Aged , Kidney Transplantation , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Carnobacteriaceae , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Fatal Outcome
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 489-492, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889140


Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the association between Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and efficacy of screening stools submitted for C. difficile toxin assay for prevalence of VRE. Between April 2012 and February 2014, 158 stool samples submitted for C. difficile toxin to the Marmara University Microbiology Laboratory, were included in the study. Stool samples were analyzed by enzyme immuno assay test; VIDAS (bioMerieux, France) for Toxin A&B. Samples were inoculated on chromID VRE (bioMerieux, France) and incubated 24 h at 37 °C. Manuel tests and API20 STREP (bioMerieux, France) test were used to identify the Enterococci species. After the species identification, vancomycin and teicoplanin MIC's were performed by E test and molecular resistance genes for vanA vs vanB were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the 158 stool samples, 88 were toxin positive. The prevalence of VRE was 17%(n:19) in toxin positives however, 11.4% in toxin negatives(n:70). All VRE isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium. These results were evaluated according to Fischer's exact chi-square test and p value between VRE colonization and C. difficile toxin positivity was detected 0.047 (p < 0.05). PPV and NPV were 79% and 47% respectively. In our study, the presence of VRE in C. difficile toxin positives is statistically significant compared with toxin negatives (p < 0.05). Screening for VRE is both additional cost and work load for the laboratories. Therefore VRE screening among C. difficile toxin positive samples, will be cost effective for determination of high risk patients in the hospitals especially for developing countries.

Humans , Bacterial Toxins/analysis , Clostridioides difficile/metabolism , Clostridium Infections/microbiology , Vancomycin Resistance , Feces/microbiology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Bacterial Toxins/metabolism , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Clostridioides difficile/drug effects , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/classification , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/drug effects , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 92(4): 414-420, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792583


Abstract Objective The potential role of procalcitonin (PCT) in the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSIs) is still unclear and requires further research. The diagnostic value of serum PCT for the diagnosis of CRBSI in children is evaluated here. Method This study was conducted between October 2013 and November 2014, and included patients with suspected CRBSI from 1 month to 18 years of age who were febrile, with no focus of infection, and had a central venous catheter. Levels of PCT and other serum markers were measured, and their utility as CRBSI markers was assessed. Additionally, the clinical performance of a new, automated, rapid, and quantitative assay for the detection of PCT was tested. Results Among the 49 patients, 24 were diagnosed with CRBSI. The PCT-Kryptor and PCT-RTA values were significantly higher in proven CRBSI compared to those in unproven CRBSI (p = 0.03 and p = 0.03, respectively). There were no differences in white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels between proven CRBSI and unproven CRBSI. Among the 24 patients with CRBSI, CRP was significantly higher among those with Gram-negative bacterial infection than in those with Gram-positive bacterial infections. PCT-Kryptor was also significantly higher among patients with Gram-negative bacterial infection than in those with Gram-positive bacterial infections (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusions The authors suggest that PCT could be a helpful rapid diagnostic marker in children with suspected CRBSIs.

Resumo Objetivo O possível papel da procalcitonina (PCT) no diagnóstico de infecções de corrente sanguínea relacionadas a cateter (ICSRCs) ainda não está claro e precisa ser mais pesquisado. O valor diagnóstico da PCT sérica para o diagnóstico de ICSRC em crianças é avaliado neste estudo. Método Este estudo foi feito entre outubro de 2013 e novembro de 2014 e incluiu pacientes com suspeita de ICSRC de um mês a 18 anos que estavam febris, não tinham foco de infecção e tinham cateter venoso central. Foram medidos os níveis de PCT e de outros marcadores séricos, cuja utilidade como marcadores de ICSRC foi avaliada. Adicionalmente, foi testado o desempenho clínico de um novo ensaio quantitativo automatizado e rápido para a detecção de PCT. Resultados Dentre 49 pacientes, 24 foram diagnosticados com ICSRC. Os valores de PCT-Kryptor e PCT-RTA foram significativamente maiores em ICSRCs comprovadas do que em ICSRCs não comprovadas (p = 0,03 e p = 0,03, respectivamente). Não houve diferença na contagem de glóbulos brancos e nos níveis de proteína C reativa (PCR) entre ICSRCs comprovadas e ICSRCs não comprovadas. Dentre os 24 pacientes com ICSRC, a PCR era significativamente maior entre aqueles com infecção bacteriana gram-negativa do que naqueles com infecção bacteriana gram-positiva. O PCT-Kryptor também foi significativamente maior entre pacientes com infecção por bactérias gram-negativas do que naqueles com infecção por bactérias gram-positivas (p = 0,01 e p = 0,02, respectivamente). Conclusões Sugerimos que a PCT pode ser um marcador de diagnóstico rápido útil em crianças com suspeita de ICSRCs.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Calcitonin/blood , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/blood , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Catheter-Related Infections/blood , Reference Values , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Immunoassay , Biomarkers/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/blood , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Leukocyte Count
Clinics ; 71(5): 271-275, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782841


OBJECTIVES: Delay in the treatment of pleural infection may contribute to its high mortality. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of pleural adenosine deaminase in discrimination between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space prior to selecting antibiotics. METHODS: A total of 76 patients were enrolled and grouped into subgroups according to Gram staining: 1) patients with Gram-negative bacterial infections, aged 53.2±18.6 years old, of whom 44.7% had empyemas and 2) patients with Gram-positive bacterial infections, aged 53.5±21.5 years old, of whom 63.1% had empyemas. The pleural effusion was sampled by thoracocentesis and then sent for adenosine deaminase testing, biochemical testing and microbiological culture. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the differences in adenosine deaminase levels between the groups. Correlations between adenosine deaminase and specified variables were also quantified using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operator characteristic analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of pleural effusion adenosine deaminase. RESULTS: Mean pleural adenosine deaminase levels differed significantly between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space (191.8±32.1 U/L vs 81.0±16.9 U/L, p<0.01). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.570, 0.792, p<0.01) at the cutoff value of 86 U/L. Additionally, pleural adenosine deaminase had a sensitivity of 63.2% (46.0-78.2%); a specificity of 73.7% (56.9-86.6%); positive and negative likelihood ratios of 2.18 and 0.50, respectively; and positive and negative predictive values of 70.6% and 66.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Pleural effusion adenosine deaminase is a helpful alternative biomarker for early and quick discrimination of Gram-negative from Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space, which is useful for the selection of antibiotics.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Adenosine Deaminase/analysis , Clinical Enzyme Tests , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/enzymology , Biomarkers/analysis , Diagnosis, Differential , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Pleural Effusion/microbiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 86(5): 337-344, oct. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-771647


Introducción: La sepsis es causa importante de morbimortalidad neonatal. Objetivos: Detectar el tiempo en que la curva de crecimiento bacteriano es evidenciada en la muestra de sangre inoculada en los hemocultivos y comparar estos tiempos de crecimiento bacteriano entre bacterias gramnegativas y grampositivas, entre los tipos de sepsis neonatal y determinar las bacterias más frecuentemente aisladas entre neonatos prematuros y de término. Pacientes y método: Estudio descriptivo de recién nacidos en riesgo de sepsis o con sospecha de sepsis por manifestaciones clínicas o de laboratorio, en que se evaluaron 114 hemocultivos positivos entre 1.932 hemocultivos tomados entre mayo de 2010 y mayo de 2014. Los datos se analizaron con Stata® 11.0. Resultados: El 5,9% de los hemocultivos tuvieron crecimiento bacteriano. La mediana y rango intercuartílico de tiempos de crecimiento bacteriano para gramnegativos fue 11 h (10-13 h), para grampositivos diferentes a Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo (SCoN) 12 h (12-18 h) y para SCoN 42h (36-44h). El 95,8% de las bacterias grampositivas y el 96% de las gramnegativas tuvieron tiempos de crecimiento bacteriano ≤ 24 h de incubación, mientras que en los SCoN el 100% de los hemocultivos fue positivo en ≤ 62 h de incubación. Conclusión: El 100% de sepsis por bacterias gramnegativas, grampositivas no SCoN y 90% de las ocasionadas por SCoN, son identificadas en los hemocultivos en las primeras 48 h, por lo cual podemos concluir que para descartar una sepsis, un período de incubación en hemocultivos de 48 h es suficiente.

Introduction: Sepsis is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To detect the time when the bacterial growth curve is evidenced in the blood sample inoculated blood cultures and comparing the times of bacterial growth between Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria, among the types of neonatal sepsis and identifying microorganisms more often isolated from preterm and term. Patients and method: A descriptive study. 114 positive blood cultures from 1,932 blood cultures taken from 01-May-2010 and 31-May-2014 were evaluated. Data were analyzed with Stata® 11.0. Results: 5.9% of blood cultures had bacterial growth. The median and interquartile range of Gram negative times of bacterial growth was 11 h (10-13 h), for Gram positive coagulase-negative Staphylococcus different (CoNS) 12h (12-18h) and CoNS 42h (36-44h). 95.8% of Gram positive and 96% of Gram negative, were the times of bacterial growth ≤ 24 h incubation, whereas the 100% CoNS was positive ≤ 62 h of incubation. Conclusion: 100% of sepsis by Gram negative and Gram positive no CoNS and 90% of those caused by CoNS are identified in blood cultures in 48 h, so we can conclude that to rule out sepsis, an incubation period of 48 h in blood cultures is sufficient.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Sepsis/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus/enzymology , Time Factors , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Sepsis/microbiology , Blood Culture
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76674


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Liver transplant patients are at high risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonization. We evaluated patients before and after liver transplant using active surveillance culture (ASC) to assess the prevalence of MRSA and VRE and to determine the effect of bacterial colonization on patient outcome. METHODS: We performed ASC on 162 liver transplant recipients at the time of transplantation and 7 days posttransplantation to monitor the prevalence of MRSA and VRE. RESULTS: A total of 142 patients had both nasal and rectal ASCs. Of these patients, MRSA was isolated from 12 (7.4%) at the time of transplantation (group 1a), 9 (6.9%) acquired MRSA posttransplantation (group 2a), and 121 did not test positive for MRSA at either time (group 3a). Among the three groups, group 1a patients had the highest frequency of developing a MRSA infection (p < 0.01); however, group 2a patients had the highest mortality rate associated with MRSA infection (p = 0.05). Of the 142 patients, VRE colonization was detected in 37 patients (22.8%) at the time of transplantation (group 1b), 21 patients (20%) acquired VRE posttransplantation (group 2b), and 84 patients did not test positive for VRE at either time (group 3b). Among these three groups, group 2b patients had the highest frequency of VRE infections (p < 0.01) and mortality (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Patients that acquired VRE or MRSA posttransplantation had higher mortality rates than did those who were colonized pre-transplantation or those who never acquired the pathogens. Our findings highlight the importance of preventing the acquisition of MRSA and VRE posttransplantation to reduce infections and mortality among liver transplant recipients.

Adult , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vancomycin Resistance
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 85(6): 708-713, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734812


Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava represents a significant percentage of all venous thrombosis that take place during the neonatal period, generally associated with risk factors such as the use of central venous catheter. The incidence of bacterial endocarditis in preterm infants is low. Objectives: To characterize the case of a preterm neonate with both conditions and to detail the disease changing spectrum in the neonatal population and its therapeutic possibilities. Case report: Premature newborn, 31 + 5 weeks of gestation who presented Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia, developed progressive thrombosis of the inferior vena cava and right atrium secondary to the use of umbilical venous catheter, with subsequent diagnosis of endocarditis. He was treated with anticoagulation with subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin. Given a favorable evolution, it was decided to continue the anticoagulation therapy for 4-6 weeks, and at the time of discharge, aspirin treatment was given. Conclusions: The preterm infant with infective endocarditis and intracardiac thrombus presents an interesting management dilemma. Treatment should be individualized according to the clinical evolution and safety profile of thrombolytic and/or anticoagulant agents. Availability and advantages of low molecular weight heparin have led to its use as an alternative treatment in neonates and infants with deep venous thrombosis.

La trombosis de la vena cava inferior corresponde a un porcentaje importante de las trombosis venosas en la etapa neonatal, generalmente asociado a factores de riesgo como el uso de catéter venoso central. La incidencia de endocarditis bacteriana en recién nacidos prematuros es baja. Objetivos: Caracterizar el caso de un neonato pretérmino en que se asociaron ambas patologías y detallar el espectro cambiante de esta enfermedad en la población neonatal y sus posibilidades terapéuticas. Caso clínico: Recién nacido prematuro de 31 + 5 semanas de gestación, que presentó bacteriemia por Enterococo faecalis, evolucionó con trombosis progresiva de la vena cava inferior y aurícula derecha secundaria al uso de catéter venoso umbilical, con posterior diagnóstico de endocarditis. Se manejó con anticoagulación con heparina de bajo peso molecular en forma subcutánea, dada evolución favorable, se decidió continuar manejo médico con terapia anticoagulante por 4-6 semanas, y al alta manejo con aspirina. Conclusiones: El neonato pretérmino con endocarditis infecciosa y trombo intracardiaco presentan un dilema interesante de manejo, por lo cual se debe individualizar el tratamiento según la evolución clínica y el perfil de seguridad de los agentes trombolíticos y/o anticoagulantes. La disponibilidad y las ventajas de la heparina de bajo peso molecular ha dado lugar a su uso como una alternativa de tratamiento en neonatos y niños con trombosis venosa profunda.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Vena Cava, Inferior/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Infant, Premature , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 18(5): 561-564, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723074


Rothia aeria is an uncommon pathogen mainly associated with endocarditis in case reports. In previous reports, endocarditis by R. aeria was complicated by central nervous system embolization. In the case we report herein, endocarditis by R. aeria was diagnosed after acute self-limited diarrhea. In addition to the common translocation of R. aeria from the oral cavity, we hypothesize the possibility of intestinal translocation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and genetic sequencing are important tools that can contribute to early and more accurate etiologic diagnosis of severe infections caused by Gram-positive rods.

Adult , Humans , Male , Aortic Valve/abnormalities , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Heart Valve Diseases/microbiology , Aortic Valve/microbiology , Bacterial Translocation , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Heart Valve Diseases/diagnosis
Colomb. med ; 45(2): 77-80, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720246


Even though Gemella morbillorum infection (GMI) is rare in humans, it may, nevertheless, cause endocarditis, meningitis, brain abscess, pleural empyema, nephritis, mediastinitis, and - occasionally - liver abscess. We are describing the case of a 64-year-old Caucasian male admitted with fever and abdominal pain. Laboratory parameters revealed inflammation signs, and instrumental examinations showed the presence of diverticula in the ascending colon. Abdominal ultrasound (US) and computer tomography (CT) showed two focal lesions in the right liver lobe. One had the characteristics of a simple cyst; the second was hypoechoic with a low density area, possibly containing necrotic material. US-guided needle biopsy was found negative for neoplastic cells, showing purulent infiltrate. Pus culture was found positive for GMI. Systemic antibiotic therapy, coupled with repeated US-guided needle aspiration, induced the resolution of the hepatic abscess. Few cases have been reported of hepatic abscess caused by GMI in immunocompetent non-cirrhotic subjects.

A pesar de que la infección por Gemella morbillorum (GMI, por el término en inglés) es poco común en seres humanos, puede causar endocarditis, meningitis, absceso cerebral, empiema pleural, nefritis, mediastinitis y en ocasiones, absceso hepático. Describimos el caso de un hombre caucásico de 64 años que ingresó con fiebre y dolor abdominal. Los parámetros de laboratorio revelaron signos de inflamación y los exámenes mostraron la presencia de divertículos en el colon ascendente. La ecografía abdominal (US) y la tomografía computarizada (CT) mostró dos lesiones focales en el lóbulo hepático derecho. Una presentó las características de un quiste simple; la segunda fue hipoecóica con una zona de baja densidad, que posiblemente contenía material necrótico. Biopsia con aguja guiada por US dio un resultado negativo para células neoplásicas, mostrando infiltrado purulento. Cultivo de pus fue encontrado positivo para GMI. Una terapia con antibióticos sistémicos, junto con aspiración repetida con aguja guiada por US indujo a la resolución del absceso hepático. Pocos casos se han reportado de absceso hepático causado por GMI en sujetos inmunocompetentes no cirróticos.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Gemella/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/therapy , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/diagnosis , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/microbiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography, Interventional
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(1): 77-80, Jan-Feb/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702057


Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci saprophyte of the human gastrointestinal tract, diners who act as opportunistic pathogens. They can cause infections in patients hospitalized for a long time or who have received multiple antibiotic therapy. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the most common species in human infections. To evaluate the possibility of rapid detection of these species and their occurrence in the blood of newborns with suspected nosocomial infection, blood samples were collected from 50 newborns with late infections, admitted to the Neonatal Care Unit of the University Hospital Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS-HU), from September 2010 to January 2011. The samples were subjected to conventional PCR and real time PCR (qPCR) to search for Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively. The PCR results were compared with respective blood cultures from 40 patients. No blood cultures were positive for Enterococci, however, eight blood samples were identified as genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecium by qPCR and 22 blood samples were detected as genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecalis by conventional PCR. These findings are important because of the clinical severity of the evaluated patients who were found positive by conventional PCR and not through routine microbiological methods.

Os enterococos são cocos Gram-positivos saprófitas do trato gastrointestinal humano, atuam como patógenos oportunistas. Podem causar infecções em pacientes: hospitalizados por um longo tempo ou que receberam antibioticoterapia múltipla. Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium são as espécies mais comuns em infecções humanas. Para avaliar a possibilidade de detecção rápida dessas espécies e sua ocorrência no sangue de recém-nascidos com suspeita de infecção hospitalar, foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 50 recém-nascidos, com infecção tardia, internados na Unidade de Terapia Neonatal do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS-HU), no período de setembro de 2010 a janeiro de 2011. As amostras foram submetidas a PCR convencional e PCR em tempo real (qPCR) para pesquisa de Enterococcus faecium e Enterococcus faecalis, respectivamente. Os resultados da PCR foram comparados com culturas de sangue respectivos de 40. Nenhuma hemocultura foi positiva para enterococos, no entanto, em oito amostras de sangue foi identificado DNA genômico de Enterococcus faecium através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real, e em 22 amostras de sangue, foram detectados DNA genômico de Enterococcus faecalis, através de PCR convencional. A descoberta é importante por causa da gravidade clínica dos pacientes avaliados que foram positivos por PCR convencional e não foram detectados na rotina por métodos microbiológicos.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Cross Infection/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 64(2): 142-152, Mayo-ago. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-629372


Introducción: la frecuente incidencia de Enterococcus en los hospitales y su creciente resistencia antimicrobiana a nivel mundial, ha incrementado la necesidad de su vigilancia y control intrahospitalario, por lo que resulta imprescindible contar con medios diagnósticos más sensibles y exactos. Objetivo: ampliar la evaluación de la funcionalidad del medio cromogénico CromoCen® ENT para el aislamiento e identificación de Enterococcus spp. procedentes de muestras clínicas. Métodos: se analizaron 150 muestras clínicas (orina, sangre, fecales, exudados vaginales, exudados de lesiones de piel y de catéteres) desde enero hasta abril de 2010, empleando el medio cromogénico y los medios convencionales correspondientes como controles, se evaluó la incidencia de Enterococcus spp. Se identificaron los aislamientos con un conjunto de 12 pruebas bioquímicas. A partir de los datos de la identificación bioquímica se determinaron los indicadores de calidad tanto para el medio CromoCen® ENT como para los medios de referencia. Resultados: el medio cromogénico promovió el crecimiento de Enterococcus spp. en solo 24 h, lo cual permitió su fácil reconocimiento por la coloración rosada de las colonias. Los indicadores de calidad diagnóstico mostraron valores superiores a 95 %. El mayor porcentaje de aislamientos se obtuvo en las muestras de orina. Enterococcus faecalis resultó la especie mayormente encontrada en el total de las muestras. Conclusiones: CromoCen® ENT permitió la correcta y rápida identificación de Enterococcus spp. procedentes de diversas muestras clínicas.

Introduction: the frequent incidence of Enterococci at hospitals and their growing antimicrobial resistance worldwide make the in-hospital surveillance and control a pressing need; consequently, it is indispensable to avail of more sensitive and accurate diagnostic means. Objective: to broaden the evaluation of functionality of CromoCen® ENT chromogenic medium for the isolation and identification of Enterococcus spp. from clinical samples. Methods: one hundred and fifty clinical samples were analyzed (urine, blood, feces, vaginal smears, skin lesion exudates and exudates from catheters) in the January-April period, 2010 by using the chromogenic medium and the corresponding conventional culture media as controls; the incidence of Enterococcus spp was evaluated. The isolations were identified with 12 biochemical tests. From the biochemical identification data, it was possible to determine the quality indicators for both CromoCen® ENT and the reference media. Results: the chromogenic medium encouraged the growth of Enterococcus species in 24 hours, allowing their easy recognition due to the pink coloration of the colonies. The diagnostic quality indicator values were over 95 %. The highest percentage of isolates was observed in the urine samples. Enterococcus faecalis was the mostly found species. Conclusions: CromoCen® ENT allowed quick and accurate identification of Enterococcus spp. from various clinical samples.

Humans , Culture Media , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Apr-June; 30(2): 242-245
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143957


Vancomycin-resistant enterococci rarely cause meningitis and present a therapeutic challenge. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done for strains of Enterococcus species isolated from CSF samples of patients with meningitis by phenotypic methods. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the genetic basis of vancomycin resistance of such isolates. We report here two cases of enterococcal meningitis caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species. One of the isolates was identified as Enterococcus faecalis and the other as Enterococcus gallinarum. We also report the simultaneous presence of vanC1 and vanA resistance genes in the strain of E. gallinarum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of vanA resistance gene in an isolate of E. gallinarum from the Indian subcontinent. This is also the first Indian report of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus causing meningitis.

Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Enterococcus/classification , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Fatal Outcome , Female , Genes, Bacterial , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/mortality , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/pathology , Humans , India , Male , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/mortality , Meningitis, Bacterial/pathology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vancomycin Resistance
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43981


In July 2010, we identified an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in our 26-bed neonatal intensive care unit. We performed an epidemiological investigation after clinical cultures of 2 neonates were positive for VRE. Identification, susceptibility testing, and molecular characterization were performed. Cultures of 3 surveillance stool samples of inpatients and 5 environmental samples were positive for VRE. All isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium containing the vanA gene. Two distinct clones were identified by performing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The 2 clones exhibited different pulsotypes, but they represented identical Tn1546 types. Two sequence types, ST18 and ST192, were identified among all of the isolates with multilocus sequence typing. Our investigation determined that the outbreak in the neonatal intensive care unit was caused by 2 genetically different clones. The outbreak may have occurred through clonal spread and horizontal transfer of the van gene.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Disease Outbreaks , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Feces/microbiology , Genotype , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Male , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin Resistance
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 97(5): e108-e110, nov. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-608943


Lactococcus garvieae, patógeno zoonótico emergente, é responsável por mastite em ruminantes e septicemia em peixes. Embora seja considerado oportunista e raramente causar infecções em humanos, sua incidência deve estar subestimada devido à dificuldade do diagnóstico. Há pouquíssimos relatos de osteomielite, abscesso hepático e peritonite, e apenas nove casos descritos na literatura mundial de endocardite. Relatamos o primeiro caso de endocardite por Lactococcus garvieae da América Latina em paciente portadora de prótese valvar metálica, com quadro de febre diária, calafrios, nodos de Osler e seis hemoculturas positivas para Lactococcus garvieae, que preenchiam os critérios de Duke para o diagnóstico de "endocardite infecciosa definitiva".

Lactococcus garvieae, an emerging zoonotic pathogen, is responsible for mastitis in rodents and sepsis in fish. Although deemed opportunistic and hardly ever causing infections in humans, its incidence is probably underestimated due to the difficulty in diagnosis. There are very few reports of osteomyelitis, liver abscess, and peritonitis, and only nine cases of endocarditis described in worldwide literature. We describe the first case of Lactococcus garvieae endocarditis in Latin America, in a female patient with metallic prosthetic heart valve who presented with daily fever, chills, Osler nodes and six positive blood cultures for Lactococcus garvieae, which met Duke's criteria for the diagnosis of "definitive infective endocarditis".

Lactococcus garvieae, patógeno zoonótico emergente, es responsable por mastitis en rumiantes y septicemia en peces. Aunque sea considerado oportunista y raramente cause infecciones en humanos, su incidencia debe estar subestimada debido a la dificultad del diagnóstico. Hay poquísimos relatos de osteomielitis, absceso hepático y peritonitis, y apenas nueve casos descriptos en la literatura mundial de endocarditis. Relatamos el primer caso de endocarditis por Lactococcus garvieae de América Latina en paciente portadora de prótesis valvar metálica, con cuadro de fiebre diaria, escalofríos, nódulos de Osler y seis hemocultivos positivos para Lactococcus garvieae, que llenaban los criterios de Duke para el diagnóstico de "endocarditis infecciosa definitiva".

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Lactococcus/isolation & purification , Diagnosis, Differential , Fever/etiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Latin America , Lactococcus/classification
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 5(1): 49-51, oct. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-613297


Introducción: Aeroccus species es una bacteria Gram positiva considerada como un agente inusual de infecciones del tracto urinario y de endocarditis infecciosa. Clásicamente los adultos mayores varones con anomalías genitourinarias crónicas están expuestos a esta infección. Presentación del caso: Hombre de 55 años consulta por un cuadro de dos meses de evolución caracterizado por compromiso del estado general, fiebre continua, diaforesis, dolor torácico sordo lateralizado a izquierda, y baja de peso de 8 kg en un mes, con anorexia. Sin antecedentes mórbidos salvo estenosis uretral crónica con requerimiento de dilataciones transureterales, las cuales realiza con termómetro de mercurio. Paciente ingresa en regulares condiciones generales, quejumbroso. Examen pulmonar con disminución del murmullo pulmonar en la base izquierda más broncofonía. Tacto rectal doloroso a la palpación. Los exámenes complementarios revelan: hemograma con leucocitosis de 13.100/mm3, VHS de 63 mm/h, PCR de 21 mg/dL. En el estudio de fiebre de origen desconocido se realiza ecocardiografía transtorácica la que reveló vegetación en velo coronario izquierdo de 0,9 cm x 1 cm. Los hemocultivos resultan positivos para Aerococcus species sensible a cloranfenicol/ceftriaxona, por lo que se inicia antibioticoterapia con ceftriaxona-gentamicina, mostrando el paciente una notable mejoría clínica, disminuyendo su malestar general y normalizando la temperatura. Discusión: Debido a la difícil interpretación microbiológica de los cultivos, Aerococcus sp es un germen identificado tardíamente, lo cual puede ensombrecer el pronóstico. La antibioticoterapia precoz y la continua monitorización clínica y de laboratorio son las estrategias más útiles en su tratamiento.

Introduction: Aerococcus species is a Gram-positive bacteria regarded as a rare cause of urinary tract infections and infective endocarditis. Most cases have been described in elderly males with underlying genitourinary tract abnormalities. Case report: 55 years old male complains two-month period of malaise, continuous fever, diaphoresis, left-thoracic dull pain and weight loss of 8 kg in a month, presenting anorexia. With an unremarkable history except for a chronic urethral stricture with needed of periodic transurethral dilation, which where performed using a mercurial thermometer. Patient comes to the emergency room in regular conditions, querulous. Pulmonary examination with diminished left base vesicular breath sound plus bronchovesicular breath sound. Digital rectal examination painfull at palpation. Complementary laboratory test shows: 13.100/mm3 WBC, VHS of 63 mm/h, PCR on 21 mg/dL. In the context of fever of unknown origin it was performed a transthoracic echocardiography, which showed a 0.9 x 1 cm vegetation in left coronary valve. Blood cultures were positive for Aerococcus sp. sensitive to chloramphenicol /ceftriaxone, showing the patient a remarkable clinical improvement, diminishing his malaise and normalizing his temperature. Discussion: Owing to the frequent microbiologic misinterpretation of the cultures, the bacterial identification often is delayed, which could potentially lead to a fatal outcome. Aggressive-fast establishment of antiobiotic therapy and a continuous monitoring of the patient's clinical status and laboratory results are the most effective strategies in treatment.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Streptococcaceae/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Urethral Stricture/microbiology , Gentamicins/therapeutic use , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(5): 631-632, Sept.-Oct. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602908


INTRODUCTION: Laboratory-based surveillance is an important component in the control of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE). METHODS: The study aimed to evaluate real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (genes vanA-vanB) for VRE detection on 115 swabs from patients included in a surveillance program. RESULTS: Sensitivity of RT-PCR was similar to primary culture (75 percent and 79.5 percent, respectively) when compared to broth enriched culture, whereas specificity was 83.1 percent. CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR provides same day results, however it showed low sensitivity for VRE detection.

INTRODUÇÃO: Vigilância com base em detecção laboratorial é um componente importante no controle de enterococos resistentes a vancomicina (ERV). MÉTODOS: Avaliamos procedimento da reação em cadeia da polimerase real time (PCR-RT) (genes vanA-vanB) para detecção de ERV em 115 swabs de pacientes incluídos em um programa de vigilância. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade do RT-PCR foi semelhante a da cultura primária (75 por cento e 79,5 por cento, respectivamente) quando comparada com a cultura em caldo enriquecido, enquanto a especificidade foi de 83,1 por cento. CONCLUSÕES: O RT-PCR fornece resultados no mesmo dia, contudo mostra baixa sensibilidade para a detecção de VRE.

Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Carbon-Oxygen Ligases/genetics , Enterococcus/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Rectum/microbiology , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity