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1.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 391-397, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138519

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar a efetividade da vancomicina contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L em pacientes pediátricos com base na razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima > 400. Métodos: População de 22 pacientes pediátricos (13 meninos) internados no centro de terapia intensiva pediátrica, com função renal preservada, que foram distribuídos em dois grupos (G1 < 7 anos e G2 ≥ 7 anos). Após a quarta dose de vancomicina (10 - 15mg/kg a cada 6 horas), duas amostras de sangue foram colhidas (terceira e quinta horas), seguidas da dosagem sérica por imunoensaios para investigação da farmacocinética e da cobertura do antimicrobiano. Resultados: Não se registrou diferença entre os grupos com relação à dose, ao nível de vale ou ainda na área sob a curva. A cobertura contra Gram-positivos com concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/L ocorreu em apenas 46% dos pacientes em ambos os grupos. A farmacocinética se mostrou alterada nos dois grupos diante dos valores de referência, mas a diferença entre grupos foi registrada pelo aumento da depuração total corporal e pelo encurtamento da meia-vida biológica, mais pronunciados nos pacientes mais novos. Conclusão: A dose empírica mínima de 60mg/kg ao dia deve ser prescrita ao paciente pediátrico de unidade de terapia intensiva com função renal preservada. A utilização da razão entre área sob a curva e concentração inibitória mínima na avaliação da cobertura da vancomicina é recomendada para se atingir o desfecho desejado, uma vez que a farmacocinética está alterada nesses pacientes, podendo impactar na efetividade do antimicrobiano.


Abstract Objective: To investigate the vancomycin effectiveness against gram-positive pathogens with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L in pediatric patients based on the area under the curve and the minimum inhibitory concentration ratio > 400. Methods: A population of 22 pediatric patients (13 boys) admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with preserved renal function was stratified in two groups (G1 < 7 years and G2 ≥ 7 years). After the fourth dose administered of vancomycin (10 - 15mg/kg every 6 hours) was administered, two blood samples were collected (third and fifth hours), followed by serum measurement by immunoassays to investigate the pharmacokinetics and antimicrobial coverage. Results: There was no difference between the groups regarding dose, trough level or area under the curve. Coverage against gram-positive pathogens with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1mg/L occurred in only 46% of patients in both groups. The pharmacokinetics in both groups were altered relative to the reference values, and the groups differed in regard to increased total body clearance and shortening of the biological half-life, which were more pronounced in younger patients. Conclusion: A minimum empirical dose of 60mg/kg per day should be prescribed for pediatric patients in intensive care units with preserved renal function. The use of the ratio between the area under the curve and minimum inhibitory concentration in the evaluation of vancomycin coverage is recommended to achieve the desired outcome, since the pharmacokinetics are altered in these patients, which may impact the effectiveness of the antimicrobial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pilot Projects , Age Factors , Area Under Curve , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Half-Life
2.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 553-560, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138670

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones graves son la principal causa de ingreso a cuidados intensivos pediátricos. El panel FilmArray BCID permite identificar rápidamente a microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias. OBJETIVO: evaluar la eficacia de la identificación rápida de microorganismos asociado a un Programa de Uso Racional de Antibióticos (URA) en reducir los tiempos de terapias antibióticas, en un hospital pediátrico. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo, que incluyó 100 pacientes, en su primer episo dio de bacteriemia, divididos en 2 grupos de 50 cada uno: Intervención (FilmArray BCID y programa URA) y Controles históricos pareados para la misma especie del microrganismo identificado (microbiología convencional). Las variables evaluadas fueron los tiempos de identificación microbiana, latencia de la terapia dirigida y de desescalar antibióticos. RESULTADOS: Los grupos fueron comparables en características demográficas, foco de infección y etiología de bacteriemia. El tiempo promedio de identificación de microorganismos fue de 23 h (IC 95% 12,4-26,7) en el grupo intervención, y 70,5 h (IC 95% 65,2-78,6) en el control (p < 0,05), mientras que la latencia de inicio de terapia dirigida fue de 27,9 h (IC 95% 22,3-32,8) y 71,9 h (IC 95% 63,2-77,8) respectivamente (p < 0,05). El tiempo de desescalar o suspender antibióticos fue de 6,4 h (IC 95% 2,76-9,49) y 22 h (IC 95% 6,74-35,6) en los grupos mencionados (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: El panel FilmArray BCID articulado a un programa URA, contribuye a la identificación de los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias en menor tiempo que los métodos convencionales, siendo una herramienta que optimiza las terapias antibióti cas en niños críticamente enfermos.


INTRODUCTION: Severe infections are the leading cause of admission to pediatric intensive care. The FilmArray BCID panel quickly identifies microorganisms that cause bacteremia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the rapid identification of the microorganisms that cause bacteremia, along with a Rational Use of Antibio tics (RUA) Program, allows optimizing the time of antibiotic therapy in a pediatric hospital. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective study which included 100 patients presenting their first episode of bacteremia, divided into 2 groups of 50 each. The first one was Intervention (FilmArray BCID and RUA program) and the second one was Historical Controls (conventional automated ID/AST). The variables evaluated were the time required for microbial identification, duration of appropriate therapy, and antibiotic de-escalation. RESULTS: The groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics, focus of infection, and etiology of bacteremia. The average time of microorganisms' identification of the control group was 70.5 hours (IC 95% 65.2-78.6) and 23.0 hours (IC 95% 12.4 -26.7) in the intervention one (p < 0.05). The average time of targeted therapy onset was shorter in the intervention group (27.9 h [IC 95% 22.3-32.8]) than that of the control one (71.9 h [IC 95% 63.2-77.8]) (p < 0.05). Finally, the time to de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics in the intervention group and the control one was 6.4 hours (IC 95% 2.76-9.49) hours and 22.0 hours (IC 95% 6.74-35.6 h) respectively (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The FilmArray panel along with the RUA Program allows the identification of the microorganisms causing bacteremia faster than conventional methods, which positions it as a tool that optimizes antibiotic therapy of critical patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Molecular Typing/methods , Blood Culture/methods , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202471, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136576

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: the purpose of this research was to identify the sociodemographic and microbiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance rates of patients with diabetic foot infections, hospitalized in an emergency reference center. Methods: it was an observational and transversal study. The sociodemographic data were collected by direct interview with the patients. During the surgical procedures, specimens of tissue of the infected foot lesions were biopsied to be cultured, and for bacterial resistance analysis. Results: the sample consisted of 105 patients. The majority of patierns were men, over 50 years of age, married and with low educational level. There was bacterial growth in 95 of the 105 tissue cultures. In each positive culture only one germ was isolated. There was a high prevalence of germs of the Enterobacteriaceae family (51,5%). Gram-negative germs were isolated in 60% of cultures and the most individually isolated germs were the Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus aureus (20%) and Enterococcus faecalis (17,9%). Regarding antibiotic resistance rates, a high frequency of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin (63,0%) and to ciprofloxacin (55,5%) was found; additionally, 43,5% of the Gram-negative isolated germs were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Conclusions: the majority of patients were men, over 50 years of age, married and with low educational level. The most prevalent isolated germs from the infected foot lesions were Gram-negative bacteria, resistant to ciprofloxacin, and the individually most isolated germ was the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.


RESUMO Objetivo: identificar o perfil sociodemográfico, microbiológico e de resistência bacteriana em pacientes com pé diabético infectado. Métodos: tratou-se de estudo observacional, transversal que avaliou os perfis sóciodemográfico e microbiológico de pacientes portadores de pé diabético infectado internados em Pronto Socorro de referência. Os dados sociodemográficos foram coletados por meio de entrevista. Foram colhidos, durante os procedimentos cirúrgicos, fragmentos de tecidos das lesões podais infectadas para realização de cultura/antibiograma. Resultados: a amostra foi composta por 105 pacientes. O perfil sociodemográfico mais prevalente foi o de pacientes do sexo masculino, acima dos 50 anos, casados e com baixa escolaridade. Das 105 amostras de fragmentos de tecidos colhidos para realização de cultura e antibiograma, 95 foram positivas, com crescimento de um único germe em cada um dos exames. Houve predomínio de germes da família Enterobacteriaceae (51,5%). Germes Gram-negativos foram isolados em 60,0% das culturas e os espécimes mais isolados individualmente foram os cocos Gram-positivos, Staphylococcus aureus (20,0%) e Enterococcus faecalis (17,9%). Considerando-se os perfis de resistência bacteriana, verificou-se alta taxa de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (63,0%) e à ciprofloxacino (55,5%); verificou-se, também, que 43,5% dos germes Gram-negativos eram resistentes à ciprofloxacino. Conclusões: o perfil sociodemográfico majoritário, foi o de homens, com mais de 50 anos e com baixa escolaridade. Concluímos que os germes mais prevalentes nas lesões podais dos pacientes diabéticos foram os Gram-negativos, resistentes ao ciprofloxacino e que o germe mais isolado individualmente foi o Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Diabetic Foot/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/drug therapy , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Infections , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 556-564, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058081

ABSTRACT

Resumen Durante las últimas décadas, especies del género Enterococcus han emergido como importantes agentes etiológicos de bacteriemia, osteomielitis, endocarditis e infecciones de tejidos blandos. La combinación de antibacterianos ha sido la estrategia terapéutica más utilizada para dichas infecciones, buscando un potencial efecto sinérgico bactericida. Sin embargo, aparte de los modelos in vitro e in vivo, la utilidad clínica del tratamiento combinado genera controversia, especialmente en infecciones sistémicas no endocárdicas. Aunque las combinaciones entre β-lactámicos y aminoglucósidos o el tratamiento dual con β-lactámicos, han mejorado las tasas de curación de la endocarditis, aún no se ha esclarecido cuál es su tratamiento óptimo o si estas combinaciones también son útiles en otro tipo de infecciones graves sistémicas. El propósito de esta revisión es analizar y resumir los resultados obtenidos de diferentes modelos experimentales de combinaciones anti-enterocócicas y de los estudios clínicos disponibles en PubMed/Medline, a fin de evaluar mejor la evidencia que soporta la utilización de estas combinaciones. En conclusión, la información disponible es escasa, e indica la necesidad de mejores modelos in vivo y estudios clínicos que permitan comprobar la potencial actividad sinérgica de las combinaciones anti-enterocóciccas.


During the last decades, enterococci have emerged as important etiological agents in bacteremia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis and soft tissue infections. Antimicrobial combinations have been the most used therapeutic strategies for these infections, aiming for a bactericidal synergistic effect. However, besides in vitro and in vivo models, the clinical usefulness of such combinations is controversial, especially in non-endocardic systemic infections. For example, although beta-lactam and aminoglycoside combinations or double beta-lactam treatment have achieved high cure rates in endocarditis, the optimal treatment has not yet been clarified or if these combinations are useful in other infections. The aim of this review was to analyze and summarize the results from several experimental models of antienterococcal combined therapy and from clinical trials available in PubMed/Medline, to better assess the evidence that supports the use of these combinations. In conclusion, the available information is scarce, and more and better in vivo models and clinical studies are required to confirm the potential synergistic activity of antienterococcal combinations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Enterococcus/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Clinical Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Endocarditis/chemically induced
5.
Medwave ; 19(8): e7694, 2019.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021435

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Las infecciones por Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina se han diseminado y generan un desafío clínico-terapéutico en los pacientes hospitalizados. La amenaza de que la infección por enterococos intratables y la posibilidad que la resistencia a la vancomicina pueda propagarse a neumococos o estafilococos, abogan por la vigilancia atenta de las cepas resistentes. OBJETIVO Determinar los factores de riesgos asociados a la portación de Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina en pacientes pediátricos ingresados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos del Paraguay en el periodo entre enero de 2012 y junio de 2013. MÉTODOS Estudio transversal. Se analizaron las historias clínicas previas de 140 pacientes ingresados a terapia intensiva (niños de un mes a 18 años), a quienes se realizaron cultivos de hisopado rectal dentro de las 48 horas del ingreso, para determinar los factores asociados a la portación de Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina en unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Se calculó el Odd ratio con sus intervalos de confianza y p < 0,05 para las variables de estudio. Posteriormente, se realizó regresión logística múltiple para las variables estadísticamente significativas. RESULTADOS La portación de Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina se observó en 18,6% de los pacientes. Se identificaron como factores asociados: la hospitalización previa durante el último año (Odds ratio: 10,8; intervalo de confianza 95%: 2,43 a 47,8; p = 0,001), uso previo de antibióticos de amplio espectro (Odds ratio: 5,05; intervalo de confianza 95%: 2,04 a 12,5; p = 0,000), uso de dos o más antibióticos de amplio espectro en el último año (Odds ratio: 5,4; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,5 a 18,4; p = 0,009), internación previa en área de alto riesgo (Odds ratio: 4,91; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,83 a 13,2; p = 0,000), internación por igual o mayor a seis días en área de alto riesgo (Odds ratio: 5,64; intervalo de confianza 95%: 2,18 a 14,6; p = 0,000) y uso de inmunosupresores (Odds ratio: 4,84; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,92 a 11,9; p = 0,001). La regresión múltiple señala a la utilización de dos o más antibióticos de amplio espectro (Odds ratio: 4,81; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,01 a 22,8; p = 0,047) y a la historia de hospitalización previa dentro del año (Odds ratio: 7,84; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,24 a 49,32; p = 0,028) como factores independientes asociados estadísticamente con la portación de Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina. CONCLUSIÓN Los pacientes pediátricos ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos con historia de internación previa dentro del año y la exposición a dos o más antibióticos de amplio espectro, tienen mayor riesgo de colonización por el enterococo resistente a vancomicina.


INTRODUCTION Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) infections have become widespread and a challenge in hospitalized patients. The threat of infection by intractable enterococci and the possibility that vancomycin resistance could involve pneumococci or staphylococci advocate for careful surveillance of resistant strains. OBJECTIVE To determine the risk factors associated with VRE colonization in pediatric patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) in the period between January 2012 and June 2013. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study analyzing the clinical histories of 140 patients admitted to the PICU (children from 1 month to 18 years), who underwent rectal swab cultures within 48 hours of admission. We calculated the odds ratios and confidence intervals of the risk factors for VRE colonization in the PICU, and then we used multiple logistic regression for the statistically significant variables. RESULTS VRE colonization was present in 18.6% of patients. The following were identified as risk factors associated to VRE colonization: hospitalization during the previous year (odds ratio: 10.8, 95% confidence interval: 2.43 to 47.8; p = 0.001), prior use of one broad-spectrum antibiotic (odds ratio: 5.05; 95% confidence interval: 2.04 to 12.5; p = 0.000), use of two or more broad-spectrum antibiotics in the last year (odds ratio: 5.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 18.4; p = 0.009), prior hospitalization in the risk area (odds ratio: 4.91, 95% confidence interval: 1.83 to 13.2; p = 0.000), hospitalization for more than five days in high-risk area (odds ratio: 5.64, 95% confidence interval: 2.18 to 14.6; p = 0.000), and use of immunosuppressant drugs (odds ratio: 4.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.92 to 11.9; p = 0.001). In a logistic multiple regression the use of two or more broad-spectrum antibiotics (odds ratio: 4.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 22.8; p = 0.047) and the history of prior hospitalization in the last year (odds ratio: 7.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.24 to 49.32, p = 0.028) were identified as independent factors statistically associated with VRE colonization. CONCLUSION Pediatric patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with a history of prior hospitalization in the previous year, and exposure to two or more broad-spectrum antibiotics have a greater risk of colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococcus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Paraguay/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
6.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 33(1): 26-31, jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-905023

ABSTRACT

Nocardia corresponde a un género de bacterias gram positivo que puede producir compromiso pulmonar, sistémico y abscesos cerebrales, especialmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. La infección cerebral por Nocardia spp es extremadamente infrecuente en pacientes inmunocompetentes, por lo cual se reportan dos casos: caso 1: mujer de 61 años, sana, consulta por cefalea y paresia en hemicuerpo izquierdo. Estudio con TAC y RM de encéfalo demuestran absceso cerebral. Se inició tratamiento con ceftriaxona mas cloxacilina y fue drenado quirúrgicamente. En el cultivo del LCR se aisló Nocardia spp. cambiándose esquema a cotrimoxazol con meropenem por 6 semanas. Caso 2: varón de 72 años, hipertenso y tabáquico crónico. Consultó por cefalea, paresia de extremidad inferior derecha y pérdida de visión de ojo derecho. Estudio con TAC y RM de encéfalo objetiva absceso cerebral parietal izquierdo. Se inició tratamiento con ceftriaxona, metronidazol y vancomicina. Se realizó drenaje quirúrgico. El cultivo de absceso resultó positivo para Nocardia spp, ajustándose esquema a cotrimoxazol y meropenem por 6 semanas. Requirió tratamiento prolongado por presentar lenta regresión clínica e imagenoló- gica.


Nocardia is a gram positive bacterial genus. Is involved in pulmonary, systemic and brain abscess usually in immunocompromised patients. Nocardia spp. brain infection is extremely rare in immunocompetent patients, hereby we report 2 cases: case 1: 61 years old woman, without morbid conditions, consulted for headache and left hemiparesis. Study with CT and MRI of encephalon shows brain abscess. Treatment with ceftriaxone plus cloxacilin and surgical drainage were started. In CSF culture, Nocardia spp. was obtained. Scheme was changed to cotrimoxazole with meropenem to complete 6 weeks. Case 2: male of 72 years old, history of smoking and hypertension. Consulted for headache, paresis of right leg and loss of vision of the right eye. CT and MRI showed left parietal brain abscess. Treatment with ceftriaxone, metronidazole and vancomycin were started. Surgical drainage was performed. Abscess culture was positive for Nocardia spp., adjusting scheme to cotrimoxazole and meropenem for 6 weeks. It required prolonged treatment due to slow imaging and clinical regression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Brain Abscess/cerebrospinal fluid , Immunocompromised Host , Nocardia/pathogenicity , Brain Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Drainage/methods , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy
7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(1): 23-27, Apr.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888233

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a serious complication in cirrhotic patients, and changes in the microbiological characteristics reported in the last years are impacting the choice of antibiotic used for treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the changes in the epidemiology and bacterial resistance of the germs causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis over three different periods over 17 years. METHODS: All cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and positive culture of ascites fluid were retrospectively studied in a reference Hospital in Southern Brazil. Three periods were ramdomly evaluated: 1997-1998, 2002-2003 and 2014-2015. The most frequent infecting organisms and the sensitivity in vitro to antibiotics were registered. RESULTS: In the first period (1997-1998) there were 33 cases, the most common were: E. coli in 13 (36.11%), Staphylococcus coagulase-negative in 6 (16.66%), K. pneumoniae in 5 (13.88%), S. aureus in 4 (11.11%) and S. faecalis in 3 (8.33%). In the second period (2002-2003), there were 43 cases, the most frequent were: Staphylococus coagulase-negative in 16 (35.55%), S. aureus in 8 (17.77%), E. coli in 7 (15.55%) and K. pneumoniae in 3 (6.66%). In the third period (2014-2015) there were 58 cases (seven with two bacteria), the most frequent were: E. coli in 15 (23.1%), S. viridans in 12 (18.5%), K. pneumoniae in 10 (15.4%) and E. faecium 5 (7.7%). No one was using antibiotic prophylaxis. Considering all staphylococci, the prevalence increased to rates of the order of 50% in the second period, with a reduction in the third period evaluated. Likewise, the prevalence of resistant E. coli increased, reaching 14%. CONCLUSION: There was a modification of the bacterial population causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, with high frequency of gram-positive organisms, as well as an increase in the resistance to the traditionally recommended antibiotics. This study suggests a probable imminent inclusion of a drug against gram-positive organisms in the empiric treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A peritonite bacteriana espontânea é uma complicação séria em pacientes cirróticos e as alterações nas características microbiológicas relatadas nos últimos anos podem afetar a escolha do antibiótico utilizado no tratamento. OBJETIVO: Os objetivos do presente estudo são avaliar as mudanças na epidemiologia e perfil de resistência bacteriana dos germes causadores de peritonite bacteriana espontânea em três períodos diferentes ao longo de 17 anos. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes cirróticos com peritonite bacteriana espontânea e cultura positiva de fluido ascítico foram estudados retrospectivamente em um hospital de referência no Sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados três diferentes períodos selecionados de forma randômica: 1997-1998, 2002-2003 e 2014-2015. Os organismos infecciosos mais frequentes e a sensibilidade in vitro a antibióticos foram registados. RESULTADOS: No primeiro período (1997-1998) houve 33 casos; os mais comuns foram: E. coli em 13 (36,1%), Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo em 6 (16,7%), K. pneumoniae em 5 (13,9%), S. aureus em 4 (11,1%) e S. faecalis em 3 (8,3%). No segundo período (2002-2003), houve 43 casos, os mais frequentes foram: Staphylococus coagulase-negativo em 16 (35,5%), S. aureus em 8 (17,8%), E. coli em 7 (15,5%) e K. pneumoniae em 3 (6,7%). No terceiro período (2014-2015), houve 58 casos (sete com duas bactérias), os mais frequentes foram: E. coli em 15 (23,1%), S. viridans em 12 (18,5%), K. pneumoniae em 10 (15,4%) e E. faecium 5 (7,7%). Nenhum paciente estava usando profilaxia antibiótica. Quando considerados todos os estafilococos, a prevalência aumentou para taxas da ordem de 50% no segundo período, apresentando redução no terceiro período avaliado. Do mesmo modo, a prevalência de E coli resistente aumentou, chegando a 14%. CONCLUSÃO: Houve modificação da população bacteriana causadora de peritonite bacteriana espontânea, com alta frequência de organismos gram-positivos, bem como aumento da resistência aos antibióticos tradicionalmente recomendados. Este estudo sugere uma provável inclusão iminente de um medicamento contra organismos gram-positivos no tratamento empírico da peritonite bacteriana espontânea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritonitis/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/complications , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Peritonitis/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(5): 465-475, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978059

ABSTRACT

Resumen La resistencia bacteriana se ha incrementado en América Latina y el mundo, por lo que se requiere investigación y creación de nuevos antimicrobianos capaces de erradicar a los microorganismos resistentes. Se realizó una revisión acerca de nuevas cefalosporinas y sus combinaciones con un inhibidor de β-lactamasas, recopilando información de espectro, farmacocinética, farmacodinamia y estudios clínicos de las indicaciones actuales para ceftarolina, ceftazidima/avibactam y ceftolozano/tazobactam. La primera, con actividad frente a Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa sensibles y resistentes a meticilina, y contra Streptococcus pneumoniae resistente a penicilina; por lo tanto, aprobada para uso en neumonía bacteriana adquirida en comunidad e infecciones bacterianas de piel y tejidos blandos. Entre las nuevas combinaciones, ceftazidima, una cefalosporina de tercera generación con actividad anti-pseudomonas, asociada a avibactam, un inhibidor de β-lactamasas, ha demostrado efectividad en el tratamiento de infecciones abdominales e infecciones urinarias complicadas. Por último, la combinación ceftolozano y el conocido tazobactam presenta acción comparable a la combinación de ceftazidima y avibactam por su actividad contra bacilos gramnegativos y, en combinación con metronidazol no presenta inferioridad a meropenem en infecciones intra-abdominales. Se presentan los estudios clínicos y las potenciales indicaciones y escenarios de uso de estas cefalosporinas.


Bacterial resistance has increased in Latin America and the world, making research and creation of new antimicrobials capable of eradicating resistant microorganisms essential. A review of new cephalosporins and their combinations with a beta-lactamase inhibitor was conducted, collecting data on the spectrum, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile and clinical studies of the current indications for ceftaroline, and the combinations ceftazidime with avibactam and ceftolozane with tazobactam. The first one has activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (SCoN) and against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, therefore approved for use in community-acquired pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. Among the new combinations, ceftazidime, a third generation cephalosporin with antipseudomonal activity, associated with avibactam, a betalactamase inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of abdominal infections and complicated urinary infections. Finally, the combination of ceftolozane with tazobactam has comparable action to ceftazidime with avibactam due to its activity against Gram negative rods, and in combination with metronidazole they do not present inferiority to meropenem in intra-abdominal infections. The clinical studies are presented, as well as the potential indications and clinical scenarios for their use of this cephalosporins.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Ceftazidime/pharmacology , Drug Combinations , Azabicyclo Compounds/therapeutic use , Azabicyclo Compounds/pharmacology , Tazobactam/therapeutic use , Tazobactam/pharmacology
9.
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(3): 341-344, July-Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893776

ABSTRACT

Abstract Granulicatella and Abiotrophia are genera of fastidious Gram-positive cocci commensal of the oral, genitourinary, and intestinal flora. We report the first case of infective endocarditis caused by Granulicatella sp. in a kidney transplant recipient. A 67-year-old male kidney transplant recipient was admitted to the hospital for investigation of fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. On physical examination, he was dehydrated. Laboratory tests identified impaired renal function (creatinine level of 15.5 mg/dl; reference, 3.0 mg/dl), metabolic acidosis, and electrolyte disturbances. Cryptosporidium sp. was identified as the cause of the diarrhea, and the infection was treated with nitazoxanide. On admission, cultures of blood, urine, and stool samples were negative. Echocardiography results were normal. Despite the antimicrobial treatment, the fever persisted. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed infective endocarditis of the mitral valve, and Granulicatella spp. were isolated in blood cultures. Although the patient was treated with penicillin and amikacin, he evolved to septic shock of pulmonary origin and died. Infective endocarditis caused by Granulicatella sp. should be suspected in cases of culture-negative endocarditis.


Resumo Granulicatella e Abiotrophia são gêneros de cocos gram-positivos fastidiosos comensais das floras oral, genitourinária e intestinal. Relatamos o primeiro caso de endocardite infecciosa por Granulicatella sp. em paciente transplantado renal. Paciente do sexo masculino, 67 anos, foi admitido no hospital para investigação de febre, dor abdominal e diarreia. Ao exame físico encontrava-se desidratado. Exames laboratoriais identificaram piora de função renal (creatinina: 15,5mg/dL - níveis basais: 3mg/dL), acidose metabólica e distúrbios eletrolíticos. Cryptosporidium sp foi identificado como causa da diarréia e tal germe foi tratado com nitazoxanida. À admissão, hemoculturas, urocultura e coprocultura negativas além de ecocardiograma normal. A despeito do tratamento antimicrobiano, paciente persistiu febril. Um ecocardiograma transtorácico posterior foi realizado, revelando endocardite em válvula mitral, sendo então identificada em hemocultura Granulicatella sp. Apesar do tratamento com penicilina e amicacina, o paciente evoluiu com quadro de choque séptico de foco pulmonar e óbito. Endocardite infecciosa por Granulicatela sp. deve ser suspeitada em casos de endocardite com hemoculturas negativas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Kidney Transplantation , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Carnobacteriaceae , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Fatal Outcome
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(4): 408-417, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888893

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: In India, Elores (CSE-1034: ceftriaxone + sulbactam + disodium edetate) was approved as a broad spectrum antibiotic in year 2011 and is used for management of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases/Metallo Beta lactamases infections in tertiary care centers. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this drug in patients with Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases/Metallo Beta lactamases infections and identify the incidence of adverse events in real clinical settings. Methods: This Post Marketing Surveillance study was conducted at 17 centers across India and included 2500 patients of all age groups suffering from various bacterial infections and treated with Elores (CSE1034). Information regarding demographic, clinical and microbiological parameters, dosage and treatment duration, efficacy and adverse events (AEs) associated with the treatment were recorded. Results: A total of 2500 patients were included in the study and efficacy was evaluated in 2487 patients. In total, 409 AEs were reported in 211 (8.4%) patients. The major AEs reported were vomiting (3.0%), pain at injection site (2.5%), nausea (2.3%), redness at site (1.96%), thrombophlebitis (1.4%). Of total reported AEs, 40 (5.3%) AEs were reported in pediatric, 310 (20.6%) in adult, and 59 (23.6%) in geriatric group. No AE belonging to grade IV or V was reported in any patient. In terms of efficacy, 1977 (79.4%) patients were cured, 501 (20.1%) patients showed clinical improvement and 5 (0.2%) patients were complete failure. The treatment duration varied from 5 to 7 days in different patients depending on the infection type. Conclusion: In this post-marketing surveillance study, CSE-1034 was found to be an effective and safe option against Pip tazo and meropenem in management of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections under routine ward settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Aged , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Ceftriaxone/adverse effects , Sulbactam/administration & dosage , Sulbactam/adverse effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Edetic Acid/administration & dosage , Edetic Acid/adverse effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Combinations , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , India , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
11.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 28(4): 380-386, oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-844270

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar se a posologia atualmente utilizada de vancomicina para tratamento de infecções bacterianas graves causadas por microrganismos Gram-positivos em pacientes admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva proporcionam níveis plasmáticos de vale de vancomicina em nível terapêutico, e examinar possíveis fatores associados com níveis de vale de vancomicina adequados nesses pacientes. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo descritivo com amostra de conveniência. Os pacientes que cumpriam os critérios de inclusão tiveram seus dados coletados a partir das anotações da enfermagem e dos registros médicos entre setembro de 2013 e julho de 2014. Incluíram-se 83 pacientes. Os níveis plasmáticos de vale iniciais de vancomicina foram obtidos imediatamente antes da quarta dose de vancomicina. Definiu-se lesão renal aguda como um aumento de, pelo menos, 0,3mg/dL na creatinina sérica dentro de 48 horas. Resultados: Considerando os níveis de vale plasmáticos de vancomicina recomendados para o tratamento de infecções graves por Gram-positivos (15 - 20µg/mL), os pacientes foram categorizados em grupos como níveis de vale de vancomicina baixos, adequados e elevados, respectivamente divididos em 35 (42,2%), 18 (21,7%), e 30 (36,1%) pacientes. Os pacientes com lesão renal aguda tiveram níveis plasmáticos de vale de vancomicina significantemente mais elevados (p = 0,0055, com significância para tendência, p = 0,0023). Conclusão: Preocupantemente, mais de 40% dos pacientes não obtiveram níveis plasmáticos de vale de vancomicina considerados eficazes. São necessários estudos de farmacocinética e de regimes posológicos de vancomicina em pacientes admitidos em unidades de terapia intensiva, para contornar esta elevada proporção de falhas na obtenção de níveis de vale iniciais adequados de vancomicina. Deve ser desencorajado o uso de vancomicina sem monitoramento dos níveis de vale plasmáticos.


ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to assess whether currently used dosages of vancomycin for treatment of serious gram-positive bacterial infections in intensive care unit patients provided initial therapeutic vancomycin trough levels and to examine possible factors associated with the presence of adequate initial vancomycin trough levels in these patients. Methods: A prospective descriptive study with convenience sampling was performed. Nursing note and medical record data were collected from September 2013 to July 2014 for patients who met inclusion criteria. Eighty-three patients were included. Initial vancomycin trough levels were obtained immediately before vancomycin fourth dose. Acute kidney injury was defined as an increase of at least 0.3mg/dL in serum creatinine within 48 hours. Results: Considering vancomycin trough levels recommended for serious gram-positive infection treatment (15 - 20µg/mL), patients were categorized as presenting with low, adequate, and high vancomycin trough levels (35 [42.2%], 18 [21.7%], and 30 [36.1%] patients, respectively). Acute kidney injury patients had significantly greater vancomycin trough levels (p = 0.0055, with significance for a trend, p = 0.0023). Conclusion: Surprisingly, more than 40% of the patients did not reach an effective initial vancomycin trough level. Studies on pharmacokinetic and dosage regimens of vancomycin in intensive care unit patients are necessary to circumvent this high proportion of failures to obtain adequate initial vancomycin trough levels. Vancomycin use without trough serum level monitoring in critically ill patients should be discouraged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/pharmacokinetics , Prospective Studies , Drug Monitoring/methods , Creatinine/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(6): 688-690, dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844422

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with congestive heart failure due to a bicuspid aortic valve and severe aortic stenosis. The patient had a febrile syndrome with positive blood cultures for Abiotrophia defectiva, Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed the presence of paravalvular abscess, which was treated by a successful valve replacement. The patient received appropriate antibiotic therapy with intravenous vancomycin, leading to a successful response. The use of MALDI-TOF MS as a rapid and specific method for the microbiological diagnosis is discussed in the following report.


Se presenta el caso clínico de una mujer de 63 años de edad con antecedentes de una aorta bicúspide y estenosis aórtica grave, con una insuficiencia cardíaca descompensada. La paciente tuvo un síndrome febril con hemocultivos positivos para Abiotrophia defectiva. Se constató por un ecocardiograma transesofágico la presencia de un absceso paravalvular, por lo cual se realizó un reemplazo valvular en forma exitosa. Recibió terapia antimicrobiana intravenosa con vancomicina, con buena respuesta terapéutica. Se discute la utilización del MALDI-TOF MS como un método rápido y específico para el diagnóstico microbiológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnostic imaging , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Abiotrophia/isolation & purification , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Med. infant ; 23(4): 303-307, diciembre 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-885129

ABSTRACT

La vancomicina (VAN) es un glucopéptido que inhibe la síntesis de la pared celular y con el tiempo se había transformado en la droga de elección para el tratamiento de infecciones graves por gram positivos. La resistencia observada en enterococos y la sensibilidad disminuida registrada en estafilococos hasta cierto punto han limitado su uso. La aparición de estreptococos del grupo viridans y del grupo B con marcadores de resistencia a vancomicina enciende un alerta en función de su posible pasaje a neumococos y Streptococcus pyogenes (AU)


Vancomycin (VAN) is a glycopeptide inhibiting cell-wall synthesis and has become the drug of choice for the treatment of severe gram-positive infections. Resistance observed in enterococci and decreased sensitivity in staphylococci have to a certain point limited its use. The appearance of the viridans group and group B streptococci showing markers for resistance to vancomycin have caused an alert regarding the possible passage to pneumococci and Streptococcus pyogenes (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus/drug effects , Vancomycin Resistance , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 777-783, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755813

ABSTRACT

Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) ia an emerging and challenging nosocomial pathogen. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clonal relationships between different VREF isolates in the intensive care units (ICUs) of the university hospitals in our geographic location. This prospective study was conducted from July, 2012 until September, 2013 on 781 patients who were admitted to the ICUs of the Mansoura University Hospitals (MUHs), and fulfilled the healthcare-associated infection (HAI) criteria. Susceptibility testing was determined using the disk diffusion method. The clonal relationships were evaluated with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Out of 52 E. faecium isolates, 12 (23.1%) were vancomycin resistant. The significant risk factors for the VREF infections were: transfer to the ICU from a ward, renal failure, an extended ICU stay and use of third-generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, or ciprofloxacin. PFGE with the 12 isolates showed 9 different patterns; 3 belonged to the same pulsotype and another 2 carried a second pulsotypes. The similar pulsotypes isolates were isolated from ICUs of one hospital (EICUs); however, all of the isolates from the other ICUs had different patterns. Infection control policy, in conjunction with antibiotic stewardship, is important to combat VREF transmission in these high-risk patients.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Vancomycin Resistance/physiology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Egypt/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Gentamicins/therapeutic use , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Intensive Care Units , Infection Control/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency , Risk Factors , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/drug effects
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 191-208, abr. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712436

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años se han desarrollado nuevas alternativas para el tratamiento de infecciones por patógenos Gram positivos multirresistentes, entre los cuales Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM) y los enterococos resistentes a la vancomicina (ERV) se consideran un verdadero reto terapéutico, y aunque el uso de la vancomicina en infecciones graves causadas por SARM ha generado serias dudas en los últimos años, continúa siendo escasa la información clínica de respaldo al uso de agentes terapéuticos que la superen en eficacia. El linezolid, la daptomicina y la tigeciclina son agentes que tienen actividad contra los cocos Gram positivos y que fueron aprobados e introducidos en la terapia clínica en la década pasada. Además, se han probado o están en las fases finales de desarrollo otros agentes como las cefalosporinas de última generación (ceftarolina y ceftobiprol). El propósito de esta revisión fue describir las nuevas alternativas terapéuticas, particularmente en la era posterior a la vancomicina, y repasar las características químicas más relevantes de los compuestos y su espectro de actividad, haciendo énfasis en sus mecanismos de acción y resistencia.


New therapeutic alternatives have been developed in the last years for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections. Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are considered a therapeutic challenge due to failures and lack of reliable antimicrobial options. Despite concerns related to the use of vancomycin in the treatment of severe MRSA infections in specific clinical scenarios, there is a paucity of solid clinical evidence that support the use of alternative agents (when compared to vancomycin). Linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline are antibiotics approved in the last decade and newer cephalosporins (such as ceftaroline and ceftobiprole) and novel glycopeptides (dalvavancin, telavancin and oritavancin) have reached clinical approval or are in the late stages of clinical development. This review focuses on discussing these newer antibiotics used in the "post-vancomycin" era with emphasis on relevant chemical characteristics, spectrum of antimicrobial activity, mechanisms of action and resistance, as well as their clinical utility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Gram-Positive Cocci/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Cephalosporins/classification , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Daptomycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/physiology , Drugs, Investigational/pharmacology , Genes, Bacterial , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Cocci/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Minocycline/analogs & derivatives , Minocycline/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Vancomycin/pharmacology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns regarding increasing microbial resistance to vancomycin have resulted in recommendations for a higher trough serum vancomycin concentration. This study aimed to assess the dosage guidelines targeting vancomycin trough concentrations of 15-20 mg/L. METHODS: About 216 adult patients (age, >60 yr) were treated with intravenous vancomycin. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to their target vancomycin trough concentrations: the previous guideline group (n=108) treated with targeted vancomycin trough concentrations of 5-15 mg/L from Jan 2009 through April 2011 and the new guideline group (n=108) treated with targeted concentrations of 15-20 mg/L from November 2011 through July 2012. RESULTS: The 2 groups were not significantly different with respect to age, weight, initial serum creatinine, initial creatinine clearance, predictive trough levels, doses, serum drug concentrations, and area under the curve/minimal inhibitory concentrations. Regarding the proportions of vancomycin trough concentrations, the target range was achieved in 50% in the previous guideline group and in 16% in the new guideline group. In the previous and new guideline groups, the trough concentrations of 10-20 mg/dL were observed in 32.4% and 52.8% patients, respectively, and those of <10 mg/L were observed in 45.4% and 29.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the previous guideline group, the new guideline group showed higher proportions in the therapeutic range of 10-20 mg/L and lower proportions in trough concentrations <10 mg/L. The strictly managed vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring in the new guideline group was assessed as more effective.


Subject(s)
Aged , Drug Monitoring , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Guidelines as Topic , Half-Life , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , Vancomycin/blood
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(6): 647-653, Nov.-Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To collect data about non-controlled prescribing use of daptomycin and its impact among Brazilian patients with serious Gram positive bacterial infection, as well as the efficacy and safety outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a multi-center, retrospective, non-interventional registry (August 01, 2009 to June 30, 2011) to collect data on 120 patients (44 patients in the first year and 76 patients in the second year) who had received at least one dose of commercial daptomycin in Brazil for the treatment of serious Gram-positive bacterial infection. RESULTS: Right-sided endocarditis (15.8%), complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI)wound (15.0%) and bacteremia-catheter-related (14.2%) were the most frequent primary infections; lung (21.7%) was the most common site for infection. Daptomycin was used empirically in 76 (63.3%) patients, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was the most common suspected pathogen (86.1%). 82.5% of the cultures were obtained prior to or shortly after initiation of daptomycin therapy. Staphylococcus spp. - coagulase negative, MRSA, and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus were the most frequently identified pathogens (23.8%, 23.8% and 12.5%, respectively). The most common daptomycin dose administered for bacteremia and cSSTI was 6 mg/kg (30.6%) and 4 mg/kg (51.7%), respectively. The median duration of inpatient daptomycin therapy was 14 days. Most patients (57.1%) did not receive daptomycin while in intensive care unit. Carbapenem (22.5%) was the most commonly used antibiotic concomitantly. The patients showed clinical improvement after two days (median) following the start of daptomycin therapy. The clinical success rate was 80.8% and the overall rate of treatment failure was 10.8%. The main reasons for daptomycin discontinuation were successful end of therapy (75.8%), switched therapy (11.7%), and treatment failure (4.2%). Daptomycin demonstrated a favorable safety and tolerability profile regardless of treatment duration. CONCLUSIONS: Daptomycin had a relevant role in the treatment of Gram-positive infections in the clinical practice setting in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Daptomycin/therapeutic use , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Brazil , Daptomycin/adverse effects , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(1): 65-73, feb. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-665583

ABSTRACT

Background: Some aspects of bacteremic cholangitis are unknown in Chile. Aim: To gather more information on clinical, microbiological aspects as well as risk factors for ICU admission, recurrence and antimicrobial resistance. Material and Methods: A retrospective research was performed using medical records of adult patients in a general hospital. Results: Between 2006-2012, 22 patients with 29 bacteremic events were identified. Previous cholangitis events were reported by 27.3%, 45.5% had recent admissions and, 50% had used antimicrobial compounds. Coledocholithiasis was the most common cause of obstruction (45.5%) followed by cancer (36.4%). One third developed shock (31%), the only factor associated with ICU admission (OR 30, p < 0.05). In 24 of the 29 bacteremic events, the biliary tract was intervened (82.8%) and in 80.8% during the first 72 hours. Gram negative bacilli were predominant (> 80%) and some infrequent agents such as Staphylococcus warneri, Shewanella spp. and, Aeromonas spp. were observed. Among enteric gram negative bacilli, 29.2% presented fluoroquinolone resistance and, 26.1% resistance to third generation cephalosporins, both associated with previous endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (OR 35 and 16.5, respectively p < 0.05). A favorable response was observed in 93.1% of bacte-remic events but in 31.8% of patients cholangitis recurred with or without bacteremia. Recurrence was associated to recent admission (OR 16.5, p = 0.01) and in all cases occurred before 81 days. In-hospital mortality was 9.1% (n = 2), but in only one case associated to sepsis. Average length of stay (LOS) was 17.8 days. Conclusions: Early intervention of the biliary tract allows a favorable response in patients affected by bacteremic cholangitis, but this condition use intensive care resources, had a prolonged LOS, a recurrent pattern, and is associated with several bacterial species, some of them resistant.


Introducción: La información sobre los cuadros de colangitis aguda bacteriémica es fragmentaria en Chile. Objetivo: Analizar las características clínicas, evolución, microbiología y factores de riesgo asociados a ingreso a UCI, recurrencia y resistencia antimicrobiana. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo con adultos atendidos entre el 2006 y el 2012 en un hospital general. Resultados: Se identificaron 22 pacientes con 29 episodios de bacteriemia. Un 27,3% tenía historia previa de colangitis aguda, 45,5% de hospitalizaciones en los últimos tres meses y 50% recibió previamente antimicrobianos. La coledocolitiasis fue la causa más frecuente de obstrucción (45,5%) y las neoplasias ocuparon el segundo lugar (36,4%). El 31% desarrolló shock hemodinámico y fue el factor determinante para ingresar a la UCI (OR 30, p < 0,01) En 24 de los 29 eventos de colangitis bacteriémica se efectuaron intervenciones sobre la vía biliar (VB) o complicaciones asociadas (82,8%), las que se realizaron predominantemente en las primeras 72 h de hospitalización (80,8%). Las especies bacterianas mayoritarias fueron bacilos gramnegativos entéricos o no fermentadores (> 80% del total) y se observaron agentes inusuales como Staphylococcus warneri, Shewanella spp y Aeromonas spp. Entre los bacilos gramnegativos entéricos, 29,2% presentó resistencia a fluoroquinolonas y 26,1 % a cefalosporinas de tercera generación, fenómenos asociados al antecedente de colangiografía endoscópica retrógrada (OR 35 y 16,5 respectivamente, p < 0,05). El 93,1% de los eventos de bacteriemia tuvo una respuesta favorable pero 31,8% de los pacientes presentó recu-rrencia de colangitis, con o sin bacteriemia, un hecho asociado a hospitalización reciente (OR 16,5, p = 0,01) y que se dio en todos los casos antes de 81 días. Dos pacientes con cáncer fallecieron en la misma hospitalización (9,1%), aunque uno solo de ellos en forma atribuible a la infección. La estadía hospitalaria promedio fue de 17,8 días. Conclusiones: Con la intervención precoz sobre la VB, los cuadros de colangitis bacteriémica han logrado una baja letalidad pero usan recursos intensivos, tienen una estadía prolongada, un patrón recurrente, pueden estar asociados a cáncer y a una diversidad de agentes bacterianos, algunos de ellos resistentes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cholangitis/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/mortality , Chile , Cholangitis/drug therapy , Cholangitis/mortality , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/mortality , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/mortality , Hospitals, General , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 140(12): 1544-1547, dic. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-674025

ABSTRACT

Background: Gemella genus bacteria can produce localized or generalized severe infections, but very rarely they have been described as causingpulmonary infections or pleural empyemas. Aim: To characterize patients with empyema caused by Gemella genus bacteria. Material and Methods: The database of a Microbiology laboratory of a Spanish hospital was reviewed, searchingfor Gemella positive cultures ofpleural effusions in a period offive years. Results: We identified 12 patients (11 males) with Gemella spp pleural empyema. Eight were infected with G. haemolysans and four with G. morbillorum. All patients had predisposingfactors such as poor oral hygiene, smoking, chronic cardiovascular or respiratory disease, alcoholism or malignancies. In ten cases, a thoracic drainage tube was placed with fibrinolysis in seven. One patient needed surgery because of a relapse of the empyema. Two patients died because of an advanced neoplasm, and the empyema was resolved in the rest. Conclusions: Gemella pleural empyema can occur and its isolation must not be seen as a contamination.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Empyema, Pleural/microbiology , Gemella , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Empyema, Pleural/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Hospitals, University , Risk Factors , Spain , Time Factors
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