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1.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 298-306, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130892

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The increasingly frequent use of dermoscopy makes us think about the possibility of transfer of microorganisms, through the dermatoscope, between doctor and patients. Objectives: To identify the most frequent gram-positive cocci in dermatoscopes and smartphone adapters, as well as the resistance profile, and to evaluate the factors associated with a higher risk of bacterial contamination of the dermatoscopes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 118 dermatologists from Porto Alegre/Brazil between September 2017 and July 2018. Gram-positive cocci were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and habits of use of the dermatoscope were evaluated through an anonymous questionnaire. Results: Of the dermatoscopes analysed, 46.6% had growth of gram-positive cocci on the lens and 37.3% on the on/off button. The microorganisms most frequently found were S. epidermidis, S. hominis and S. warneri. Attending a hospital, using the dermatoscope at the hospital, with inpatients and in the intensive care unit were significantly associated with colonisation by gram-positive cocci. The highest resistance rates were observed for penicillin, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Study limitations: The non-search of gram-negative bacilli, fungi and viruses. Moreover, the small number of adapters did not make it possible to better define if the frequency differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Coagulase-negative staphylococci were frequently identified. S. aureus was detected only on the lens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Cocci/isolation & purification , Dermoscopy/instrumentation , Smartphone , Dermatologists/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Cocci/growth & development , Gram-Positive Cocci/drug effects , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 16(2): 3-7, ago. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021327

ABSTRACT

Los pacientes inmunocomprometidos presentan un riesgo aumentado de colonización e infecciones por microorganismos multirresistentes (MOR), entre ellos Enterococcus spp resistentes a vancomicina (ERV) y bacterias productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE), las cuales son causa importante de morbimortalidad. OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de MOR en Servicio de Oncología del Hospital Roberto del Río. MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de los niños hospitalizados en el servicio de oncología desde enero a diciembre del 2016 a los cuales se les realizó vigilancia de portación de ERV y BLEE. RESULTADOS: De los 97 pacientes hospitalizados, se identificó un 8% de portación de ERV, un 13,7% de BLEE y un 6,8% presentó portación de ambos microorganismos. DISCUSIÓN: Entre enero 2012 a diciembre del 2013 se observó en nuestro centro que un 52% de los pacientes hospitalizados en oncología estaban colonizados por ERV, la disminución significativa de la portación podría deberse a la mejor adherencia de normas de prevención de infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud (IAAS), programa de uso racional de antimicrobianos y a la nueva infraestructura del servicio.


The inmunosupressed patients are at increased risk of colonization and infection with vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and extended- spectrum b-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL), which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of VRE and ESBL in the Oncology Unit of Roberto del Río Hospital. METHODS: Descriptive and retrospective study of hospitalized children since January to December 2016 in the Oncology Unit, that underwent VRE and ESBL colonization surveillance. RESULTS: From the 97 hospitalized patients, there were 8% of VRE colonization, 13.7% of ESBL and 6.8% of colonization from both microorganism. DISCUSSION: Between January 2012 and December 2013, we observed that 52% of hospitalized patients in the Oncology Unit were colonized by VRE. The significant decrease in colonization may be due to better fulfillment of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) normative, antibiotics stewardship and new infraestructure of our unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/enzymology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Oncology Service, Hospital , Infection Control , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Hospitals, Pediatric
3.
Medwave ; 19(8): e7694, 2019.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021435

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Las infecciones por Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina se han diseminado y generan un desafío clínico-terapéutico en los pacientes hospitalizados. La amenaza de que la infección por enterococos intratables y la posibilidad que la resistencia a la vancomicina pueda propagarse a neumococos o estafilococos, abogan por la vigilancia atenta de las cepas resistentes. OBJETIVO Determinar los factores de riesgos asociados a la portación de Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina en pacientes pediátricos ingresados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos del Paraguay en el periodo entre enero de 2012 y junio de 2013. MÉTODOS Estudio transversal. Se analizaron las historias clínicas previas de 140 pacientes ingresados a terapia intensiva (niños de un mes a 18 años), a quienes se realizaron cultivos de hisopado rectal dentro de las 48 horas del ingreso, para determinar los factores asociados a la portación de Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina en unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Se calculó el Odd ratio con sus intervalos de confianza y p < 0,05 para las variables de estudio. Posteriormente, se realizó regresión logística múltiple para las variables estadísticamente significativas. RESULTADOS La portación de Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina se observó en 18,6% de los pacientes. Se identificaron como factores asociados: la hospitalización previa durante el último año (Odds ratio: 10,8; intervalo de confianza 95%: 2,43 a 47,8; p = 0,001), uso previo de antibióticos de amplio espectro (Odds ratio: 5,05; intervalo de confianza 95%: 2,04 a 12,5; p = 0,000), uso de dos o más antibióticos de amplio espectro en el último año (Odds ratio: 5,4; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,5 a 18,4; p = 0,009), internación previa en área de alto riesgo (Odds ratio: 4,91; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,83 a 13,2; p = 0,000), internación por igual o mayor a seis días en área de alto riesgo (Odds ratio: 5,64; intervalo de confianza 95%: 2,18 a 14,6; p = 0,000) y uso de inmunosupresores (Odds ratio: 4,84; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,92 a 11,9; p = 0,001). La regresión múltiple señala a la utilización de dos o más antibióticos de amplio espectro (Odds ratio: 4,81; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,01 a 22,8; p = 0,047) y a la historia de hospitalización previa dentro del año (Odds ratio: 7,84; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,24 a 49,32; p = 0,028) como factores independientes asociados estadísticamente con la portación de Enterococcus sp resistente a la vancomicina. CONCLUSIÓN Los pacientes pediátricos ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos con historia de internación previa dentro del año y la exposición a dos o más antibióticos de amplio espectro, tienen mayor riesgo de colonización por el enterococo resistente a vancomicina.


INTRODUCTION Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) infections have become widespread and a challenge in hospitalized patients. The threat of infection by intractable enterococci and the possibility that vancomycin resistance could involve pneumococci or staphylococci advocate for careful surveillance of resistant strains. OBJECTIVE To determine the risk factors associated with VRE colonization in pediatric patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) in the period between January 2012 and June 2013. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study analyzing the clinical histories of 140 patients admitted to the PICU (children from 1 month to 18 years), who underwent rectal swab cultures within 48 hours of admission. We calculated the odds ratios and confidence intervals of the risk factors for VRE colonization in the PICU, and then we used multiple logistic regression for the statistically significant variables. RESULTS VRE colonization was present in 18.6% of patients. The following were identified as risk factors associated to VRE colonization: hospitalization during the previous year (odds ratio: 10.8, 95% confidence interval: 2.43 to 47.8; p = 0.001), prior use of one broad-spectrum antibiotic (odds ratio: 5.05; 95% confidence interval: 2.04 to 12.5; p = 0.000), use of two or more broad-spectrum antibiotics in the last year (odds ratio: 5.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 18.4; p = 0.009), prior hospitalization in the risk area (odds ratio: 4.91, 95% confidence interval: 1.83 to 13.2; p = 0.000), hospitalization for more than five days in high-risk area (odds ratio: 5.64, 95% confidence interval: 2.18 to 14.6; p = 0.000), and use of immunosuppressant drugs (odds ratio: 4.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.92 to 11.9; p = 0.001). In a logistic multiple regression the use of two or more broad-spectrum antibiotics (odds ratio: 4.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 22.8; p = 0.047) and the history of prior hospitalization in the last year (odds ratio: 7.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.24 to 49.32, p = 0.028) were identified as independent factors statistically associated with VRE colonization. CONCLUSION Pediatric patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with a history of prior hospitalization in the previous year, and exposure to two or more broad-spectrum antibiotics have a greater risk of colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococcus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Paraguay/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(1): 23-27, Apr.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888233

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a serious complication in cirrhotic patients, and changes in the microbiological characteristics reported in the last years are impacting the choice of antibiotic used for treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the changes in the epidemiology and bacterial resistance of the germs causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis over three different periods over 17 years. METHODS: All cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and positive culture of ascites fluid were retrospectively studied in a reference Hospital in Southern Brazil. Three periods were ramdomly evaluated: 1997-1998, 2002-2003 and 2014-2015. The most frequent infecting organisms and the sensitivity in vitro to antibiotics were registered. RESULTS: In the first period (1997-1998) there were 33 cases, the most common were: E. coli in 13 (36.11%), Staphylococcus coagulase-negative in 6 (16.66%), K. pneumoniae in 5 (13.88%), S. aureus in 4 (11.11%) and S. faecalis in 3 (8.33%). In the second period (2002-2003), there were 43 cases, the most frequent were: Staphylococus coagulase-negative in 16 (35.55%), S. aureus in 8 (17.77%), E. coli in 7 (15.55%) and K. pneumoniae in 3 (6.66%). In the third period (2014-2015) there were 58 cases (seven with two bacteria), the most frequent were: E. coli in 15 (23.1%), S. viridans in 12 (18.5%), K. pneumoniae in 10 (15.4%) and E. faecium 5 (7.7%). No one was using antibiotic prophylaxis. Considering all staphylococci, the prevalence increased to rates of the order of 50% in the second period, with a reduction in the third period evaluated. Likewise, the prevalence of resistant E. coli increased, reaching 14%. CONCLUSION: There was a modification of the bacterial population causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, with high frequency of gram-positive organisms, as well as an increase in the resistance to the traditionally recommended antibiotics. This study suggests a probable imminent inclusion of a drug against gram-positive organisms in the empiric treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A peritonite bacteriana espontânea é uma complicação séria em pacientes cirróticos e as alterações nas características microbiológicas relatadas nos últimos anos podem afetar a escolha do antibiótico utilizado no tratamento. OBJETIVO: Os objetivos do presente estudo são avaliar as mudanças na epidemiologia e perfil de resistência bacteriana dos germes causadores de peritonite bacteriana espontânea em três períodos diferentes ao longo de 17 anos. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes cirróticos com peritonite bacteriana espontânea e cultura positiva de fluido ascítico foram estudados retrospectivamente em um hospital de referência no Sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados três diferentes períodos selecionados de forma randômica: 1997-1998, 2002-2003 e 2014-2015. Os organismos infecciosos mais frequentes e a sensibilidade in vitro a antibióticos foram registados. RESULTADOS: No primeiro período (1997-1998) houve 33 casos; os mais comuns foram: E. coli em 13 (36,1%), Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo em 6 (16,7%), K. pneumoniae em 5 (13,9%), S. aureus em 4 (11,1%) e S. faecalis em 3 (8,3%). No segundo período (2002-2003), houve 43 casos, os mais frequentes foram: Staphylococus coagulase-negativo em 16 (35,5%), S. aureus em 8 (17,8%), E. coli em 7 (15,5%) e K. pneumoniae em 3 (6,7%). No terceiro período (2014-2015), houve 58 casos (sete com duas bactérias), os mais frequentes foram: E. coli em 15 (23,1%), S. viridans em 12 (18,5%), K. pneumoniae em 10 (15,4%) e E. faecium 5 (7,7%). Nenhum paciente estava usando profilaxia antibiótica. Quando considerados todos os estafilococos, a prevalência aumentou para taxas da ordem de 50% no segundo período, apresentando redução no terceiro período avaliado. Do mesmo modo, a prevalência de E coli resistente aumentou, chegando a 14%. CONCLUSÃO: Houve modificação da população bacteriana causadora de peritonite bacteriana espontânea, com alta frequência de organismos gram-positivos, bem como aumento da resistência aos antibióticos tradicionalmente recomendados. Este estudo sugere uma provável inclusão iminente de um medicamento contra organismos gram-positivos no tratamento empírico da peritonite bacteriana espontânea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritonitis/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/complications , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Peritonitis/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 691-696, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788958

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study highlights the prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes and virulence determinants among clinical enterococci with high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Inner Mongolia, China. Screening for high-level aminoglycoside resistance against 117 enterococcal clinical isolates was performed using the agar-screening method. Out of the 117 enterococcal isolates, 46 were selected for further detection and determination of the distribution of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme-encoding genes and virulence determinants using polymerase chain reaction -based methods. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were identified as the species of greatest clinical importance. The aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and ant(6')-Ia genes were found to be the most common aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes among high-level gentamicin resistance and high-level streptomycin resistance isolates, respectively. Moreover, gelE was the most common virulence gene among high-level aminoglycoside resistance isolates. Compared to Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis harbored multiple virulence determinants. The results further indicated no correlation between aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene profiles and the distribution of virulence genes among the enterococcal isolates with high-level gentamicin resistance or high-level streptomycin resistance evaluated in our study.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/physiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Aminoglycosides/metabolism , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Virulence/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Enterococcus/metabolism , Genes, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 777-783, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755813

ABSTRACT

Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) ia an emerging and challenging nosocomial pathogen. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clonal relationships between different VREF isolates in the intensive care units (ICUs) of the university hospitals in our geographic location. This prospective study was conducted from July, 2012 until September, 2013 on 781 patients who were admitted to the ICUs of the Mansoura University Hospitals (MUHs), and fulfilled the healthcare-associated infection (HAI) criteria. Susceptibility testing was determined using the disk diffusion method. The clonal relationships were evaluated with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Out of 52 E. faecium isolates, 12 (23.1%) were vancomycin resistant. The significant risk factors for the VREF infections were: transfer to the ICU from a ward, renal failure, an extended ICU stay and use of third-generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, or ciprofloxacin. PFGE with the 12 isolates showed 9 different patterns; 3 belonged to the same pulsotype and another 2 carried a second pulsotypes. The similar pulsotypes isolates were isolated from ICUs of one hospital (EICUs); however, all of the isolates from the other ICUs had different patterns. Infection control policy, in conjunction with antibiotic stewardship, is important to combat VREF transmission in these high-risk patients.

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Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Vancomycin Resistance/physiology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Egypt/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Gentamicins/therapeutic use , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Intensive Care Units , Infection Control/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency , Risk Factors , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/drug effects
7.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(7): 2211-2220, 07/2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-749930

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo pretende compreender a visão das pacientes com câncer sobre o processo de adoecimento e os procedimentos terapêuticos que experimentam. Os tratamentos de câncer provocam uma série de consequências físicas e emocionais nas pacientes, assim, estas passam por uma reestruturação e elaboram mecanismos para “cuidarem de si”. A metodologia utilizada foi a etnográfica, desencadeada por meio de entrevistas, anotações em diário de campo e observação participante. A etnografia revelou como essas mulheres, submetidas ao tratamento convencional em determinado hospital, criam tecnologias de cuidado compartilhadas baseadas na sociabilidade.


Abstract This article seeks to understand the viewpoint of cancer patients about the disease process and the therapeutic procedures that they experience. Cancer treatments provoke a series of physical and emotional consequences in patients. Thus, patients undergo a restructuring of life and establish mechanisms to “take care of themselves.” The methodology used was an ethnographic approach through interviews, field notes and participant observation. The ethnographic approach revealed how these women being given conventional treatment in a given hospital create shared care technologies based on sociability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Vancomycin Resistance , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(1): 58-61, Jan-Feb/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741233

ABSTRACT

Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonization has been reported to increase the risk of developing infections, including bloodstream infections. Aim: In this study, we aimed to share our experience with the vancomycin-resistant enterococci bloodstream infections following gastrointestinal vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonization in pediatric population during a period of 18 months. Method: A retrospective cohort of children admitted to a 400-bed tertiary teaching hospital in Izmir, Turkey whose vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonization was newly detected during routine surveillances for gastrointestinal vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonization during the period of January 2009 and December 2012 were included in this study. All vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolates found within 18 months after initial detection were evaluated for evidence of infection. Findings: Two hundred and sixteen patients with vancomycin-resistant enterococci were included in the study. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonization was detected in 136 patients (62.3%) while they were hospitalized at intensive care units; while the remaining majority (33.0%) were hospitalized at hematology-oncology department. Vancomycinresistant enterococci bacteremia was present only in three (1.55%) patients. All these patients were immunosuppressed due to human immunodeficiency virus (one patient) and intensive chemotherapy (two patients). Conclusion: In conclusion, our study found that 1.55% of vancomycin-resistant enterococcicolonized children had developed vancomycin-resistant enterococci bloodstream infection among the pediatric intensive care unit and hematology/oncology patients; according to our findings, we suggest that immunosupression is the key point for developing vancomycinresistant enterococci bloodstream infections. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/immunology , Cohort Studies , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/immunology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Rev. saúde pública ; 49: 1-7, 27/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742282

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To evaluate if temperature and humidity influenced the etiology of bloodstream infections in a hospital from 2005 to 2010. METHODS The study had a case-referent design. Individual cases of bloodstream infections caused by specific groups or pathogens were compared with several references. In the first analysis, average temperature and humidity values for the seven days preceding collection of blood cultures were compared with an overall “seven-days moving average” for the study period. The second analysis included only patients with bloodstream infections. Several logistic regression models were used to compare different pathogens and groups with respect to the immediate weather parameters, adjusting for demographics, time, and unit of admission. RESULTS Higher temperatures and humidity were related to the recovery of bacteria as a whole (versus fungi) and of gram-negative bacilli. In the multivariable models, temperature was positively associated with the recovery of gram-negative bacilli (OR = 1.14; 95%CI 1.10;1.19) or Acinetobacter baumannii (OR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.16;1.37), even after adjustment for demographic and admission data. An inverse association was identified for humidity. CONCLUSIONS The study documented the impact of temperature and humidity on the incidence and etiology of bloodstream infections. The results correspond with those from ecological studies, indicating a higher incidence of gram-negative bacilli during warm seasons. These findings should guide policies directed at preventing and controlling healthcare-associated infections. .


OBJETIVO Avaliar se temperatura e umidade influenciam a etiologia das infecções na corrente sanguínea em hospital, no período de 2005 a 2010. MÉTODOS O estudo teve delineamento caso-referência. Casos individuais de infecções de corrente sanguínea por patógenos ou grupos de interesse foram comparados com diferentes referências. Na primeira etapa, valores médios de temperatura e umidade, para os sete dias que precederam a coleta de culturas de sangue, foram comparados com a “média-móvel de ordem 7” para todos os dias do período do estudo. A segunda etapa incluiu somente os casos com culturas positivas. Foram realizadas análises por regressão logística para avaliar a influência dos parâmetros meteorológicos imediatos sobre a etiologia dessas infecções, ajustando os resultados para dados demográficos, tempo e unidade de internação. RESULTADOS Temperatura e umidade mais elevadas foram associadas às infecções de corrente sanguínea causadas por bactérias como um todo (versus fungos) e por bacilos Gram-negativos. Nos modelos multivariados, a temperatura foi positivamente associada com o isolamento nas culturas de bacilos Gram-negativos (OR = 1,14; IC95% 1,10;1,19) ou A. baumannii (OR = 1,26; IC95% 1,16;1,37), mesmo após ajuste para dados demográficos e de internação. Associação inversa foi identificada por umidade. CONCLUSÕES O estudo documentou o impacto de temperatura e umidade sobre incidência e etiologia de infecções da corrente sanguínea. Os resultados são coerentes com os relatados em estudos ecológicos, apontando para maior incidência de bacilos Gram-negativos durante as estações quentes. Esses achados devem orientar as estratégias direcionadas à prevenção e controle de infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , Humidity/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Weather
10.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 50-57, abr. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712421

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Actualmente se considera a Enterococcus spp. como uno de los agentes de infección hospitalaria más importantes, siendo su resistencia a los antibióticos un problema importante en los centros de salud. Objetivos. Caracterizar la resistencia antimicrobiana en 50 cepas de Enterococcus spp. aisladas de muestras clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados . Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de tipo descriptivo observacional de corte transversal en 50 aislamientos clínicos de estas especies microbianas. Se trabajó un aislamiento por paciente. La identificación y la sensibilidad a los antibióticos se realizaron por métodos automatizados y convencionales. El análisis fenotípico de los mecanismos de resistencia a glucopéptidos se hizo según las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. Resultados. De 50 aislamientos, 30 (60,0 %) y 20 (40,0 %) pertenecían a las especies de Enterococcus faecalis y Enterococcus faecium, respectivamente. La resistencia global expresada por este género fue de 38/50 (76,0 %) para ampicilina; 33/50 (66,0 %) para gentamicina de alto nivel; 34/50 (68,0 %) para estreptomicina de alto nivel; 26/50 (52,0 %) para ciprofloxacina; 4/50 (8,0 %) para linezolid; 17/50 (34,0 %) para teicoplanina; 25/50 (50,0 %) para vancomicina; 31/50 (62,0 %) para minociclina; 34/50 (68,0 %) para tetraciclina y 9/50 (18,0 %) para nitrofurantoina. Frente a los glucopéptidos, 25/50 (50,0 %) y 10/50 (20,0 %) de los aislamientos presentaron los mecanismos Van A y Van B, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Podemos concluir que la mayoría de las veces, las cepas aisladas en el Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras mostraron porcentajes de resistencia por encima de lo reportado en la literatura científica consultada. El alto porcentaje de cepas con resistencia a la vancomicina podría influir en la aparición de otros gérmenes Gram positivos con resistencia a este fármaco. Se reporta por primera vez en un hospital cubano resistencia de E. faecium a linezolid.


Introduction: Enterococcus spp is currently considered as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens . The antibiotic resistance of this group of bacteria is a particularly important problem in health centers. Objective: To characterize the antibiotic resistance of 50 Enterococcus spp strains isolated from hospitalized patients clinical samples. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive observational study in 50 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. Only one isolate per patient was analyzed . The identification and antibiotic susceptibility were studied by conventional and automated methods . The phenotypic analysis of glycopeptide resistance mechanisms was performed as recommended by the Spanish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases . Results: Of 50 isolates obtained from clinical samples, 30 ( 60.0%) belonged to Enterococcus faecalis and 20 (40.0 %) to Enterococcus faecium . The global resistance expressed by this genre was as follows: Ampicillin, 38/50 ( 76.0%); high-level gentamicin, 33/50 ( 66.0%); high-level streptomycin, 34/50 (68.0 %) ; ciprofloxacin, 26/50 (52.0 %); linezolid, 4/50 (8.0 %); teicoplanin, 17/50 ( 34.0%); vancomycin, 25/50 (50.0 %); minocycline, 31/50 ( 62.0%); tetracycline, 34/50 (68.0 %); nitrofurantoin, 9/50 ( 18.0%). As regards glycopeptides, 25/50 (50.0%) showed a Van A mechanism and 10/50 (20.0 %) a Van B mechanism . Conclusions: The isolates obtained at Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras showed higher resistance rates than those reported in the consulted literature. The high percentage of vancomycin-resistant strains might have influenced the development of other Gram-positive bacteria resistant to this drug. This is the first report on Enterococcus faecium resistant to linezolid in a Cuban hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Acetamides/pharmacology , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cuba/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oxazolidinones/pharmacology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Vancomycin Resistance
11.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 191-208, abr. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712436

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años se han desarrollado nuevas alternativas para el tratamiento de infecciones por patógenos Gram positivos multirresistentes, entre los cuales Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM) y los enterococos resistentes a la vancomicina (ERV) se consideran un verdadero reto terapéutico, y aunque el uso de la vancomicina en infecciones graves causadas por SARM ha generado serias dudas en los últimos años, continúa siendo escasa la información clínica de respaldo al uso de agentes terapéuticos que la superen en eficacia. El linezolid, la daptomicina y la tigeciclina son agentes que tienen actividad contra los cocos Gram positivos y que fueron aprobados e introducidos en la terapia clínica en la década pasada. Además, se han probado o están en las fases finales de desarrollo otros agentes como las cefalosporinas de última generación (ceftarolina y ceftobiprol). El propósito de esta revisión fue describir las nuevas alternativas terapéuticas, particularmente en la era posterior a la vancomicina, y repasar las características químicas más relevantes de los compuestos y su espectro de actividad, haciendo énfasis en sus mecanismos de acción y resistencia.


New therapeutic alternatives have been developed in the last years for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections. Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are considered a therapeutic challenge due to failures and lack of reliable antimicrobial options. Despite concerns related to the use of vancomycin in the treatment of severe MRSA infections in specific clinical scenarios, there is a paucity of solid clinical evidence that support the use of alternative agents (when compared to vancomycin). Linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline are antibiotics approved in the last decade and newer cephalosporins (such as ceftaroline and ceftobiprole) and novel glycopeptides (dalvavancin, telavancin and oritavancin) have reached clinical approval or are in the late stages of clinical development. This review focuses on discussing these newer antibiotics used in the "post-vancomycin" era with emphasis on relevant chemical characteristics, spectrum of antimicrobial activity, mechanisms of action and resistance, as well as their clinical utility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Gram-Positive Cocci/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Cephalosporins/classification , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Daptomycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/physiology , Drugs, Investigational/pharmacology , Genes, Bacterial , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Cocci/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Minocycline/analogs & derivatives , Minocycline/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Vancomycin/pharmacology
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(2): 158-162, Feb. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614578

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to retrospectively report the results of interventions for controlling a vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) outbreak in a tertiary-care pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a University Hospital. After identification of the outbreak, interventions were made at the following levels: patient care, microbiological surveillance, and medical and nursing staff training. Data were collected from computer-based databases and from the electronic prescription system. Vancomycin use progressively increased after March 2008, peaking in August 2009. Five cases of VRE infection were identified, with 3 deaths. After the interventions, we noted a significant reduction in vancomycin prescription and use (75 percent reduction), and the last case of VRE infection was identified 4 months later. The survivors remained colonized until hospital discharge. After interventions there was a transient increase in PICU length-of-stay and mortality. Since then, the use of vancomycin has remained relatively constant and strict, no other cases of VRE infection or colonization have been identified and length-of-stay and mortality returned to baseline. In conclusion, we showed that a bundle intervention aiming at a strict control of vancomycin use and full compliance with the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee guidelines, along with contact precautions and hand-hygiene promotion, can be effective in reducing vancomycin use and the emergence and spread of vancomycin-resistant bacteria in a tertiary-care PICU.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Enterococcus/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Vancomycin Resistance , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Disease Outbreaks , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Hospitals, University , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Program Evaluation , Retrospective Studies
13.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Jan-Mar; 30(1): 44-51
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143893

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) pose an emerging problem in hospitals worldwide. The present study was undertaken to determine the occurrence, species prevalence, antibacterial resistance, and phenotypic and genetic characteristics of VRE isolated in Riyadh hospitals, KSA. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and six isolates of enterococcal species were obtained from clinical samples. The antibiotic susceptibility of isolates and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests for vancomycin and teicoplanin were determined. Molecular typing of VRE isolates was carried out by using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the resistance genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: VRE accounted for 3.9% of the isolates and were detected mostly in urine, wound and blood specimens isolated from ICU, internal medicine and surgical wards. All strains were identified to species level and were found to consist of E. faecalis (69.2%), E. faecium (11.3%), E. avium (2.1%), E. hirae (0.8%), E. casseliflavus (1.3%) and E. gallinarum (1.3%) species. According to the susceptibility data obtained, 8 (3.9%) out of 206 isolates were found to be VRE (MICs > 32 μg/ml). The vanA, vanB and vanC gene fragments of E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. gallinarum were amplified from isolates and were detected. PFGE patterns of the VRE isolates revealed homogenous patterns with dominant clone suggesting that the strains intrinsic resistance is independent. Conclusions: This study shows an emergence of VRE along with increased rate of multidrug-resistant enterococci in the area of the study. Regular surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibilities should be done regularly and the risk factors should be determined.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Enterococcus/classification , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/genetics , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Typing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
14.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-612948

ABSTRACT

Objective. To identify infection-causing Enterococcus species in Cuban hospitalsand determine their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs, as well as their resistance mechanisms. Methods. A total of 687 Enterococcus isolates from 30 Cuban hospitals in nine provinces of the country were studied over the period 2000–2009. The species were identified using both the conventional method and the automatic API® system.The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for 13 antimicrobial drugs following the standards recommended by the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute. The polymerase chain reaction technique was used to characterize the genes that were resistant to aminoglycosides, erythromycin, tetracycline, andglucopeptides. The presence of beta-lactamase was determined by the chromogenic cephalosporin test. Results. The most prevalent species were Enterococcus faecalis (82.9%) and E. faecium (12.2%). Resistance to glucopeptides (1.0%) was mediated by the vanA and vanB genes. The strains resistant to ampicillin (6%) did not produce beta-lactamases. A high percentage of resistance to aminoglycosides was observed. Gentamicin (31.0%) and streptomycin and amikacin (29.1%) were mediated by the aac(6’)Ie-aph(2”)Ia, aph(3’)-IIIa, ant(6)Ia, and ant(3”)(9) genes. A correlation was found between resistance to tetracycline (56.0%) and presence of the tet(M) (75.1%) and tet(L) genes (7.0%), while resistance to erythromycin (34.1%) was due to the erm(B) gene (70.9%). Conclusions. Resistance to vancomycin is infrequent in Cuba, as opposed to a high level of resistance to aminoglycosides, which may be indicative of treatment failures. The microbiology laboratory is a cornerstone of Enterococcus infectionsurveillance, along with ongoing monitoring of the susceptibility of these infections to antimicrobial drugs at a time when resistance of this microorganism is on the rise.


Objetivo. Identificar las especies de Enterococcus causantes de infecciones en hospitales cubanos, su susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos y sus mecanismos de resistencia.Métodos. Se estudiaron 687 aislamientos de Enterococcus procedentes de 30 hospitalescubanos de nueve provincias del país durante el período de 2000 a 2009. La identificación de las especies se realizó mediante el método convencional y sistema automatizado API®. Laconcentración inhibitoria mínima se determinó para 13 antimicrobianos según las recomendaciones del Instituto de Estándares Clínicos y de Laboratorio. Se determinaron los genes de resistencia a aminoglucósidos, eritromicina, tetraciclina y glucopéptidos mediante reacciónen cadena de la polimerasa. La presencia de betalactamasa se determinó por el método de lacefalosporina cromógena. Resultados. Las especies más prevalentes fueron Enterococcus faecalis (82,9%) y Enterococcus faecium (12,2%). La resistencia a los glucopéptidos (1,0%) estuvo mediada por los genes vanA y vanB y las cepas resistentes a ampicilina (6%) no produjeron betalactamasas. Se observó un alto porcentaje de resistencia a los aminoglucósidos: gentamicina (31,0%) y estreptomicina y amikacina (29,1%) mediada por los genes aac(6’)Ie-aph(2”)Ia, aph(3’)-IIIa, ant(6)Ia, ant(3”)(9). Hubo correlación entre la resistencia a tetraciclina (56,0%) y la presencia de los genes tet(M) (75,1%) y tet(L) (7,0%), mientras que la resistencia a eritromicina (34,1%) obedeció al gen erm(B) (70,9%).Conclusiones. La resistencia a vancomicina es infrecuente en Cuba, a diferencia del alto nivel de resistencia a los aminoglucósidos, que sugiere posibles fracasos terapéuticos. El laboratorio de microbiología constituye un pilar fundamental de la vigilancia de las infecciones por cepas de Enterococcus y el monitoreo continuo de su susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos,dado el incremento de la resistencia de ese microorganismo en el tiempo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterococcus/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Cuba , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/enzymology , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Enterococcus faecium/enzymology , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Enterococcus/enzymology , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Genes, Bacterial , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Species Specificity , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics
15.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-612943

ABSTRACT

Antibacterial drug resistance is a particularly significant issue in Latin America. This article explores antimicrobial resistance in three classes of clinically important bacteria: gram-positive bacteria, enterobacteria, and nonfermenting gram-negativebacilli. The gram-positive bacteria frequently responsible for infections in humans are for the most part cocci: staphylococci, streptococci (including pneumococci), and enterococci,in both community and hospital settings. This situation is no different in theRegion of the Americas. Among the gram-positive bacteria, the causative agents of bacteremia are most commonly strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, followed by enterococci. This report explores the resistance of these species to different antimicrobial drugs, resistance mechanisms in community and hospital strains, and new drugs for treating infections caused by these bacteria. In Latin America, antimicrobialresistance in Enterococcus strains is still a minor problem compared to the situation in the United States. The strains of the genus Streptococcus isolated from respiratory infections are still sensitive to penicillin. Furthermore, the resistance of enterobacteriais extremely important in the Region, particularly because of the broad dissemination of CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), some of which originated in Latin America. This article analyzes the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, betahemolytic streptococci, and viridans group streptococci. Among the nonfermentinggram-negative bacilli, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains remain the leading cause of bacteremia, infections caused by strains of Acinetobacter spp. have proliferatedextensively in some areas. With regard to antibiotics, several options are available for treating gram-positive bacterial infections...


La resistencia a los fármacos antibacterianos tiene particular importancia en América Latina. En este artículo se analiza la resistencia a los antimicrobianos de tres clases de bacterias de importancia clínica: bacterias grampositivas, enterobacterias y bacilos gramnegativos no fermentadores.Las bacterias grampositivas que producen infecciones humanas frecuentes son, en su mayoría, cocos: estafilococos, estreptococos (incluidos neumococos) y enterococos, tanto en elmedio comunitario como en el nosocomial. Esta situación no es diferente en la Región de las Américas. Entre las bacterias grampositivas, las que causan bacteriemia con mayor frecuencia corresponden a cepas de estafilococos coagulasa negativos, seguidas de las de enterococos. Eneste informe se analiza la resistencia de estas especies a distintos antimicrobianos, los mecanismosde resistencia para las cepas de origen hospitalario y comunitario y los nuevos medicamentos para tratar las infecciones por estas bacterias. La resistencia a los antimicrobianos delas cepas de Enterococcus en América Latina todavía es un problema menor en relación con la situación en los Estados Unidos de América. Las cepas del género Streptococcus aisladasde infecciones respiratorias aún son sensibles a penicilina. Por otra parte, la resistencia de las enterobacterias es de gran importancia en la Región, particularmente por la gran difusión debetalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) de tipo CTX-M, algunas de las cuales se originaron en América Latina. En el presente artículo se analizan la situación de la resistencia de las cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae, y de los estreptococos betahemolítico y del grupo viridans. Entre los bacilos gramnegativos no fermentadores, si bien las cepas de Pseudomonasaeruginosa siguen siendo la causa principal de bacteriemias, la proliferación de infecciones por cepas de Acinetobacter spp. tiene en algunas partes gran magnitud...


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Infection Control , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter/drug effects , Acinetobacter/enzymology , Acinetobacter/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biofilms , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/physiology , Developing Countries , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/genetics , Global Health , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Latin America , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus/drug effects , Streptococcus/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/physiology
17.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2011 Jan-Mar 54(1): 90-95
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-141923

ABSTRACT

Introduction: While foot infections in persons with diabetes are initially treated empirically, therapy directed at known causative organisms may improve the outcome. Many studies have reported on the bacteriology of diabetic foot infections (DFIs), but the results have varied and have often been contradictory. The purpose of the research work is to call attention to a frightening twist in the antibiotic-resistant Enterococci problem in diabetic foot that has not received adequate attention from the medical fraternity and also the pharmaceutical pipeline for new antibiotics is drying up. Materials and Methods: Adult diabetic patients admitted for lower extremity infections from July 2008 to December 2009 in the medical wards and intensive care unit of medical teaching hospitals were included in the study. The extent of the lower extremity infection on admission was assessed based on Wagner's classification from grades I to V. Specimens were collected from the lesions upon admission prior to the initiation of antibiotic therapy or within the first 48 h of admission. Results: During the 18-month prospective study, 32 strains of Enterococcus spp. (26 Enterococcus faecalis and 06 E. faecium) were recovered. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done by Kirby-Bauer's disk diffusion method. Isolates were screened for high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR). A total of 65.6% of Enterococcus species showed HLAR. Multidrug resistance and concomitant resistance of HLAR strains to other antibiotics were quite high. None of the Enterococcus species was resistant to vancomycin. Conclusion: Multidrug-resistant Enterococci are a real problem and continuous surveillance is necessary. Today, resistance has rendered most of the original antibiotics obsolete for many infections, mandating the development of alternative anti-infection modalities. One of such alternatives stemming up from an old idea is the bacteriophage therapy. In the present study, we could able to demonstrate the viable phages against MDR E. faecalis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteriophages/growth & development , Biological Therapy/methods , Diabetic Foot/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In July 2 2010, a diarrhea outbreak occurred among the workers in a company in Gyeungju city, Korea. An epidemiological investigation was performed to clarify the cause and transmission route of the outbreak. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire survey among 193 persons, and we examined 21 rectal swabs and 6 environmental specimens. We also delegated the Daegu Bukgu public health center to examine 3 food service employees and 5 environmental specimens from the P buffet which served a buffet on June 30. The patient case was defined as a worker of L Corporation and who participated in the company meal service and who had diarrhea more than one time. We also collected the underground water filter of the company on July 23. RESULTS: The attack rate of diarrhea among the employees was 20.3%. The epidemic curve showed that a single exposure peaked on July 1. The relative risk of attendance and non-attendance by date was highest for the lunch of June 30 (35.62; 95% CI, 2.25 to 574.79). There was no specific food that was statistically regarded as the source of the outbreak. Bacillus cereus was cultured from two of the rectal swabs, two of the preserved foods and the underground water filter. We thought the exposure date was lunch of June 30 according the latency period of B. cereus. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded the route of transmission was infection of dishes, spoons and chopsticks in the lunch buffet of June 30 by the underground water. At the lunch buffet, 50 dishes, 40 spoons, and chopsticks were served as cleaned and wiped with a dishcloth. We thought the underground water contaminated the dishes, spoons, chopsticks and the dishcloth. Those contaminated materials became the cause of this outbreak.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Bacillus cereus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/etiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology , Fresh Water/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Rectum/microbiology
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 27(6): 491-498, dic. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-572911

ABSTRACT

Bloodstream infection (BSI) is one of the main causes of sepsis and death in newborns. The relative importance of nosocomial and non-nosocomial agents in developing countries is not clear. We conducted a prospective study of newborns hospitalized with a first episode of BSI in order to classify it as early, late or nosocomial, describe the clinical and microbiological charateristics, and explore risk factors between hospital-acquired vs commu-nity-acquiered BSI (HA-BSI vs CA-BSI). Twenty-seven newborns with a first episode of BSI were identified. Streptococcus agalactiae and coagulase negative Staphylococcus were the main agents in CA-BSI and HA-BSI, respectively. The only significant intrinsic risk factor between HA-BSI and CA-BSI was gestational age. The frequent finding of S. agalactiae warrants routine screening and prophylaxis in pregnant women. The risk factors for HA-BSI were mostly extrinsic, and thus, susceptible of being modified.


La infección del torrente circulatorio (ITC) es una de las principales causas de sepsis y muerte neonatal. Su etiología en países en vía de desarrollo, entre agentes no nosocomiales vs nosocomiales no está suficientemente esclarecida. Estudio prospectivo que incluyó neonatos hospitalizados que presentaron un primer hemocultivo positivo, con el propósito de describir características clínicas, microbiológicas, clasificar la ITC en temprana, tardía y nosocomial, y explorar factores de riesgo entre ITC adquirida en la comunidad vs ITC adquirida en el hospital (ITC-AC vs ITC-AH). Se identificaron 27 neonatos con un primer episodio de ITC. Streptococcus agalactiae y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa fueron los principales agentes en ITC-AC e ITC-AH, respectivamente. El factor de riesgo intrínseco que mostró una diferencia significativa entre ITC-AC vs. ITC-AH fue la edad gestacional. La presencia de S. agalactiae permite plantear el tamizaje y profilaxis a la gestante. Los factores de riesgo para ITC-AH fueron en su mayoría extrínsecos, es decir, susceptibles de ser modificados.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Neonatology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 44(3): 725-731, sept. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-561409

ABSTRACT

Estudo descritivo realizado em um hospital público, de maio de 2005 a outubro de 2007. Objetivou-se determinar os aspectos epidemiológicos que envolvem o Enterococcus resistente à vancomicina (VRE) e descrever a evolução dos pacientes. Os dados foram coletados de registros em prontuários. Após a coleta, as informações foram processadas no SPSS. Usou-se a distribuição de frequência e medidas de tendência central. Participaram do estudo 122 pacientes. A maioria foi do sexo masculino, com idade média de 43 anos (DP= 18,8). A infecção por VRE foi desenvolvida por 16,3 por cento. O antimicrobiano mais usado previamente à identificação do VRE foi a vancomicina (62,3 por cento); 97,5 por cento foram submetidos aos procedimentos invasivos; 45,0 por cento eram dependentes de cuidados intensivos de enfermagem; 77,9 por cento tinham pelo menos uma ferida aberta, e 50,8 por cento evoluíram a óbito. Esses dados sugerem que recomendações de controle da resistência bacteriana devem ser encorajadas diuturnamente, visando à redução da mortalidade, morbidade, custos hospitalares e, consequentemente, uma melhor qualidade da assistência ao paciente.


This descriptive study was conducted in a public hospital from May 2005 to October 2007, with the purpose to determine the epidemiological aspects that involve vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and describe the evolution of patients. -The data was obtained from registers on patient records and then processed in SPSS. Frequency distribution and measures of central tendency were used. A total 122 patients participated of the study, the majority were males with an average age of 43 years (SD= 18.8), and 16.3 percent developed VRE infection. Vancomycin has been the most used antibiotic (62,3 percent), 97.5 percent used invasive procedures, 45.0 percent were dependent on intensive care nursing, 77.9 percent had at least one open wound and 50.8 percent progressed to death. The data suggests that recommendations for bacterial resistance control should be encouraged to reduce mortality, morbidity, hospital costs and thus provide better quality care to patients.


Estudio descriptivo, realizado en un hospital público desde mayo de 2005 a octubre de 2007. Se objetivó determinar los aspectos epidemiológicos que involucran al Enterococcus resistente a vancomicina (VRE) y describir la evolución de los pacientes. Los datos fueron recolectados de registros en historias clínicas, después de la recolección, la información obtenida fue procesada en SPSS. Se usó la distribución de frecuencia y medidas de tendencia central. Participaron del estudio 122 pacientes. La mayoría, de sexo masculino, con edad media de 43 años (DP = 18,8). El 16,3 por ciento desarrolló infección por VRE. El antibiótico más usado antes de la identificación del VRE fue la vancomicina. (62,3 por ciento); 93,5 por ciento fueron sometidos a procedimientos invasivos, 45,0 por ciento dependían de cuidado intensivo de enfermería, 77,9 por ciento tenía por lo menos una herida abierta y 50,8 por ciento fallecieron. Tales datos sugieren que deben ser alentadas en forma ilimitada medidas de control de la resistencia bacteriana, apuntando a la reducción de la mortalidad, morbilidad, costos hospitalarios y, consecuentemente, a una mejor calidad de atención del paciente.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cross Infection/microbiology , Enterococcus/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Vancomycin Resistance , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Young Adult
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