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1.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 422-445, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939868

ABSTRACT

Aging-induced changes in the immune system are associated with a higher incidence of infection and vaccination failure. Lymph nodes, which filter the lymph to identify and fight infections, play a central role in this process. However, careful characterization of the impact of aging on lymph nodes and associated autoimmune diseases is lacking. We combined single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) with flow cytometry to delineate the immune cell atlas of cervical draining lymph nodes (CDLNs) of both young and old mice with or without experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). We found extensive and complicated changes in the cellular constituents of CDLNs during aging. When confronted with autoimmune challenges, old mice developed milder EAU compared to young mice. Within this EAU process, we highlighted that the pathogenicity of T helper 17 cells (Th17) was dampened, as shown by reduced GM-CSF secretion in old mice. The mitigated secretion of GM-CSF contributed to alleviation of IL-23 secretion by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and may, in turn, weaken APCs' effects on facilitating the pathogenicity of Th17 cells. Meanwhile, our study further unveiled that aging downregulated GM-CSF secretion through reducing both the transcript and protein levels of IL-23R in Th17 cells from CDLNs. Overall, aging altered immune cell responses, especially through toning down Th17 cells, counteracting EAU challenge in old mice.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases , Disease Models, Animal , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Th17 Cells/metabolism , Uveitis/pathology , Virulence
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 761-765, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098317

ABSTRACT

Oligozoospermia is a common infertility disease, and the incidence rate is increasing year by year. Cuscuta chinensis is a commonly used medicine for the treatment of oligozoospermia in Chinese medicine. Flavonoids are its main component. GM-CSF is a multifunctional cytokine that plays an important role in the inflammatory response. In this paper, we performed HE staining and immunohistochemical staining on the testis of rats with oligozoospermia. We intend to study the expression changes of GM-CSF in rats with oligospermia and the effect of flavonoids on the expression of GM-CSF in testis of rats with oligozoospermia.


La oligozoospermia es una enfermedad común de infertilidad, con una tasa de incidencia que aumenta año tras año. Cuscuta chinensis es un medicamento de uso común para el tratamiento de la oligozoospermia en la medicina china. Los flavonoides son su componente principal. GM-CSF es una citocina multifuncional que tiene un rol importante en la respuesta inflamatoria. En este trabajo, realizamos tinción con hematoxilina y eosina y tinción inmunohistoquímica en testículos de ratas con oligozoospermia. TNuestro objetivo fue estudiar los cambios de expresión de GM-CSF en ratas con oligozoospermia y el efecto de los flavonoides en la expresión de GM-CSF en testículos de ratas con oligozoospermia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Oligospermia/metabolism , Oligospermia/drug therapy , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Cuscuta , Testis/drug effects , Testis/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
4.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(3): 207-218, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058076

ABSTRACT

La Proteinosis Alveolar Pulmonar (PAP) es una enfermedad poco frecuente, caracterizada por la acumulación de material lipoproteico derivado del surfactante pulmonar al interior de los alvéolos por una falla de depuración de este material por los macrófagos alveolares, siendo la causa más frecuente de esta disfunción la acción bloqueadora producida por anticuerpos anti factor estimulante de colonias de granulocitos y macrófagos (GM-CSF) lo que lleva a un deterioro del intercambio gaseoso. La evolución es variable abarcando desde la resolución espontánea hasta la insuficiencia respiratoria grave y la muerte. Se describen tres formas de PAP: Genética, secundaria y autoinmune (antes primaria o idiopática) siendo esta última la más frecuente en adultos. Clínicamente, se manifiesta por disnea, tos seca e hipoxemia que pueden ser progresivas. En la radiografía de tórax se encuentran opacidades bilaterales y la tomografía computarizada de tórax de alta resolución (TACAR) muestra vidrio esmerilado con sobre posición de engrosamiento septal intra e interlobulillar, patrón conocido como "crazy paving". El diagnóstico se basa en la clínica y en el lavado broncoalveolar con material PAS positivo. La biopsia quirúrgica es confirmatoria. El tratamiento clásico es el lavado pulmonar total (LPT) para remover el contenido alveolar. Otras alternativas son la administración de GM-CSF subcutáneo o inhalado, plasmaferesis y rituximab, cuyos resultados son variables. Diferentes autores han modificado la forma del LPT y combinado los diferentes métodos de tratamiento con el fin de obtener resultados más rápidos y efectivos.


Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation of surfactant derived lipoproteinaceous material filling the alveoli, secondary to failure of its clearance by macrophages. Most of the patients are adults that have auto antibodies directed to Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF). The evolution is towards disturbed gaseous exchange with a wide spectrum of disease from spontaneous recovery to death. There are three forms of PAP: genetic, secondary and autoimmune. Symptoms are scarce and patients may present with dyspnea, dry cough and hypoxemia. Chest X ray shows bilateral opacities and thorax CT depicts ground glass opacities surrounded by septal widening, the so called "crazy paving" pattern. Diagnosis is made on clinical and radiological grounds and confirmed by PAS positive staining of bronchoalveolar lavage material or surgical lung biopsy. Accepted treatment is whole lung lavage (WLL) with saline. Alternatives are subcutaneous or inhaled GM-CSF, Plasmapheresis or Rituximab, and even modification of the method of WLL and combination of different manner of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/therapy , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/etiology , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Plasmapheresis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Rituximab/therapeutic use
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on the mobilization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the bone marrow (BM) into the peripheral blood (PB) in rats. METHODS: GM-CSF was administered subcutaneously to rats at 50 µg/kg body weight for 5 consecutive days. The BM and PB of rats were collected at 1, 3, and 5 days during the administration for analysis. RESULTS: Upon GM-CSF administration, the number of mononuclear cells increased rapidly at day 1 both in the BM and PB. This number decreased gradually over time in the BM to below the initial amount by day 5, but was maintained at a high level in the PB until day 5. The colony-forming unit-fibroblasts were increased in the PB by 10.3-fold at day 5 of GM-CSF administration, but decreased in the BM. Compared to GM-CSF, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) stimulated lower levels of MSC mobilization from the BM to the PB. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that GM-CSF induced a hypoxic and proteolytic microenvironment and increased C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expression in the BM. GM-CSF added to BM MSCs in vitro dose-dependently increased CXCR4 expression and cell migration. G-CSF and stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) showed similar results in these in vitro assays. Know-down of CXCR4 expression with siRNA significantly abolished GM-CSF- and G-CSF-induced MSC migration in vitro, indicating the involvement of the SDF-1-CXCR4 interaction in the mechanism. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that GM-CSF is a useful tool for mobilizing BM MSCs into the PB.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia , Body Weight , Bone Marrow , Cell Movement , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , In Vitro Techniques , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Rats , RNA, Small Interfering , Stromal Cells
6.
Immune Network ; : e15-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764016

ABSTRACT

To this date, the criteria to distinguish peritoneal macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are not clear. Here we delineate the subsets of myeloid mononuclear cells in the mouse peritoneal cavity. Considering phenotypical, functional, and ontogenic features, peritoneal myeloid mononuclear cells are divided into 5 subsets: large peritoneal macrophages (LPMs), small peritoneal macrophages (SPMs), DCs, and 2 MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺ subpopulations (i.e., MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁻CD206⁻ and MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁺CD206⁺). Among them, 2 subsets of competent Ag presenting cells are demonstrated with distinct functional characteristics, one being DCs and the other being MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁻CD206⁻ cells. DCs are able to promote fully activated T cells and superior in expanding cytokine producing inflammatory T cells, whereas MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁻CD206⁻ cells generate partially activated T cells and possess a greater ability to induce Treg under TGF-β and retinoic acid conditions. While the development of DCs and MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁻CD206⁻ cells are responsive to the treatment of FLT3 ligand and GM-CSF, the number of LPMs, SPMs, and MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁺CD206⁺ cells are only influenced by the injection of GM-CSF. In addition, the analysis of gene expression profiles among MHCII⁺ peritoneal myeloid mononuclear cells reveals that MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁺CD206⁺ cells share high similarity with SPMs, whereas MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁻CD206⁻ cells are related to peritoneal DC2s. Collectively, our study identifies 2 distinct subpopulations of MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺ cells, 1) MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁻CD206⁻ cells closely related to peritoneal DC2s and 2) MHCII⁺CD11c⁺CD115⁺CD14⁺CD206⁺ cells to SPMs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigen Presentation , Dendritic Cells , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages , Macrophages, Peritoneal , Mice , Peritoneal Cavity , T-Lymphocytes , Transcriptome , Tretinoin
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1272-1276, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775729

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the method of isolation, purification and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into dendritic cells (DC) in lung tissue of mouse, so as to provide theoretical basis and experimental methods for the study of hematopoietic stem cells in mouse lung tissue.@*METHODS@#Lung tissues of 4 male C57 mice were digested, separated and purified into mononuclear cells by type I collagenase, type I DNA enzyme and lymphocyte isolation solution. LinSca-1c-Kit cells, which are hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were identified and sorted by flow cytometry. Stem cell factor (SCF) and interleukin 3 (IL-3) were added in the obtained HSCs to promote cell proliferation. After discontinuation of SCF and IL-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-4 were added to induce differentiation of HSCs into DCs, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was added to promote cell maturation. The morphology of DCs was observed under inverted microscope, the expression of CD80, CD86, CD11c and MII-II on the surface of DCs was analyzed by flow cytometry, and the expression level of IL-12 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).@*RESULTS@#2419.67±247.59 HSCs were collected from lung tissue mononuclear cells of 4 mice identified by flow cytometry with purity: (7.16±0.43)%. HSCs were amplified 62.34±3.23 times by induction with SCF and IL-3 for 7 days. After induction culture for 15 days, mature dendritic cells were obtained with typical dendrites on the cell surface, the DC expressed dendritic cell-specific surface molecules CDllc (92.62±3.68)%,MHC-II (83.89±6.28)%, CD80 (75.96±5.13)%, CD86(72.07±4.38)%, and the expression level of IL-12 was 136.12±16.59 pg/ml detected by ELISA.@*CONCLUSION@#There are HSCs in lung tissue, which can be transformed into DCs by cytokine induction and proliferation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Dendritic Cells , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Male , Mice
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772938

ABSTRACT

The activation mechanism of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells may differ substantially from T cells carrying native T cell receptor, but this difference remains poorly understood. We present the first comprehensive portrait of single-cell level transcriptional and cytokine signatures of anti-CD19/4-1BB/CD28/CD3ζ CAR-T cells upon antigen-specific stimulation. Both CD4 helper T (T) cells and CD8 cytotoxic CAR-T cells are equally effective in directly killing target tumor cells and their cytotoxic activity is associated with the elevation of a range of T1 and T2 signature cytokines, e.g., interferon γ, tumor necrotic factor α, interleukin 5 (IL5), and IL13, as confirmed by the expression of master transcription factor genes TBX21 and GATA3. However, rather than conforming to stringent T1 or T2 subtypes, single-cell analysis reveals that the predominant response is a highly mixed T1/T2 function in the same cell. The regulatory T cell activity, although observed in a small fraction of activated cells, emerges from this hybrid T1/T2 population. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is produced from the majority of cells regardless of the polarization states, further contrasting CAR-T to classic T cells. Surprisingly, the cytokine response is minimally associated with differentiation status, although all major differentiation subsets such as naïve, central memory, effector memory, and effector are detected. All these suggest that the activation of CAR-engineered T cells is a canonical process that leads to a highly mixed response combining both type 1 and type 2 cytokines together with GM-CSF, supporting the notion that polyfunctional CAR-T cells correlate with objective response of patients in clinical trials. This work provides new insights into the mechanism of CAR activation and implies the necessity for cellular function assays to characterize the quality of CAR-T infusion products and monitor therapeutic responses in patients.


Subject(s)
Antigens , Metabolism , CTLA-4 Antigen , Metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line , Cytokines , Metabolism , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Pharmacology , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Allergy and Immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets , Metabolism , Phenotype , Proteomics , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Methods , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Metabolism , Th1 Cells , Cell Biology , Th2 Cells , Cell Biology , Transcription, Genetic , Up-Regulation
9.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 31-39, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719478

ABSTRACT

Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogenous population of immature cells that play a critical role in tumor associated immune suppression. In tumor conditions, the population of MDSCs increases. The main feature of these cells is their ability to suppress the T cell response in antigen specific or nonspecific manners depending on the condition of T cell activation. IL-12 can modulate MDSC in preliminary reports, so we investigated how IL-12 can affect MDSC in a tumor microenvironment. After implanting tumor based cells on syngeneic host, 4T-1/BALB/c or EL4/C57BL6 mice, MDSCs (Gr1+CD11b+) were isolated from splenocytes. Isolated MDSCs were treated with GM-CSF with or without IL-12 and analyzed based on their phenotypes and functions. Treatment of MDSC with IL-12 increased co-stimulatory molecules of CD80, CD86, OX-40L, enhancing the DC phenotype (CD11c) and maturation markers such as p-NF-κB and p-GSK3β. In addition to a change of surface markers, T-cell suppressive function of MDSC after IL-12 treatment was significantly improved compared with the control MDSC. In addition, PD-L1+F4/80+ macrophages, which show aninhibitory effect in phagocytosis, were decreased after IL-12 treatment. The changes of cell surface expression of CD80, CD86, MHC class II were also shown in vivo. Our results showed that the IL-12 can modulate MDSC into APC and recover the macrophage function. These results suggested that IL-12 plays a role in improving the tumor immune microenvironment through MDSC modulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Interleukin-12 , Macrophages , Mice , Phagocytosis , Phenotype , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 23(5): 41-46, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975013

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The search for more aesthetic and comfortable orthodontic devices has led to an increase in the use of clear aligners. Objective: To increase knowledge on biological mechanisms of orthodontic tooth movement using Invisalign aligners. Methods: This study included 11 patients with a mean age of 23.6 ± 4.8 years. Cases planning included alignment and leveling of lower incisors using Invisalign aligners. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from the lower incisors on the day of delivery of aligner number 1 (T0) and after 1 (T24h), 7 (T7d), and 21 (T21d) days. During the observation period of the study, the patients used only the aligner number 1. Levels of nine cytokines were quantified using Luminex's multi-analysis technology. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons between cytokine expression levels over time. Results: Cytokine expression levels remained constant after 21 days of orthodontic activation, except those of MIP-1β, which presented a statistical difference between T24h and T21d with a decrease in the concentration levels. IL-8, GM-CSF, IL-1β, MIP-1β, and TNF-α showed the highest concentrations over time. Conclusions: The different behavior in the levels of the investigated cytokines indicates a role of these biomarkers in the tissue remodeling induced by Invisalign.


RESUMO Introdução: a busca por dispositivos ortodônticos mais estéticos e confortáveis gerou um aumento no uso de alinhadores transparentes. Objetivo: ampliar o conhecimento sobre os mecanismos biológicos associados ao movimento dentário ortodôntico promovido por alinhadores Invisalign®. Métodos: a amostra foi constituída por 11 pacientes, com idade média de 23,6 ± 4,8 anos. O planejamento dos casos incluiu alinhamento e nivelamento de incisivos inferiores usando os alinhadores. O fluido gengival crevicular foi coletado na superfície vestibular de incisivos inferiores no dia da entrega do alinhador número 1 (T0) e após 1 (T24h), 7 (T7d) e 21 (T21d) dias. Durante o período de observação do estudo, os pacientes utilizaram apenas o alinhador número 1. Os níveis de nove citocinas foram quantificados por meio do sistema Luminex de multianálise. Testes não paramétricos foram realizados para comparações entre os níveis de expressão de citocinas ao longo do tempo. Resultados: a concentração das citocinas manteve-se constante após 21 dias de ativação ortodôntica, exceto a MIP-1β, que apresentou uma redução estatisticamente significativa entre os tempos T24h e T21d. As IL-8, GM-CSF, IL-1β, MIP-1β e TNF-α apresentaram as maiores concentrações ao longo do tempo. Conclusão: a constância na expressão dos níveis das citocinas parece estar compatível com o estímulo mecânico induzido por alinhadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Tooth Movement Techniques , Cytokines/analysis , Gingival Crevicular Fluid/chemistry , Orthodontic Appliances, Removable , Cytokines/metabolism , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/analysis , Interleukin-8/analysis , Colony-Stimulating Factors/analysis , Interleukin-7/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Chemokine CCL2/analysis , Interleukin-17/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Chemokine CCL4/analysis , Incisor
11.
Immune Network ; : e16-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714172

ABSTRACT

Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) are generated from bone marrow (BM) cells cultured with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for a week. In this study we investigated the effect of duration on the BM culture with GM-CSF. Within several months, the cells in the BM culture gradually expressed homogeneous levels of CD11c and major histocompatibility complex II on surface, and they became unable to stimulate allogeneic naïve T cells in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). In addition, when the BM culture were sustained for 32 wk or longer, the BM cells acquired ability to suppress the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in MLR as well as the response of ovalbumin-specific OT-I transgenic T cells in antigen-dependent manner. We found that, except for programmed death-ligand 1, most cell surface molecules were expressed lower in the BM cells cultured with GM-CSF for the extended duration. These results indicate that BM cells in the extended culture with GM-CSF undergo 2 distinct steps of functional change; first, they lose the immunostimulatory capacity; and next, they gain the immunosuppressive ability.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Dendritic Cells , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Granulocytes , Immunosuppression Therapy , Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed , Major Histocompatibility Complex , T-Lymphocytes
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713561

ABSTRACT

Although commercialization of mobile phones has raised much concerns about the effects of radiofrequency radiation on the human body, few experimental studies have been conducted on the effects of radiofrequency radiation on physiological homeostasis, immune and inflammatory responses. Therefore, we presently investigated the effect of 835 MHz radiofrequency radiation on spontaneous wheel exercise, hormone and cytokines levels in the plasm of mice. Mice were divided into 4 groups as control, exercise, radiofrequency radiation, radiofrequency radiation & exercise group. The body weight, corticosterone and blood cytokine levels were checked for 10 weeks. Followed by the exposure to radiofrequency radiation for 6 hours a day, the more increase in body weight was observed in the radiofrequency radiation & exercise group than in the spontaneous exercise group. When the amount of spontaneous exercise was measured for 10 weeks, the amount of exercise was increased in the both control and spontaneous exercise group, while the amount of exercise was decreased in the radiofrequency radiation group. To determine whether the homeostasis, immune and inflammatory responses are indirectly affected by radiofrequency radiation exposure, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 (p70), TNF-α, IFNγ, and GM-CSF were measured by ELISA kit, respectively. As a result, the blood levels of IL-6, IL-12 (p70) and TNF-α in the spontaneous exercise group were higher than that of control group, and each cytokine levels in the radiofrequency radiation & exercise group were lower than that of control group. However, the corticosterone, IL-1β, IFNγ and GM-CSF didn't show statistically significant differences in all groups. It has been confirmed that exposure to high frequency electromagnetic waves for a long time can affect the amount of exercise, body weight, and some inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12 (p70) and TNF-α.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Cell Phone , Corticosterone , Cytokines , Electromagnetic Radiation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Homeostasis , Human Body , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-6 , Mice , Radiation Exposure
13.
Immune Network ; : e32-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716249

ABSTRACT

Viperin is a multifunctional protein that was first identified in human primary macrophages treated with interferon-γ and in human fibroblasts infected with human cytomegalovirus. This protein plays a role as an anti-viral protein and a regulator of cell signaling pathways or cellular metabolism when induced in a variety of cells such as fibroblasts, hepatocytes and immune cells including T cells and dendritic cells. However, the role of viperin in macrophages is unknown. Here, we show that viperin is basally expressed in murine bone marrow cells including monocytes. Its expression is maintained in bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDMs) depending on macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) treatment but not on granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) treatment. In wild type (WT) and viperin knockout (KO) BMDMs differentiated with M-CSF or G-MCSF, there are little differences at the gene expression levels of M1 and M2 macrophage markers such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase-1, and cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-10, indicating that viperin expression in BMDMs does not affect the basal gene expression of macrophage markers and cytokines. However, when BMDMs are completely polarized, the levels of expression of macrophage markers and secretion of cytokines in viperin KO M1 and M2 macrophages are significantly higher than those in WT M1 and M2 macrophages. The data suggest that viperin plays a role as a regulator in polarization of macrophages and secretion of M1 and M2 cytokines.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Bone Marrow Cells , Cytokines , Cytomegalovirus , Dendritic Cells , Fibroblasts , Gene Expression , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Hepatocytes , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages , Metabolism , Monocytes , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , T-Lymphocytes
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716002

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The use of tolerogenic dendritic cells (TolDCs) to control exacerbated immune responses may be a prophylactic and therapeutic option for application in autoimmune and allergic conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of TolDC administration in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation caused by mite extract. METHODS: Mouse bone marrow-derived TolDCs were induced by incubation with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and dexamethasone, and then characterized by flow cytometry and cytokine production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For the in vivo model of Blomia tropicalis-induced allergy, mice transplanted with antigen-pulsed TolDCs were sensitized intraperitoneally with B. tropicalis mite extract (BtE) adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide. After challenge by nasal administration of BtE, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lungs, spleen and serum were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Induction of TolDCs was efficiently achieved as shown by low expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II, programmed death-ligand (PD-L) 2 and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and up-regulation of interleukin (IL)-10, upon LPS stimulation in vitro. Transplantation of 1 or 2 doses of BtE-pulsed TolDCs reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and lungs as well as mucus deposition. Moreover, compared to saline-injected controls, TolDC-treated mice showed lower serum levels of anti-BtE immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies as well as reduced Gata3 and IL-4 gene expression in the lungs and decreased IFN-γ levels in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures Transplantation of TolDCs increased the percentage of the regulatory T cells in the spleen and the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: Preventive treatment with TolDCs protects against dust mite-induced allergy in a mouse model, reinforcing the use of tolerogenic dendritic cells for the management of allergic conditions.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies , Antigens, Dermatophagoides , Asthma , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Dendritic Cells , Dexamethasone , Dust , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-4 , Interleukins , Lung , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Mice , Mites , Mucus , Spleen , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Up-Regulation
15.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 34(3): 436-444, jul.-sep. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902940

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos Evaluar el efecto de las nanopartículas de ZnO, TiO2 y SiO2 sobre la viabilidad celular y la expresión génica de las interleuquinas 7 y 3 y del factor estimulante de colonias de granulocito - macrófago (GM-CSF) en Mus musculus. Materiales y métodos Se extrajo médula ósea roja de cinco roedores (Balb/c) para el estudio de viabilidad celular mediante la prueba de MTT. Por otro lado, grupos cinco roedores fueron inoculados vía intraperitoneal con dosis de 0,5; 1; 2,5; 5 y 10 mg/kg de nanopartículas de ZnO y SiO2 y de 5; 10; 15; 20 y 25 mg/kg de nanopartículas de TiO2, 30 h después, se obtuvo el ARN a partir de la médula ósea roja para los análisis de expresión génica empleando las técnicas de PCR y RT-PCR cuantitativa. Resultados Las nanopartículas de ZnO y SiO2 redujeron la viabilidad celular de una manera dosis-dependiente en un 37 y 26%, respectivamente, a partir de una dosis de 1 mg/kg. En cuanto al efecto sobre la expresión génica, a las dosis 5 y 10 mg/kg, las nanopartículas de TiO2 redujeron en mayor porcentaje la expresión de las interleuquinas 7 y 3 (55,3 y 70,2% respectivamente), con respecto a la expresión del GM-CSF, el mayor porcentaje de reducción lo produjo las nanopartículas de SiO2 (91%). Las nanopartículas de ZnO redujeron a partir de las dosis de 20 y 25 mg/kg. Conclusiones Las nanopartículas de ZnO, SiO2 y TiO2 alteran la viabilidad celular y la expresión génica en la médula ósea de ratón.


ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the effect of ZnO, TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles on cell viability and expression of the interleukin 7, interleukin 3, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) genes in Mus musculus. Material and methods Red bone marrow was extracted from five Balb/c mice for the analysis of cell viability using the MTT test. The mice were divided into two groups of five each: one group was inoculated intraperitoneally with 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/kg of ZnO and SiO2 nanoparticles, respectively, and the other group was inoculated with 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, and 25 mg/kg of TiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. Thirty hours later, RNA was extracted from the red bone marrow of the mice in both groups for gene expression analysis using quantitative PCR and RT-PCR. Results ZnO and SiO2 nanoparticles reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner by 37% and 26%, respectively, starting at a dose of 1 mg/kg. TiO2 nanoparticles at 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg reduced the gene expression of interleukins 7 and 3 by 55.3% and 70.2%, respectively, and SiO2 nanoparticles caused the greatest decrease (91%) in the expression of GM-CSF. ZnO nanoparticles reduced the expression of GM-CSF starting at doses of 20 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg. Conclusions ZnO, SiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles affect cell viability and gene expression in the mouse bone marrow.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Titanium/pharmacology , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology , Bone Marrow/drug effects , Bone Marrow/metabolism , Gene Expression/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/biosynthesis , Interleukin-7/biosynthesis , Interleukin-3/biosynthesis , Silicon Dioxide/pharmacology , Nanoparticles , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/genetics , Interleukin-7/genetics , Interleukin-3/genetics , Mice, Inbred BALB C
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211709

ABSTRACT

Surgical castration performed to reduce male-associated problems results in pain and microbial infections in male animals. Therefore, immunocontraception, which is mediated by the animal's own antibodies against reproductive hormones, has been recommended as an alternative to surgical castration when considering the animal's welfare. In this study, a new immunocontraceptive vaccine composed of six tandem copies of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) fused to rat granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was developed, and its efficacy was evaluated in male rats. Three different doses (10, 50, and 100 µg) of recombinant GM-CSF–GnRH protein were injected three times at intervals of two weeks into male rats. The rats vaccinated with three doses of GM-CSF–GnRH produced a significantly higher level of antibodies against GnRH than that in the negative control rats. Severe atrophy of gonads was observed in rats vaccinated with three doses of GM-CSF–GnRH but not in the negative control rats. The results reveal that the new GnRH vaccine conjugated with rat GM-CSF induces efficient immunocontraception in male rats. This formulation of the immunocontraceptive vaccine would be applicable to both domestic and pet male animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Atrophy , Castration , Contraception, Immunologic , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gonads , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Humans , Male , Rats , Vaccines
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Delayed hypersensitivity plays a large role in the pathogenesis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). Macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) increase the levels of adenosine deaminase2 (ADA2) in the pleural fluid of TPE patients. However, it is as yet unclear whether ADA2 can be produced by macrophages when challenged with MTB antigens alone. This study therefore evaluated the levels of ADA2 mRNA expression, using monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) stimulated with MTB antigens. METHODS: Purified monocytes from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers were differentiated into macrophages using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The MDMs were stimulated with early secretory antigenic target protein 6 (ESAT6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP10). The mRNA expression levels for the cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1 (CECR1) gene encoding ADA2 were then measured. RESULTS: CECR1 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in MDMs stimulated with ESAT6 and CFP10, than in the unstimulated MDMs. When stimulated with ESAT6, M-CSF-treated MDMs showed more pronounced CECR1 mRNA expression than GM-CSF-treated MDMs. Interferon-γ decreased the ESAT6- and CFP10-induced CECR1 mRNA expression in MDMs. CECR1 mRNA expression levels were positively correlated with mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 10, respectively. CONCLUSION: ADA2 mRNA expression increased when MDMs were stimulated with MTB antigens alone. This partly indicates that pleural fluid ADA levels could increase in patients with culture-negative TPE. Our results may be helpful in improving the understanding of TPE pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Deaminase , Adenosine , Animals , Cats , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Interleukin-10 , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages , Monocytes , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium , Pleural Effusion , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
18.
Immune Network ; : 352-364, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195868

ABSTRACT

Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a very rare primary immune deficiency characterized by elevated serum IgE levels, recurrent bacterial infections, chronic dermatitis, and connective tissue abnormalities. Autosomal dominant (AD) HIES involves a mutation in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) that leads to an impaired T(H)17 response. STAT3 signaling is also involved in the function of RORγt⁺ type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) and RORγt⁺T(H)17 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of innate immune cells such as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), granulocytes, and monocytes in a patient with HIES. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a patient with HIES and three age-matched healthy controls were obtained for the analysis of the innate and adaptive immune cells. The frequencies of ILCs in PBMCs were lower in the patient with HIES than in the controls. Moreover, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-17A produced by ILC3s in PBMCs were lower in the patient with HIES than the controls. Compared with the controls, classical monocytes (CD14⁺CD16(low)), which have a high antimicrobial capability, were also lower in the patient with HIES, while non-classical monocytes (CD14(low)CD16⁺) as well as intermediate monocytes (CD14⁺CD16(intermediate)) were higher. Taken together, these results indicate that the impaired immune defense against pathogenic microbes in the patient with HIES might be partially explained by functional defects in ILC3s and inflammatory monocytes.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Connective Tissue , Cytokines , Dermatitis , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Granulocytes , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin E , Interleukin-17 , Job Syndrome , Lymphocytes , Monocytes , STAT3 Transcription Factor
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174863

ABSTRACT

In this study, we report that an acute phase reactant, serum amyloid A (SAA), strongly inhibits dendritic cell differentiation induced by GM-CSF plus IL-4. SAA markedly decreased the expression of MHCII and CD11c. Moreover, SAA decreased cell surface GM-CSF receptor expression. SAA also decreased the expression of PU.1 and C/EBPα, which play roles in the expression of GM-CSF receptor. This inhibitory response by SAA is partly mediated by the well-known SAA receptors, Toll-like receptor 2 and formyl peptide receptor 2. Taken together, we suggest a novel insight into the inhibitory role of SAA in dendritic cell differentiation.


Subject(s)
Dendritic Cells , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Interleukin-4 , Receptors, Formyl Peptide , Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Serum Amyloid A Protein , Toll-Like Receptors
20.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(3): 375-382, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828262

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT It is well established that protein malnutrition (PM) impairs immune defenses and increases susceptibility to infection. Macrophages are cells that play a central role in innate immunity, constituting one of the first barriers against infections. Macrophages produce several soluble factors, including cytokines and growth factors, important to the immune response. Among those growth factors, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). GM-CSF and M-CSF are important to monocyte and macrophage development and stimulation of the immune response process. Knowing the importance of GM-CSF and M-CSF, we sought to investigate the influence of PM on macrophage production of these growth factors. Two-month-old male BALB/c mice were subjected to PM with a low-protein diet (2%) and compared to a control diet (12%) mouse group. Nutritional status, hemogram and the number of peritoneal cells were evaluated. Additionally, peritoneal macrophages were cultured and the production of GM-CSF and M-CSF and mRNA expression were evaluated. To determine if PM altered macrophage production of GM-CSF and M-CSF, they were stimulated with TNF-α. The PM animals had anemia, leukopenia and a reduced number of peritoneal cells. The production of M-CSF was not different between groups; however, cells from PM animals, stimulated with or without TNF-α, presented reduced capability to produce GM-CSF. These data imply that PM interferes with the production of GM-CSF, and consequently would affect the production and maturation of hematopoietic cells and the immune response.


Subject(s)
Rats , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/analysis , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/analysis
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