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Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Apr; 52(4): 375-382
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150369


The first set of competitive inhibitors of molt inhibiting hormone (MIH) has been developed using the effective approaches such as Hip-Hop, virtual screening and manual alterations. Moreover, the conserved residues at 71 and 72 positions in the molt inhibiting hormone is known to be significant for selective inhibition of ecdysteroidogenesis; thus, the information from mutation and solution structure were used to generate common pharmacophore features. The geometry of the final six-feature pharmacophore was also found to be consistent with the homology-modeled MIH structures from various other decapod crustaceans. The Hypo-1, comprising six features hypothesis was carefully selected as a best pharmacophore model for virtual screening created on the basis of rank score and cluster processes. The hypothesis was validated and the database was virtually screened using this 3D query and the compounds were then manually altered to enhance the fit value. The hits obtained were further filtered for drug-likeness, which is expressed as physicochemical properties that contribute to favorable ADME/Tox profiles to eliminate the molecules exhibit toxicity and poor pharmacokinetics. In conclusion, the higher fit values of CI-1 (4.6), CI-4 (4.9) and CI-7 (4.2) in conjunction with better pharmacokinetic profile made these molecules practically helpful tool to increase production by accelerating molt in crustaceans. The use of feeding sub-therapeutic dosages of these growth enhancers can be very effectively implemented and certainly turn out to be a vital part of emerging nutritional strategies for economically important crustacean livestock.

Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Arthropod Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Arthropod Proteins/chemistry , Arthropod Proteins/metabolism , Binding, Competitive , Crustacea/metabolism , Drug Design , Guanylate Cyclase/antagonists & inhibitors , Guanylate Cyclase/chemistry , Guanylate Cyclase/metabolism , Invertebrate Hormones/antagonists & inhibitors , Invertebrate Hormones/chemistry , Invertebrate Hormones/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-22965


BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Although Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa) causes diarrhoea in laboratory animals, no studies were done to find out the species specific variation of distribution of the STa receptors in laboratory animals. The present investigation evaluates the density of STa receptors and the guanylyl cyclase (GC) activity in the small intestinal epithelial cells of hamsters and guinea pigs. METHODS: Brush border membrane (BBM) was prepared from the small intestines of hamsters and guinea pigs. Receptor binding assay, GC assay and autoradiography were performed to determine the density of STa receptors, the GC activity and molecular weights of the STa binding proteins respectively. RESULTS: The receptor densities, per mg BBM protein at equilibrium, were found to be 4.1 x 10(9) and 1.5 x 10(12) in hamsters and guinea pigs respectively. The GC activity was found to be lower in STa treated hamster BBM compared to that of guinea pig. Scatchard analysis of the stoichiometric data showed a linear plot, and STa bound with association constants of 0.31 x 10(12) M-1 and 1.04 x 10(12) M-1 in hamsters and guinea pigs respectively. Autoradiographic analysis of the SDS-PAGE, revealed that 125I-STa bound apparently to a 45 kDa membrane protein in hamster and a 115 kDa membrane protein in guinea pig. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: It appears that a lower density of STa receptor exists in hamsters compared to that in guinea pigs. STa binds with a single population of STa receptors in each species with different ligand binding affinities. Also, the molecular weights of the STa binding proteins differ in these species. Moreover, the GC activity was found to be lower in hamsters than in guinea pigs.

Animals , Cricetinae , Drug Stability , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Guanylate Cyclase/chemistry , Guinea Pigs , Hot Temperature , Intestines/metabolism , Mesocricetus , Microvilli/metabolism , Receptors, Peptide/chemistry