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1.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 25(2): 120-123, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1555552

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic changed the face of global health and brought about new issues in global health security and economy. The World Health Organization published guidelines for clinical management of COVID-19 four months after declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic. Scholarly reviews and studies from member states within WHO AFRO reveals significant deviation from the WHO published protocols on COVID-19. Assessment of national treatment protocols of 30 of 47 WHO AFRO member states showed widespread inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents for patients, which may worsen the global and concerning threat of antimicrobial resistance. There is need for adopting interventions that optimize antimicrobial use in the context of pre- and post-pandemic preparedness to ensure long-term effectiveness and sustainability for antimicrobials. Treatment guidelines are to be adopted or adapted depending on best clinical evidence available. Non-compliance with guidelines might lead to mismanagement of infectious diseases with attendant negative consequences including antimicrobial resistance and misdirection of critical resources and supplies amongst others.


La pandémie de COVID-19 a changé le visage de la santé mondiale et a soulevé de nouveaux problèmes en matière de sécurité sanitaire et d'économie mondiale. L'Organisation mondiale de la santé a publié des lignes directrices pour la gestion clinique du COVID-19 quatre mois après la déclaration du COVID-19 comme pandémie. Les revues scientifiques et les études des États membres de l'OMS AFRO révèlent un écart significatif par rapport aux protocoles publiés par l'OMS sur le COVID-19. L'évaluation des protocoles nationaux de traitement de 30 des 47 États membres de l'OMS AFRO a révélé une utilisation inappropriée et généralisée d'agents antimicrobiens chez les patients, ce qui pourrait aggraver la menace mondiale et préoccupante de résistance aux antimicrobiens. Il est nécessaire d'adopter des interventions qui optimisent l'utilisation des antimicrobiens dans le contexte de la préparation pré et post-pandémique afin de garantir l'efficacité et la durabilité à long terme des antimicrobiens. Les directives thérapeutiques doivent être adoptées ou adaptées en fonction des meilleures preuves cliniques disponibles. Le non-respect des directives pourrait conduire à une mauvaise gestion des maladies infectieuses avec des conséquences négatives qui en découlent, notamment la résistance aux antimicrobiens et une mauvaise orientation des ressources et fournitures essentielles, entre autres.


Subject(s)
Therapeutics , Clinical Protocols , COVID-19 , Bacterial Infections , Guideline Adherence , Pandemics
2.
Med. UIS ; 36(2)ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534839

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la adherencia a estándares de manejo en insuficiencia cardiaca como la iniciativa Get With the Guidelines (GWTG) de la AHA puede disminuir los reingresos y mortalidad. Objetivo: describir las características clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados por insuficiencia cardiaca aguda y evaluar la adherencia a estándares de práctica clínica del programa "Get With The Guidelines", en un hospital universitario de Bogotá. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional de la cohorte retrospectiva HUN-ICA correspondiente a 493 pacientes adultos hospitalizados entre abril 2016 y diciembre 2018 por insuficiencia cardiaca aguda, se registraron variables clínicas, tratamiento, mortalidad, reingresos y se evaluó adherencia a estándares de calidad del programa GWTG. Resultados: 52,1 % de la población fueron mujeres con una media de edad 75 años y el 67,8 % con FEVI >40 %. La etiología más común fue hipertensiva 58,5 % y la mayor causa de descompensación infecciosa (28,8 %). Aumentó la adherencia al uso de betabloqueadores en pacientes con fracción de eyección reducida al egreso de 46 % respecto al ingreso y al uso de antagonistas de receptor mineralocorticoide en pacientes con FEVI reducida de 61,1 %. Discusión: la cohorte evaluada presentó un perfil hemodinámico, clínico y adherencia en el manejo similar a cohortes nacionales. Las dosis subóptimas de la medicación al egreso justifican la necesidad de clínicas ambulatorias de insuficiencia cardíaca. Conclusiones: Se encontró menor adherencia para uso y dosis óptimas de betabloqueadores y antagonista mineralocorticoide que la de la cohorte GWTG, con incremento del uso de terapia farmacológica entre el ingreso y el egreso hospitalario.


Introduction: adherence to management standards in heart failure such as the AHA´s Get With the Guidelines-Heart failure initiative can reduce readmissions and mortality. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized for acute heart failure and to assess adherence to program quality standards of the Get With The Guidelines Program in a university hospital in Bogotá. Methods: observational, descriptive and retrospective HUN-ICA cohort study. 493 adult patients hospitalized for acute heart failure, between April 2016 to December 2018. Clinical variables, treatment, mortality, readmissions and adherence to program quality standards defined by the GWTG program criteria were evaluated. Results: 52,1 % of the population were women, mean age was 75 years, (67,8 %) cases of heart failure with LVEF > 40 %. The most common etiology of heart failure was hypertensive (58,5 %). The most frequent etiology of decompen- sation was infectious (28,8 %). Adherence to beta-blockers use increased in patients with reduced ejection fraction at discharge of 46 %, and to the use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in 61,1 %, compared to admission. Discussion: the evaluated cohort presented a hemodynamic, clinical profile and adherence similar to colombian cohorts. Suboptimal doses of medication upon discharge justify the need for outpatient heart failure clinics. Conclusions: lower adherence for use and optimal doses of beta-blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists than GWTG cohort was found, with increased use of guidelines recommended pharmacological therapy between hospital admission and discharge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Guideline Adherence , Heart Failure , Patient Readmission , Practice Guideline , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
3.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(1): 25-35, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420645

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol is composed by evidence-based interventions that aim to improve recovery through a reduction in surgical stress response. Although ERAS protocols have been introduced across the globe, exhaustive implementation is not as common. We aimed to study the ERAS protocol compliance in colorectal surgery, assessing the relationship between compliance and postoperative complications. Methods A single-center cohort study was conducted. All consecutive patients admitted to elective colorectal surgery were included. We assessed study endpoints according to ERAS protocol perioperative compliance score above 75%. Our primary endpoint was a composite of postoperative events, which includes in-hospital postoperative complications and need for reoperation after 30 days and need for readmission after discharge. Secondary endpoints were surgery-to-discharge time, postoperative use of only non-opioid adjuvants and the individual components of the primary endpoint. Results A total of 224 colorectal patients were included. The primary endpoint occurred in 59.2% (n = 58) of non-compliant patients comparing to 34.1% (n = 43) in compliant patients. In univariate analysis, compliance to ERAS protocol had an inferior risk for the primary endpoint (p< 0.001). In a logistic regression model, compliance was independently associated with a reduced risk for the primary endpoint with a odds-ratio of 0.42 (95% CI 0.23-0.75, p= 0.004). Conclusion Compliance with the ERAS protocol is associated with less complications, a reduced surgery-to-discharge time and use of only non-opioid adjuvants in the postoperative period. More studies are needed to target the most appropriate compliance goal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enhanced Recovery After Surgery , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Guideline Adherence , Length of Stay
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244670, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448956

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi testar um modelo teórico-explicativo para as representações sociais sobre o cenário sociopolítico brasileiro de 2017, de acordo com as seguintes relações: as representações seriam influenciadas diretamente pela confiança nas instituições, e essa confiança, determinada pelas simpatias ideológicas. Participaram 164 estudantes universitários - cuja idade média era 24 anos - que responderam a escalas intervalares. Realizaram-se modelagens de equações estruturais para testar o modelo teórico proposto. Os resultados indicaram: adequabilidade do modelo; dois grupos de variáveis apresentando relações positivas entre as variáveis do mesmo grupo e negativas na comparação intergrupos. No primeiro grupo constaram as variáveis: ideias-força de esquerda, confiança nos movimentos sociais, avaliação do governo Dilma e avaliação das políticas de esquerda; no segundo: ideias-força de direita, confiança nas instituições de controle, confiança na mídia, avaliação do governo Temer e avaliação das políticas de esquerda. Concluiu-se que a confiança institucional e a simpatia ideológica ancoravam as representações sociais do cenário brasileiro na população universitária estudada.(AU)


The aim of this study was to test an explanatory theoretical model about the social representations about Brazilian social-political scenario in 2017, based on the following relations: representations were directly influenced by the trust in institutions, and this trust, determined by ideological sympathies. A sample of 164 college students - whose average age was 24 years - answered interval scales. We performed structural equation modeling to test the proposed model. The results indicated: the suitability of the model; two groups of variables presenting positive relations in the in-group comparison and negative relations in the comparisons between groups. The first group showed the variables: Leftist ideas-forces, trust in social movements, evaluation of Dilma's administration, and evaluation of Leftist policies; the second: Rightist ideas-forces, trust in control institutions, trust in the media, evaluation of Temer's administration, and evaluation of Leftist policies. In conclusion, the institutional trust and ideological sympathies anchored the social representations of the Brazilian scenery for the studied university population.(AU)


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo probar un modelo teórico explicativo de las representaciones sociales en el escenario sociopolítico brasileño de 2017 según las siguientes relaciones: las representaciones estarían directamente influenciadas por la confianza en las instituciones, y esta confianza, determinada por las simpatías ideológicas. Participaron en este estudio 164 estudiantes universitarios, con edad media de 24 años, quienes respondieron a escalas intervalares. Se llevaron a cabo modelos de ecuaciones estructurales para probar el modelo teórico propuesto. Los resultados indicaron: adecuación del modelo; dos grupos de variables que presentaban relaciones positivas entre las variables del mismo grupo y negativas en la comparación intergrupal. El primer grupo incluía las variables: ideas-fuerza de la izquierda, confianza en los movimientos sociales, evaluación del gobierno de Dilma y evaluación de las políticas de la izquierda; el segundo: ideas-fuerza de la derecha, confianza en las instituciones de control, confianza en los medios de comunicación, evaluación del gobierno Temer y evaluación de las políticas de la izquierda. Se concluyó que la confianza institucional y la simpatía ideológica funcionaron como fundamentos de las representaciones sociales del escenario político brasileño en la población universitaria estudiada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Politics , Students , Universities , Culture , Trust , Ethics, Institutional , Social Representation , Morals , Ownership , Philosophy , Political Systems , Poverty , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Rationalization , Safety , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Science , Authoritarianism , Social Change , Social Problems , Social Responsibility , Social Sciences , Social Security , Social Values , Socialism , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Technology , Technology, Industry, and Agriculture , Thinking , Unemployment , Women , Behavior , Labor Relations , Black or African American , Brazil , Ill-Housed Persons , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude , Ethnicity , Economic Development , Child Advocacy , Child Welfare , Surveys and Questionnaires , Liability, Legal , Civil Rights , Negotiating , Public Sector , Private Sector , Disabled Persons , Communication , Communism , Privacy , Constitution and Bylaws , Feminism , Guideline Adherence , Modernization of the Public Sector , Crime , Civil Conflicts , Personal Autonomy , Capitalism , Access to Information , State , Legislative , Democracy , Aggression , Human Rights Abuses , French Revolution , Economics , Education , Emotions , Employee Grievances , Employment , Environment , Job Market , Population Studies in Public Health , Sanitary Supervision , Agribusiness , Industrial Development , Diplomacy , Work-Life Balance , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Fascism , Political Activism , Stakeholder Participation , Extremism , Social Oppression , Freedom , Gender-Inclusive Policies , Respect , Leadership and Governance Capacity , Corruption , Solidarity , Outdated Modernization , Social Programs , Indigenous Peoples , Environmentalism , Environmental Justice , Sociodemographic Factors , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Socio-Environmental Responsibility , Hierarchy, Social , Human Rights , Individuation , Jurisprudence , Leadership , Lobbying , Mass Behavior , Mass Media , Military Personnel , Occupational Groups
5.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 34-40, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998837

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPG) has been shown to reduce inter-physician practice variation and improve quality of care. This study evaluated guideline adherence of physicians in two tertiary public hospitals to local CPG on COVID-19. @*Methods@#This was a multicenter, retrospective chart review, rapid assessment method study. Guideline adherence and non-adherence (overuse and underuse) to 15 strong recommendations in the prevailing Philippine COVID-19 Living Recommendations were assessed among a sample of patients admitted in two centers from July to October 2021. Differences in adherence across COVID-19 disease severities and managing hospital units were analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 723 patient charts from two centers were reviewed. Guideline adherence to dexamethasone use among patients with hypoxemia is 91.4% (95% CI 88.6 to 93.6) with 9.2% overuse. Tocilizumab was underused in 52.2% of patients with indications to receive the drug. There was overuse of empiric antibiotics in 43.6% of patients without suspicion of bacterial coinfection. Lowest adherence to antibiotic use was seen among patients with critical disease severity and those managed in the intensive care unit. None of the other non-recommended treatment modalities were given. @*Conclusion@#Management of COVID-19 in both centers was generally adherent to guideline recommendations. We detected high underuse of tocilizumab probably related to the global supply shortage during the study period and high overuse of antibiotics in patients without suspicion of bacterial coinfection. While the results of this study cannot be generalized in other healthcare settings, we recommend the application of similar rapid assessment studies in guideline adherence evaluation as a quality improvement tool and to identify issues with resource utilization especially during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Guideline Adherence , COVID-19 , Quality Improvement
6.
Rev. enferm. Cent.-Oeste Min ; 12: 4553, nov. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1418726

ABSTRACT

Objetivos:descrever a concordância dos enfermeiros quanto à avaliação, diagnóstico e prevenção de delirium em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e verificar a associação da concordância ao perfil sociodemográfico dos profissionais. Método:estudo transversal realizado nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva geral e cardiológica de um hospital de alta complexidade, entre janeiro e fevereiro de 2018. Participaram 61 enfermeiros por meio de surveyeletrônica com dezessete questões, sendo excluídos os que estavam em férias ou licença médica durante a coleta de dados. Resultados:A mediana de afirmativas com alta concordância foi de 11 por profissional, com 64% da amostra obtendo baixa concordância. As afirmativas com melhor concordância incluíram fatores de risco, algoritmo de avaliação, atuação do enfermeiro e conhecimento sobre sinais da síndrome. Conclusão:Os enfermeiros apresentaram baixa concordância às diretrizes de melhores práticas no manejo do delirium e não foi encontrada associação entre a alta concordância e ascaracterísticas sociodemográficas


Objectives:to describe nurses' agreement to regarding the assessment, diagnosis and preventionof delirium in the Intensive Care Unit and to verify the association of agreement with the sociodemographic profile of professionals. Method:cross-sectional study carried out in the general and cardiac Intensive Care Units of a high-complexity hospital, between January and February 2018. Sixty one nurses participated in an electronic survey with seventeen questions, excluding those who were on vacation or sick leave during the data collection. Results:The median of statements with high agreement was 11 per professional, with 64% of the sample obtaining low agreement. The statements with the best agreement included risk factors, assessment algorithm, nurse's role and knowledge about signs of the syndrome. Conclusion:Nurses showed low agreement with the guidelines for best practices in the management of delirium and no association was found between high agreement and sociodemographic characteristics.


Objetivos:describir la concordancia de enfermeras sobre la evaluación, diagnóstico y prevencióndel delirio en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos y verificar la asociación de concordancia con el perfil sociodemográfico de los profesionales. Método:estudio transversal realizado en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Generales y Cardíacos de un hospital de alta complejidad, entre enero y febrero de 2018. Participaron 61 enfermeras en una encuesta electrónica con diecisiete preguntas, excluyendo a las que se encontraban de vacaciones o baja laboral durante la recopilación de datos. Resultados:La mediana de enunciados con alta concordancia fue de 11 por profesional, con un 64% de la muestra obteniendo baja concordancia. Los enunciados con mejor concordancia incluyeron factores de riesgo, algoritmo de evaluación, rol de la enfermera y conocimiento sobre los signos del síndrome. Conclusión:las enfermeras mostraron bajo acuerdo con las guías de buenas prácticas en el manejo del delirio y no se encontró asociación entre alto acuerdo y características sociodemográficas


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Guideline Adherence , Delirium , Intensive Care Units , Nursing, Team
7.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 38(3): e38305, sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1409862

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: en Uruguay el cáncer de mama (CM) ocupa el primer lugar en incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer en la mujer. Objetivo: conocer la implementación del tamizaje del CM en la práctica clínica habitual y el grado de adhesión a las recomendaciones planteadas en el año 2015 por el Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP) para la detección temprana del CM entre los médicos del primer nivel de atención. Material y métodos: se trata de un estudio observacional descriptivo y transversal. Se aplicó una encuesta dirigida a médicos del primer nivel de atención, de carácter anónimo. Resultados: se incluyeron 169 médicos, 89,4% (151) considera que el uso de la mamografía de tamizaje disminuye la mortalidad por CM, 54,4% (92) indica la mamografía a partir de los 40 años de edad y 38,5% (65) a partir de los 50 años. El 56,8% (96) indica la mamografía cada 2 años en la población de mujeres que se encuentran entre 50 y 69 años. El 65,7% de los encuestados (111) conoce la guía nacional y 47,9% (81) la utiliza, mientras que el 18,9% (32) utiliza recomendaciones de otras sociedades científicas. Conclusión: el presente estudio evidenció que los médicos del primer nivel de atención hacen un uso correcto de las distintas herramientas de tamizaje del CM. Se necesitan medidas activas para desarrollar programas educativos para el personal de salud, que podrían permitirles difundir conocimientos e influir positivamente en las actitudes de los pacientes.


Summary: Introduction: in Uruguay, breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality in women. Objective: to understand the implementation of BC screening among primary care physicians in routine clinical practice and the degree of adherence to the recommendations put forward in 2015 by the Ministry of Public Health (MPH) for the early detection of BC. Materials and methods: this was a descriptive, cross-sectional, observational study. An anonymous survey was administered to physicians working in primary care. Results: 169 physicians were included, 89.4% (151) consider the use of screening mammography decreases mortality from BC, 54.4% (92) indicate mammography from 40 years of age and 38.5% (65) from 50 years of age. The majority (56.8%, 96) indicate mammography every 2 years in the population of women aged 50-69 years. Of the respondents, 65.7% (111) were aware of the national guidelines and 47.9% (81) followed them, while 18.9% (32) followed recommendations from other scientific bodies. Conclusion: this study showed that primary care physicians make correct use of the different BC screening tools. Active measures are needed to develop educational programs for healthcare personnel, which may enable them to disseminate knowledge and positively influence patients' attitudes.


Resumo: Introdução: o câncer de mama (CM) ocupa o primeiro lugar em incidência e mortalidade por câncer em mulheres no Uruguai. Objetivo: conhecer a implementação do rastreamento do CM na prática clínica de rotina e o grau de adesão às recomendações de 2015 do Ministério da Saúde Pública para detecção precoce do CM entre os médicos do primeiro nível de atenção. Material e métodos: trata-se de um estudo observacional descritivo e transversal. Foi aplicada uma pesquisa anônima destinada aos médicos do primeiro nível de atenção. Resultados: foram incluídos 169 médicos; 89,4% (151) consideram que o uso da mamografia de rastreamento diminui a mortalidade por CM, 54,4% (92) indicam mamografia a partir dos 40 anos e 38,5% (65) a partir dos 50 anos; 56,8% (96) indicam mamografia a cada 2 anos na população de mulheres entre 50 e 69 anos. 65,7% dos respondentes (111) conhecem o guia nacional e 47,9% (81) o utilizam, enquanto 18,9% (32) utilizam recomendações de outras sociedades científicas. Conclusão: este estudo mostrou que os médicos do primeiro nível de atenção fazem uso correto das diferentes ferramentas de rastreamento do CM. São necessárias medidas ativas para desenvolver programas educacionais para os profissionais de saúde, que possam permitir que eles disseminem o conhecimento e influenciem positivamente as atitudes dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mass Screening , Primary Health Care , Mammography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Guideline Adherence
8.
São Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 297-304, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366052

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Standard precautions (SPs) are recommended safety measures for healthcare professionals to follow, with a view to preventing healthcare-related infections (HCRIs) and for their own protection. Inadequate adherence to these measures can lead to occurrences of occupational accidents and HCRIs. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the knowledge of and adherence to SP measures among the nursing staff of a hemodialysis service and the relationship of these variables to occurrences of work accidents with biological material. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive cross-sectional and correlational study with a quantitative approach developed in a hemodialysis clinic in Minas Gerais. METHODS: Data were collected through sociodemographic questionnaires and questionnaires on knowledge of and adherence to SPs. RESULTS: 29 professionals participated in the study. It is noteworthy that all of them had already participated in training related to SPs. However, no relationship was identified between knowledge of (15.17 points) and adherence to (71.86 points) SPs. In addition, inferential analysis showed that there was a relationship between suffering a work accident with biological material and the sociodemographic data and knowledge of and adherence to standard precautions. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the SPs that had been established did not mean mastery of the subject. Despite positive results regarding adherence, factors requiring improvement were observed. It was possible to infer the characteristics that gave rise to greater risk of occurrences of accidents at work. Thus, this study showed the importance of assessing knowledge of and adherence to SP, in order to optimize and direct continuing education towards resolving occupational exposure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Guideline Adherence , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Renal Dialysis , Infection Control/methods
9.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e242969, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422387

ABSTRACT

Este artigo tem como objetivo trabalhar com a concepção de "conhecimento encarnado" defendida por Ignácio Martín-Baró, estabelecendo relações entre este conceito e o campo da Psicologia Social. Num primeiro momento, fazemos uma pequena contextualização dos efeitos de uma greve universitária que durou quatro meses, considerando que os principais efeitos que devemos debater são aqueles que estão relacionados às experimentações do espaço educacional, assim como às ressonâncias das narrativas externas ao mundo universitário. Em seguida, mesclamos experiências do cotidiano da universidade com narrativas de diferentes atores sociais sobre a greve e a própria formação, a fim de desenvolver uma teoria analítica das práticas educacionais em Psicologia Social a partir de um diálogo com Ignácio Martín-Baró. Destacamos as três perguntas apresentadas pelo autor para problematizar a história da Psicologia Social: o que nos mantém unidos numa ordem social? O que nos integra à ordem estabelecida? O que nos libera da desordem estabelecida? Entre os diferentes conceitos criados pelo autor, privilegiamos a ideia de conhecimento encarnado, realidade vivida, realidade estudada e ação ideológica.(AU)


This article aims to work with the conception of "incarnate knowledge" defended by Ignácio Martin-Baró establishing relationships between this concept and the field of Social Psychology. At first, we briefly contextualize the effects of a strike in the university environment that lasted four months, considering that the main effects that we should debate are those related to experimentations of the educational space and the resonances of the external narratives in the university world. Then, we blended experiences of the university's quotidian with narratives of different social actors about the strike and the training itself to develop an analytic theory of the educational practices in Social Psychology from a dialog with Ignácio Martin-Baró. We highlight three questions presented by the author to challenge the history of Social Psychology: what holds us together in a social order? What integrates us into the established order? What frees us from the established disorder? Among the different concepts created by the author, we privileged the idea of incarnate knowledge, lived reality, studied reality, and ideological action.(AU)


Este artículo pretende trabajar con la concepción de conocimiento defendida por Ignácio Martín-Baró, estableciendo relaciones entre este conocimiento y el campo de la psicología social. En un primer momento, hacemos una pequeña contextualización de los efectos de una huelga universitaria, que tuvo una duración de cuatro meses, considerando que los principales efectos los cuales debemos debatir son aquellos que están relacionados con las experimentaciones del espacio educacional, así como las resonancias de las narrativas externas al mundo universitario. A continuación, mezclamos experiencias de un cotidiano de la universidad con narrativas de diferentes actores sociales sobre la huelga y la propia formación, con la finalidad de desarrollar una teoría analítica de las prácticas educacionales en la psicología social a partir de un diálogo con Ignácio Martin-Baró. Destacamos las tres preguntas presentadas por el autor para problematizar la historia de la psicología social: ¿Qué nos mantiene unidos en el orden social establecido? ¿Qué nos integra al orden establecido? ¿Qué nos libera del desorden establecido? Entre los diferentes conceptos creados por el autor, privilegiamos la idea de un conocimiento encarnado, realidad vivida, realidad estudiada y acción ideológica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology, Social , Teaching , Knowledge , Education , Persuasive Communication , Philosophy , Politics , Psychology , Repression, Psychology , Social Conformity , Social Problems , Socioeconomic Factors , Strikes, Employee , Universities , Work , Comment , Letter , Civil Rights , Conflict, Psychological , Guideline Adherence , Africa , Personal Autonomy , Comprehension , Environment , Science, Technology and Society , Ethics , Faculty , Indigenous Culture , Respect , Corruption , Functional Status , Information Motivation Behavioral Skills Model , History , Human Rights , Machiavellianism
11.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 55(5): 1101-1123, set.-out. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356836

ABSTRACT

Abstract Over two decades ago, Bardach (1998, p. 4) highlighted a core problem of public administration: "Agencies cooperate? Of course not!" One of the solutions identified by scholars and practitioners has been the center of government (CoG), that is, organizations created by elected officials to facilitate inter-ministerial cooperation for the design and implementation of priority policies. Originally developed in European parliamentary systems or at Franklin Roosevelt's presidential center in the United States, the CoG has recently gained momentum in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) after a collective effort between the IDB and the OECD. This paper maps the historical path and most recent institutional design of CoG organizations in 27 LAC countries as of 2020. The outcome of an exhaustive data collection process is a typology with five dimensions and 15 ideal types that help scholars and practitioners to better understand how and why these organizations have now been widely adopted in the region.


Resumen Hace dos décadas, Bardach (1998, p. 4) planteó un problema central de la administración pública: "¿Cooperan las agencias? ¡Claro que no!" Una de las soluciones identificadas por académicos y practicantes ha sido el centro de gobierno (CdG), es decir, organizaciones creadas por oficiales electos para facilitar la cooperación interministerial para el diseño e implementación de políticas públicas. Desarrollado originalmente en los sistemas parlamentarios europeos y en el centro presidencial de Franklin Roosevelt en Estados Unidos, el CdG ganó impulso en América Latina y el Caribe (ALC) recientemente después de un esfuerzo colectivo entre el BID y la OCDE. Este artículo traza la trayectoria histórica y el diseño institucional actual de las organizaciones en el CdG en 27 países de ALC. El resultado de una recopilación de datos exhaustiva es una tipología con cinco dimensiones y 15 tipos ideales con el potencial de ayudar a los investigadores y practicantes a comprender mejor cómo y por qué estas organizaciones se han adoptado ampliamente en la región.


Resumo Há duas décadas atrás, Bardach (1998, p. 4) afirmou um problema central da administração pública: "As agências cooperam? Claro que não!" Uma das soluções identificadas por acadêmicos e praticantes tem sido o centro de governo (CdG), isto é, organizações criadas por oficiais eleitos para facilitar a cooperação interministerial para o desenho e implementação de políticas públicas. Originalmente desenvolvidas em sistemas parlamentares europeus e no centro presidencial de Franklin Roosevelt nos Estados Unidos, o CdG ganhou momentum na América Latina e no Caribe (ALC) recentemente após um esforço coletivo entre o BID e a OCDE. Este artigo mapeia o caminho histórico e o desenho institucional atual das organizações no CdG em 27 países da ALC. O resultado de uma coleção exaustiva de dados é uma tipologia com cinco dimensões e 15 tipos ideais com o potencial de auxiliar pesquisadores e praticantes a entender melhor como e porque estas organizações têm sido amplamente adotadas na região.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Politics , Public Administration , Guideline Adherence , Federal Government , Latin America
12.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(4): 459-467, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287039

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To study the impact of the implementation of the Pediatric Surviving Sepsis Campaign protocol on early recognition of sepsis, 1 -h treatment bundle and mortality. Methods Retrospective, single-center study, before and after the implementation of the sepsis protocol. Outcomes: sepsis recognition, compliance with the 1 -h bundle (fluid resuscitation, blood culture, antibiotics), time interval to fluid resuscitation and antibiotics administration, and mortality. Patients with febrile neutropenia were excluded. The comparisons between the periods were performed using non-parametric tests and odds ratios or relative risk were calculated. Results We studied 84 patients before and 103 after the protocol implementation. There was an increase in sepsis recognition (OR 21.5 [95% CI: 10.1-45.7]), in the compliance with the 1 -h bundle as a whole (62% x 0%), and with its three components: fluid resuscitation (OR 31.1 [95% CI: 3.9−247.2]), blood culture (OR 15.9 [95% CI: 3.9−65.2]), and antibiotics (OR 35.6 [95% CI: 8.9−143.2]). Significant reduction between sepsis recognition to fluid resuscitation (152min × 12min, p < 0.001) and to antibiotics administration (137min × 30min) also occurred. The risk of death before protocol implementation was four times greater (RR 4.1 [95% CI: 1.2-14.4]), and the absolute death risk reduction was 9%. Conclusion Even if we considered the low precision of some estimates, the lower limits of the Confidence Intervals show that the implementation of the Pediatric Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines alongside a qualitive assurance initiative has led to improvements in sepsis recognition, compliance with the 1 -h treatment bundle, reduction in the time interval to fluid resuscitation and antibiotics, and reduction in sepsis mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pediatrics , Shock, Septic , Sepsis/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Guideline Adherence , Fluid Therapy
13.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 327-331, may.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346115

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Ante la pandemia de COVID-19, el apego a las medidas de higiene es un objetivo para disminuir la morbimortalidad. Objetivo: Evaluar el apego a la higiene de manos y medidas de protección durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en un hospital de tercer nivel. Métodos: Estudio transversal acerca del lavado de manos del personal de salud en los cinco tiempos recomendados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, así como sobre el uso del equipo de protección personal específico. Resultados: Fueron observadas 117 oportunidades de higiene de manos en personal de salud: 40 (34 %) respecto al lavado de manos y 76 (65 %) respecto a su omisión; sobre el apego al uso de careta en cinco (4 %) y sobre la falta de apego en 112 (96 %). Se identificó apego al uso de mascarilla en 65 profesionales de enfermería (87 %), uso adecuado de mascarilla en 56 de ellos (60 %) y uso de careta en uno (1 %.) Conclusión: El personal mostró baja proporción de apego a la higiene de manos y al uso de equipo para la protección específica durante la pandemia de COVID-19.


Abstract Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, adherence to hygiene measures is an objective aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality. Objective: To evaluate adherence to hand hygiene and protection measures during the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional study on health personnel handwashing at the five moments recommended by the World Health Organization, as well as on the use of specific personal protective equipment. Results: One hundred and seventeen hand hygiene opportunities were observed in health personnel. Hand washing was observed in 40 (34 %) and omission in 76 (65 %). Adherence to the use of face shield was observed in five (4 %), and lack of adherence in 112 (96%). Adherence to the use of face mask was observed in 65 nursing professionals (87 %), with appropriate use of the mask in 56 of them (60 %) and use of face shield in one (1 %). Conclusion: Health personnel showed low proportions of adherence to hand hygiene and use of equipment for specific protection during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Personnel, Hospital/standards , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Hand Hygiene/standards
14.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 20: e20216503, 05 maio 2021.
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1352727

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: descrever o processo de implementação do programa de prevenção de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes em um hospital público. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo, com análise retrospectiva documental, desenvolvido a partir da leitura exploratória, seletiva e analítica dos conteúdos presentes em registros do Serviço Especializado em Engenharia de Segurança e em Medicina do Trabalho. A coleta de dados foi realizada com o preenchimento de um formulário semiestruturado e as análises foram baseadas nas adequações do programa às diretrizes da Portaria n° 1.748 do Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego. RESULTADOS: o processo de implementação do programa foi concluído em oito etapas e atendeu às diretrizes da Portaria. O programa aperfeiçoou as medidas de controle convencionais e levou à adoção de medidas de engenharia. Pela avaliação da Comissão Gestora, o programa contribuiu para a redução dos acidentes. CONCLUSÃO: a implantação do programa foi bem-sucedida, servindo como modelo para outros hospitais brasileiros.


OBJECTIVE: to describe the implementation process of the program to prevent accidents with sharps in a public hospital. METHOD: a descriptive study, with retrospective documentary analysis, developed from the exploratory, selective and analytical reading of the contents present in records of the Specialized Service in Safety Engineering and Occupational Medicine. Data collection was performed by filling out a semi-structured form and the analyses were based on the program's adaptations to the guidelines set forth in Ordinance No.1,748 of the Ministry of Labor and Employment. RESULTS: the program's implementation process was completed in eight stages and met the directives set forth in the Ordinance. The program improved the conventional control measures and led to the adoption of engineering measures. According to the evaluation by the Management Commission, the program contributed to a reduction in the number of accidents. CONCLUSION: implementation of the program was successful, serving as a model for other Brazilian hospitals


OBJETIVO: describir el proceso de implementación del programa de prevención de accidentes con objetos punzocortantes en un hospital público. MÉTODO: estudio descriptivo con análisis documental retrospectivo, llevado a cabo a partir de la lectura exploratoria, selectiva y analítica de los contenidos presentes en los registros del Servicio Especializado en Ingeniería de la Seguridad y Medicina del Trabajo. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante la cumplimentación de un formulario semiestructurado y los análisis sebasaron en las adaptaciones del programa a las directrices de la Disposición nro. 1.748 del Ministerio de Trabajo y Empleo. RESULTADOS: el proceso de implementación del programa se completó en ocho etapas y cumplió con las directrices de la Disposición. El programa perfeccionó las medidas de control convencionales y condujo a la adopción de medidas de ingeniería. Según la evaluación del Comité de Gestión, el programa contribuyó a la reducción de accidentes. CONCLUSIÓN: la implementación del programa fue exitosa y sirve de modelo para otros hospitales brasileños.


Subject(s)
Humans , Accidents, Occupational/prevention & control , Occupational Health , Needlestick Injuries , Guideline Adherence , Accident Prevention , Hospitals, Public
15.
Rev. direito sanit ; 21: e0015, 20210407.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424947

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo objetivou examinar como se dá a cooperação em saúde entre o Brasil e os países de língua oficial portuguesa, de forma tanto bilateral quanto multilateral, com destaque para as ações adotadas pela Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa. Após análise dos desafios às iniciativas de cooperação, apontaram-se os avanços já obtidos e as perspectivas que se apresentam, com vistas a concretizar o cumprimento das metas da Agenda 2030 da Organização das Nações Unidas. Também se evidenciou a necessidade de minimizar os atrasos e paralisações que ocorrem quando há mudanças administrativas; de criar um marco legal que defina como se deve dar a cooperação brasileira nos planos bilateral e multilateral, fundada nos princípios que regem o Estado em suas relações internacionais, na busca de sustentabilidade financeira e em uma melhor análise prévia dos projetos a serem desenvolvidos, com uma avaliação posterior de seus resultados; bem como a necessidade de estabelecer mecanismos de resposta a crises humanitárias. Concluiu-se que a cooperação em saúde proporciona um aprendizado recíproco e pode ser vista como uma ferramenta de aperfeiçoamento nessa área. A pesquisa adotou metodologia analítica e quantitativa, de cunho bibliográfico e documental, e se pretendeu exploratória ao apontar possíveis respostas às questões levantadas.


This article aimed to examine how health cooperation between Brazil and Portuguese-speaking countries takes place, both bilaterally and multilaterally, with emphasis on the actions taken by the Community of Portuguese-speaking Countries. After analyzing the challenges to cooperation initiatives, the advances already achieved and the prospects presented were pointed out, with a view to achieving the goals of the 2030 Agenda of the United Nations. It also highlighted the need to minimize delays and stoppages that occur when there are administrative changes; to create a legal framework that defines how Brazilian cooperation should take place at bilateral and multilateral levels, based on the principles that govern the State, in its international relations, in the search for financial sustainability and a better prior analysis of the projects to be developed, with a further evaluation of its results; as well as the need to establish mechanisms to respond to humanitarian crises. It was conclude that health cooperation provides reciprocal learning and can be seen as a tool for improvement in this area. The research adopted an analytical and quantitative methodology, of bibliographic and documentary nature, and intended to be exploratory in pointing out possible answers to the questions raised.


Subject(s)
Guideline Adherence
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(1): 22-26, feb. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388201

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La adherencia a la higiene de manos (HM) por parte del personal de salud es de 38% a nivel mundial. Con la estrategia multimodal de la OMS se incluyeron los preparados de base alcohólica como un componente para la mejora de la HM. La campaña "los 5 momentos de la HM" incentiva a utilizar este producto que, entre otros beneficios, su aplicación ocupa menor tiempo en comparación con el lavado de manos. OBJETIVO: Conocer cuáles son los factores facilitadores o las barreras que favorecen o dificultan el uso de preparados de base alcohólica por el personal de salud para aumentar la adherencia a la HM según la estrategia multimodal de la OMS. MÉTODOS: Fueron utilizadas dos bases de datos PubMed y CINHAL (años 2009 - 2019). Los artículos fueron seleccionados según criterios de inclusión - exclusión. RESULTADOS: De 30 artículos se seleccionaron 12, los que tenían como tema central la adherencia a la HM, personal de salud y preparados de base alcohólica. Se organizaron en facilitadores y barreras: infraestructura, presentación del producto y capacitación del personal. DISCUSIÓN: Los facilitadores y barreras que más impacto reportan en aumentar la adherencia a la HM son la infraestructura, acceso, disponibilidad en el punto de atención, presentación del producto y capacitación al personal de salud sobre los productos de base alcohólica para la desinfección de las manos, con el fin de disminuir las IAAS y brindar una atención segura.


INTRODUCTION: The compliance with HH (hand hygiene) practices by health personnel is 38.7% worldwide. Using a multimodal strategy of the WHO (World Health Organization), alcohol based products was introduced. The campaign "The five moments of HH" encourages the use of this product which offers countless benefits, an important one being that it takes much less time compared to hand washing. OBJECTIVE: To discover what the motivating factors or barriers are that favor or hinder the use of alcohol based products by health personnel, in order to increase compliance with HH according to the WHO multimodal strategy. METHODS: Two databases were used; PubMed and CINHAL (from 2009 - 2019) The articles were selected according to inclusion - exclusion criteria. RESULTS: From 30 articles, 12 were selected that had HH compliance, health personnel and alcohol based products as their main topics. They were organized into motivating factors and barriers: using infrastructure, product presentation and staff training. DISCUSSION: Discovering the motivating factors and the barriers is essential to directing the efforts of strategies that include these points and to increase the compliance of HH with health personnel in order to reduce the HCAI (Health Care Associated Infection) and provide safe healthcare.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Hand Disinfection , Infection Control , Health Personnel , Guideline Adherence
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(1): 197-208, jan. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153759

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este estudo avaliou a adesão de médicos ao Protocolo Clínico e Diretrizes Terapêuticas para a Doença de Parkinson (PCDT-DP), no âmbito do SUS. Dois métodos complementares foram utilizados: avaliação descritiva de 375 solicitações de medicamentos encaminhadas à Assistência Farmacêutica da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde do Rio Grande do Sul, de março a setembro de 2016, e levantamento por meio de questionário estruturado aos prescritores para investigar a percepção de barreiras à utilização. Apenas 5,33% das solicitações analisadas apresentaram adesão completa às recomendações do protocolo. As solicitações oriundas de especialistas em DP tiveram maior adesão aos critérios para o diagnóstico (p<0,05) e dose do medicamento (p<0,05). Dentre as respostas ao questionário destacaram-se como principais barreiras a falta de tempo para preenchimento dos documentos obrigatórios (52%) e nenhum ou pouco conhecimento sobre o protocolo (48%). Médicos com menor tempo de exercício de profissão tendem a perceber menos barreiras para a utilização do protocolo (p<0,05). Os resultados indicam a necessidade de ações de implementação do PCDT-DP à prática médica, direcionadas às equipes assistenciais e de gestão, e maior integração da assistência farmacêutica com a rede de atenção.


Abstract This study evaluated the adherence of physicians to the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines on Parkinson's Disease (CPTG-PD) within the scope of the Unified Health System (SUS). A descriptive analysis of 375 drug application documents sent to the Pharmaceutical Services of the Rio Grande do Sul State Public Health Department (AF/SES/RS) between March and September 2016, and a structured survey to evaluate the physician's perception about the protocol and barriers to its use was conducted. Only 5.33% of the requests analyzed presented all the necessary data, considering the criteria of the protocol. The requests from specialists had a higher percentage of adherence to the diagnostic and dose criteria (p<0.05). The main barriers to protocol use were the lack of awareness or familiarity with the protocol (48%) and the lack of time to complete the mandatory documents (52%). More recently qualified physicians tended to perceive fewer barriers to protocol use (p<0.05). The results indicate that actions are still necessary to implement the PCDT-DP in medical practice, focusing on care and management teams. Greater integration between pharmaceutical assistance and the healthcare network is needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Physicians , Perception , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Brazil , Clinical Protocols , Guideline Adherence
18.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3407, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1289783

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze, in the clinical practice of large hospitals, how the adoption of measures to prevent and control the spread of bacterial resistance has occurred, and to propose a score for the institutions' adherence. Method: a cross-sectional study carried out in 30 large hospitals of Minas Gerais, from February 2018 to April 2019, after approval by the Ethics and Research Committee. Interviews were conducted with hospital managers, with Hospital Infection Control Services coordinators, and with the care coordinators of the Inpatient Units and Intensive Care Center. In addition, observations were made of the adoption of preventive measures by the multidisciplinary team in the care units. Results: in the 30 participating hospitals, 93.3% (N=28) had protocols for prophylactic antibiotics, and 86.7% (N=26) performed their audit, 86.7% (N=26) for therapeutic antibiotics and 83.3% (N=25) their audit; 93.3% (N=56) used gloves and cloaks for patients in contact precautions, and 78.3% (N=47) of the professionals were unaware of or answered incompletely on the five moments for hand hygiene. In the score to identify the adoption of measures to control bacterial resistance, 83.3% (N=25) of the hospitals were classified as partially compliant, 13.3% (N=04) as deficient, and 3.4% (N=01) as non-adoption. Conclusion: it was found that the recommended measures to contain bacterial resistance are not consolidated in the clinical practice of the hospitals.


Objetivo: analisar, na prática clínica dos hospitais de grande porte como tem ocorrido a adoção das medidas de prevenção e controle da disseminação da resistência bacteriana e propor um escore de adesão das instituições. Método: estudo transversal realizado em 30 hospitais de grande porte de Minas Gerais, no período de fevereiro de 2018 a abril de 2019, após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa. Realizaram-se entrevistas com os gestores dos hospitais, com os coordenadores dos Serviços de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar e com os coordenadores assistenciais das Unidades de Internação e Centro de Terapia Intensiva. Além disso, conduziram-se observações da adoção das medidas de prevenção pela equipe multiprofissional nas unidades assistenciais. Resultados: nos 30 hospitais participantes, 93,3% (N=28) apresentaram protocolos para antibióticos profiláticos, e 86,7% (N=26) realizavam sua auditoria, 86,7% (N=26) para antibióticos terapêuticos e 83,3% (N=25) sua auditoria; 93,3% (N=56) utilizavam luvas e capotes para pacientes em precaução de contato, e 78,3% (N=47) dos profissionais desconheciam ou responderam de forma incompleta sobre os cinco momentos para higienização das mãos. No escore para identificar a adoção das medidas de controle da resistência bacteriana, 83,3% (N=25) dos hospitais foram classificados como com adesão parcial, 13,3% (N=04) com adesão deficiente e 3,4% (N=01) como não adoção. Conclusão: constatou-se que as medidas recomendadas para contenção da resistência bacteriana não estão consolidadas na prática clínica dos hospitais.


Objetivo: analizar, en la práctica clínica de los hospitales de gran porte, cómo se ha producido la adopción de medidas preventivas y de control de la propagación de resistencias bacterianas y proponer un puntaje de adhesión de las instituciones. Método: estudio transversal realizado en 30 hospitales de gran porte de Minas Gerais, de febrero de 2018 a abril de 2019, previa aprobación del Comité de Ética e Investigación. Se realizaron entrevistas con los administradores de los hospitales, con los coordinadores de los Servicios de Control de Infección Hospitalaria y con los coordinadores de atención de las Unidades de Internación y del Centro de Cuidados Intensivos. Además, se hicieron observaciones sobre la adopción de medidas preventivas por parte del equipo multidisciplinario en las unidades de atención. Resultados: en los 30 hospitales participantes, el 93,3% (N=28) presentaban protocolos de antibióticos profilácticos, y el 86,7% (N=26) realizaron su auditoría, el 86,7% (N=26) de antibióticos terapéuticos y el 83,3% (N=25) realizaron su auditoría; El 93,3% (N=56) utilizó guantes y batas para los pacientes en precaución de contacto, y el 78,3% (N=47) de los profesionales desconocía o respondía de forma incompleta sobre los cinco momentos de higiene de manos. En el puntaje para identificar la adopción de medidas para el control de la resistencia bacteriana, el 83,3% (N=25) de los hospitales se clasificaron como con adhesión parcial, el 13,3% (N=04) con adhesión deficiente y el 3,4% (N=01) como sin adopción. Conclusión: se descubrió que las medidas recomendadas para contener la resistencia bacteriana no están consolidadas en la práctica clínica de los hospitales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infection Control , Guideline Adherence , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Patient Safety , Epidemiological Monitoring , Hand Hygiene , Hospitals
19.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252042

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. Estimate the acceptability and adoption by health care workers of clinical practice guidelines and treatment protocols for women with preeclampsia/eclampsia and identify the facilitating factors and barriers to their implementation. Methods. A qualitative study was conducted, using semi-structured interviews and focus groups in five maternity hospitals. Interviews were compiled for analysis, and barriers and facilitators were characterized. Results. Seventy health professionals (52 female and 18 male) participated, representing different levels of the health system. The majority of workers and managers were aware of the existence and content of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for preeclampsia/eclampsia, especially the participants with more time in the health service. With respect to facilitating factors, both medical and nursing staff were positive about continued development and implementation of high-quality CPGs. There was consensus that limitations exist, especially with respect to a lack of the necessary medicines, supplies, and equipment to meet and implement the established recommendations. Discussion. The results of the study show the need to strengthen strategies that help close the gap between research and public policy. Studies suggest that research should focus on users, policymakers, and decisionmakers in the health system. The actors in the Dominican health system recognize the GRADE methodology as an appropriate instrument for the development and implementation of CPGs. Implementation barriers require systemic and comprehensive approaches.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Estimar la aceptabilidad y adopción de las guías de prática clínica (GPC) y protocolos de atención a la mujer con preeclampsia-eclampsia por parte del personal prestador de los servicios de salud, e identificar los factores facilitadores y las barreras para su implementación. Métodos. Se desarrolló un estudio cualitativo por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas y grupos focales en cinco maternidades. Se recopilaron las entrevistas para su análisis y se caracterizaron las barreras y facilitadores. Resultados. Participaron 70 profesionales de la salud (52 de sexo femenino y 18 de sexo masculino) que se desempeñan en distintos niveles del sistema de salud, participaron. La mayoría de los prestadores y gerentes conocen la existencia de las GPC de eclampsia-preeclampsia y su contenido, sobre todo los participantes con más tiempo en el servicio. Para los facilitadores, se estableció una valoración positiva entre el personal médico y de enfermería ante el proceso de continuar con la elaboración e implementación de GPC de alta calidad. Hubo consenso en cuanto a la existencia de limitaciones, sobre todo, por la falta de medicamentos, insumos y equipos requeridos, para cumplir y aplicar las recomendaciones formuladas. Discusión. Los resultados del estudio exponen la necesidad de fortalecer estrategias que ayuden a cerrar la brecha entre la investigación y la política pública. Estudios fundamentan la investigación en priorizar la atención a los usuarios, y los encargados de formular políticas y los tomadores de decisiones en el sistema de salud. Los actores del sistema de salud dominicano reconocen la metodología GRADE como un instrumento apropiado para la formulación e implementación de GPC. Las barreras de implementación requieren de abordajes sistémicos e integrales.


RESUMO Objetivo. Estimar a aceitabilidade e a adoção de diretrizes de prática clínica (DPCs) e protocolos de atenção para mulheres com pré-eclâmpsia e eclâmpsia por profissionais da saúde e identificar os fatores facilitadores e barreiras à sua implementação. Métodos. Desenvolvemos um estudo qualitativo baseado em entrevistas semiestruturadas e grupos focais em cinco maternidades. As entrevistas foram coletadas para análise, sendo caracterizadas as barreiras e fatores facilitadores. Resultados. O estudo contou com a participação de 70 profissionais da saúde (52 mulheres e 18 homens) que trabalham em diferentes níveis do sistema de saúde. Em sua maioria, os profissionais e administradores estão cientes da existência de DPCs para pré-eclâmpsia e eclâmpsia e conhecem seu conteúdo, especialmente os que têm mais tempo de experiência. Em relação aos fatores facilitadores, os profissionais médicos e de enfermagem consideraram positivo o processo de elaboração e implementação de DPCs de alta qualidade. Houve consenso sobre a existência de limitações, especialmente no que diz respeito à falta de medicamentos, insumos e equipamentos necessários para cumprir e implementar as recomendações. Discussão. Os resultados do estudo deixam clara a necessidade de reforçar as estratégias que ajudam a estabelecer vínculos entre a pesquisa e as políticas públicas. A pesquisa futura deve priorizar a atenção aos usuários e o apoio aos decisores e responsáveis pela elaboração de políticas no sistema de saúde. Os atores do sistema de saúde dominicano reconhecem a metodologia GRADE como um instrumento apropriado para a formulação e implementação de DPCs. As barreiras à implementação exigem abordagens sistêmicas e abrangentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/therapy , Attitude of Health Personnel , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Eclampsia/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Dominican Republic
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