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1.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 31(3): 465-469, Sep.-Dec. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1356365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: the involvement of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) in COVID-19 is rare and, to date, morphological aspects from muscle and nerve biopsies have not been reported. Here, we describe a case of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) related to COVID-19 and demonstrate findings from peripheral nerve and skeletal muscle biopsies. A 79-year-old man presented with progressive weakness in both legs over one-week, evolving to both arms and urinary retention within 6 days. Four days earlier, he had a cough, febrile sensation and mild respiratory discomfort. On admission, his was afebrile, and without respiratory distress. A neurological examination disclosed asymmetric proximal weakness, diminished reflexes and no sensitive abnormalities. Three days later, the patient presented with bilateral facial weakness and proximal muscle strength worsened. Deep tendon reflexes and plantar responses were absent. Both superficial and profound sensitivity were decreased. From this point, oxygen saturation worsened, and the patient was placed on mechanical ventilation. CSF testing revealed one cell and protein 185 mg/dl. A chest CT showed the presence of ground-glass opacities and RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was positive. The muscle biopsy revealed moderate neuromyopathic findings with positive expression for MHC-class I, C5b9, CD8 and CD68. The nerve biopsy showed inflammatory infiltrates predominantly with endoneurial compound formed by CD45 and CD68. The patient was treated with Oseltamivir for 9 days followed by IVIG for 5 days and died three days later of septic shock. DISCUSSION: this is the first documented case of GBS associated with COVID-19 with a muscle and nerve anatomopathological study. A systematic review about neurological complications caused by COVID-19 described 11 patients with GBS. The morphological features reported in our patient showed signs of involvement of the immune system, suggesting that direct viral invasion could have played a role in the pathogenesis of peripheral nerve injury. Hereafter, further research will be necessary to understand the triggers for these cells migrating into the peripheral nerve.


INTRODUÇÃO: O envolvimento do sistema nervoso periférico (SNP) na COVID-19 é raro e, até o momento, os aspectos morfológicos de biópsias de músculo e nervo não foram relatados. Descrevemos um caso de Síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) na vigência de COVID-19 destacando os achados na biopsia de músculo e nervo. Um homem de 79 anos apresentou fraqueza progressiva em ambas as pernas ao longo de uma semana, evoluindo para ambos os braços e retenção urinária em 6 dias. Quatro dias antes, apresentou tosse, sensação febril e leve desconforto respiratório. Na admissão, apresentava-se afebril e sem alteração respiratória. O exame neurológico mostrou fraqueza proximal assimétrica, reflexos diminuídos e sensibilidade preservada. Três dias após, o paciente evoluiu com fraqueza facial bilateral e piora da força muscular proximal. Reflexos tendinosos profundos e cutâneo plantar ausentes bilateralmente. A sensibilidade superficial e profunda estavam diminuídas. Evoluiu com piora na saturação de oxigênio sendo colocado sob ventilação mecânica. O exame de liquor revelou uma célula e aumento de proteína (185 mg / dl). A TC de tórax revelou a presença de opacidades em vidro fosco e o RT-PCR para SARS-CoV-2 foi positivo. A biópsia muscular mostrou achados neuromiopáticos moderados com imunoexpressão positiva para MHC classe I, C5b9, CD8 e CD68. A biópsia de nervo revelou infiltrado inflamatório inflamatórios predominantemente endoneural composto por CD45 e CD68. O paciente foi tratado com Oseltamivir por 9 dias seguido de IVIG por 5 dias indo a óbito após três dias por choque séptico. DISCUSSÃO: Este é o primeiro caso documentado de SGB associada a COVID-19 com estudo anatomopatológico de músculo e nervo. Uma revisão sistemática de complicações neurológicas associadas à COVID-19 descreveu 11 pacientes com SGB. As características morfológicas em nosso paciente mostrando sinais de envolvimento do sistema imunológico sugere que a invasão viral direta pode ter colaborado no processo patogênico da lesão neuromuscular. A partir daí, mais pesquisas serão necessárias para entender os gatilhos para essas células migrarem para o nervo periférico.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Peripheral Nervous System , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , COVID-19
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(5): 817-836, oct. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351056

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) es una enfermedad inmunológica del nervio periférico y las raíces nerviosas, poco frecuente, potencialmente mortal y que suele desencadenarse por infecciones. La incidencia del SGB puede aumentar durante el brote de enfermedades infecciosas, tal como se observó en las epidemias del virus Zika en la Polinesia Francesa en 2013 y en América Latina en 2015. El diagnóstico y el manejo clínico del SGB pueden ser complicados ya que su presentación y el curso de la enfermedad son heterogéneos, y actualmente no se cuenta con guías clínicas internacionales. Para respaldar a los médicos, especialmente en el contexto de un brote de una enfermedad infecciosa, hemos desarrollado una guía clínica aplicable en todo el mundo para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del SGB. La guía se basa en literatura actualizada y el consenso de expertos, y tiene una estructura de diez pasos para facilitar su uso en la práctica clínica. Inicialmente, brindamos una introducción a los criterios de diagnóstico, variantes clínicas y diagnósticos diferenciales del SGB. Los diez pasos luego abordan el reconocimiento y el diagnóstico temprano del SGB, la admisión a la unidad de cuidados intensivos, indicación y selección de tratamiento, seguimiento y tratamiento de la progresión de la enfermedad, predicción del curso clínico, resultados y tratamiento de complicaciones y secuelas.


Abstract Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare, but potentially fatal, immune-mediated disease of the peripheral nerves and nerve roots that is usually triggered by infections. The incidence of GBS can therefore increase during outbreaks of infectious diseases, as was seen during the Zika virus epidemics in 2013 in French Polynesia and in 2015 in Latin America. Diagnosis and management of GBS can be complicated as its clinical presentation and disease course are heterogeneous, and no international clinical guidelines are currently available. To support clinicians, especially in the context of an outbreak, we have developed a globally applicable guideline for the diagnosis and management of GBS. The guideline is based on current literature and expert consensus, and has a ten-step structure to facilitate its use in clinical practice. We first provide an introduction to the diag nostic criteria, clinical variants and differential diagnoses of GBS. The ten steps then cover early recognition and diagnosis of GBS, admission to the intensive care unit, treatment indication and selection, monitoring and treatment of disease progression, prediction of clinical course and outcome, and management of complications and sequelae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/therapy , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Incidence , Disease Outbreaks , Zika Virus
3.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 72(2): 210-218, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289318

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Reportar el caso de una paciente gestante con síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) presentado en la variante denominada síndrome de Miller Fisher (SMF), y realizar una revisión en torno al diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico de esta variedad de SGB durante la gestación. Materiales y métodos: Se presenta el caso de una gestante de 27 semanas con síndrome de Miller Fisher, quien fue tratada con plasmaféresis en un hospital militar de referencia, con evolución satisfactoria a los 15 días y continuación normal del embarazo, parto a las 38 semanas con recién nacido sano. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en bases de datos electrónicas: Medline vía PubMed, Lilacs, SciELO, ScienceDirect, Ovid, con los términos "Embarazo", "Síndrome de Miller Fisher", "Síndrome de Guillain-Barré". Se incluyeron cohortes, series y reportes de casos de mujeres gestantes con síndrome de Miller Fisher; se extrajo información sobre los métodos diagnósticos, el tratamiento utilizado y el pronóstico materno y perinatal. La búsqueda se hizo en junio de 2020, sin restricción por fecha, pero sí por tipo de idioma (español e inglés). Resultados: Se identificaron 423 títulos, tres estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusión, los tres correspondieron a reportes de caso. Todos los casos mostraron seropositividad para antigangliósidos GQ1b positivos; en ningún caso hubo alteración imagenológica. Dos pacientes recibieron inmunoglobulina intravenosa y la tercera paciente se dejó en observación. Hasta el momento no se documentan complicaciones obstétricas. Conclusión: Existen pocos casos reportados de SMF durante la gestación, el diagnóstico se basa en el examen clínico; el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina IV representa la alternativa utilizada con mayor frecuencia. En el caso presentado se utilizó la plasmaféresis. Se desconoce el impacto de la variedad del síndrome de Miller Fisher sobre el curso normal de la gestación y sobre los resultados perinatales a largo plazo. Se requieren más estudios que aborden el diagnóstico, el tratamiento y el pronóstico de esta entidad.


Abstract Objective: To report the case of pregnant woman with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) presenting as the Miller Fisher variant, and to review the literature on the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this GBS variant during gestation. Materials and Methods: Pregnant woman presenting at 27 weeks of gestation with Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), treated in a military referral hospital with a satisfactory course after 15 days, continuation of normal pregnancy and delivery of a healthy neonate at 38 weeks. A search of the literature was conducted in the Medline via PubMed, Lilacs, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Ovid databases using the terms "Pregnancy," "Miller Fisher syndrome," "Guillain-Barré syndrome". Cohorts, case series and case reports of pregnant women with MFS were included. Data on diagnostic methods, treatment and maternal and perinatal prognosis were extracted. The search was made on June 2020, with no restriction by date, but restriction by language (Spanish and English). Results: Overall, 423 titles were identified, three studies met the inclusion criteria, the three of them corresponding to case reports. All cases were found to be seropositive for anti-GQ1b ganglioside antibodies. No imaging abnormalities were found in any of the cases. Two patients received IV immunoglobulin and the third patient was kept under observation. No obstetric complications have be documented so far. Conclusion: There are few cases of MFS reported during pregnancy. Intravenous immunoglobulin is the most frequently used treatment option. Plasmapheresis was used in the case presented here. The impact of the Miller Fisher variant on the normal course of gestation and on long-term perinatal outcomes is unknown. Further studies that look into the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this condition are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Miller Fisher Syndrome , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Pregnancy , Plasmapheresis
4.
Med. U.P.B ; 40(1): 82-85, 03/03/2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1177504

ABSTRACT

El accidente apídico implica un bajo riesgo de morir por reacciones agudas como anafilaxia. Es frecuente que se desconozcan otros riesgos como el hepático y el neurológico. Dentro de las complicaciones menos conocidas está la polineuropatía aguda conocida como Guillain- Barré. La causa más ampliamente descrita es la reacción cruzada entre IgE y la proteína básica de mielina. A continuación, se reporta el primer caso en América Latina sobre la asociación entre Guillain-Barré y accidente por picadura de abejas. En este caso, hay criterios de causalidad como el nexo temporal, la plausibilidad biológica y la coherencia con otros artículos reportados en la literatura médica.


Bee sting accident usually implies a low risk of dying from acute reactions such as anaphylaxis. Other risks such as liver and neurological risks are often unknown. Among the lesser-known complications caused by this type of accident is the acute polyneuropathy known as Guillain-Barré. The most widely described cause is the cross reaction between IgE and myelin basic protein. The article reports the first case in Latin America on the association between Guillain-Barré and a bee sting accident. In this case, there are causality criteria such as temporal link, biological plausibility, and consistency with other articles reported in the medical literature


O acidente elapídico implica um baixo risco de morte por reações agudas, como anafilaxia. Outros riscos, como hepáticos e neurológicos, são frequentemente desconhecidos. Entre as complicações menos conhecidas está a polineuropatia aguda conhecida como Guillain-Barré. A causa mais amplamente descrita é a reação cruzada entre a IgE e a proteína básica da mielina. A seguir, é relatado o primeiro caso na América Latina sobre a associação entre Guillain-Barré e um acidente com picada de abelha. Nesse caso, há critérios de causalidade como vínculo temporal, plausibilidade biológica e consistência com outros artigos relatados na literatura médica


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Polyneuropathies , Bees , Bites and Stings , Immunoglobulin E , Accidents , Cross Reactions , Death , Anaphylaxis , Liver
5.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31208, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292616

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A infecção emergente pelo Zika vírus (ZIKV) tornou-se uma ameaça à saúde global devido à associação com anormalidades neurológicas graves: a síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) em adultos e a síndrome congênita do Zika vírus (SCZ) em neonatos. O presente trabalho tem como intuito descrever os avanços sobre esta infecção relacionados aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, diagnóstico, prevenção e tratamento. Revisão da Literatura: Realizou-se uma revisão literária por meio de buscas bibliográficas nas bases de dados online LILACS, MEDLINE, Scopus e Web of Science, utilizando os descritores "Zika Virus", "Guillain-Barre Syndrome", "Zika Virus Infection", "Microcephaly", e "Congenital abnormalities", enfatizando os estudos realizados após o surto 2015- 2016 no Brasil. Discussão: O ZIKV já circulava no Brasil em 2013, um ano antes do que foi sugerido durante o surto. O teste molecular RT-PCR é o primeiro procedimento para a confirmação da doença, seguido pelo ensaio sorológico MACELISA. Embora a SCZ apresente achados neurológicos não patognomônicos nos fetos, exames radiológicos revelaram anormalidades mais comumente encontradas, destacando a microcefalia com padrão singular de "gaveta". Até o momento, não existem tratamentos antivirais e as vacinas não demonstram ser uma alternativa conveniente. Os alvos candidatos para o desenvolvimento destes medicamentos são as proteínas flavivirais NS1 e NS5, e a protease NS2B-NS3. Conclusão: Estes aspectos discutidos apontam a necessidade da criação de medicamentos antivirais e contribuem para o desenvolvimento de protocolos eficientes tanto no combate a novos surtos, como ao diagnóstico voltado a detecção do ZIKV e achados neurológicos da SCZ, possibilitando um tratamento mais eficaz ao paciente.


Introduction: The emerging Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has become a threat to global health due to the association with severe neurological abnormalities, being Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults, and the congenital Zika virus syndrome (SCZ) in neonates. The present work aims to describe the advances in this infection, which refer to epidemiological, clinical, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment aspects. Literature Review: A literary review was carried out through bibliographic searches in the online databases LILACS, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science, using the descriptors "Zika Virus", "Guillain-Barre Syndrome", "Zika Virus Infection", "Microcephaly", and "Congenital abnormalities", emphasizing the studies carried out after the outbreak in Brazil (2015-2016). Discussion: The ZIKV was already circulating in Brazil in 2013, one year before what was suggested during the outbreak. The first procedure for confirming the disease is through the RT-PCR molecular test, followed by the MAC-ELISA serological test. Although SCZ presents non-pathognomonic neurological findings, radiological exams revealed abnormalities most found in fetuses with the syndrome, highlighting microcephaly due to the unique "drawer" pattern. There is no antiviral treatment, and vaccines have not proved to be a convenient alternative. Candidate targets for the development of these drugs are the flaviviral proteins NS1 and NS5, and the protease NS2B-NS3. Conclusion: These aspects discussed point to the need for the creation of antiviral drugs and contribute to the development of efficient protocols both to combat new outbreaks, as well as to the diagnosis aimed at the detection of ZIKV and neurological findings of SCZ, enabling a more effective treatment for the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Zika Virus , Antiviral Agents , Congenital Abnormalities , Infant, Newborn , Epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Diagnosis , Disease Prevention , Zika Virus Infection , Microcephaly
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of children with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and the significance of Brighton criteria in childhood GBS.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 72 children with GBS. Brighton criteria were used for the grading of diagnostic certainty (level 1 as the highest level, and level 4 as the lowest level). A Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of auxiliary examinations with the level of diagnostic certainty of Brighton criteria.@*RESULTS@#A total of 72 children with GBS were enrolled, with a mean age of onset of (98±32) months. All children (100%, 72/72) had weakness of bilateral limbs and disappearance or reduction of tendon reflex, and limb weakness reached the highest level of severity within 4 weeks. Of all the 72 children, 68 (94%) had positive results of neural electrophysiological examination and 51 (71%) had positive results of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, and the positive rate of neural electrophysiological examination was significantly higher than that of CSF examination (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Most of the children with GBS meet Brighton criteria level 1, and the positive results of CSF examination and neural electrophysiological examination play an important role in improving the level of diagnostic certainty of Brighton criteria. Neural electrophysiological examination has a higher positive rate than CSF examination in the early stage of the disease.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Extremities , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Muscle Weakness , Physical Examination , Retrospective Studies
7.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1583-1588, Nov. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143646

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The role of interleukins, such as IL-17 and IL-34, in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has been established in the literature. In the current study, we aimed to identify the concentrations of IL-17 (IL-17A, IL-17F) and IL-34 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and acute inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (AIDN). METHODS: We included in this study 8 patients with CIDP (none of them receiving immunomodulatory or immunosuppressant therapy), 7 patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS, AIDN), and 7 control subjects. The CIDP and AIDN diagnoses were made by clinical evaluation and electrophysiological investigations according to international criteria. CSF samples were obtained appropriately, and the levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-34 were measured by ELISA kits. RESULTS: The concentrations of IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-34 were higher in those with CIDP and AIDN compared to the controls (p=0.005, p=0.01, and p=0.001, respectively). While IL-34 levels were significantly higher in AIDN patients than in CIDP patients (p=0.04), there were no significant differences between the AIDN and CIDP groups with regard to the levels of IL-17A and IL-17F (p=0.4 and p=0.2, respectively) CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-34 levels may have a role in CIDP and AIDN. Furthermore, the difference in the IL-34 levels of patients with AIDN and CIDP may indicate an important difference between the pathogenesis of these two sets of the disease.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: O papel das interleucinas, como IL-17 e IL-34, na patogênese da doença auto-imune foi estabelecido na literatura. No presente estudo, objetivamos identificar as concentrações de IL-17 (IL-17A, IL-17F) e IL-34 no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) de pacientes com polineuropatia desmielinizante inflamatória crônica (CIDP) e neuropatia desmielinizante inflamatória aguda (AIDN). MÉTODOS: incluímos neste estudo 8 pacientes com CIDP (nenhum deles recebendo terapia imunomoduladora ou imunossupressora), 7 pacientes com síndrome de Guillain-Barre (GBS, AIDN) e 7 indivíduos controle. Os diagnósticos CIDP e AIDN foram feitos por avaliação clínica e investigações eletrofisiológicas de acordo com critérios internacionais. As amostras de LCR foram obtidas adequadamente e os níveis de IL-17A, IL-17F e IL-34 foram medidos através de kits ELISA. RESULTADOS: As concentrações de IL-17A, IL-17F e IL-34 foram maiores naqueles com CIDP e AIDN em comparação aos controles (p = 0,005, p = 0,01 ep = 0,001, respectivamente). Enquanto os níveis de IL-34 foram significativamente mais altos nos pacientes com AIDN do que nos pacientes com CIDP (p = 0,04), não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos com AIDN e CIDP em relação aos níveis de IL-17A e IL-17F (p = 0,4 ep = 0,2, respectivamente) CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados indicam que os níveis de IL-17A, IL-17F e IL-34 podem ter um papel no CIDP e no AIDN. Além disso, a diferença nos níveis de IL-34 de pacientes com AIDN e CIDP pode indicar uma diferença importante entre a patogênese desses dois conjuntos de doenças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Interleukins , Interleukin-17 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome
8.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 56(3): 15-20, jul.-set. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120394

ABSTRACT

The first case of Guillain-Barré syndrome was described in 1916. Since then, knowledge about the pathophysiology and immunogenesis of this acquired inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy has been growing steadily, especially after the advent of nerve conduction studies and the discovery of pathogenic autoantibodies. In the present study, we conducted a review of the main information available in the literature to date about the syndrome, including its diagnosis and management.


A síndrome de Guillain-Barré teve seu primeiro caso descrito em 1916. Desde então, o conhecimento sobre a fisiopatologia e imunogênese dessa polirradiculoneuropatia inflamatória adquirida vem crescendo continuamente, especialmente após o advento dos estudos de condução nervosa e a descoberta de auto-anticorpos patogênicos. No presente estudo, realizamos uma revisão das principais informações disponíveis na literatura até o presente momento sobre a síndrome, incluindo seu diagnóstico e manejo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology
9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(8): 481-487, Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131739

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute immune-mediated polyneuropathy characterized by rapidly evolving symptoms and disability. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrophysiological studies are crucial in the diagnosis of this syndrome. Objective: To evaluate the prognostic value of the type and number of demyelinating findings and cerebrospinal fluid protein levels in patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed electrophysiological data and cerebrospinal fluid of 67 consecutive patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from Istanbul, Turkey (2011-2019) studied ≤ 24 hours post-onset. Results: The patients who met a higher number of demyelinating criteria had increased disability scores in the first day and first month, and higher cerebrospinal fluid protein levels were correlated with worse prognosis both on the first day and the first month. However, the disability scores did not correlate with any single specific criterion, and no significant correlation was found between the number of satisfied criteria and cerebrospinal fluid protein levels. Conclusions: The number of demyelinating criteria that are met and high cerebrospinal fluid protein levels at the disease onset may be valuable prognostic markers. More systematic studies conducted with serial nerve conduction studies are required to highlight the roles of the suggested criteria in clinical practice.


RESUMO Introdução: A síndrome de Guillain-Barré é uma polineuropatia imunomediada aguda caracterizada por sintomas e incapacidade em rápida evolução. A análise do líquido cefalorraquidiano e os estudos eletrofisiológicos são cruciais no diagnóstico dessa síndrome. Objetivo: Avaliar o valor prognóstico do tipo e número de achados desmielinizantes e dos níveis de proteínas do líquido cefalorraquidiano em pacientes com polineuropatia desmielinizante inflamatória aguda. Métodos: Analisamos retrospectivamente dados eletrofisiológicos e líquido cefalorraquidiano de 67 pacientes consecutivos com polineuropatia desmielinizante inflamatória aguda de Istambul, Turquia (2011-2019), estudados ≤24 horas após o início. Resultados: Os pacientes que atenderam a um número maior de critérios desmielinizantes apresentaram escores de incapacidade aumentados no primeiro dia e no primeiro mês, e níveis mais altos de proteína do líquido cefalorraquidiano foram correlacionados com pior prognóstico no primeiro dia e no primeiro mês. No entanto, os escores de incapacidade não se correlacionaram com nenhum critério específico e não foi encontrada correlação significativa entre o número de critérios satisfeitos e os níveis de proteína do líquido cefalorraquidiano. Conclusões: O número de critérios desmielinizantes atendidos e altos níveis de proteína no líquido cefalorraquidiano no início da doença podem ser marcadores prognósticos valiosos. Estudos mais sistemáticos conduzidos com estudos de condução nervosa em série são necessários para destacar os papéis dos critérios sugeridos na prática clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Electrophysiological Phenomena , Neurologic Examination
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(5): 290-300, May 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131705

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic unfolds worldwide, different forms of reports have described its neurologic manifestations. Objective: To review the literature on neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Literature search performed following systematic reviews guidelines, using specific keywords based on the COVID-19 neurological complications described up to May 10th, 2020. Results: A total of 43 articles were selected, including data ranging from common, non-specific symptoms, such as hyposmia and myalgia, to more complex and life-threatening conditions, such as cerebrovascular diseases, encephalopathies, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Conclusion: Recognition of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized despite the obvious challenges faced by clinicians caring for critical patients who are often sedated and presenting other concurrent systemic complications.


RESUMO Introdução: À medida que a pandemia da COVID-19 se desenvolve em todo o mundo, diferentes tipos de publicações descreveram suas manifestações neurológicas. Objetivo: Revisar a literatura sobre complicações neurológicas da infecção por SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: A pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada seguindo diretrizes de revisões sistemáticas, usando palavras-chave específicas baseadas nas complicações neurológicas da COVID-19 descritas até 10 de maio de 2020. Resultados: Foram selecionados 43 artigos, incluindo descrições que variam de sintomas comuns e inespecíficos, como hiposmia e mialgia, a condições mais complexas e com risco de vida, como doenças cerebrovasculares, encefalopatias e síndrome de Guillain-Barré. Conclusão: O reconhecimento das manifestações neurológicas da SARS-CoV-2 deve ser enfatizado apesar dos óbvios desafios enfrentados pelos clínicos que cuidam de pacientes críticos, muitas vezes sedados e apresentando outras complicações sistêmicas concomitantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Brain Diseases/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Ageusia/complications , Pandemics , Myalgia/complications , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology
11.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 105-110, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092794

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: El Síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) es raramente diagnosticado en lactantes menores de 1 año. Su asociación con el Síndrome de Wiskott Aldrich (SWA), es aún menos frecuente, y ha sido previa mente reportada sólo en dos pacientes a nuestro conocimiento. La hidrocefalia, es una complicación conocida, pero infrecuente del SGB. Objetivo: presentar el caso clínico de un lactante en el que se asocian las patologías de SGB, SWA e hidrocefalia. Caso Clínico: varon de 9 meses, portador de SWA hospitalizado en unidad de cuidados intensivos por hipotonía aguda y compromiso del estado gene ral. Evolucionó con parálisis fláccida, falla ventilatoria y arreflexia generalizada. Una punción lumbar mostró disociación albuminocitológica, y el estudio electrofisiológico mostró signos de polineuropatía desmielinizante severa. Se trató con inmunoglobulina, evolucionando en forma satisfactoria. Por bradicardia intermitente, se realizó tomografla axial computada cerebral (TAC), que mostró signos de una hidrocefalia aguda, manejada mediante válvula derivativa ventrículo peritoneal con favorable respuesta. En el largo plazo, se sometió a trasplante de médula ósea y debió ser reintervenido por complicaciones valvulares, sin embargo, su desarrollo psicomotor es normal sin secuelas neurológi cas evidentes hasta los 3 años. Conclusión: Presentamos el tercer caso de SGB en un paciente porta dor de SWA, destacando ser el primero de ellos en un lactante menor de 1 año. Adicionalmente, este niño presentó una hidrocefalia aguda como complicación del SGB. Consideramos relevante tener presente estas comorbilidades, debido a que su pronto diagnóstico y manejo oportuno, permiten una mejor recuperación neurológica y evitan complicaciones potencialmente letales.


Abstract: Introduction: Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is rarely diagnosed in the first year of life. The association of GBS with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is even less frequent and has been previously reported in only two children to our knowledge. Hydrocephalus is a known but rare complication of GBS. Objective: To describe the case of an infant in which GBS, WAS and hydrocephalus appear clinically associated. Clinical Case: A nine-months-old male infant with a history of WAS was admitted to our ICU with acute hypotonia and poor general condition. He developed flaccid paralysis, absent deep tendon reflexes, and respiratory failure. A lumbar puncture showed albuminocytologic dissociation. GBS was suspected and an electromyography was performed, showing a demyelinating polyneuropathy. He was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulins. During hospitalization, he presented intermittent bradycardia, so a brain CT scan was performed, showing acute hydrocephalus which was managed through an external ventricular drain achieving favorable response. In the long term, the patient underwent bone marrow transplant and had to be reoperated due to valve-related complications. However, his psychomotor development is normal, with no obvious neurological sequelae. Conclusion: We present the third case of GBS in a patient with WAS, which is the first infant younger than one year. Additionally, he presented acute hydrocephalus as a complication of GBS. We suggest considering these three comorbidities since their early diagnosis and prompt management allow bet ter neurological recovery and avoid potentially lethal complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Hydrocephalus/diagnosis , Hydrocephalus/etiology
12.
In. Verga, Federico; Burghi, Gastón. Encares de paciente crítico. Montevideo, Oficina del Libro FEFMUR, 2020. p.119-133, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1342643
13.
Pan Afr. med. j ; 35(118)2020.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1268626

ABSTRACT

We are reporting a case of Acute Post-Infectious Flaccid paralysis also commonly known as Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) in a patient with confirmed COVID-19 infection. GBS often occurs following an infectious trigger which induces autoimmune reaction causing damage to peripheral nerves. So far, only 8 cases have been described in association with COVID-19. This is the first to be described in Tanzaniain an African Child, and probably the first in the continent. This report is presented for clinicians to be aware and for the medical fraternity to look into this unusual presentation which may shed some more light on possible pathways of the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. We recommend that the presentation of GBS with acute respiratory distress should warrant extra precaution and a testing for COVID-19 especially when the symptoms of COVID-19 are protean


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cameroon , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn
14.
Repert. med. cir ; 29(3): 185-191, 2020. tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1255036

ABSTRACT

Introducción:el síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) es una polineurorradiculopatía desmielinizante aguda inmunomediada. El síntoma principal es la debilidad muscular. El objetivo del presente estudio es describir las características del episodio agudo, las secuelas neurológicas a largo plazo y cómo estas afectan la situación laboral y las actividades de tiempo libre. Materiales y métodos: estudio realizado en dos fases: primera, descripción retrospectiva de casos; segunda, corte transversal donde se interrogaron las secuelas neurológicas y sus implicaciones. Resultados: se identificaron 63 casos de SGB con edad promedio de 50,79 años (DE 17.8), más frecuente en hombres (61,9%) y cuyo promedio de la escala Hughes en el episodio agudo fue 3,2 (DE ± 10,1). Las principales complicaciones durante la fase aguda fueron neumonía (7,94 %) y úlceras por presión (3,17 %). Se logró contactar vía telefónica a 28 pacientes, 82,1% presentó al menos un síntoma como secuela, 60,7% parestesias, 57,1% fatiga, 50% calambres y 46,4% dolor de características neuropáticas. El 32,1% tuvo cambios o retiro de su trabajo por las secuelas; 21,43% debió modificar sus actividades de tiempo libre. Conclusión: existe alta prevalencia de síntomas residuales discapacitantes después del episodio agudo de SGB con predominio de síntomas sensitivos, coincidiendo con estudios realizados en países desarrollados. Estas alteraciones ocasionan un impacto negativo en la actividad laboral y en la de tiempo libre de los pacientes.


Introduction: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute immune-mediated demyelinating polyneuropathy. The main symptom encountered is muscle weakness. This study seeks to describe the characteristics of an acute episode, the long-term neurologic sequelae and how they affect patients ́ work and leisure activities. Materials and Methods: a two-phase study comprising a retrospective case description in the first phase followed by a cross sectional study during the second phase in which patients were asked to describe their neurologic sequelae and how they affected them Results: we identified 63 cases of GBS, mean age was 50.79 years (SD 17.8), there was a male preponderance (61.9%) with a 3.2 (SD ± 10.1) average score on the Hughes scale during the acute episode. Major complications during the acute phase were pneumonia (7.94 %) and pressure sores (3.17 %). Phone contact was achieved with 28 patients, 82.1% presented at least one sequelae 60.7% paresthesia, 57.1% fatigue, 50% cramps and 46.4% neuropathic pain. In 32.1% of cases patients ́ work was adjusted or they were removed from work because of their sequelae; 21.43% had to modify their free-time activities. Conclusion: there is a high prevalence of disabling residual symptoms after a GBS acute episode predominantly sensory signs, which coincide with the results of studies conducted in developed countries. Said alterations negatively impact patients ́ work and leisure activities


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Pain , Polyneuropathies , Signs and Symptoms , Fatigue
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828636

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the association of motor nerve conduction block (CB) with different subtypes of childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical and nerve electrophysiological data of 50 children with GBS. According to the results of nerve electrophysiology, the children were divided into an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) group with 29 children and an acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) group with 21 children. According to the presence or absence of motor nerve CB, the children with AMAN or AIDP were further divided into subgroups: group AMAN with or without motor nerve CB (n=10 and 11 respectively) and group AIDP with or without motor nerve CB group (n=19 and 10 respectively). The subgroups were compared in terms of age of onset, sex, Hughes Functional Grading Scale (HFGS) at nadir for the most severe involvement of motor function, and short-term prognosis based on HFGS score at 1 month after disease onset.@*RESULTS@#Motor nerve CB was reversible in children with AMAN. AMAN children with motor nerve CB had a significantly lower HFGS score than those without motor nerve CB at 1 month after onset (P<0.05). AIDP children with motor nerve CB had a significantly higher HFGS score than those with motor nerve CB at 1 month after onset (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#AMAN with reversible motor nerve CB suggests mild nerve fiber lesion and has better recovery than AMAN and AIDP without motor nerve CB in short term.


Subject(s)
Child , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , Neural Conduction , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828088

ABSTRACT

Xiaoxuming Decoction is an ancient classic herbal formula for the treatment of stroke. In ancient times, the connotation of stroke was very extensive, including facial neuritis, acute cerebral infarction, acute cerebral hemorrhage, sequelae of cerebral hemorrhage, unexplained weakness of limbs, cervical spondylosis, acute myelitis, acute radiculitis, Guillain Barre syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, motor neuron disease, dermatomyositis, hypokalemic paralysis peripheral neuritis. It has been identified that: ①Xiaoxuming Decoction is very common in the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, such as cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage and other cerebrovascular diseases, facial neuritis, acute myelitis, acute radiculitis, Guillain Barre syndrome, unexplained limb weakness, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron disease, myasthenia gravis, and rheumatic and immune system diseases, such as dermatomyositis, and can not only alleviate symptoms, but also improve prognosis and the long-term survival rate. ②Sudden limb failure, facial paralysis, and hypoalgesia without heat syndrome are the key indications of Xiaoxuming Decoction. ③This is a special prescription for the treatment of acute facial neuritis, and can cure in one week in the combination with moxibustion. ④In the treatment of facial neuritis complicated with hypertension or acute cerebrovascular disease, Xiaoxuming Decoction generally has a certain antihypertensive effect, without any hypertensive effect, which reflected its two-way regulatory effect for blood pressure. ⑤In the treatment of unknown limb weakness, acute myelitis, acute radiculitis, Guillain Barre syndrome, Xiaoxuming Decoction can rapidly alleviate the symptoms. ⑥This is the basic formula for multiple sclerosis and motor neuron disease. Long term use of Xiaoxuming Decoction can alleviate the symptom of limb weakness, reduce the occurrence of complications and delay the progress of the disease, but with a poor long-term prognosis. ⑦In the treatment of myasthenia gravis, Xiaoxuming Decoction can significantly improve muscle strength, and gradually help stop hormone reduction. After thymoma surgery, Xiaoxuming Decoction is also applicable to some patients with recurrent myasthenia gravis. ⑧Xiaoxuming Decoction also plays a role in the treatment of dermatomyositis and cervical spondylopathy. ⑨Raw ephedra is the monarch drug of Xiaoxuming Decoction, which is the key to the effect. The dosage starts with 6 g is titrated in a small dose and increases gradually. In addition, this formula is forbidden for those with red face, fast heart rate, high blood pressure, blocked stool, red tongue, yellow fur, wiry and rapid pulse or powerful pulse, and spout pulse.


Subject(s)
Dermatomyositis , Facial Nerve Diseases , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , Motor Neuron Disease , Multiple Sclerosis , Myasthenia Gravis , Myelitis , Radiculopathy , Spondylosis
17.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 91(4): e754, oct.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093738

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Mycoplasma penumoniae es un patógeno reconocido como principal agente causal de neumonía atípica, así como también por generar diferentes tipos de complicaciones extrapulmonares, especialmente de carácter neurológico y afectar directamente el sistema nervioso, gracias a sus mecanismos de virulencia, mimetismo y de inmunomodulación en el huésped. Causa afecciones como neuropatías, polineuropatías, encefalopatías, síndrome de Guillain Barré y otros. Objetivo: Reforzar en el área pediátrica la necesidad de modificar criterios diagnósticos e incorporar variantes clínicas del síndrome de Guillain Barre, además de instrumentos para diagnóstico de afecciones neuropáticas. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino, 9 años 8 meses de edad, quien consulta en repetidas ocasiones por: dispepsias, episodios de diarrea, constipación y fiebre. Se constató según consulta: disbiosis, resfriado común, y finalmente, neumonía atípica por Mycoplasma Pneumoniae. Paciente evoluciona, con debilidad muscular, paresia, hiperalgesia y alodinia de extremidades superiores e inferiores. Acude a neurólogo, quien indica exámenes neurofisiológicos (velocidad de conducción nerviosa, potenciales evocados y se descartó una electromiografía, debido a la hiperalgesia). Se diagnosticó una polineuropatía axonal, la que se caracterizó por presentar ciertos aspectos del síndrome de Guillain-Barré. Tanto la evolución clínica de este síndrome, así como sus variantes clínicas, tienen un curso en adultos, caracterizado por un comienzo y signos distintos, lo que puede retrasar y errar el diagnóstico en pacientes pediátricos. Conclusiones: Hace falta nuevos criterios diagnósticos y su amplitud y herramientas de abordaje, para hacer un diagnóstico rápido y eficaz, y contribuir a la recuperación optima del paciente(AU)


Introduction: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a pathogen know as to the main causal agent of atypical pneumonia, as well as to generate different extrapulmonary sickness, especially in neurological ways, directing to the nervous system, thanks to all its different mechanisms, like: virulence, mimetysm and immunomodulation in to the host. Producing, pathologies like neuropathies, polyneuropathies, encephalopathies, Guillain Barré Syndrome. Objetives: To highlight in the pediatric area, the need to modificate diagnosis criteria and incorporate Guillain-Barre Syndrome clinicals variants, also instruments to diagnosis of neuropathic pathologies. Case presentation: Male patient, 9 years, 8 months old, who consulted in repeated occasions for: dyspepsia, diarrhea and constipation episodes and fiber. Confirmed according to consultation: dysbiosis, common cold, and finally, atypical pneumonia by Mycoplasma Pneumoniae. The patient evolves with: muscular weakness, hyperalgesia and allodynia of upper and inferior extremities. Then, the Neurologist, indicates neurophysiological exams (nerve conduction velocity, evoked potentials, discarding an electromyography, due to hyperalgesia). Diagnosing an axonal polyneuropathy. Which was characterized to present some same aspects, from clinical course of Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Highlighting that the clinical evolution, as also, the syndrome clinical variants, has it a course in adults, characterized by a different beginning and signs, than in children. Retarding and do a wrong diagnosis in pediatric patients. Conclusion: Lack of new diagnosis criteria, the amplitude of these and tools of approach to give a fast and effective diagnosis, and contribute to the optimal recovery of the patient(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/complications , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/transmission
19.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20190822. 37 p. tab, graf.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1010285

ABSTRACT

El documento consolida las acciones programadas en la emergencia sanitaria y las acciones e intervenciones complementarias que se deben realizar para garantizar una atención integral de los pacientes afectados por SGB.


Subject(s)
Treatment Outcome , Comprehensive Health Care , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Emergency Plans
20.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 35(1): 25-30, Ene-Jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1120640

ABSTRACT

El Síndrome de Guillain Barré (SGB) se caracteriza por la manifestación de manera aguda o subaguda de un conjunto de signos y síntomas que demuestran la afectación del sistema nervioso periférico, expresada en parálisis fláccida y arreflexia, que eventualmente pueden complicarse amenazando la vida y/o posteriormente cronificarse si no se instauran tratamientos específicos de manera oportuna. Las causas más importantes del SGB se atribuyen a agentes infecciosos los cuales desencadenan un mecanismo de respuesta autoinmune que afectan tanto la mielina como el axón. La presente investigación caracterizó el SGB en los pacientes ingresados en el Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga entre los años 2010 y 2016(AU)


Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS) is characterized by acute or subacute manifestation of peripheral nervous system alterations such as flaccid paralysis and arreflexia, which can eventually be life-threatening and/or become chronic if specific treatments are not established in a timely manner. The main causes of GBS are attributed to infectious agents which trigger an autoimmune response that affect both the myelin and the axon. GBS is the most frequent cause of flaccid paralysis in the pediatric population. The present investigation characterized the GBS in patients admitted to the Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga in the period 2010 to 2016(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Demyelinating Diseases , Peripheral Nervous System , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pediatrics , Enterovirus , Cytomegalovirus , Zika Virus
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