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1.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 355-368, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887674

ABSTRACT

The disorder of brain-gut interaction is an important cause of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but the dynamic characteristics of the brain remain unclear. Since there are many shortcomings for evaluating brain dynamic nature in the previous studies, we proposed a new method based on slope calculation by point-by-point analysis of the data from functional magnetic resonance imaging, and detected the abnormalities of brain dynamic changes in IBS patients. The results showed that compared with healthy subjects, there were dynamic changes in the brain for the IBS patients. After correction by false discovery rate (FDR), significant abnormalities were only found in two functional connections of the right posterior cingulate gyrus linked to left middle frontal gyrus, and the right posterior cingulate gyrus linked to left pallidus. The above results of the brain dynamic analysis were totally different from those of the brain static analysis of IBS patients. Our findings provide novel complementary information for illustrating the central nervous mechanism of IBS and may offer a new direction to explore central target for patients with IBS.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Mapping , Gyrus Cinguli/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826723

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the direct intervention effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on pain memory, and to explore their effects on cAMP/PKA/cAMP pathway in anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC).@*METHODS@#Fifty clean healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, an indomethacin group, an EA group and a sham EA group, 10 rats in each group. Except the control group, the pain memory model was established in the remaining four groups by twice injection of carrageenan at foot; 0.1 mL of 2%λ-carrageenan was subcutaneously injected at the left foot of rats; 14 days later, when the pain threshold of rats of each group returned to the basic level, the second injection was performed with the same procedure. The rats in the EA group were treated with EA at bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36) for 30 min; the rats in the indomethacin group was treated with indomethacin intragastric administration with the dose of 3 mg/kg; the rats in the sham EA group was treated with EA without electricity at the point 0.3 mm forward "Zusanli" (ST 36) with the depth of 2 mm for 30 min; the rats in the control group was not given any invention. All the above interventions were performed 5 h, 1 d, 2 d and 3 d after the second injection of 2% λ-carrageenan. The left-side paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT) were observed before the first injection, 4 h, 3 d, 5 d after the first injection, before the second injection and 4 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d after the second injection. Three days after the second injection, the number of positive cells of cAMP, p-PKA, p-CREB and the number of positive cells of protein co-expression in the right ACC brain area were detected by immunofluorescence, and the relative protein expression of p-PKA and p-CREB were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the PWTs in the model group decreased significantly 4 h, 3 d and 5 d after the first injection and 1 d, 2 d and 3 d after the second injection (<0.05); compared with the control group, the positive expression of cAMP, p-PKA and p-CREB in the right ACC brain area in the model group increased significantly (<0.05), and the number of positive cells of the co-expression of cAMP/p-PKA and p-PKA/p-CREB also increased significantly (<0.05). Compared with the model group, indomethacin group and sham EA group, the PWTs in the EA group were increased significantly 1 d, 2 d and 3 d after the second injection (<0.05); compared with the model group, indomethacin group and sham EA group, the positive expression of p-PKA and p-CREB in the right ACC brain area in the EA group decreased significantly (<0.05), and the number of positive cells of co-expression of cAMP/p-PKA and p-PKA/p-CREB was decreased significantly (<0.05). Compared with the model group and sham EA group, the positive expression of cAMP in the right ACC brain area was decreased in the EA group (<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EA have a direct intervention effect on pain memory, which have significant advantage over NSAIDs in the treatment of chronic pain. The advantage effect of EA on pain memory may be related to the inhibition of cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in ACC area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Therapeutic Uses , Cyclic AMP , Metabolism , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Metabolism , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Electroacupuncture , Gyrus Cinguli , Metabolism , Male , Pain Threshold , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(9): 1174-1180, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041070

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The study aims to explore the relationship between preoperative anxiety and chronic postoperative pain. METHODS A total of forty rats were divided into four groups, control, single-prolonged stress alone, Hysterectomy alone, and SPS+ Hysterectomy. The paw withdrawal mechanical thresholds (PWMT) were examined. qRT-PCR and western blotting assay were performed to detect the GFAP expression in astrocytes isolated from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) region. In addition, the long-term potentiation (LTP) in ACC was examined. RESULTS Rats in the SPS group or the Hysterectomy alone group had no significant effect on chronic pain formation, but SPS can significantly induce chronic pain after surgery. Astrocytes were still active, and the LTP was significantly increased three days after modeling in the SPS+Hysterectomy group. CONCLUSIONS anxiety can induce chronic pain by activating astrocytes in the ACC region.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O objetivo deste estudo é explorar a relação entre a ansiedade no pré-operatório e a dor crônica no pós-operatório. MÉTODOS Um total de 40 ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle, estresse prolongado (SPS), histerectomia e SPS + histerectomia. Os limiares de retirada da pata em resposta a estímulo mecânico (PWMT) foram examinados. Ensaios qRT-PCR e imunoenzimáticos (western blotting) foram realizados para detectar a expressão de GFAP em astrócitos isolados da região do córtex cingulado anterior (CCA). Além disso, a potenciação de longa duração (LTP) no CCA também foi examinada. RESULTADOS Os ratos no grupo de estresse prolongado e no grupo de histerectomia não apresentaram nenhum efeito significativo na formação de dor crônica. Porém, o estresse prolongado foi capaz de induzir dor crônica significativamente após a cirurgia. Três dias após o modelo, o grupo de SPS + histerectomia ainda apresentava astrócitos ativos e LTP significativamente maior. CONCLUSÃO A ansiedade pode provocar dor crônica através da ativação de astrócitos na região do CCA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anxiety/complications , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Astrocytes/metabolism , Chronic Pain/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Pain Threshold/physiology , Long-Term Potentiation/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Preoperative Period , Chronic Pain/psychology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Gyrus Cinguli/metabolism , Hindlimb , Hysterectomy
6.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(3): 254-256, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039095

ABSTRACT

Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heritable. The present study aimed at identifying brain morphometric features that could represent markers of BD vulnerability in non-bipolar relatives of bipolar patients. Methods: In the present study, structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were acquired from a total of 93 subjects, including 31 patients with BD, 31 non-bipolar relatives of BD patients, and 31 healthy controls. Volumetric measurements of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), lateral ventricles, amygdala, and hippocampus were completed using the automated software FreeSurfer. Results: Analysis of covariance (with age, gender, and intracranial volume as covariates) indicated smaller left ACC volumes in unaffected relatives as compared to healthy controls and BD patients (p = 0.004 and p = 0.037, respectively). No additional statistically significant differences were detected for other brain structures. Conclusion: Our findings suggest smaller left ACC volume as a viable biomarker candidate for BD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Bipolar Disorder/pathology , Gyrus Cinguli/pathology , Hippocampus/pathology , Bipolar Disorder/genetics , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Family , Case-Control Studies , Endophenotypes , Middle Aged
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The processing of emotional visual stimulation involves the processing of emotional and visuoperceptual information. It is not completely revealed how the valence and arousal affect these two aspects. The objective was to investigate the effects of valence and arousal on spatiotemporal characteristics of cortical information processing using distributed source imaging of event-related current density (ERCD). METHODS: Electroencephalograms (64 channels) were recorded from 19 healthy men while presenting affective pictures. Distributed source localization analysis was adopted to obtain the spatiotemporal pattern of ERCD on cortical surface in response to emotional visual stimulation. A nonparametric cluster-based permutation test was used to find meaningful time and space without prior knowledge. RESULTS: Significant changes of ERCD in 400–800 ms among positive, negative, and neutral emotional conditions were found in left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and right inferior temporal cortex (ITC). In the PCC, the stimuli with higher arousal levels showed more negative ERCD than neutral stimuli. In the ITC, the ERCD for negative stimuli was significantly more negative than those of positive and neutral ones. CONCLUSION: Arousal and valence had strong influence on memory encoding and visual analysis at late period. The location and time showing significant change in neural activity according to arousal and valence would provide valuable information for understanding the changes of cortical function by neuropsychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Arousal , Electronic Data Processing , Electroencephalography , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Male , Memory , Photic Stimulation , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Temporal Lobe
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with persistent vegetative state (PVS) show no evidence of awareness of self or their environment, and those with minimally conscious state (MCS) have severely impaired consciousness with minimal but definite behavioral evidence of self or environmental awareness after stroke. Neuroimaging and clinical characteristics separating these two close consciousness states after stroke were insufficiently studied. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based cohort study of all patients with stroke (2011 to 2017) who underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging and consciousness assessment after 3 months of inclusion. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risk of neuroimaging markers for differentiation of PVS and MCS. RESULTS: Of 3,600 eligible subjects, 323 patients (0.09%) had PVS and 93 (0.02%) had MCS (mean age, 62.25±13.4 years). Higher stroke volume was strongly associated with PVS compared to MCS (odds ratio [OR], 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.00; P=0.001). On univariate analysis, cingulate gyrus (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.62 to 4.36; P=0.001) and corpus callosum (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.28 to 3.44; P=0.003) involvement was significantly associated with PVS. However, on multivariate analysis, only cingulate gyrus involvement was independently associated with PVS (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.33 to 3.72; P=0.002). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that PVS and MCS are different consciousness states according to clinical and neuroimaging findings. To predict outcome, cognitive performance of these patients should be well questioned after stroke.


Subject(s)
Cognition Disorders , Cohort Studies , Consciousness , Corpus Callosum , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multivariate Analysis , Neuroimaging , Persistent Vegetative State , Stroke Volume , Stroke
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762632

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate association between lesion location on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed after an infarction and the duration of dysphagia in middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. METHODS: A videofluoroscopic swallowing study was performed for 59 patients with dysphagia who were diagnosed as cerebral infarction of the MCA territory confirmed by brain MRI. Lesions were divided into 11 regions of interest: primary somatosensory cortex, primary motor cortex, supplementary motor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, parieto-occipital cortex, insular cortex, posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC), thalamus, basal ganglia (caudate nucleus), and basal ganglia (putamen). Recovery time was defined as the period from the first day of L-tube feeding to the day that rice porridge with thickening agent was prescribed. Recovery time and brain lesion patterns were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: The mean recovery time of all patients was 26.71±16.39 days. The mean recovery time was 36.65±15.83 days in patients with PLIC lesions and 32.6±17.27 days in patients with caudate nucleus lesions. Only these two groups showed longer recovery time than the average recovery time for all patients. One-way analysis of variance for recovery time showed significant differences between patients with and without lesions in PLIC and caudate (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Injury to both PLIC and caudate nucleus is associated with longer recovery time from dysphagia.


Subject(s)
Basal Ganglia , Brain , Caudate Nucleus , Cerebral Cortex , Cerebral Infarction , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Extremities , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Infarction , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Internal Capsule , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery , Motor Cortex , Prefrontal Cortex , Somatosensory Cortex , Thalamus
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 935-943, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762039

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the neural basis of executive function (EF) in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) according to beta-amyloid (Aβ) positivity. Furthermore, we explored if the identified brain areas could serve as predictors for clinical progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included individuals with aMCI using data from [¹⁸F]-florbetapir-positron emission tomography (PET), fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, and EF scores, as well as follow-up clinical severity scores at 1 and 5 years from baseline from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. The correlations between EF score and regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMglc) were analyzed separately for aMCI with low Aβ burden (aMCI Aβ−, n=230) and aMCI with high Aβ burden (aMCI Aβ+, n=268). Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the associations between rCMglc and clinical progression. RESULTS: Longitudinal courses differed between aMCI Aβ− and aMCI Aβ+ groups. On average, aMCI Aβ− subjects maintained their level of clinical severity, whereas aMCI Aβ+ subjects showed progression. EF impairment in aMCI Aβ− was related to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), whereas that in aMCI Aβ+ was related to Alzheimer's Disease-vulnerable brain regions. ACC and the posterior cingulate cortex were associated with clinical progression in aMCI Aβ− and aMCI Aβ+, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that although MCI subjects showed similar behavioral phenotypes at the time of diagnosis, EF and further progression were associated with different brain regions according to Aβ burden. Clarification of the etiologies and nature of EF impairment in aMCI are critical for disease prognosis and management.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Brain , Cognition , Diagnosis , Executive Function , Follow-Up Studies , Glucose , Gyrus Cinguli , Linear Models , Metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neuroimaging , Phenotype , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prognosis
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764124

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To quantify the relative importance of brain regions responsible for reduced functional connectivity (FC) in their Voiding Initiation Network in female multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) and voiding dysfunction (VD). A data-driven machine-learning approach is utilized for quantification. METHODS: Twenty-seven ambulatory female patients with MS and NLUTD (group 1: voiders, n=15 and group 2: VD, n=12) participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voiding study. Brain activity was recorded by fMRI with simultaneous urodynamic testing. The Voiding Initiation Network was identified from averaged fMRI activation maps. Four machine-learning algorithms were employed to optimize the area under curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristic curve. The optimal model was used to identify the relative importance of relevant brain regions. RESULTS: The Voiding Initiation Network exhibited stronger FC for voiders in frontal regions and stronger disassociation in cerebellar regions. Highest AUC values were obtained with ‘random forests’ (0.86) and ‘partial least squares’ algorithms (0.89). While brain regions with highest relative importance (>75%) included superior, middle, inferior frontal and cingulate regions, relative importance was larger than 60% for 186 of the 227 brain regions of the Voiding Initiation Network, indicating a global effect. CONCLUSIONS: Voiders and VD patients showed distinctly different FC in their Voiding Initiation Network. Machine-learning is able to identify brain centers contributing to these observed differences. Knowledge of these centers and their connectivity may allow phenotyping patients to centrally focused treatments such as cortical modulation.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Brain , Female , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Machine Learning , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple Sclerosis , Urinary Tract , Urodynamics
12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 662-670, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760982

ABSTRACT

The neuroimaging has been applied in the study of pathophysiology in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this review article, several kinds of methodologies of neuroimaging would be discussed to summarize the promising biomarkers in MDD. For the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography field, the literature review showed the potentially promising roles of frontal lobes, such as anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, the limbic regions, such as hippocampus and amygdala, might be the potentially promising biomarkers for MDD. The structures and functions of ACC, DLPFC, OFC, amygdala and hippocampus might be confirmed as the biomarkers for the prediction of antidepressant treatment responses and for the pathophysiology of MDD. The functions of cognitive control and emotion regulation of these regions might be crucial for the establishment of biomarkers. The near-infrared spectroscopy studies demonstrated that blood flow in the frontal lobe, such as the DLPFC and OFC, might be the biomarkers for the field of near-infrared spectroscopy. The electroencephalography also supported the promising role of frontal regions, such as the ACC, DLPFC and OFC in the biomarker exploration, especially for the sleep electroencephalogram to detect biomarkers in MDD. The positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in MDD demonstrated the promising biomarkers for the frontal and limbic regions, such as ACC, DLPFC and amygdala. However, additional findings in brainstem and midbrain were also found in PET and SPECT. The promising neuroimaging biomarkers of MDD seemed focused in the fronto-limbic regions.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Biomarkers , Brain Stem , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Electroencephalography , Frontal Lobe , Gyrus Cinguli , Hippocampus , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetoencephalography , Mesencephalon , Neuroimaging , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prefrontal Cortex , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Tomography, Emission-Computed , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 234-243, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Working memory impairments serve as prognostic factors for patients with schizophrenia. Working memory deficits are mainly associated with gray matter (GM) thickness and volume. We investigated the association between GM diffusivity and working memory in controls and individuals with schizophrenia. METHODS: T1 and diffusion tensor images of the brain, working memory task (letter number sequencing) scores, and the demographic data of 90 individuals with schizophrenia and 97 controls were collected from the SchizConnect database. T1 images were parcellated into the 68 GM Regions of Interest (ROI). Axial Diffusivity (AD), Fractional Anisotropy (FA), Radial Diffusivity (RD), and Trace (TR) were calculated for each of the ROIs. RESULTS: Compared to the controls, schizophrenia group showed significantly increased AD, RD, and TR in specific regions on the frontal, temporal, and anterior cingulate area. Moreover, working memory was negatively correlated with AD, RD, and TR in the lateral orbitofrontal, superior temporal, inferior temporal, and rostral anterior cingulate area on left hemisphere in the individuals with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated GM microstructural abnormalities in the frontal, temporal, and anterior cingulate regions of individuals with schizophrenia. Furthermore, these regional GM microstructural abnormalities suggest a neuropathological basis for the working memory deficits observed clinically in individuals with schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Anisotropy , Brain , Diffusion , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Gray Matter , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Memory, Short-Term , Schizophrenia
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(3): 150-157, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888362

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The main goal of this study was to correlate migraine improvement, after prophylactic therapy, with cortical thickness changes. Methods Cortical thickness maps were obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from 19 patients with migraine before (first scan) and after (second scan) prophylactic treatment, and these were compared with controls using the FreeSurfer MRI tool. Cortical changes were correlated with the headache index (HI). Results Anincrease incortical thickness was found in the right cuneus and precuneus, somatosensory and superior parietal cortices in both patient scans, compared with the controls. No changes were observed in the left hemisphere. Following correction for multiple comparisons, no areas changed from the first to the second scan. Regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between the HI improvement and cortical thickness changes in the left posterior cingulate, a region involved with nociception and, possibly, the development of chronic pain. Conclusion There were changes in cortical thickness in patients with migraine relative to controls in areas involved with vision and pain processing. Left posterior cingulate cortical changes correlated with headache frequency and intensity.


RESUMO Objetivos Correlacionar a melhora de pacientes enxaquecosos após tratamento preventivo com alterações na espessura do córtex cerebral. Métodos Espessura cortical foi determinada a partir de imagens de ressonância magnética (RM)em 19 pacientes com enxaqueca, antes (1ᵃ RM) e após (2ᵃ RM) o tratamento profilático, e comparada com controles, usando o programa FreeSurfer. Mudanças corticais foram correlacionadas com o índice de cefaleia (HI). Resultados O hemisfério direito apresentou aumento da espessura no córtex do cúneus e pré-cúneus, parietal superior e somatossensitivo na primeira RM e na segunda RM, em comparação aos controles. Após correção para comparações múltiplas, nenhuma região cortical se mostrou estatisticamente diferente entre a primeira e a segunda RM. A regressão mostrou correlação (negativa) significativa entre melhora do HI e mudanças na espessura cortical do cíngulo posterior esquerdo. Conclusão Existem alterações de espessura cortical em pacientes com enxaqueca em relação a controles em áreas envolvidas com processamento visual e com a dor. As alterações corticais no cíngulo posterior esquerdo variaram de acordo com a frequência e intensidade das crises.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Gyrus Cinguli/pathology , Migraine Disorders/pathology , Migraine Disorders/prevention & control , Organ Size , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Case-Control Studies , Monte Carlo Method , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Gyrus Cinguli/diagnostic imaging , Migraine Disorders/diagnostic imaging
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771456

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the abnormalities in regional homogeneity of brain activity in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and explore the association between brain activity changes and DPN.@*METHODS@#A regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach was used to compare the local synchronization of rs-fMRI signals among 20 patients with painful DPN, 16 patients with painless DPN, and 16 type 2 diabetic patients without DPN (non-DPN group).@*RESULTS@#Compared with the those without DPN, the patients with painful DPN showed high ReHo in the left inferior temporal gyrus and the right central posterior gyrus, and low ReHo in the posterior cingulate gyrus, right inferior parietal gyrus, and the left superior parietal gyrus ( < 0.05);the patients with painless DPN group showed high ReHo in the left inferior temporal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the right superior frontal gyrus, and low ReHo in the left thalamus ( < 0.05).No significant differences in ReHo were found between the patients with painful DPN and painless DPN (>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The patients with DPN have altered ReHo in multiple brain regions and impairment of a default mode network, for which the left temporal gyrus may serve as a functional compensatory brain area. ReHo disturbance in the central right posterior gyrus may play a central role in the pain symptoms associated with painful DPN.


Subject(s)
Brain , Diagnostic Imaging , Brain Mapping , Methods , Diabetic Neuropathies , Gyrus Cinguli , Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Neuralgia , Temporal Lobe , Diagnostic Imaging
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an etiology of dementia that is reversible following cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, however, surgical intervention not always clinically effective and the respons to shunt therapy is poorly understood. Furthermore, NPH is a source of comorbidity in diseases with neurodegenerative pathology, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). CASE REPORT: A 61-year-old woman presented to the neurology clinic with progressive gait difficulties and cognitive impairment over five years. Nine years after ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt treatment, the patient began to experience frequent falls. There was no improvement in clinical symptoms after the alteration of valve pressure on the VP shunt. An 18F-florbetaben amyloid positron emission tomography scan showed increased diffusion uptake over the bilateral cortices, precuneus, and posterior cingulate cortex. CONCLUSIONS: The patient of NPH was unresponsive to shunt therapy due to the development of AD.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts , Cognition Disorders , Comorbidity , Dementia , Diffusion , Female , Gait , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure , Middle Aged , Neurology , Parietal Lobe , Pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 593-601, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Uric acid is a non-enzymatic antioxidant associated with depression. Despite its known protective role in other brain disorders, little is known about its influence on the structural characteristics of brains of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study explored the association between uric acid and characteristics of white matter (WM) in patients with MDD. METHODS: A total of 32 patients with MDD and 23 healthy controls (HCs) were examined. All participants were scored based on the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory at baseline. All patients were also rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. We collected blood samples from all participants immediately after their enrollment and before the initiation of antidepressants in case of patients. Tract-based spatial statistics were used for all imaging analyses. RESULTS: Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher radial diffusivity (RD) values were found in the MDD group than in the HC group. Voxelwise correlation analysis revealed that the serum uric acid levels positively correlated with the FA and negatively with the RD in WM regions that previously showed significant group differences in the MDD group. The correlated areas were located in the left anterior corona radiata, left frontal lobe WM, and left anterior cingulate cortex WM. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests a significant association between altered WM connectivity and serum uric acid levels in patients with MDD, possibly through demyelination.


Subject(s)
Anisotropy , Antidepressive Agents , Antioxidants , Anxiety , Brain , Brain Diseases , Demyelinating Diseases , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Depressive Disorder, Major , Frontal Lobe , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Neuroimaging , Oxidative Stress , Uric Acid , White Matter
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713690

ABSTRACT

Micturition is a complex process involving the bladder, spinal cord, and the brain. Highly sophisticated central neural program controls bladder function by utilizing multiple brain regions, including pons and suprapontine structures. Periaqueductal grey, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex are components of suprapontine micturition centers. Under pathologic conditions such as epilepsy, urinary dysfunction is a frequent symptom and it seems to be associated with increased suprapontine cortical activity. Interestingly, micturition can also trigger seizures known as reflex epilepsy. During voiding behavior, frontotemporal cortical activation has been reported and it may induce reflex seizures. As current researches are only limited to present clinical cases, more rigorous investigations are needed to elucidate biological mechanisms of micturition to advance our knowledge on the process of micturition in physiology and pathology.


Subject(s)
Brain , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Reflex , Gyrus Cinguli , Pathology , Physiology , Pons , Prefrontal Cortex , Reflex , Seizures , Spinal Cord , Urinary Bladder , Urination
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786970

ABSTRACT

Obesity, an increasingly common problem in modern societies, results from energy intake chronically exceeding energy expenditure. This imbalance of energy can be triggered by the internal state of the caloric equation (homeostasis) and non-homeostatic factors, such as social, cultural, psychological, environmental factors or food itself. Nowadays, positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been examined to understand the cerebral control of food intake in humans. Using ¹⁵O–H₂ PET, changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) coupled to neuronal activity were reported in states of fasting, satiation after feeding, and sensory stimulation. In addition, rCBF in obese subjects showed a greater increase in insula, the primary gustatory cortex. ¹⁸F–fluorodeoxyglucose PET showed higher metabolic activity in postcentral gyrus of the parietal cortex and lower in prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in obese subjects. In addition, dopamine receptor (DR) PET demonstrated lower DR availability in obese subjects, which might lead to overeating to compensate. Brain PET has been utilized to reveal the connectivity between obesity and brain. This could improve understanding of obesity and help develop a new treatment for obesity.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Eating , Electrons , Energy Intake , Energy Metabolism , Fasting , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Hyperphagia , Neurons , Obesity , Parietal Lobe , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prefrontal Cortex , Radiopharmaceuticals , Receptors, Dopamine , Satiation , Somatosensory Cortex
20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1174-1180, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Structural changes of brain areas have been reported in depressive disorder and suicidal behavior (SB), in which TPH1 also has been known as a promising candidate gene. We investigated gray matter volume (GMV) differences, TPH1 rs1800532 and rs1799913 polymorphisms previously found to be associated with depressive disorder and SB, and the relationship between the two markers. METHODS: Thirteen depressive disorder patients with suicidal attempts (SA) and twenty healthy controls were included. We examined GMV differences using a voxel-based morphometry and regions of interest analysis. Direct sequencing was used for genotyping. RESULTS: The patients showed significant GMV reduction in left cerebral region including middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex; in right middle temporal gyrus; in left cerebellar tonsil; and in right cerebral region including precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus (corrected p < 0.005). The right precentral and postcentral gyri GMV values of AA and CA genotypes patients were significantly decreased compared to those of CC genotype subjects (corrected p=0.040). CONCLUSION: These findings show the possibility that both GMV reductions and TPH1 rs1800532/rs1799913 A allele may be involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorder patients with SA.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Brain , Depressive Disorder , Frontal Lobe , Genotype , Gray Matter , Gyrus Cinguli , Humans , Palatine Tonsil , Prefrontal Cortex , Somatosensory Cortex , Temporal Lobe
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