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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To construct a HEK293 cell line stably overexpressing TrxR1 as a cell model for functional study of TrxR1 and screening of TrxR1-targeting drugs.@*METHODS@#TrxR1 gene was amplified by PCR and ligated with the lentivirus expression vector pLVX-Puro, which was transformed into Escherichia coli and identified by Sanger dideoxy sequencing. HEK293 cells were infected with the recombinant lentivirus vector (pLVX-Puro-TXNRD1) and screened with Puromycin for cell clones with stable TrxR1 overexpression (HEK293-TrxR1-OE cells). HEK293-TrxR1-OE cells, along with HEK293 cells infected with pLVX-Puro vector (HEK293-NC) and normal HEK293 cells, were tested for mRNA and protein expression levels of TrxR1 using RT-qPCR and Western blotting. TrxR1 enzyme activity in the cells was evaluated with insulin endpoint assay and TRFS-green probe imaging. The sensitivity of the cells to auranofin, a specific TrxR1 inhibitor, was determined with CCK8 assay.@*RESULTS@#TrxR1 gene was successfully inserted into the lentiviral vector pLVX-Puro as confirmed by DNA sequencing. The enzyme activity and mRNA and protein expression levels of TrxR1 were significantly higher in HEK293-TrxR1-OE cells than in HEK293 and HEK293-NC cells (P < 0.005). The inhibitory effects of auranofin on proliferation and cellular TrxR1 enzyme activity were significantly attenuated in HEK293-TrxR1-OE cells as compared with HEK293 and HEK293-NC cells (P < 0.005).@*CONCLUSION@#We successfully obtained a HEK293 cell line with stable TrxR1 overexpression, which shows resistance to auranofin and can be used for screening TrxR1 targeting drugs.


Subject(s)
Auranofin , Cell Line, Tumor , Genetic Vectors , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lentivirus/genetics , RNA, Messenger , Transfection
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the role of TRIM21 in modulating the invasive phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and its mechanism of action.@*METHODS@#RNA interference technique was used to knock down the expression of TRIM21 and β-catenin, alone or in combination, in HCC cell lines 97H and LM3, and the interfering efficiency and the activity of closely related pathways were determined using Western blotting. The two cells with TRIM21 knockdown (siTRIM21 97H and siTRIM21 LM3 cells) were assessed for their invasion ability in vitro using Transwell invasion assay, and the lung metastasis capacity of siTRIM21 LM3 cells following tail vein injection was evaluated in nude mice. The binding of TRIM21 with β-catenin and the ubiquitylation level of β-catenin in TRIM21-overexpressing HEK293 cells were determined with Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation assay. We also compared the overall survival of patients with CTNNB1highTRIM21high and CTNNB1highTRIM21low HCC subtypes using Kaplan-Meier method based on filtrated and grouped HCC clinical data from TCGA database.@*RESULTS@#TRIM21 knockdown significantly enhanced the invasion ability of 97H and LM3 cells in vitro (P < 0.01 or 0.05) and the lung metastasis ability of LM3 cells in nude mice (P < 0.01), and simultaneous knockdown of β -catenin obviously suppressed the in vitro invasiveness of the cells (P < 0.0001 or 0.05). Co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that TRIM21 was capable of directly binding with β-catenin protein to accelerate the ubiquitination and degradation of the latter, leading to inhibition of nuclear translocation of β-catenin and hence reduced invasiveness of HCC cells. Bioinformatic analysis showed that compared patients with CTNNB1highTRIM21low HCC subtype where Wnt pathway was activated, the patients with CTNNB1highTRIM21high HCC subtype had a significantly better survival outcomes (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#A high expression of TRIM21 suppresses the invasion of HCC cells by promoting β-catenin ubiquitylation and degradation, which possibly explains the poor prognosis of CTNNB1highTRIM21low HCC patients.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Mice , Mice, Nude , Ribonucleoproteins/genetics , Ubiquitination , Wnt Signaling Pathway , beta Catenin/metabolism
3.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 135-148, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922667

ABSTRACT

The family of voltage-gated potassium Kv2 channels consists of the Kv2.1 and Kv2.2 subtypes. Kv2.1 is constitutively highly phosphorylated in neurons and its function relies on its phosphorylation state. Whether the function of Kv2.2 is also dependent on its phosphorylation state remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether Kv2.2 channels can be phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) and examined the effects of PKC-induced phosphorylation on their activity and function. Activation of PKC inhibited Kv2.2 currents and altered their steady-state activation in HEK293 cells. Point mutations and specific antibodies against phosphorylated S481 or S488 demonstrated the importance of these residues for the PKC-dependent modulation of Kv2.2. In layer II pyramidal neurons in cortical slices, activation of PKC similarly regulated native Kv2.2 channels and simultaneously reduced the frequency of action potentials. In conclusion, this study provides the first evidence to our knowledge that PKC-induced phosphorylation of the Kv2.2 channel controls the excitability of cortical pyramidal neurons.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Pyramidal Cells/enzymology , Shab Potassium Channels/genetics
4.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 120-140, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929156

ABSTRACT

Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped negative-sense RNA virus and a member of the filovirus family. Nucleoprotein (NP) expression alone leads to the formation of inclusion bodies (IBs), which are critical for viral RNA synthesis. The matrix protein, VP40, not only plays a critical role in virus assembly/budding, but also can regulate transcription and replication of the viral genome. However, the molecular mechanism by which VP40 regulates viral RNA synthesis and virion assembly/budding is unknown. Here, we show that within IBs the N-terminus of NP recruits VP40 and is required for VLP-containing NP release. Furthermore, we find four point mutations (L692A, P697A, P698A and W699A) within the C-terminal hydrophobic core of NP result in a stronger VP40-NP interaction within IBs, sequestering VP40 within IBs, reducing VP40-VLP egress, abolishing the incorporation of NC-like structures into VP40-VLP, and inhibiting viral RNA synthesis, suggesting that the interaction of N-terminus of NP with VP40 induces a conformational change in the C-terminus of NP. Consequently, the C-terminal hydrophobic core of NP is exposed and binds VP40, thereby inhibiting RNA synthesis and initiating virion assembly/budding.


Subject(s)
Ebolavirus/physiology , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virion/metabolism , Virus Assembly
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929018

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Liver cancer is the sixth most common malignant tumor in the world. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 85%-90% of all patients with liver cancer. It possesses the characteristics of insidious onset, rapid progression, early recurrence, easy drug resistance, and poor prognosis. NIMA related kinase 2 (NEK2) is a cell cycle regulating kinases, which regulates cell cycle in mitosis. Cellular senescence is a complex heterogeneous process, and is a stable form of cell cycle arrest that limits the proliferative potential of cells. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the expression level of NEK2 and the senescence in hepatoma cells, and to explore the effect of NEK2 expression on hepatoma cell senescence and the underlying molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#A total of 581 senescence-relevant genes were obtained from the GenAge website. The gene expression data of tumor tissues of 370 HCC patients were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas database. The co-expression of NEK2 and aging-related genes was analyzed by R-package. KEGG was used to analyze the significant gene enrichment pathway of differentially expressed genes in NEK2 overexpression HEK293. The stable transfected cell lines with overexpression and knockdown of NEK2 were constructed in hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 and HepG2, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining was used to detect senescence, the cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 method and clone formation experiment, the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, and the expression of proteins related to p53/p21, p16/Rb, and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN)/Akt signal transduction pathway was detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#There were 320 senescence related genes co-expressed with NEK2. KEGG analysis showed that the senescence signaling pathway was significantly enriched in HEK293 cells with overexpression of NEK2.Compared with SMMC-7721 or HepG2 without knockdown of NEK2, the senescent cells of SMMC-7721 and HepG2 with knockdown of NEK2 were increased, cell proliferation and clone formation were decreased significantly, the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase was increased, the expression levels of phospho-Akt (p-Akt) and phospho-Rb (p-Rb) protein were decreased significantly, and the expression level of p16 protein was increased significantly (all P<0.05). Compared with SMMC-7721 or HepG2 transfected with blank plasmid, the senescent cells of SMMC-7721 and HepG2 overexpressing NEK2 were decreased, the cell proliferation and clone formation were increased significantly, the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase were decreased, the expression levels of p-Akt and p-Rb protein were increased significantly, and the expression level of p16 protein was decreased significantly (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#NEK2 may mediate the anti-aging effect of hepatoma cells through p16/Rb and PTEN/Akt signal transduction pathways, which provides a new theoretical basis for NEK2 to promote the progress of liver cancer and a new idea for the targeting treatment for liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Cellular Senescence/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , NIMA-Related Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940949

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To conduct eukaryotic expression of the leucine-rich repeat containing 15 (LRRC15), a differentially expressed protein in excretory secretory antigens of Taenia solium cysticercus, and predict its antigen epitope.@*METHODS@#The molecular weight, stability, amino acid sequence composition, isoelectric point and T lymphocyte epitope of the LRRC15 protein were predicted using the bioinformatics online softwares ExPASy-PortParam and Protean. The full-length splicing primers were designed using PCR-based accurate synthesis, and the LRRC15 gene was synthesized. The recombinant pcDNA3.4-LRRC15 plasmid was constructed and transfected into HEK293 cells to express the LRRC15 protein. In addition, the LRRC15 protein was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The recombinant pcDNA3.4-LRRC15 plasmid was successfully constructed, which expressed the target LRRC15 protein with an approximately molecular weight of 70 kDa. Bioinformatics prediction with the ExPASy-PortParam software showed that LRRC15 was a hydrophilic protein, which was consisted of 644 amino acids and had a molecular weight of 69.89 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.6. The molecular formula of the LRRC15 protein was C3073H4942N846O953S28 and had an instability coefficient is 50.3, indicating that LRRC15 was an instable protein. Bioinformatics prediction with the Protean software showed that the dominant T-cell antigen epitopes were located in 292 to 295, 353 to 361, 521 to 526 and 555 to 564 amino acids of the LRRC15 protein, and the T-cell antigen epitopes with a high hydrophilicity, good flexibility, high surface accessibility and high antigenicity index were found in 122 to 131, 216 to 233, 249 to 254, 333 to 343, 358 to 361, 368 to 372, 384 to 386, 407 to 412, 445 to 450, 469 to 481, 553 to 564, 588 to 594, 607 to 617 and 624 to 639 amino acids. Following transfection of the recombinant pcDNA3.4-LRRC15 plasmid into HEK293 cells, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting identified LRRC15 proteins in cell secretory culture media, cell lysis supernatants and sediments. The LRRC15-His fusion protein was purified from the cell culture medium, and SDS-PAGE identified a remarkable band at approximately 70 kDa, while Western blotting successfully recognized the band of the recombinant LRRC15 protein.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The eukaryotic expression and antigen epitope prediction of the LRRC15 protein in the excretory secretory antigens of T. solium cysticercus have been successfully performed, which provides insights into further understandings of its biological functions.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Animals , Antigens, Helminth/genetics , Cysticercus/genetics , Epitopes/genetics , Eukaryota , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins , Membrane Proteins , Taenia solium/genetics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939908

ABSTRACT

Pseudo-allergic reactions (PARs) widely occur upon application of drugs or functional foods. Anti-pseudo-allergic ingredients from natural products have attracted much attention. This study aimed to investigate anti-pseudo-allergic compounds in licorice. The anti-pseudo-allergic effect of licorice extract was evaluated in rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 (RBL-2H3) cells. Anti-pseudo-allergic compounds were screened by using RBL-2H3 cell extraction and the effects of target components were verified further in RBL-2H3 cells, mouse peritoneal mast cells (MPMCs) and mice. Molecular docking and human MRGPRX2-expressing HEK293T cells (MRGPRX2-HEK293T cells) extraction were performed to determine the potential ligands of MAS-related G protein-coupled receptor-X2 (MRGPRX2), a pivotal target for PARs. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) and licorice chalcone A (LA) were screened and shown to inhibit Compound48/80-induced degranulation and calcium influx in RBL-2H3 cells. GA and LA also inhibited degranulation in MPMCs and increase of histamine and TNF-α in mice. LA could bind to MRGPRX2, as determined by molecular docking and MRGPRX2-HEK293T cell extraction. Our study provides a strong rationale for using GA and LA as novel treatment options for PARs. LA is a potential ligand of MRGPRX2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Degranulation , Glycyrrhiza , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Rats , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Receptors, Neuropeptide/therapeutic use
8.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 129-133, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935656

ABSTRACT

Objective: To clarify the molecular basis of patients with Bartter syndrome type I and explore the therapeutic effect of trafficking-defective variations by chemical chaperone 4-Phenylbutyric acid(4-PBA). Methods: The clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and genetic data of 3 patients diagnosed with Bartter syndrome type I who were admitted to Department of Nephrology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from 2017 to 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Wild type and variant SLC12A1 gene constructs were transiently overexpressed in HEK293 cells. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of Na+-K+-2Cl-cotransporter(NKCC2) protein. Immunofluorescent staining was applied to investigate the subcellular localization of NKCC2 protein. In addition, the effect of the chemical chaperone 4-PBA on the expression and localization of the SLC12A1 gene variants was investigated. Unpaired t test was used for statistical analysis of 4-PBA treatment. Results: All the 3 patients (2 males and 1 female), aged 3.0, 4.0 and 1.2 years, respectively. All patients had antenatal onset with polyhydramnios and were born prematurely. After birth, all patients presented with hypochlorine alkalosis accompanied by hypokalemia and hyponatremia. Sequencing analysis revealed that the 3 patients were homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for variants in the SLC12A1 gene. In HEK293 cells, the surface expression of NKCC2 in 3 variants (p.L463S, p.L479V, p.507-510del) are all lower than in wild type (0.718±0.039, 0.287±0.081, 0.025±0.156 vs. 1.001±0.028, t=5.92, 8.35, 30.49, all P<0.01). Moreover, the total protein expression of p.L479V and p.507-510del group were all lower than that in wild type group (0.630±0.032, 0.043±0.003 vs. 1.000±0.111, t=3.21, 8.65, all P<0.05). 4-PBA treatment increased the mature protein expression level of the p.L463S and p. L479V group in 4-PBA treatment group are all higher than the untreated group (0.459±0.018 vs. 1.123±0.024, 0.053±0.012 vs. 1.256±0.037, t=2.75, 18.35, all P<0.05). Cytoplasmic retention of the L479V and 507-510del variants were observed by immunofluorescent staining. 4-PBA treatment could rescue a number of NKCC2 L479V variants to the membrane. Conclusions: The 3 SLC12A1 variants cause expression or subcellular localization defects of the protein. The findings that plasma membrane expression and activity can be rescued by 4PBA might help to develop novel therapeutic strategy for Bartter syndrome type Ⅰ.


Subject(s)
Bartter Syndrome/genetics , Child, Preschool , Female , HEK293 Cells , Homozygote , Humans , Infant , Male , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 1/genetics
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect and possible mechanism of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), and provide experimental and theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of T-ALL.@*METHODS@#Jurkat cells were treated with different concentrations of DMF for 24 hours, and then the proportion and absolute count of Ki67-positive Jurkat cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Meanwhile, the protein levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and E3 ubiquitin ligase HACE1 in Jurkat cells treated with DMF for 24 hours were evaluated by Western blot. Nrf2 proteins were co-immunoprecipitated in Jurkat cells, and then HACE1 protein was assessed by Western blot. Plasmids of Flag-Nrf2 and different gradients of Flag-HACE1 were transfected into HEK293T cells, and the levels of Flag-Nrf2 were detected by Western blot after 48 hours.@*RESULTS@#DMF could significantly inhibit the proportion and absolute count of Ki67-positive Jurkat cells, and DMF inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells in a dose-dependent manner (r=0.9595, r=0.9054). DMF could significantly up-regulate the protein levels of Nrf2 and E3 ubiquitin ligase HACE1 in Jurkat cells (P<0.01, P<0.01). HACE1 physically interacted with Nrf2 in Jurkat cells. Overexpression of Flag-HACE1 significantly increased the protein level of Flag-Nrf2 in a dose-dependent manner (r=0.9771).@*CONCLUSION@#DMF inhibits the proliferation of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell. The mechanism may be that, DMF significantly up-regulates the protein levels of Nrf2 and E3 ubiquitin ligase HACE1, and HACE1 interacts with Nrf2 and positively regulates Nrf2 protein level.


Subject(s)
Dimethyl Fumarate/pharmacology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , T-Lymphocytes , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928089

ABSTRACT

Bombesin receptor subtype-3(BRS-3) is an orphan receptor in the bombesin receptor family. Its signal transduction mechanism and biological function have attracted much attention. Seeking the ligand for BRS-3 is of great significance for exploring its function. Considering the fact that the activation of BRS-3 receptor can induce the change in intracellular Ca~(2+) concentration, the fluo-rometric imaging plate reader(FLIPR) was utilized for ligand screening at the cellular level. Among more than 400 monomeric compounds isolated from Chinese herbs, yuanhunine from Corydalis Rhizoma and sophoraisoflavanone A and licoriphenone from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma antagonized BRS-3 to varying degrees. It was confirmed in HEK293 cells expressing BRS-3 that yuanhunine, sophoraisoflavanone A, and licoriphenone inhibited the calcium current response after the activation of BRS-3 by [D-Phe~6,β-Ala~(11),Phe~(13),Nle~(14)]bombesin-(6-14) in a dose-dependent manner with the IC_(50) values being 8.58, 4.10, and 2.04 μmol·L~(-1), respectively. Further study indicated that yuanhunine and sophoraisoflavanone A exhibited good selectivity for BRS-3. In this study, it was found for the first time that monomers derived from Chinese herbs had antagonistic activity against orphan receptor BRS-3, which has provided a tool for further study of BRS-3 and also the potential lead compounds for new drug discovery. At the same time, it provides reference for the research and development of innovative drugs based on the active ingredients of Chinese herbs.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Ligands , Receptors, Bombesin
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1824-1836, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927820

ABSTRACT

In order to construct a recombinant replication deficient human type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) expressing a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein, specific primers for P12A and 3B3C genes of FMDV-OZK93 were synthesized. The P12A and 3B3C genes were then amplified and connected by fusion PCR, and a recombinant shuttle plasmid pDC316-mCMV-EGFP-P12A3B3C expressing the FMDV-OZK93 capsid protein precursor P12A and 3B3C protease were obtained by inserting the P12A3B3C gene into the pDC316-mCMV-EGFP plasmid. The recombinant adenovirus rAdv-P12A3B3C-OZK93 was subsequently packaged, characterized and amplified using AdMaxTM adenovirus packaging system, and the expression was verified by infecting human embryonic kidney cell HEK-293. The humoral and cellular immunity levels of well-expressed and purified recombinant adenovirus immunized mice were evaluated. The results showed that rAdv-P12A3B3C-OZK93 could be stably passaged and the maximum virus titer reached 1×109.1 TCID50/mL. Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence showed that rAdv-P12A3B3C-OZK93 expressed the FMDV-specific proteins P12A and VP1 in HEK-293 cells. In addition, the PK cell infection experiment confirmed that rAdv-P12A3B3C-OZK93 could infect porcine cells, which is essential for vaccination in pigs. Comparing with the inactivated vaccine group, the recombinant adenovirus could induce higher FMDV-specific IgG antibodies, γ-IFN and IL-10. This indicates that the recombinant adenovirus has good immunity for animal, which is very important for the subsequent development of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Capsid/metabolism , Capsid Proteins , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/prevention & control , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Serogroup , Swine , Viral Proteins , Viral Vaccines/genetics
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1149-1158, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927770

ABSTRACT

The α2δ-1 protein coded by Cacna2d1 is dramatically up-regulated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and spinal dorsal horn following sensory nerve injury in various animal models of neuropathic pain. Cacna2d1 overexpression potentiates presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons to cause pain hypersensitivity. The α2δ-1-NMDAR interaction promotes surface trafficking and synaptic targeting of NMDARs in neuropathic pain caused by chemotherapeutic agents and peripheral nerve injury, as well as in other pathological conditions such as in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) with neurogenic hypertension and in the brain with ischemic stroke. The lentiviral transfection method was used to construct a human embryonic kidney HEK293T cell line that could stably express α2δ-1-NMDAR complex. A stably transfected cell line was observed by florescence microscope, and identified by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. The results showed that the HEK293T cell line was successfully transfected and the genes could be stably expressed. Subsequently, the transfected cell line was successfully developed into a target drug screening system using patch clamp techniques. It provides a promising cell model for further research on the interaction mechanism of α2δ-1-NMDAR complex and drug screening for chronic pain and related diseases with low side effects.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/therapeutic use , Animals , Drug Discovery , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neuralgia/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/genetics
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200817, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345486

ABSTRACT

Abstract Human Embryonic Kidney 293T cells (HEK-293T) are the most common host for viral vector production and are also widely employed for recombinant protein production. These cells are typically cultured in monolayer (adherent culture) using culture medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS), which impairs batch-to-batch reproducibility and scale-up. The adaptation of adherent cell culture to suspension culture in chemically defined serum-free culture medium is an attractive approach for large-scale bioprocess implementation while aiming for a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) compliant production process. Therefore, in the present study, our goal was to adapt HEK-293T cells to serum-free suspension culture conditions and evaluate the feasibility of adapted cells to be transfected using different plasmid vectors for recombinant protein production. Firstly, the cells were efficiently adapted to serum-free conditions by sequential adaptation (FBS-containing medium weaning). During the whole process, parameters such as cell growth, viability and doubling time were evaluated and compared to the control (adherent serum-supplemented HEK-293T cell culture). Afterwards, these cells were adapted to suspension culture by using Erlenmeyer flasks in an orbital shaker platform, being able to achieve meaningful cell density with high viability. Adapted cells presented a transfection efficiency of approximately 50% for all vector constructs used (1054-GFP, Factor-VIII and Factor-IX). Overall, it was possible to successfully adapt HEK-293T cells to suspension and serum-free conditions, which represents an important step towards the development of a scalable and GMP-compliant production process. In addition, adapted cells efficiently expressed the different transgene tested, opening up possibilities for its use in recombinant protein production.


Subject(s)
Recombinant Proteins , Adaptation to Disasters , HEK293 Cells , Culture Media, Serum-Free
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878422

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aims to construct endogenous exosomes abundantly loaded with miR-1 and investigate the role of exosome-mediated microRNA-1 (miR-1) delivery on CAL-27 cell proliferation.@*METHODS@#Exosomes secreted by miR-1-overexpressing HEK293 cells (miR1-EXO) were purified via ultracentrifugation and subjected to transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle analysis, Western blot analysis, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). CAL-27 cells were cocultured with exosomes secreted by HEK293 cells (CON-EXO) and miR1-EXO and equivalent phosphate buffer saline. The intracellular transport of exosomes was measured by using immunofluorescence, the expression of miR-1 and its target gene MET were investigated via qPCR, CAL-27 cell proliferation was measured through MTT assay, and cell cycle state was determined by applying flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#Electron microscopy revealed that miR1-EXO and CON-EXO were spherical or cup-shaped with an average diameter of approximately 110 nm. The well-known exosome markers CD9, Tsg101, and Alix were enriched. The expression of miR-1 in miR1-EXO was higher than that in CON-EXO (285.80±14.33 vs 1.00±0.06, @*CONCLUSIONS@#Exosomes secreted from miR1-EXO cells could load abundant miR-1. Exosomal miR-1 delivered into CAL-27 cells by using miR1-EXO suppressed the expression of MET mRNA and inhibited cell proliferation.


Subject(s)
Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Exosomes , HEK293 Cells , Humans , MicroRNAs
15.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1381-1396, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922639

ABSTRACT

Mechanosensitive ion channels (MSCs) are key molecules in the mechano-electrical transduction of arterial baroreceptors. Among them, acid-sensing ion channel 2 (ASIC2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) have been studied extensively and documented to play important roles. In this study, experiments using aortic arch-aortic nerve preparations isolated from rats revealed that both ASIC2 and TRPV1 are functionally necessary, as blocking either abrogated nearly all pressure-dependent neural discharge. However, whether ASIC2 and TRPV1 work in coordination remained unclear. So we carried out cell-attached patch-clamp recordings in HEK293T cells co-expressing ASIC2 and TRPV1 and found that inhibition of ASIC2 completely blocked stretch-activated currents while inhibition of TRPV1 only partially blocked these currents. Immunofluorescence staining of aortic arch-aortic adventitia from rats showed that ASIC2 and TRPV1 are co-localized in the aortic nerve endings, and co-immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that the two proteins form a compact complex in HEK293T cells and in baroreceptors. Moreover, protein modeling analysis, exogenous co-immunoprecipitation assays, and biotin pull-down assays indicated that ASIC2 and TRPV1 interact directly. In summary, our research suggests that ASIC2 and TRPV1 form a compact complex and function synergistically in the mechano-electrical transduction of arterial baroreceptors. The model of synergism between MSCs may have important biological significance beyond ASIC2 and TRPV1.


Subject(s)
Acid Sensing Ion Channels/physiology , Animals , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Pressoreceptors/physiology , Rats , TRPV Cation Channels/physiology
16.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 515-525, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Plant-derived cytotoxic transgene expression, such as trichosanthin (tcs), regulated by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector is a promising cancer gene therapy. However, the cytotoxic transgene can hamper the vector production in the rAAV producer cell line, human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Here, we explored microRNA-122 (miR122) and its target sequence to limit the expression of the cytotoxic gene in the rAAV producer cells.@*METHODS@#A miR122 target (122T) sequence was incorporated into the 3' untranslated region of the tcs cDNA sequence. The firefly luciferase (fluc) transgene was used as an appropriate control. Cell line HEK293-mir122 was generated by the lentiviral vector-mediated genome integration of the mir122 gene in parental HEK293 cells. The effects of miR122 overexpression on cell growth, transgene expression, and rAAV production were determined.@*RESULTS@#The presence of 122T sequence significantly reduced transgene expression in the miR122-enriched Huh7 cell line (in vitro), fresh human hepatocytes (ex vivo), and mouse liver (in vivo). Also, the normal liver physiology was unaffected by delivery of 122T sequence by rAAV vectors. Compared with the parental cells, the miR122-overexpressing HEK293-mir122 cell line showed similar cell growth rate and expression of transgene without 122T, as well as the ability to produce liver-targeting rAAV vectors. Fascinatingly, the yield of rAAV vectors carrying the tcs-122T gene was increased by 77.7-fold in HEK293-mir122 cells. Moreover, the tcs-122T-containing rAAV vectors significantly reduced the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells without affecting the normal liver cells.@*CONCLUSION@#HEK293-mir122 cells along with the 122T sequence provide a potential tool to attenuate the cytotoxic transgene expression, such as tcs, during rAAV vector production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dependovirus/genetics , Genetic Therapy , Genetic Vectors/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , MicroRNAs/genetics , Trichosanthin
17.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 858-876, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922480

ABSTRACT

There remains a significant gap in our quantitative understanding of crosstalk between apoptosis and necroptosis pathways. By employing the SWATH-MS technique, we quantified absolute amounts of up to thousands of proteins in dynamic assembling/de-assembling of TNF signaling complexes. Combining SWATH-MS-based network modeling and experimental validation, we found that when RIP1 level is below ~1000 molecules/cell (mpc), the cell solely undergoes TRADD-dependent apoptosis. When RIP1 is above ~1000 mpc, pro-caspase-8 and RIP3 are recruited to necrosome respectively with linear and nonlinear dependence on RIP1 amount, which well explains the co-occurrence of apoptosis and necroptosis and the paradoxical observations that RIP1 is required for necroptosis but its increase down-regulates necroptosis. Higher amount of RIP1 (>~46,000 mpc) suppresses apoptosis, leading to necroptosis alone. The relation between RIP1 level and occurrence of necroptosis or total cell death is biphasic. Our study provides a resource for encoding the complexity of TNF signaling and a quantitative picture how distinct dynamic interplay among proteins function as basis sets in signaling complexes, enabling RIP1 to play diverse roles in governing cell fate decisions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 8/metabolism , GTPase-Activating Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Necroptosis , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888337

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To construct and identify adenovirus vector co-expressing hBMP2 and hVEGF165 fusion protein which labeled with green fluorescence protein, and laying the foundtion of the effect of hBMP2 and hVEGF165 gene inducing BMMSCs differentiation to osteoblast and bone defect repaired in the body.@*METHODS@#BMP2 and VEGF165 gene was amplified from cDNA library by PCR and inserted to the polyclonal site of adenovirus shuttle plasmid pAd-MCMV-GFP. Ad-BMP2- VEGF165 was recombinated and propagated in HEK293 cells by co-transfecting with the constructed recombinant shuttle plasmid pAd-MCMV-BMP2-VEGF165 and adenovirus helper plasmid pBHGloxΔ E1, 3Cre. The recombinant adenovirus was purified and virustiter was determined, and then to research GFP expression and to calculate the adenovirus transfection rate in rabbit BMMSCs.@*RESULTS@#The recombinant adenovirus vector Ad-BMP2-VEGF165 was successfully constructed by the methods of gene analyzing, colony PCR, Western blotting and observing GFP expression, and the titer of the adenovirus was 1×10@*CONCLUSION@#Recombinant adenovirus vector containing hBMP2 and hVEGF165 gene was successfully constructed and its high titer was obtained.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Bone Marrow Cells , Genetic Vectors/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Rabbits , Transfection
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879520

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect the mutation site in a pedigree affected with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and verify its impact on the protein function.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples were collected from the proband and his pedigree members for the extraction of genomic DNA. Mutational analysis was performed on the proband through whole-exome sequencing. Suspected variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. A series of molecular methods including PCR amplification, restriction enzyme digestion, ligation and transformation were also used to construct wild-type and mutant eukaryotic expression vectors of the PKD2 gene, which were transfected into HEK293T and HeLa cells for the observation of protein expression and cell localization.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to harbor a c.2051dupA (p. Tyr684Ter) frame shift mutation of the PKD2 gene, which caused repeat of the 2051st nucleotide of its cDNA sequence and a truncated protein. Immunofluorescence experiment showed that the localization of the mutant protein within the cell was altered compared with the wild-type, which may be due to deletion of the C-terminus of the PKD2 gene.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.2051dupA (p. Tyr684Ter) mutation of the PKD2 gene probably underlay the pathogenesis of ADPKD in this pedigree.


Subject(s)
DNA Mutational Analysis , Female , Frameshift Mutation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Male , Pedigree , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant/physiopathology , Protein Kinases/genetics , Protein Transport/genetics , Whole Exome Sequencing
20.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190530, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153299

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS The phenolic composition, antioxidant activity and cytotoxic potential of the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides were investigated. Caffeic acid was found as the most abundant phenolic compound in the extracts. Both species showed promising antioxidant activity towards different assays. The highest cytotoxic potential was observed in the extract of C. solstitialis.


Abstract It is known that some genera of the Asteraceae family are commonly used in Turkish folk medicine. Several studies have investigated the biological effects of different extracts of Centaurea and Urospermum species, but studies involving the phenolic composition of C. solstitialis and U. picroides extracts are very limited. This study aimed to investigate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of C. solstitialis and U. picroides and evaluate their possible cytotoxic effect. RP-HPLC analysis was used to elucidate the phenolic profiles of the ethanolic extracts of flowering parts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides.The both ethanolic extracts were assessed for their antioxidant properties using DPPH, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating assays. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts on cell viability was evaluated against MCF-7 and PC-3 cancer cells and HEK293 cell line using the MTT assay. The most abundant phenolic compound in both extracts was determined to be caffeic acid, and the amount of this compound was 24078.03 and 14329.59 µg g-1 in the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was found similar. Compared with U. picroides extract, C. solstitialis extract had higher potential on the inhibition of cell viability. The IC50 value of C. solstitialis on MCF cells was found as 58.53 µg mL-1. These data suggest that the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides may be considered as novel and alternative natural antioxidant and anticancer sources.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asteraceae/chemistry , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Centaurea/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Turkey , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , HEK293 Cells
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