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1.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159928

ABSTRACT

Summary: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease as old as mankind, whereas in India the first case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was reported in 1986. HIV and TB are so closely connected that their relationship is often described as a coepidemic. Aspergilloma (Fungal Ball, Mycetoma) represents a saprophytic growth of aspergillus that colonizes in the preformed cavities commonly due to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). We report a case of HIV, active pulmonary tuberculosis and aspergilloma occurring in the same patient. Despite our best efforts, we could not lay our hands on any similar case in the medical literature.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Bronchoscopy , Diagnosis, Differential , HIV/immunology , HIV Antibodies/analysis , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
2.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-138755

ABSTRACT

A 35-year-old, human immunodeficiency virus sero-positive male presented with huge mediastinal mass for evaluation. After contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) angiogram, aneurysm of arch of aorta was diagnosed. The patient also proved to be co-infected with syphilis, which is the aetiological cause of aneurysm in this case. The present report highlights the need to suspect, diagnose and treat dual infections in individuals with high risk behaviour.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aneurysm, Infected/diagnosis , Aneurysm, Infected/etiology , Aortic Aneurysm/diagnosis , Aortic Aneurysm/etiology , HIV Antibodies/analysis , HIV Antigens/analysis , HIV Seropositivity/complications , HIV Seropositivity/diagnosis , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Male , Syphilis, Cardiovascular/complications , Syphilis, Cardiovascular/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2006; 27 (1): 31-36
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-80564

ABSTRACT

Objectives:A sensitive and accurate dot blot assay using recombinant p24 [gag], gp41 and gp120 [env] proteins of HIV-1 and also recombinant gp36, the specific HIV-2 antigen was developed to confirm the presence of antibodies in sera reactive in screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.Methods:We collected sera from Iranian 125 confirmed HIV positive Iranian samples [seropositive group] from AIDS patients, asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects, HIV-infected intravenous drug users and also hemophilic infected subjects. The samples were obtained from the AIDS Specimen Bank, Pasture Institute, Iran during 2002 to 2003. We also obtained 180 samples [seronegative group] from healthy blood donors. Recombinant antigens were expressed in Escherichia coli. By use of highly purified antigens, the dot blot procedure was developed. Analysis of the results was accomplished by capturing the dot blot images.Results:We established and interpreted the results using Centers for Disease Control criteria. We defined the positive test result as the presence of antibody against at least 2 different HIV gene products, one of which had to be an env gene product while a negative test result was defined as no antibodies against any of the HIV gene products and an indeterminate result was defined as antibodies reacting with only one HIV env gene product or against gag gene product only.Conclusion:The recombinant HIV dot blotting assay identified seropositive individuals with a high degree of accuracy; none of the HIV-seropositive subjects had a negative test result. Reactivity with these antigens, demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing seronegative from seropositive sera. The different sets of Western blot interpretative accepted criteria did not make a difference in interpretation of the seronegative and seropositive samples


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Antibodies/analysis , HIV Antibodies/immunology , Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Evaluation Study , HIV-1 , HIV-2
4.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-67342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Western blot assay is the gold standard for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, indeterminate Western blot reactivity to HIV-1 proteins may occur in individuals, who may not be infected with HIV. AIM: This retrospective study was aimed to determine the diagnostic value of the interpretation criteria in relation to commercial kits for HIV-1 diagnosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 556 serum/plasma specimens collected from high-risk population attending our HIV clinic from 2000-2004 were tested by three different western blot kits: NEW LAV BLOT I (n=244), HIV BLOT 2.2; (n=112), Genetic Systems HIV-1 (n=237). And the results of western blot strips were analyzed using the various interpretation criteria: WHO/NACO, CDC/ ASTPHLD, ARC, FDA, CRSS and JHU. Some specimens were run on more than one kit. RT-PCR assay was performed on 5 specimens, which were indeterminate with LAV BLOT I. RESULTS: The discrepancy in LAV BLOT I positive results were between 157(64)-176(72), and indeterminate results were between 44(18) to 63(25). No such variations were observed in genetic systems. There are some HIV negative (by PCR) specimens were indeterminate in LAV BLOT I revealing the kit more sensitive and less effective for diagnostic purpose. CONCLUSION: The genetic systems kit is superior to other kits we analyzed and its results are concordant with HIV-1 PCR results. To report, the choice of western blot commercial kit is paramount important than the use of particular interpretation criteria for the diagnosis of HIV-1.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western/methods , HIV Antibodies/analysis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34388

ABSTRACT

The human immunodeficiency virus Tat regulatory protein is essential for virus replication and for the efficient transcription of HIV-1 provirus, and in the pathogenesis of AIDS. The role of the tat gene was investigated in 300 samples. It was found that 71.7% were subtype CRF_01AE, 9.3% were subtype B, while 11.7 and 7.3% of them were cross-reactive and non-typeable, respectively. Moreover the results from peptide ELISA also showed that a low CD4 cell count was related to a low anti-Tat antibody (p < 0.05), which may be due to the progression of HIV-1, which can be found predominantly in AIDS patients. The results of nested PCR showed that the second Tat exon might also play a role in T-cell activation. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure HIV-1 mRNA expression in PBMC. RT-PCR negative results were found mostly in the asymptomatic HIV-seropositive group (88%). HIV-1 mRNA expression was found to correlate with current immunologic status. The differences in Tat protein sequences from DNA sequencing between the patients who had anti-Tat antibody positive and anti-Tat antibody negative, were not significant (p > 0.05). These results suggested that the Tat amino acid sequences were conserved among each group of samples and did not change significantly compared with the consensus sequence in previous studies. Several factors make Tat an attractive target for vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Base Sequence , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Child , Child, Preschool , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Genes, tat/genetics , HIV Antibodies/analysis , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Thailand , Virus Replication/genetics
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 185-193, 2001.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-195978

ABSTRACT

Current diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection relies on the detection of anti-HIV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Recently, kits detecting both p24 antigenemia and anti-HIV/anti-HIV2 antibodies have been developed. Thus, it is necessary to compare those kits developed as such. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of a simultaneous detection test of p24 antigen and anti-HIV1/2 antibodies in a low prevalence area. Eight hundred and four randomly selected sera proven negative for HIV infection and 110 sera from 54 patients diagnosed as HIV infected, obtained between 1999 and 2000, were used for this study. One commercial lot of panels composed of consecutive sera obtained from known HIV-infected patient was included. Anti-HIV1/2 antibodies were detected by two different commercial ELISA kits, one from Korean and the other from German manufacturer. P24 antigen test was performed by ELISA. The simultaneous HIV antigen and antibody detection test was carried out. In the meantime, HIV RNA PCR and anti-HIV and anti-HIV2 western blot assays were also performed to confirm the test results in cases the test results didn't agree. The simultaneous detection kit showed 100% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity. Furthermore, the test displayed the possibility of earlier diagnosis than conventional anti-HIV1/2 ELISA with the results obtained from a group of consecutive panel sera infected with HIV. From these results, we concluded that the simultaneous HIV antigen and antibody detection test can be applied as a substitute clinical screening test in the place of conventional anti-HIV1/2 ELISA, and there is the probable benefit of early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , HIV Antibodies/analysis , HIV Antigens/analysis , Humans , Korea , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards
8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2000 Dec; 48(4): 311-2
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-72034

ABSTRACT

Anterior uveitis is a known clinical entity in herpes zoster ophthalmicus associated with AIDS. However, reports of acute haemorrhagic hypopyon uveitis in such cases are lacking. Herein we describe a young male patient presenting with acute panuveitis with haemorrhagic hypopyon, who was found HIV positive on investigation.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acute Disease , Adult , Diagnosis, Differential , HIV/immunology , HIV Antibodies/analysis , Humans , Hyphema/diagnosis , Male , Panuveitis/complications
9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2000 Dec; 48(4): 313-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-69537

ABSTRACT

Immune reconstitution in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis manifested as posterior segment intraocular inflammation has been reported. We report an adult HIV-positive Indian male with clinically inactive CMV retinitis who developed panuveitis with hypopyon. This was related to immune recovery mediated by combination anti-retroviral treatment, including protease inhibitors.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Adult , Cytomegalovirus Retinitis/diagnosis , HIV/immunology , HIV Antibodies/analysis , Humans , Hyphema/chemically induced , Male , Panuveitis/chemically induced , Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Vitreous Body/pathology
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-17388

ABSTRACT

The presence of HIV-1 antibodies was determined among the injecting drug users (IDUs) and their non-injecting wives. A total of 233 (72%) were found to be HIV-1 seropositive among the 322 subjects recruited in this study between August, 1996 and September, 1997. The distribution of HIV-1 subtypes among the injecting drug users (IDUs) and their wives was determined using peptide enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Sexual transmission of HIV-1 occurred frequently (45%) from HIV-1 infected IDUs to their spouses. The majority of the subjects (167/233) were infected with subtype C followed by subtype Thai B (29/233). Subtype C was the most common among both IDUs (78%) and their wives (57%), followed by subtype Thai B (12% and 13% respectively). The distribution of subtypes was significantly different between IDUs and their wives with a lower percentage of subtype C and higher percentage of subtype D in the infected wives (P < 0.03). Discordance for subtypes transmitted from IDUs to their wives suggests the occurrence of dual and/or recombinant infection in the IDUs.


Subject(s)
Female , HIV Antibodies/analysis , HIV-1/classification , Humans , India , Male , Spouses , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/immunology
12.
Rev. bras. clín. ter ; 26(1): 13-15, jan. 2000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-262144

ABSTRACT

Usando sangue e soro efetuamos prova imunocromatográfica qualificada como rápida para diagnosticar a infecçäo causada pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). Näo encontramos resultados falso-positivos, mas ocorreram 1,7 por cento e 5 por cento de falso-negativos quando empregamos sangue ou soro, respectivamente, de pessoas sem dúvida infectadas pelo HIV. Com esta análise procuramos cooperar no sentido de que testes de tal natureza, singelos e prontamente executáveis, fiquem suficientemente avaliados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Evaluation Study , False Negative Reactions , HIV Antibodies/analysis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests , AIDS Serodiagnosis , HIV Seropositivity , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods
13.
Indian Pediatr ; 1999 Apr; 36(4): 362-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-11846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the cellular and humoral factors in colostrum from HIV infected and uninfected lactating mothers. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Maternity Ward. METHODS: Colostrum was collected from 130 mothers (62 HIV seropositives and 68 HIV seronegatives). These colostrum samples were tested for total cell count, cell viability, differential count, phagocytic activity of macrophages, 'T' cell counts, IgA, IgM and IgG levels. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant decrease in the phagocytosis and 'T' cell number (p <0.001) and in the IgA and IgG levels (p<0. 05) in the colostrum obtained from HIV seropositive mothers as compared to HIV seronegative ones. CONCLUSION: Some of the cellular and humoral factors are reduced in colostrum samples obtained from HIV seropositives as compared to normals.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Breast Feeding , Case-Control Studies , Colostrum/chemistry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Antibodies/analysis , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Seronegativity/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Lymphocyte Count , Macrophages/immunology , Phagocytosis/immunology , Puerperal Disorders/immunology , T-Lymphocytes
14.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 31(2): 77-78, 1999.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-522846

ABSTRACT

A emissão de forte fluorescência da riboflavina (vit. 82) pode interferir nas análises fluorimétricas qualitativas fornecendo resultados falso-positivos nos exames sorológicos, após ingestão de polivitamínicos (relato de 3 casos).


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Antibodies/analysis , Flow Cytometry , Riboflavin/radiation effects , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures
16.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 1997 Dec; 15(4): 193-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-36657

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of HIV infection is based on screening of HIV antibodies and confirmed by a more specific supplementary test. The most common confirmation test is Western blot, which is expensive, time consuming and subject to technical skill. The present study was carried out to evaluate whether the anti-HIV-1 antibody titer is valid as a supplementary test for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection. Anti-HIV-1 antibody titers of 2,414 anti-HIV-1 positive sera determined by the particle agglutination (PA) method were analysed in comparison with the Western blot analysis. The Western blot negative result was found in 11 of 2,414 (0.46%) anti-HIV-1 positive sera, these sera also gave negative anti-HIV by ELISA. The PA titers of these sera were found in the range of 16 to 64. Seventeen samples (0.70%) with anti-HIV-1 in the titer range of 16 to 256 showed indeterminate Western blot analysis. The rest, 2,386 of these 2,414 sera (98.84%), were shown to be positive by Western blot. However, all of the 2,356 sera with antibody titers > or = 512 (97.6%) demonstrated positive Western blot results. Five cases among the 17 (29.4%) indeterminate sera were examples of early seroconversion of HIV infection, which were confirmed in follow up specimens. The results suggest that only the samples with antibody titers < 512 are required to be confirmed for HIV infection by Western blot. It is possible that early seroconversion may be inferred from anti-HIV titers. Therefore, in order to reduce time and cost, the PA anti-HIV titer can be used as an alternative supplementary test for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in most positive screened anti-HIV samples. Western blot is needed for testing in only a few cases.


Subject(s)
AIDS Serodiagnosis/methods , Blotting, Western , HIV Antibodies/analysis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 1997 Jun; 15(2): 105-13
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-36605

ABSTRACT

A Phase 1, double-blind, placebo controlled trial was conducted in Longchuan County, China, to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a prototype HIV-1 synthetic peptide vaccine in a target population at risk for HIV infection, and to establish the infrastructure for future large-scale HIV vaccine efficacy trials. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 100 microg or 500 microg of vaccine or alum placebo, and were given three injections at an accelerated 0, 1, and 2 month schedule. The vaccine was well tolerated with no significant local or systemic reactions observed in any subjects. Fifty-five percent (100 microg dose) and 64% (500 microg dose) of subjects who received the vaccine produced binding antibody to the immunogen as determined by ELISA. However, HIV-1 (MN) neutralizing antibody was detected in only 23% (3/13) of subjects with detectable HIV-1 specific binding antibody. It was concluded that this prototype HIV-1 synthetic peptide vaccine was well tolerated, safe and immunogenic, and that a 0, 1, 2 month schedule was not as effective in stimulating HIV-1 specific neutralizing antibodies compared with previous trials utilizing a 0, 1, 6 month schedule. Finally, this trial demonstrated that well-designed HIV vaccine trials can be performed at this clinical trials site in Yunnan, China, and that this site should be considered for conducting larger safety, immunogenicity and efficacy trials of candidate HIV vaccines.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , China , Double-Blind Method , Female , HIV Antibodies/analysis , HIV Envelope Protein gp120/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-94351

ABSTRACT

In this study we report the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 in paired serum and saliva collected from 118 HIV-1 infected patients and 80 normal controls in Madras, South India. Saliva was collected using Omnisal (R) collection device. All the reactive samples were confirmed by Western blot test (WB), while all the control serum and saliva were negative for HIV-1 antibodies. 107 (90.6%) HIV individual's serum and saliva contained antibodies to HIV-1. When these reactive samples were tested by WB test for confirmation the following results were obtained; 68% HIV individuals' paired serum and saliva were positive; while 9% of serum samples were positive and the saliva specimens were negative on WB. 3% of paired samples showed indeterminate Western blot pattern in contrast to 10% of serum showed full WB pattern while the saliva result was indeterminate. It is suggested that saliva testing may be appropriate for surveillance and epidemiological studies. However, if used for individual HIV diagnosis it is imperative to use a confirmatory test.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HIV Antibodies/analysis , HIV Infections/blood , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Saliva/immunology
20.
Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 1997; 4 (4): 367-370
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-46697

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To detect HIV antibody in cases suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis. DESIGN: A study of 200 patients admitted in T.B and Chest ward Mayo Hospital. Lahore. SETTING: TB and Chest ward is a 56 bedded ward receiving patients from TB and chest out door, medical wards and medical emergency. The patients admitted during the period from 15th Aug 1996 to 15 Nov 1996 were studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sera of the patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis were tested HIV antibody through ELISA technique. The HIV antibody was detected in none of the cases. There should be a high index of suspicion for HIV infection especially in resistant and fulminant cases of tuberculosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , HIV Antibodies/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Immunity
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