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Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 30-33, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089321


ABSTRACT A new point-of-care HIV viral load, mPIMA HIV-1/2 VL, Abbott, USA, has been recently developed. This point-of-care viral load requires no skilled person to run and uses a small plasma volume (50 µL). However, obtaining 50 µL of plasma can be a challenge in limited resource settings. We validated a simple and easy method to obtain enough amount of plasma to run a point-of-care viral load. The study utilized 149 specimens from patients failing antiretroviral therapy. At least 250 µL of whole blood was collected in a microtube/EDTA from fingerstick (fs-plasma) and immediately centrifuged. Parallel collection of venous blood to obtain plasma (vp-plasma) was used to compare performance in a point-of-care viral load assay and in methodology used in centralized laboratories Abbott M2000, Abbott, USA. The procedure for plasma collection takes less than 10 min and in 94% of the cases only one fingerstick was sufficient to collect at least 250 µL of blood. The Pearson correlation coefficient value for vp-plasma versus fs-plasma ran on mPIMA was 0.990. The Bland-Altman mean difference (md) for this comparison were virtually zero (md = −0.001) with limits of agreement between −0.225 and 0.223. In addition, the Pearson correlation coefficient value for fs-plasma in mPIMA versus vp-plasma in Abbott M2000 was 0.948 for values above the mPIMA limit of quantification (LoQ; from 800 to 1,000,000 copies/mL). These results validate this simple plasma isolation method capable to be implemented in low resource countries where point-of-care decentralization is deeply needed.

Humans , Plasma/virology , HIV/isolation & purification , Point-of-Care Systems , Viral Load/methods , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/virology , Linear Models , Feasibility Studies , Reproducibility of Results
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(1): 67-73, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091901


SUMMARY OBJECTIVES Individuals living with HIV seem to be more prone to changes in the redistribution of body fat, characterized as lipodystrophy, which may occur in conjunction with metabolic diseases. In the present study, such impacts were assessed in adults with and without HIV and associated with the time of virus diagnosis and treatment with antiretroviral. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 123 adults, in which 87 had HIV and 36 without HIV, of both sexes, in outpatient follow-up at the Specialized Care Service (SAE) in Macaé-RJ. The following were made: 1) Alteration in body fat distribution, measured by anthropometric parameters and self-reported lipodystrophy; 2) Biochemical profile; 3) Association between HIV diagnosis time and antiretroviral treatment. RESULTS 54.47% (n = 67) males, 45.52% (n = 56) females, mean age 37 years. Of these 87 were people living with HIV, 29% (n = 25) had self-reported lipodystrophy, mean time of virus infection, and antiretroviral treatment (5.80 ± 4.56 and 5.14 ± 3.82 years), respectively. Patients with self-reported lipodystrophy had a greater change in body fat distribution between 3-6 years of HIV diagnosis and a negative cholesterol profile. The antiretroviral treatment time influenced total cholesterol and triglycerides, even for patients without self-reported lipodystrophy, with a further nine years under treatment. CONCLUSION In this study, the negative cholesterol profile was mainly related to antiretroviral treatment time, even for patients without self-reported lipodystrophy, and changes in body fat distribution, measured by anthropometry, was especially associated with time for HIV infection in those with lipodystrophy self-reported.

RESUMO OBJETIVOS Indivíduos vivendo com HIV parecem mais propensos às alterações na redistribuição da gordura corporal, caracterizada como lipodistrofia, podendo acontecer em conjunto com as metabólicas. No presente estudo avaliaram-se tais impactos em adultos com e sem HIV e se associou ao tempo de diagnóstico do vírus e tratamento com antirretroviral. MÉTODOS Estudo tipo transversal, com 123 adultos, no qual 87 tinham HIV e 36 sem HIV, de ambos os sexos, em seguimento ambulatorial no Serviço de Atendimento Especializado (SAE) em Macaé - RJ. Foram feitos: 1) Alteração na distribuição da gordura corporal, mensurados por parâmetros antropométricos e lipodistrofia autorreferida; 2) Perfil bioquímico; 3) Associação entre tempo diagnóstico do HIV e tratamento com antirretroviral. RESULTADOS Incluíram-se 54,47% (n=67) do sexo masculino, 45,52% (n=56) do feminino, com média de idade de 37 anos. Destes, 87 eram pessoas vivendo com HIV, 29% (n=25) possuíam lipodistrofia autorreferida; tempo médio de infecção pelo vírus e tratamento antirretroviral (5,80±4,56 e 5,14±3,82 anos), respectivamente. Os pacientes com lipodistrofia autorreferida tiveram maior alteração na distribuição da gordura corporal entre 3-6 anos de diagnóstico do HIV e um perfil colesterolêmico negativo. O tempo de tratamento com antirretroviral influenciou o colesterol total e os triglicerídeos, mesmo para os pacientes sem lipodistrofia autorreferida, com mais de nove anos sob tratamento. CONCLUSÃO Neste estudo, o perfil colesterolêmico negativo se relacionou principalmente ao tempo de tratamento com antirretroviral, mesmo para os pacientes sem lipodistrofia autorreferida e as alterações na distribuição da gordura corporal, mensuradas por antropometria, se associaram especialmente ao tempo de infecção pelo HIV naqueles com lipodistrofia autorreferida.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/physiopathology , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/epidemiology , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Body Fat Distribution , Time Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , HIV Infections/blood , Sex Factors , Adipose Tissue/physiopathology , Cholesterol/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/blood , Self Report , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 90-97, Jan. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055103


Abstract Background: People living with HIV are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and carotid thickness, due to the inflammation caused by the virus, the antiretroviral therapy, and other risk factors. However, few studies have observed the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and carotid thickness in HIV-positive population at low cardiovascular risk and with undetectable viral load. Objectives: To evaluate the association between levels of inflammatory markers and carotid thickness in people living with HIV, under antiretroviral therapy and at low cardiovascular risk. Methods: To determine low cardiovascular risk in both groups (HIV infected and non-infected individuals), the Framingham Risk Score was used. Inflammatory markers (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, sVCAM-1, and sICAM-1) were assessed using flow cytometry. Carotid thickness (mm) was measured using Doppler ultrasound. Level of significance was p < 0.05. Results: In People living with HIV, age and smoking status were associated with carotid thickness alterations. In the non-HIV group, age, higher total cholesterol, and LDL levels were associated with increased carotid thickness. Using the multivariate analysis, a significant association between TNF-α and IL- 1( levels, and a higher chance of atherosclerosis development in HIV group were observed. Conclusions: Both groups have a similar risk for developing cardiovascular disease, therefore our study demonstrates that HIV-positive individuals with undetectable viral load in antiretroviral therapy without protease inhibitors and with low cardiovascular risk do not present differences in carotid thickness in relation to uninfected individuals.

Resumo Fundamento: As pessoas que vivem com HIV têm um risco aumentado de doença cardiovascular e espessamento da carótida, devido à inflamação causada pelo vírus, à terapia antirretroviral e a outros fatores de risco. No entanto, poucos estudos observaram a ocorrência de doenças cardiovasculares e espessamento carotídeo na população soropositiva com baixo risco cardiovascular e carga viral indetectável. Objetivos: Avaliar a associação entre níveis de marcadores inflamatórios e espessura da carótida em pessoas vivendo com HIV, sob terapia antirretroviral e com baixo risco cardiovascular. Métodos: Para determinar o baixo risco cardiovascular em ambos os grupos (indivíduos infectados e não-infectados pelo HIV), foi utilizado o Escore de Risco de Framingham. Os marcadores inflamatórios (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, sVCAM-1 e sICAM-1) foram avaliados por citometria de fluxo. A espessura da carótida (mm) foi mensurada por meio de ultrassom com Doppler. O nível de significância foi de p < 0,05. Resultados: Em pessoas vivendo com HIV, a idade e o tabagismo foram associados a alterações da espessura da carótida. No grupo não-HIV, idade e níveis mais altos de colesterol total e LDL foram associados ao aumento da espessura da carótida. Utilizando a análise multivariada, observou-se associação significativa entre os níveis de TNF-α e IL-1β e maior chance de desenvolvimento de aterosclerose no grupo com HIV. Conclusão: Ambos os grupos têm risco semelhante de desenvolver doença cardiovascular, portanto, nosso estudo demonstra que indivíduos HIV-positivos com carga viral indetectável em terapia antirretroviral sem inibidores de protease e com baixo risco cardiovascular não apresentam diferenças na espessura da carótida em relação aos indivíduos não-infectados.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Inflammation/blood , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 68-75, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055082


Abstract Background: HIV-positive patients are twice as likely than the general population to have a heart attack and are four times at greater risk of sudden death. In addition to the increased risk, these individuals present with cardiovascular events on average approximately 10 years earlier than the general population. Objective: To compare Framingham and reduced DAD (Data Collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs Cohort) scores for cardiovascular risk assessment in HIV-positive patients and potential impact on clinical decision after evaluation of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. Methods: Seventy-one HIV-positive patients with no history of cardiovascular disease were clinically evaluated, stratified by the Framingham 2008 and reduced DAD scores and submitted to subclinical carotid atherosclerosis evaluation. Agreement between scores was assessed by Kappa index and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: mean age was 47.2 and 53.5% among males. The rate of subclinical atherosclerosis was 39.4%. Agreement between scores was 49% with Kappa of 0.735 in high-risk patients. There was no significant difference between scores by ROC curve discrimination analysis. Among patients with intermediate risk and Framingham and reduced DAD scores, 62.5% and 30.8% had carotid atherosclerosis, respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed a correlation between the scores and medium-intimal thickening, besides a high correlation between patients classified as high risk by the Framingham 2008 and reduced DAD scores. The high prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in intermediate risk patients suggests that most of them could be reclassified as high risk.

Resumo Fundamento: Pacientes HIV positivos possuem 2 vezes maior risco que a população geral de apresentarem infarto e 4 vezes maior de morte súbita. Além do risco aumentado, esses indivíduos apresentam eventos cardiovasculares, em média, aproximadamente, 10 anos antes que a população geral. Objetivo: Comparar os escores Framingham e DAD reduzido para avaliação de risco cardiovascular em pacientes HIV positivos e o potencial impacto na decisão clínica após avaliação de aterosclerose carotídea subclínica. Métodos: Foram avaliados clinicamente 71 pacientes HIV positivos sem antecedentes de doenças cardiovasculares, estratificados pelos escores Framingham 2008 e DAD reduzido e submetidos a avaliação de aterosclerose carotídea subclínica. A concordância entre os escores foi avaliada pelo índice Kappa e os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A idade média foi 47,2 e 53,5% do sexo masculino. A ocorrência de aterosclerose subclínica foi de 39,4%. A concordância entre os escores foi de 49% com Kappa de 0,735 nos pacientes de alto risco. Não houve diferença significativa entre os escores por meio de análise de discriminação com curva ROC. Dos pacientes com risco intermediário no Framingham e DAD reduzido, 62,5% e 30,8% respectivamente apresentavam aterosclerose carotídea. Conclusão: O presente estudo mostrou correlação entre os escores e espessamento médio-intimal e alta concordância entre os pacientes classificados como alto risco nos escores Framingham 2008 e DAD escore reduzido. A observação de alta prevalência de aterosclerose carotídea em pacientes de risco intermediário sugere que grande parte desses pacientes poderia ser reclassificada como alto risco.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnosis , HIV Infections/complications , Carotid Artery Diseases/etiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Risk Assessment , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200082, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135226


Respiratory failure (RF) is the main cause of hospital admission in HIV/AIDS patients. This study assessed comorbidities and laboratory parameters in HIV/AIDS inpatients with RF (N = 58) in relation to those without RF (N = 36). Tuberculosis showed a huge relative risk and platelet counts were slightly higher in HIV/AIDS inpatients with RF. A flow cytometry assay for reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed lower levels in platelets of these patients in relation to the healthy subjects. However, when stimulated with adrenaline, ROS levels increased in platelets and platelet-derived microparticles of HIV/AIDS inpatients, which may increase the risk of RF during HIV and tuberculosis (HIV-TB) coinfection.

Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , HIV Infections/blood , HIV/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Cell-Derived Microparticles/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Blood Platelets , Biomarkers/blood , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Flow Cytometry
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 490-495, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042666


Resumen Introducción: El impacto del cambio de terapia antiretroviral (TAR) para tratar la dislipidemia en pacientes infectados por VIH no ha sido reportado en Chile. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad y seguridad a 12 meses del cambio de TAR a esquema con raltegravir (RAL) para tratar la dislipidemia. Material y Métodos: Cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con infección por VIH en TAR, atendidos en Fundación Arriarán, con dislipidemia y que cambiaron a esquema con RAL para tratarla. Resultados: Se incluyó 73 casos, en TAR con inhibidores no nucleosídicos de transcriptasa reversa (INNTR; 50,7%) o inhibidores de proteasa (IP; 49,3%), con dislipidemia mixta (42,5%) o hipertrigliceridemia aislada (57,5%). La mediana de colesterol total (CT) y triglicéridos (TG) basales era 228 mg/dl y 420 mg/dl, respectivamente. El 94,5% tenía carga viral (CV) indetectable. Se modificó TAR de base en 58,4%; 89,1% recibía hipolipemiantes. Las concentraciones plasmáticas de lípidos descendieron significativamente a 12 meses (TG= −43,6%; CT= −19,3%). Ningún paciente presentó fracaso virológico, aunque 10,9% tuvo viremia detectable a 12 meses, mayoritariamente transitoria. Conclusiones: El cambio de TAR a RAL en pacientes dislipidémicos tratados con INNTR o IP reduce significativamente las concentraciones plasmáticas de TG y CT a 12 meses. Es una estrategia segura, pero puede observarse viremia transitoria.

Background: The impact of switching antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for dyslipidemia management in HIV-infected (HIV+) patients has not been reported in Chile. Aim: To assess effectiveness and safety at 12 months after switching to raltegravir-based regimen for dyslipidemia management. Methods: Retrospective cohort of HIV+ patients receiving ART at Arriaran Foundation, with dyslipidemia switched to raltegravir-based regimen for lipid management. Results: 73 patients were included, receiving ART based in nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI; 50,7%) or protease inhibitor (PI; 49,3%), with mixed dyslipidemia (42,5%) or isolated hypertriglyceridemia (57,5%). At baseline, median total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were 228 mg/dl and 420 mg/dl, respectively; undetectable viral load (VL) was present in 94,5% of patients. Backbone ART was switched in 58,4% and lipid-lowering therapy was used by 89,1% of them. At 12 months, there was a significant decrease in TG (-43,6%) and TC (-19,3%). No cases of virologic failure were observed, although 10,9% of patients had detectable VL at 12 months, mostly transient. Conclusions: Switching ART to raltegravir-based regimen in dyslipidemic patients receiving NNRTI or PI is associated with a significative decrease in TG and TC at 12 months. This strategy is safe, but VL can be increased temporarily.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Dyslipidemias/prevention & control , Raltegravir Potassium/administration & dosage , HIV Infections/blood , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 71-78, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011576


ABSTRACT Background: Class I human leukocyte antigens, especially the molecules encoded at the B locus (HLA-B), are associated with AIDS progression risk. Different groups of HLA-B alleles have been associated to a protective effect or increasing susceptibility to HIV infection and are expressed from the earliest stages of gestation. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate which variants of HLA-B are associated with the risk of HIV vertical transmission in infected pregnant women and in their offspring, in a referral center in Salvador Bahia. Methods: We performed HLA-B genotyping in 52 HIV-infected mothers and their children exposed to HIV-1 during pregnancy (N = 65) in Salvador, Brazil. We compared the HLA-B alleles frequency in mothers, uninfected and infected children, according to the use of antiretroviral prophylaxis. Results: Absence of antiretroviral antenatal and postnatal prophylaxis was significantly associated with vertical transmission of HIV-1 (p = <0.01, and p = <0.01 respectively). Frequency of HLA-B*14 (29.2%, p = 0.002), HLA-B*18 (16.7%, p = 0.04) or HLA-B*14:1 (20.8%, p = 0.01) alleles subgroups were significantly higher in HIV-1 infected children and persisted (HLA-B*14, p = 0.04) even after adjusting for use of antiretroviral prophylaxis. No significant difference in expression of HLA-B alleles was observed among mothers who transmitted the virus compared to those who did not. Conclusions: Expression of HLA-B*14 allele in children exposed to HIV-1 is predictive of vertical transmission and reinforces the important role of genetics in mother-to-child transmission.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Alleles , HLA-B14 Antigen/genetics , Reference Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/blood , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Disease Progression , HLA-B14 Antigen/blood , Genotyping Techniques , Gene Frequency
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190350, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101270


BACKGROUND Iron homeostasis contribute for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES We assessed the iron intake pattern in antiretroviral naïve Brazilian men living with HIV correlating with clinical and nutritional parameters. METHODS The iron consumption mean was estimated according to a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and a 3-day food record (3dFR) submitted to the patients. HIV viral load, CD4+ T cell counts, serum iron, haematological and anthropometrics parameters were recorded. FINDINGS Fifty-one HIV-infected adult men naïve for antiretroviral therapy (ART) were enrolled. The mean age of participants was 35 (SEM ± 1.28) years old, with mean time of HIV-1 infection of 1.78 (0-16.36, min-max) years. Majority (41.18%) had complete secondary, and 21.57% had tertiary educational level. The income was around 1x (54.90%) to 2x (41.18%) minimum wage. Fifty-four percent showed normal weight, while 40% were overweight. The patients showed normal mean values of haematological parameters, and mean serum iron was 14.40 µM (SEM ± 0.83). The FFQ showed moderate correlation with the 3dFR (ρ = 0.5436, p = 0.0009), and the mean values of iron intake were 10.55(± 0.92) mg/day, recorded by FFQ, and 15.75(± 1.51) mg/day, recorded by 3dFR. The iron intake, recorded by FFQ, negatively correlated with serum iron (ρ = -0.3448, p = 0.0132), and did not have influence in the CD4+ T cell counts [e.B 0.99 (0.97-1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI), p = 0.2]. However, the iron intake showed a positive effect in HIV viral load [e.B 1.12 (1.02-1.25, 95%CI), p < 0.01]. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study draws attention for the importance of iron intake nutritional counseling in people living with HIV. However, more studies are required to clarify the association between high iron intake and HIV infection and outcome.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/virology , Iron, Dietary/adverse effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Socioeconomic Factors , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/blood , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Homeostasis
Salud pública Méx ; 60(6): 653-657, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020929


Abstract: Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for oral high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)-infected men. Materials and methods: Consecutive male outpatients with HIV-infection were enrolled. Demographic and behavioral risk data were obtained. Anal swabs and oral rinses were tested for HR-HPV DNA. Oral, pharyngeal and video laryngoscopy examinations were performed for detection of lesions. Results: The prevalence of HR-HPV oral infection was 9.3% (subtypes other than HR HPV 16/18 predominated). The prevalence of anal HR-HPV infection was 75.7%. The risk factors for oral infection with HR-HPV were tonsillectomy (OR=13.12) and years from HIV diagnosis (OR=1.17). Conclusions: Tonsillectomy and years from HIV diagnosis were associated with oral HPV infection. No association was found between oral and anal HR-HPV infections. This is the first study reporting the prevalence and risk factors for oral HR-HPV infection in Mexican HIV-infected population.

Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo para infección oral por virus de papiloma humano de alto riesgo (VPH-AR) en individuos con VIH. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes ambulatorios consecutivos con VIH. Se recabó información demográfica y sobre factores de riesgo conductuales. Se detectó DNA de VPH-AR en hisopado rectal y enjuague bucal. Se efectuó exploración de boca, faringe y videolaringoscopía para detectar lesiones. Resultados: La prevalencia de VPH-AR oral fue 9.3% (predominaron subtipos diferentes de VPH-AR 16/18). La prevalencia de VPH-AR anal fue 75.7%. Los factores de riesgo para VPH-AR oral fueron la tonsilectomía (OR=13.12) y los años de diagnóstico del VIH (OR=1.17). Conclusiones: La tonsilectomía y los años de diagnóstico del VIH se asociaron con VPH-AR oral. No hubo asociación entre VPH-AR oral y anal. Este es el primer reporte sobre prevalencia y factores de riesgo para VPH-AR oral en población mexicana con VIH.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Pharyngeal Diseases/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mouth Diseases/epidemiology , Anus Diseases/epidemiology , Papilloma/virology , Sexual Behavior , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Mexico/epidemiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 596-602, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957462


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of low bone mass is 3 times higher in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) and using antiretrovirals than in the HIV-unaffected population. Changes in vitamin D levels is one of the factors associated with decreased bone mass. The objective of this study is to evaluate the low bone mass and altered vitamin D levels in PLWH who have not been exposed to antiretrovirals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with HIV-infected individuals between the ages of 18 and 55 years immediately prior to the start of antiretroviral therapy in a specialized reference center focusing on infectious and parasitic diseases. Results of clinical examination (patient's weight, height, blood pressure, and clinical history), laboratory tests, and X-ray absorptiometry, were collected. RESULTS: Sixty patients were included, with a mean age of 34 years. Nine (16.7%) patients presented with low bone mass and 4 (7.1%) patients showed low total femur BMD. Analysis revealed that 23.3% and 36.7% of the patients had deficient and insufficient levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study population presented with compromised bone health and with low bone mineral density and 25-(OH)-vitamin D levels.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Bone Density/physiology , HIV Infections/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Absorptiometry, Photon , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 387-391, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974236


ABSTRACT Objectives: To determine the factors associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex-positive blood culture. Methods: Case-control study. Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from 2000 to 2015. Results: We reviewed medical records of 533 patients with culture-proven tuberculosis, of whom 27.2% (145/533) had blood culture available. Patients with mycobacteremia presented more frequently with abdominal tuberculosis, body mass index <18 kg/m2, and had lower hemoglobin and albumin levels. No differences were observed regarding HIV status. Conclusions: Few studies have reported on the characteristics associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteremia, especially among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-negative patients. Out of 145 tuberculosis-infected patients with blood culture results available, 21 turned out positive. Anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and a body mass index < 18 kg/m2 were associated with mycobacteremia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis/microbiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Tuberculosis/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Retrospective Studies , Bacteremia/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tertiary Care Centers , Blood Culture , Mexico
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 142-145, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039213


ABSTRACT The HIV-1 initial viral infection may present diverse clinical and laboratory course and lead to rapid, intermediate, or long-term progression. Among the group of non-progressors, the elite controllers are those who control the infection most effectively, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this paper, the TH1, TH2 and TH17 cytokines profiles are described, as well as clinical and laboratory aspects of an HIV-infected patient with undetectable viral load without antiretroviral therapy. Production of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17 was detected; in contrast IL-4 was identified. Host-related factors could help explain such a level of infection control, namely the differentiated modulation of the cellular immune response and a non-polarized cytokine response of the TH1 and TH2 profiles.

Humans , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , HIV-1 , HIV Long-Term Survivors , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/virology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Immunity, Cellular/immunology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(1): 64-71, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887635


ABSTRACT Objective The present study compares immune and endocrine parameters between HIV-infected patients who underwent the Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS-P) during antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV-patients who did not undergo the syndrome (non-IRIS-P). Materials and methods Blood samples were obtained from 31 HIV-infected patients (15 IRIS-P and 16 non-IRIS-P) before ART (BT) and 48 ± 2 weeks after treatment initiation (AT). Plasma Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-18 (IL-18) were determined by ELISA. Cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and thyroxin concentrations were measured using chemiluminescence immune methods. Results Concentrations of IL-6 (7.9 ± 1.9 pg/mL) and IL-18 (951.5 ± 233.0 pg/mL) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in IRIS-P than in non-IRIS-P (3.9 ± 1.0 pg/mL and 461.0 ± 84.4 pg/mL, respectively) BT. Mean T4 plasma level significantly decreased in both groups of patients after treatment (p < 0.05). In both groups cortisol levels were similar before and after ART (p > 0.05). Levels of DHEA-S in IRIS-P decreased AT (1080.5 ± 124.2 vs. 782.5 ± 123.8 ng/mL, p < 0.05) and they were significantly lower than in non-IRIS-P (782.5 ± 123.8 vs. 1203.7 ± 144.0 ng/mL, p < 0.05). IRIS-P showed higher values of IL-6 and IL-18 BT and lower levels of DHEA-S AT than in non-IRIS-P. Conclusion These parameters could contribute to differentiate IRIS-P from non-IRIS-P. The significant decrease in DHEA-S levels in IRIS-P after ART might suggest a different adrenal response in these patients, which may reflect the severity of the disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hydrocortisone/blood , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate/blood , Viral Load , Interleukin-18/blood , Luminescence , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/immunology , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/metabolism
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 21-29, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897054


Abstract INTRODUCTION The functioning of the immune system during pregnancy is altered in both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected women. Unfavorable socioeconomic conditions have been indicative of higher morbidity and mortality and worsening of the immune system. The aim of this study was to correlate social status with levels of interleukin (IL)-10 (non-inflammatory) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ; inflammatory) cytokines. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with three groups of women: 33 pregnant HIV-infected (G1); 40 non-pregnant, HIV-infected (G2); and 35 pregnant, HIV-uninfected. To measure the social status, a compound indicator called the social status index (SSI), was established using sociodemographic variables (i.e., education level, housing conditions, per capita income, and habitation and sanitary conditions). RESULTS The HIV-infected women had a higher proportion of unfavorable SSI (73% and 75% of G1 and G2, respectively). There were significantly lower IL-10 levels in the G1 group with both unfavorable and favorable SSI than in the other groups. No significant difference in IFN-γ levels was observed among groups. However, the G1 group had higher IFN-γ values among both favorable and unfavorable SSI groups. CONCLUSIONS Higher rates of unfavorable conditions, including lower education levels, IL-10 levels, and a trend for higher IFN-γ levels, were identified among HIV-infected women, pregnant and non-pregnant. These factors may interfere in health care and lead to poor outcomes during pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that health policies could be created to specifically address these factors in this population.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Social Conditions , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , HIV Infections/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 49-61, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899777


Resumen Introducción Las recomendaciones internacionales de tratamiento anti-retroviral incluyen pruebas de resistencia para orientar el régimen de tratamiento en cada paciente, lo que no está disponible de forma estable en Ecuador. Objetivo Describir las mutaciones que confieren resistencia a anti-retrovirales en una población de pacientes ecuatorianos. Metodología A partir de muestras de plasma de 101 pacientes con VIH-1 con fallo a la terapia anti-retroviral, 15 niños y 86 adultos, se realizó pirosecuenciación con el GS Junior (Roche) y se analizaron las secuencias con el programa DeepChek. Resultados Las mutaciones más frecuentes fueron M184V/I, K101E/P/H, K103N/S, D30N, M46L/I, I54L/M, V82T/F/A/S/L y L90M en adultos, y F77L, K103N/S, M46L/I, V82T/F/A/S/L y L90M en niños. Se encontró una elevada resistencia a los inhibidores de la transcriptasa reversa (TR) no análogos de nucleósidos en poblaciones minoritarias virales de adultos y niños (34,9 y 70%, respectivamente), en los niños, tanto las poblaciones virales mayoritarias como minoritarias, fueron resistente a inhibidores de proteasa (> 45%). Los pacientes que tuvieron un mayor número de esquemas terapéuticos presentaron mayores niveles de resistencia a los anti-retrovirales. La mayoría de las muestras fueron del subtipo B en la región de la TR y proteasa, y CRF25_cpx en integrasa. Conclusiones Se muestran las mutaciones y la resistencia a antiretrovirales en una población de pacientes ecuatorianos con infección por VIH-1, que permitirán realizar un llamado de alerta a las autoridades de salud sobre la necesidad de realizar estudios de resistencia.

Background The international recommendations of antiretroviral treatment include resistance tests to guide the treatment regimen in each patient, which is not available on a regular basis in Ecuador. Aim To describe mutations that confer resistance to antiretrovirals in a population of Ecuadorian patients. Methods Plasma samples from 101 HIV-1 patients with failure to antiretroviral therapy, divided into 15 children and 86 adults, were studied with the GS Junior (Roche) and the sequences were analyzed with the DeepChek program. Results The most frequent mutations were M184V/I, K101E/P/H, K103N/S, D30N, M46L/I, I54L/M, V82T/F/A/S/L and L90M in adults and F77L, K103N/S, M46L/I, V82T/F/A/S/L and L90M in children. High resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors in minority viral populations of adults and children (34.9% and 70%) was detected; in children both viral populations (majority and minority viral populations) (> 45%) were protease inhibitor resistant. Patients who had a greater number of therapeutic regimens had higher levels of resistance to antiretrovirals. Most of the samples were subtype B in the TR and protease region, and CRF25_cpx in integrase. Conclusions Mutations and resistance to antiretrovirals are shown in a population of Ecuadorian patients with HIV-1. These results will make it possible to issue a warning to health authorities about the need for resistance studies.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral/genetics , Anti-Retroviral Agents/pharmacology , Mutation/drug effects , HIV Infections/blood , Logistic Models , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ecuador , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/drug effects
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(4): 382-390, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887578


ABSTRACT Objective Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of metabolic disorders and alterations on irisin levels. Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to quantify the circulating irisin concentration in HIV-infected subjects under highly active antiretroviral therapy and to determine possible correlations between irisin levels with fat mass, fat-free mass, body mass index (BMI), and muscle strength. Subjects and methods Cross-sectional study of 10 men (36.7 ± 11.3 years) and 10 women (42.5 ± 10.3 years) infected with HIV, recruited from the Specialized Service Center in the State Center of Reference for High and Medium Complexity. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma irisin levels, glucose, HDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. Body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass) and anthropometrics (body mass index; BMI) were measured by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was assessed using a mechanic hand dynamometer and one maximum repetition tests. Results Irisin levels correlated positively with fat mass (r = 0.67; p = 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.48; p = 0.036). In contrast, there was an inverse correlation between irisin levels and fat-free mass (r = -0.41; p = 0.008) and five strength parameters: right hand grip (r = -0.46; p = 0.044); left hand grip (r = -0.50; p = 0.027), relative hand grip (r = -0.79; p = 0.001), bench press (r = -0.58; p = 0.009), leg press (r = -0.40; p = 0.085), and biceps curl (r = -0.059; p = 0.009). Conclusion Irisin levels correlated positively with body fat and negatively with fat-free mass and strength parameters in HIV-infected patients. Female patients infected with HIV receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy have higher levels of irisin compared with men in a similar circumstance.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/blood , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Fibronectins/blood , Body Composition/drug effects , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fibronectins/metabolism , Fibronectins/pharmacology , Hand Strength , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Muscle Strength/drug effects
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(3): 270-275, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839222


ABSTRACT Background: The increase in life expectancy for patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has resulted in health complications related to a chronic disease. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of bone mineral density (BMD) alterations and vitamin D concentrations in HIV-infected children and adolescents and to verify the variations in those parameters during a 12-month interval. Methods: A prospective cohort study with a dual period of evaluation was conducted in 57 patients perinatally HIV-infected and one patient with sexual abuse in early infancy. Demographic, anthropometric, pubertal stage, viral load, T CD4+ cell count and antiretroviral therapy were evaluated. Biochemical tests and total body (TB) and lumbar spine (L1-L4) bone density evaluations by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed. Calcium or vitamin D supplements were prescribed if reduction in BMD or deficiency for vitamin D was detected. Results: 58 patients (ages 5.4-18.3 years; 60.3% girls) were included (T0); 55 patients were reevaluated after 12 (±3) months (T1). Low bone mass for chronological age was found in 6/58 (10.4%) and 6/55(10.9%) patients at T0 and at T1, respectively. There was no statistical relationship between z-scores for BMD (BMD z-score) and the variables sex, fracture history, family history of osteoporosis, physical activity and pubertal stage. There was a relation between BMD z-score alterations for TB and HIV viral load at T1 (p = 0.016). There was no association between duration or classes of antiretroviral therapy and bone density. The mean value of vitamin D in T0 was 23.43 ng/mL ± 2.015 and in T1 22.1 ng/mL ± 0.707 and considered insufficient levels for this population. Conclusion: Patients infected with HIV are at risk for BMD alterations and lower vitamin D serum concentrations; both of these variables should be evaluated at routine examinations in order to improve both prevention and therapeutic planning.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Vitamin D/blood , Bone Density/physiology , HIV Infections/complications , Calcium/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Absorptiometry, Photon , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/blood , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(1): 43-47, Jan.-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846398


Abstract Introduction: Transsexualism (ICD-10) is a condition characterized by a strong and persistent dissociation with one's assigned gender. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) and hormone therapy provide a means of allowing transsexual individuals to feel more congruent with their gender and have played a major role in treatment over the past 70 years. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to play a key role in recovery from acute surgical trauma and environmentally mediated vulnerability to psychopathology. We hypothesize that BDNF may be a biomarker of alleviation of gender incongruence suffering. Objectives: To measure preoperative and postoperative serum BDNF levels in transsexual individuals as a biomarker of alleviation of stress related to gender incongruence after SRS. Methods: Thirty-two male-to-female transsexual people who underwent both surgery and hormonal treatment were selected from our initial sample. BDNF serum levels were assessed before and after SRS with sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The time elapsed between the pre-SRS and post-SRS blood collections was also measured. Results: No significant difference was found in pre-SRS or post-SRS BDNF levels or with relation to the time elapsed after SRS when BDNF levels were measured. Conclusion: Alleviation of the suffering related to gender incongruence after SRS cannot be assessed by BDNF alone. Surgical solutions may not provide a quick fix for psychological distress associated with transsexualism and SRS may serve as one step toward, rather than as the conclusion of, construction of a person's gender identity.

Resumo Introdução: O transexualismo (CID-10) é uma condição caracterizada por forte e persistente dissociação com o gênero atribuído. A cirurgia de redesignação sexual (CRS) e a terapia hormonal (TH) permitem que indivíduos transexuais se sintam mais congruentes com seu gênero e, por isso, têm desempenhado papel importante nos últimos 70 anos. O fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BDNF) parece desempenhar um papel fundamental na recuperação do trauma cirúrgico agudo e vulnerabilidade ambiental à psicopatologia. Nós hipotetizamos que o BDNF pode ser um biomarcador de alívio do sofrimento de incongruência de gênero pós-CRS. Objetivos: Mensurar os níveis séricos de BDNF no pré e pós-operatório em indivíduos transexuais como biomarcador de alívio de estresse relacionado à incongruência de gênero após a CRS. Métodos: Trinta e duas pessoas transexuais masculino para feminino submetidas a cirurgia e tratamento hormonal foram selecionadas de nossa amostra inicial. O nível sérico de BDNF foi avaliado antes e depois da CRS pela técnica ELISA. O tempo decorrido entre as coletas de sangue pré e pós-CRS foi medido. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa nos níveis de BDNF pré e pós-CRS ou em relação ao tempo decorrido entre a CRS e a coleta. Conclusão: O alívio do sofrimento relacionado à incongruência de gênero pós-CRS não pode ser avaliado apenas pelo BDNF. Soluções cirúrgicas podem não fornecer uma solução rápida para o sofrimento associado ao transexualismo, e a CRS pode servir como um passo em direção à, em vez de conclusão da, construção da identidade de gênero de uma pessoa.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Stress, Psychological/blood , Transsexualism/blood , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/blood , Sex Reassignment Surgery , Gender Dysphoria/blood , Postoperative Period , Transsexualism/surgery , Transsexualism/psychology , Transsexualism/drug therapy , Blood Chemical Analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/blood , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/blood , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Preoperative Period , Gender Dysphoria/surgery , Gender Dysphoria/psychology , Gender Dysphoria/drug therapy
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(1): 42-50, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839183


Abstract Objectives: Three decades after HIV recognition and its association with AIDS development, many advances have emerged – especially related to prevention and treatment. Undoubtedly, the development of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) dramatically changed the future of the syndrome that we know today. In the present study, we evaluate the impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on macrophage function and its relevance to HIV pathogenesis. Methods: PBMCs were isolated from blood samples and monocytes (CD14+ cells) were purified. Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (MDMs) were activated on classical (MGM-CSF+IFN-γ) or alternative (MIL-4+IL13) patterns using human recombinant cytokines for six days. After this period, Monocyte-Derived Macrophages were stimulated with TLR2/Dectin-1 or TLR4 agonists and we evaluated the influence of HIV-1 infection and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on the release of cytokines/chemokines by macrophages. Results: The data were obtained using Monocyte-Derived Macrophages derived from HIV naïve or from patients on regular Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Classically Monocyte-Derived Macrophages obtained from HIV-1 infected patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy released higher levels of IL-6 and IL-12 even without PAMPs stimuli when compared to control group. On the other hand, alternative Monocyte-Derived Macrophages derived from HIV-1 infected patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy released lower levels of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IP-10 and RANTES after LPS stimuli when compared to control group. Furthermore, healthy individuals have a complex network of cytokines/chemokines released by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages after PAMP stimuli, which was deeply affected in MDMs obtained from naïve HIV-1 infected patients and only partially restored in MDMs derived from HIV-1 infected patients even on regular Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Conclusion: Our therapy protocols were not effective in restoring the functional alterations induced by HIV, especially those found on macrophages. These findings indicate that we still need to develop new approaches and improve the current therapy protocols, focusing on the reestablishment of cellular functions and prevention/treatment of opportunistic infections.

Humans , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Macrophages/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Case-Control Studies , HIV Infections/blood , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Interleukins/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Statistics, Nonparametric , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Chemokine CCL5/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism
Clin. biomed. res ; 37(4): 275-280, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-876562


Introduction: Hemotherapy consists of therapeutic treatments performed through blood transfusion. Clinical and serological screening of donors is an essential strategy to avoid transmission of infectious agents in blood transfusion. The objective of this study is to assess the seroprevalence of HIV infection, syphilis and syphilis/HIV coinfection in blood donors from a blood bank in Porto Alegre from 2014 to 2016. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all blood donors registered on a software for managing hemotherapy services (Hemodot) of the Blood Bank in the Marques Pereira Laboratory, Porto Alegre / RS, from 2014 to 2016. Results: Of the 28,173 users of the hemotherapy service during the study period, 198 (0.70%) were positive for syphilis, HIV infection, or syphilis/HIV co infection. The prevalence of positive results for syphilis was 0.3%, 0.57% and 0.70% in 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively, and for HIV infection was 0.18%, 0.14%, and 0.16% for the same period. However, the prevalence of syphilis/HIV coinfection was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of syphilis increased significantly from 2014 to 2016. Hovever, this did not occur with HIV infection or with coinfection. This finding may reflect the requirement of the nucleic acid technique (NAT) for HIV screening in blood banks, a procedure that has been increasing transfusion safety and reducing the window period. Further studies may shed new light on the combined use of serological tests and NAT assays in blood banks to diagnose HIV cases and syphilis/HIV coinfection (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Coinfection , HIV Infections/blood , Retrospective Studies , Syphilis/blood