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1.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(3): 216-219, Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251309

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the seroprevalence of positive markers for syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) I and II, human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) I and II, and hepatitis B and C among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis among patients who underwent IVF, between January 2013 and February 2016, and who had complete screening records. Results We analyzed 1,008 patients who underwent IVF, amounting to 2,445 cycles. Two patients (0.2%) tested positive for HIV I and II and none for HTLV I and II. Three patients (0.3%) had positive screening for syphilis, and two (0.2%) had positive hepatitis C antibody test (anti-HCV). A positive hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HbsAg) test was observed in 4 patients (0.4%), while 47 (4.7%) patients were positive for IgG antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HbC IgG), and only 1 (0.1%) was positive for IgM antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HbC IgM). The anti-HbS test was negative in 659 patients (65.3%). Only 34.7% of the patients had immunity against the Hepatitis B virus. Patients with an anti-HbS negative result were older than those with a hepatitis B test (anti-HbS) positive result (36.3 versus 34.9; p<0.001). Conclusion The present study showed lower infection rates than the Brazilian ones for the diseases studied in patients undergoing IVF. Only a few patients were immunized against hepatitis B.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a soroprevalência de marcadores positivos para sífilis, vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) I e II, vírus linfotrópicos de células T humanas (HTLV) I e II e hepatite B e C em mulheres submetidas a fertilização in vitro (FIV). Métodos Realizamos uma análise retrospectiva entre as pacientes submetidas a FIV, entre janeiro de 2013 e fevereiro de 2016, e que possuíam prontuários completos. Resultados Foram analisadas 1.008 pacientes submetidas a FIV, totalizando 2,445 ciclos. Duas pacientes (0,2%) apresentaram resultado positivo para HIV I e II, e nenhuma para HTLV I e II. Três pacientes (0,3%) apresentaram triagem positiva para sífilis, e duas (0,2%) apresentaram teste de pesquisa de anticorpos anti-HCV (anti-HCV) positivo. Um teste de antígeno de superfície do vírus da hepatite B (HbsAg) positivo foi observado em 4 pacientes (0,4%), enquanto 47 (4,7%) pacientes foram positivas para anticorpos IgG contra o antígeno de superfície da hepatite B (IgG anti-HbC), e apenas 1 (0,1%) foi positiva para anticorpos IgM contra o antígeno central da hepatite B (IgM anti-HbC). O teste de anticorpos contra hepatite B (anti-HbS) foi negativo em 659 pacientes (65,3%). Apenas 34,7% das pacientes tinham imunidade contra o vírus da hepatite B. Pacientes comresultado negativo anti-HbS erammais velhas do que aquelas com resultado positivo anti-HbS (36,3 versus 34,9; p<0,001). Conclusão Este estudo mostrou taxas de infecção inferiores às taxas brasileiras para as doenças estudadas em pacientes submetidas à FIV. Apenas alguns pacientes foram imunizados contra a hepatite B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Fertilization in Vitro , Blood-Borne Infections/epidemiology , Infertility, Female , Brazil/epidemiology , Syphilis/blood , Syphilis/epidemiology , HIV Infections , HIV Infections/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis C/blood , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Blood-Borne Infections/blood , Hepatitis B/blood , Hepatitis B/epidemiology
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(3): 174-179, mar 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361582

ABSTRACT

O HIV é o causador da AIDS, doença que representa um dos grandes problemas de saúde pública em todo o mundo. Apesar de avanços na terapia antirretroviral no sentido de aumentar a expectativa de vida dos indivíduos infectados, as alterações hematológicas, como a anemia, acompanham o curso clínico da doença. Essa condição, normalmente multifatorial, pode estar presente em qualquer fase da doença e afeta diretamente o prognóstico e a qualidade de vida do indivíduo infectado. Este artigo apresenta informações do surgimento do processo anêmico com base nas principais causas encontradas na literatura.


The human immunodeficiency virus is the cause of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a disease that represents one of the major public health problems worldwide. In spite of advances in antiretroviral therapy that increase patients' life expectancy, hematological changes, such as anemia, follow the clinical course of the disease. This commonly multifactorial condition can be found in any phase of the disease and directly affects the prognosis and quality of life of patients. This article presents information on the emergence of the anemic process based on the main causes found in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/complications , Anemia/etiology , Blood Cell Count , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/blood , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/blood , HIV/pathogenicity , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/physiopathology
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 30-33, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089321

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A new point-of-care HIV viral load, mPIMA HIV-1/2 VL, Abbott, USA, has been recently developed. This point-of-care viral load requires no skilled person to run and uses a small plasma volume (50 µL). However, obtaining 50 µL of plasma can be a challenge in limited resource settings. We validated a simple and easy method to obtain enough amount of plasma to run a point-of-care viral load. The study utilized 149 specimens from patients failing antiretroviral therapy. At least 250 µL of whole blood was collected in a microtube/EDTA from fingerstick (fs-plasma) and immediately centrifuged. Parallel collection of venous blood to obtain plasma (vp-plasma) was used to compare performance in a point-of-care viral load assay and in methodology used in centralized laboratories Abbott M2000, Abbott, USA. The procedure for plasma collection takes less than 10 min and in 94% of the cases only one fingerstick was sufficient to collect at least 250 µL of blood. The Pearson correlation coefficient value for vp-plasma versus fs-plasma ran on mPIMA was 0.990. The Bland-Altman mean difference (md) for this comparison were virtually zero (md = −0.001) with limits of agreement between −0.225 and 0.223. In addition, the Pearson correlation coefficient value for fs-plasma in mPIMA versus vp-plasma in Abbott M2000 was 0.948 for values above the mPIMA limit of quantification (LoQ; from 800 to 1,000,000 copies/mL). These results validate this simple plasma isolation method capable to be implemented in low resource countries where point-of-care decentralization is deeply needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasma/virology , HIV/isolation & purification , Point-of-Care Systems , Viral Load/methods , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/virology , Linear Models , Feasibility Studies , Reproducibility of Results
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 90-97, Jan. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055103

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: People living with HIV are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and carotid thickness, due to the inflammation caused by the virus, the antiretroviral therapy, and other risk factors. However, few studies have observed the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and carotid thickness in HIV-positive population at low cardiovascular risk and with undetectable viral load. Objectives: To evaluate the association between levels of inflammatory markers and carotid thickness in people living with HIV, under antiretroviral therapy and at low cardiovascular risk. Methods: To determine low cardiovascular risk in both groups (HIV infected and non-infected individuals), the Framingham Risk Score was used. Inflammatory markers (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, sVCAM-1, and sICAM-1) were assessed using flow cytometry. Carotid thickness (mm) was measured using Doppler ultrasound. Level of significance was p < 0.05. Results: In People living with HIV, age and smoking status were associated with carotid thickness alterations. In the non-HIV group, age, higher total cholesterol, and LDL levels were associated with increased carotid thickness. Using the multivariate analysis, a significant association between TNF-α and IL- 1( levels, and a higher chance of atherosclerosis development in HIV group were observed. Conclusions: Both groups have a similar risk for developing cardiovascular disease, therefore our study demonstrates that HIV-positive individuals with undetectable viral load in antiretroviral therapy without protease inhibitors and with low cardiovascular risk do not present differences in carotid thickness in relation to uninfected individuals.


Resumo Fundamento: As pessoas que vivem com HIV têm um risco aumentado de doença cardiovascular e espessamento da carótida, devido à inflamação causada pelo vírus, à terapia antirretroviral e a outros fatores de risco. No entanto, poucos estudos observaram a ocorrência de doenças cardiovasculares e espessamento carotídeo na população soropositiva com baixo risco cardiovascular e carga viral indetectável. Objetivos: Avaliar a associação entre níveis de marcadores inflamatórios e espessura da carótida em pessoas vivendo com HIV, sob terapia antirretroviral e com baixo risco cardiovascular. Métodos: Para determinar o baixo risco cardiovascular em ambos os grupos (indivíduos infectados e não-infectados pelo HIV), foi utilizado o Escore de Risco de Framingham. Os marcadores inflamatórios (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, sVCAM-1 e sICAM-1) foram avaliados por citometria de fluxo. A espessura da carótida (mm) foi mensurada por meio de ultrassom com Doppler. O nível de significância foi de p < 0,05. Resultados: Em pessoas vivendo com HIV, a idade e o tabagismo foram associados a alterações da espessura da carótida. No grupo não-HIV, idade e níveis mais altos de colesterol total e LDL foram associados ao aumento da espessura da carótida. Utilizando a análise multivariada, observou-se associação significativa entre os níveis de TNF-α e IL-1β e maior chance de desenvolvimento de aterosclerose no grupo com HIV. Conclusão: Ambos os grupos têm risco semelhante de desenvolver doença cardiovascular, portanto, nosso estudo demonstra que indivíduos HIV-positivos com carga viral indetectável em terapia antirretroviral sem inibidores de protease e com baixo risco cardiovascular não apresentam diferenças na espessura da carótida em relação aos indivíduos não-infectados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Inflammation/blood , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 68-75, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055082

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: HIV-positive patients are twice as likely than the general population to have a heart attack and are four times at greater risk of sudden death. In addition to the increased risk, these individuals present with cardiovascular events on average approximately 10 years earlier than the general population. Objective: To compare Framingham and reduced DAD (Data Collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs Cohort) scores for cardiovascular risk assessment in HIV-positive patients and potential impact on clinical decision after evaluation of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. Methods: Seventy-one HIV-positive patients with no history of cardiovascular disease were clinically evaluated, stratified by the Framingham 2008 and reduced DAD scores and submitted to subclinical carotid atherosclerosis evaluation. Agreement between scores was assessed by Kappa index and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: mean age was 47.2 and 53.5% among males. The rate of subclinical atherosclerosis was 39.4%. Agreement between scores was 49% with Kappa of 0.735 in high-risk patients. There was no significant difference between scores by ROC curve discrimination analysis. Among patients with intermediate risk and Framingham and reduced DAD scores, 62.5% and 30.8% had carotid atherosclerosis, respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed a correlation between the scores and medium-intimal thickening, besides a high correlation between patients classified as high risk by the Framingham 2008 and reduced DAD scores. The high prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in intermediate risk patients suggests that most of them could be reclassified as high risk.


Resumo Fundamento: Pacientes HIV positivos possuem 2 vezes maior risco que a população geral de apresentarem infarto e 4 vezes maior de morte súbita. Além do risco aumentado, esses indivíduos apresentam eventos cardiovasculares, em média, aproximadamente, 10 anos antes que a população geral. Objetivo: Comparar os escores Framingham e DAD reduzido para avaliação de risco cardiovascular em pacientes HIV positivos e o potencial impacto na decisão clínica após avaliação de aterosclerose carotídea subclínica. Métodos: Foram avaliados clinicamente 71 pacientes HIV positivos sem antecedentes de doenças cardiovasculares, estratificados pelos escores Framingham 2008 e DAD reduzido e submetidos a avaliação de aterosclerose carotídea subclínica. A concordância entre os escores foi avaliada pelo índice Kappa e os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A idade média foi 47,2 e 53,5% do sexo masculino. A ocorrência de aterosclerose subclínica foi de 39,4%. A concordância entre os escores foi de 49% com Kappa de 0,735 nos pacientes de alto risco. Não houve diferença significativa entre os escores por meio de análise de discriminação com curva ROC. Dos pacientes com risco intermediário no Framingham e DAD reduzido, 62,5% e 30,8% respectivamente apresentavam aterosclerose carotídea. Conclusão: O presente estudo mostrou correlação entre os escores e espessamento médio-intimal e alta concordância entre os pacientes classificados como alto risco nos escores Framingham 2008 e DAD escore reduzido. A observação de alta prevalência de aterosclerose carotídea em pacientes de risco intermediário sugere que grande parte desses pacientes poderia ser reclassificada como alto risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnosis , HIV Infections/complications , Carotid Artery Diseases/etiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Risk Assessment , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
7.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(1): 67-73, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091901

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES Individuals living with HIV seem to be more prone to changes in the redistribution of body fat, characterized as lipodystrophy, which may occur in conjunction with metabolic diseases. In the present study, such impacts were assessed in adults with and without HIV and associated with the time of virus diagnosis and treatment with antiretroviral. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 123 adults, in which 87 had HIV and 36 without HIV, of both sexes, in outpatient follow-up at the Specialized Care Service (SAE) in Macaé-RJ. The following were made: 1) Alteration in body fat distribution, measured by anthropometric parameters and self-reported lipodystrophy; 2) Biochemical profile; 3) Association between HIV diagnosis time and antiretroviral treatment. RESULTS 54.47% (n = 67) males, 45.52% (n = 56) females, mean age 37 years. Of these 87 were people living with HIV, 29% (n = 25) had self-reported lipodystrophy, mean time of virus infection, and antiretroviral treatment (5.80 ± 4.56 and 5.14 ± 3.82 years), respectively. Patients with self-reported lipodystrophy had a greater change in body fat distribution between 3-6 years of HIV diagnosis and a negative cholesterol profile. The antiretroviral treatment time influenced total cholesterol and triglycerides, even for patients without self-reported lipodystrophy, with a further nine years under treatment. CONCLUSION In this study, the negative cholesterol profile was mainly related to antiretroviral treatment time, even for patients without self-reported lipodystrophy, and changes in body fat distribution, measured by anthropometry, was especially associated with time for HIV infection in those with lipodystrophy self-reported.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS Indivíduos vivendo com HIV parecem mais propensos às alterações na redistribuição da gordura corporal, caracterizada como lipodistrofia, podendo acontecer em conjunto com as metabólicas. No presente estudo avaliaram-se tais impactos em adultos com e sem HIV e se associou ao tempo de diagnóstico do vírus e tratamento com antirretroviral. MÉTODOS Estudo tipo transversal, com 123 adultos, no qual 87 tinham HIV e 36 sem HIV, de ambos os sexos, em seguimento ambulatorial no Serviço de Atendimento Especializado (SAE) em Macaé - RJ. Foram feitos: 1) Alteração na distribuição da gordura corporal, mensurados por parâmetros antropométricos e lipodistrofia autorreferida; 2) Perfil bioquímico; 3) Associação entre tempo diagnóstico do HIV e tratamento com antirretroviral. RESULTADOS Incluíram-se 54,47% (n=67) do sexo masculino, 45,52% (n=56) do feminino, com média de idade de 37 anos. Destes, 87 eram pessoas vivendo com HIV, 29% (n=25) possuíam lipodistrofia autorreferida; tempo médio de infecção pelo vírus e tratamento antirretroviral (5,80±4,56 e 5,14±3,82 anos), respectivamente. Os pacientes com lipodistrofia autorreferida tiveram maior alteração na distribuição da gordura corporal entre 3-6 anos de diagnóstico do HIV e um perfil colesterolêmico negativo. O tempo de tratamento com antirretroviral influenciou o colesterol total e os triglicerídeos, mesmo para os pacientes sem lipodistrofia autorreferida, com mais de nove anos sob tratamento. CONCLUSÃO Neste estudo, o perfil colesterolêmico negativo se relacionou principalmente ao tempo de tratamento com antirretroviral, mesmo para os pacientes sem lipodistrofia autorreferida e as alterações na distribuição da gordura corporal, mensuradas por antropometria, se associaram especialmente ao tempo de infecção pelo HIV naqueles com lipodistrofia autorreferida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/physiopathology , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/epidemiology , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Body Fat Distribution , Time Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , HIV Infections/blood , Sex Factors , Adipose Tissue/physiopathology , Cholesterol/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/blood , Self Report , Middle Aged
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200082, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135226

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure (RF) is the main cause of hospital admission in HIV/AIDS patients. This study assessed comorbidities and laboratory parameters in HIV/AIDS inpatients with RF (N = 58) in relation to those without RF (N = 36). Tuberculosis showed a huge relative risk and platelet counts were slightly higher in HIV/AIDS inpatients with RF. A flow cytometry assay for reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed lower levels in platelets of these patients in relation to the healthy subjects. However, when stimulated with adrenaline, ROS levels increased in platelets and platelet-derived microparticles of HIV/AIDS inpatients, which may increase the risk of RF during HIV and tuberculosis (HIV-TB) coinfection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , HIV Infections/blood , HIV/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Cell-Derived Microparticles/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Blood Platelets , Biomarkers/blood , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Flow Cytometry
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 490-495, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042666

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El impacto del cambio de terapia antiretroviral (TAR) para tratar la dislipidemia en pacientes infectados por VIH no ha sido reportado en Chile. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad y seguridad a 12 meses del cambio de TAR a esquema con raltegravir (RAL) para tratar la dislipidemia. Material y Métodos: Cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con infección por VIH en TAR, atendidos en Fundación Arriarán, con dislipidemia y que cambiaron a esquema con RAL para tratarla. Resultados: Se incluyó 73 casos, en TAR con inhibidores no nucleosídicos de transcriptasa reversa (INNTR; 50,7%) o inhibidores de proteasa (IP; 49,3%), con dislipidemia mixta (42,5%) o hipertrigliceridemia aislada (57,5%). La mediana de colesterol total (CT) y triglicéridos (TG) basales era 228 mg/dl y 420 mg/dl, respectivamente. El 94,5% tenía carga viral (CV) indetectable. Se modificó TAR de base en 58,4%; 89,1% recibía hipolipemiantes. Las concentraciones plasmáticas de lípidos descendieron significativamente a 12 meses (TG= −43,6%; CT= −19,3%). Ningún paciente presentó fracaso virológico, aunque 10,9% tuvo viremia detectable a 12 meses, mayoritariamente transitoria. Conclusiones: El cambio de TAR a RAL en pacientes dislipidémicos tratados con INNTR o IP reduce significativamente las concentraciones plasmáticas de TG y CT a 12 meses. Es una estrategia segura, pero puede observarse viremia transitoria.


Background: The impact of switching antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for dyslipidemia management in HIV-infected (HIV+) patients has not been reported in Chile. Aim: To assess effectiveness and safety at 12 months after switching to raltegravir-based regimen for dyslipidemia management. Methods: Retrospective cohort of HIV+ patients receiving ART at Arriaran Foundation, with dyslipidemia switched to raltegravir-based regimen for lipid management. Results: 73 patients were included, receiving ART based in nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI; 50,7%) or protease inhibitor (PI; 49,3%), with mixed dyslipidemia (42,5%) or isolated hypertriglyceridemia (57,5%). At baseline, median total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were 228 mg/dl and 420 mg/dl, respectively; undetectable viral load (VL) was present in 94,5% of patients. Backbone ART was switched in 58,4% and lipid-lowering therapy was used by 89,1% of them. At 12 months, there was a significant decrease in TG (-43,6%) and TC (-19,3%). No cases of virologic failure were observed, although 10,9% of patients had detectable VL at 12 months, mostly transient. Conclusions: Switching ART to raltegravir-based regimen in dyslipidemic patients receiving NNRTI or PI is associated with a significative decrease in TG and TC at 12 months. This strategy is safe, but VL can be increased temporarily.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Dyslipidemias/prevention & control , Raltegravir Potassium/administration & dosage , HIV Infections/blood , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(2): 71-78, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011576

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Class I human leukocyte antigens, especially the molecules encoded at the B locus (HLA-B), are associated with AIDS progression risk. Different groups of HLA-B alleles have been associated to a protective effect or increasing susceptibility to HIV infection and are expressed from the earliest stages of gestation. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate which variants of HLA-B are associated with the risk of HIV vertical transmission in infected pregnant women and in their offspring, in a referral center in Salvador Bahia. Methods: We performed HLA-B genotyping in 52 HIV-infected mothers and their children exposed to HIV-1 during pregnancy (N = 65) in Salvador, Brazil. We compared the HLA-B alleles frequency in mothers, uninfected and infected children, according to the use of antiretroviral prophylaxis. Results: Absence of antiretroviral antenatal and postnatal prophylaxis was significantly associated with vertical transmission of HIV-1 (p = <0.01, and p = <0.01 respectively). Frequency of HLA-B*14 (29.2%, p = 0.002), HLA-B*18 (16.7%, p = 0.04) or HLA-B*14:1 (20.8%, p = 0.01) alleles subgroups were significantly higher in HIV-1 infected children and persisted (HLA-B*14, p = 0.04) even after adjusting for use of antiretroviral prophylaxis. No significant difference in expression of HLA-B alleles was observed among mothers who transmitted the virus compared to those who did not. Conclusions: Expression of HLA-B*14 allele in children exposed to HIV-1 is predictive of vertical transmission and reinforces the important role of genetics in mother-to-child transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Alleles , HLA-B14 Antigen/genetics , Reference Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/blood , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Disease Progression , HLA-B14 Antigen/blood , Genotyping Techniques , Gene Frequency
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190350, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Iron homeostasis contribute for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES We assessed the iron intake pattern in antiretroviral naïve Brazilian men living with HIV correlating with clinical and nutritional parameters. METHODS The iron consumption mean was estimated according to a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and a 3-day food record (3dFR) submitted to the patients. HIV viral load, CD4+ T cell counts, serum iron, haematological and anthropometrics parameters were recorded. FINDINGS Fifty-one HIV-infected adult men naïve for antiretroviral therapy (ART) were enrolled. The mean age of participants was 35 (SEM ± 1.28) years old, with mean time of HIV-1 infection of 1.78 (0-16.36, min-max) years. Majority (41.18%) had complete secondary, and 21.57% had tertiary educational level. The income was around 1x (54.90%) to 2x (41.18%) minimum wage. Fifty-four percent showed normal weight, while 40% were overweight. The patients showed normal mean values of haematological parameters, and mean serum iron was 14.40 µM (SEM ± 0.83). The FFQ showed moderate correlation with the 3dFR (ρ = 0.5436, p = 0.0009), and the mean values of iron intake were 10.55(± 0.92) mg/day, recorded by FFQ, and 15.75(± 1.51) mg/day, recorded by 3dFR. The iron intake, recorded by FFQ, negatively correlated with serum iron (ρ = -0.3448, p = 0.0132), and did not have influence in the CD4+ T cell counts [e.B 0.99 (0.97-1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI), p = 0.2]. However, the iron intake showed a positive effect in HIV viral load [e.B 1.12 (1.02-1.25, 95%CI), p < 0.01]. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study draws attention for the importance of iron intake nutritional counseling in people living with HIV. However, more studies are required to clarify the association between high iron intake and HIV infection and outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/virology , Iron, Dietary/adverse effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Socioeconomic Factors , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/blood , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Homeostasis
12.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(6): 653-657, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020929

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for oral high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)-infected men. Materials and methods: Consecutive male outpatients with HIV-infection were enrolled. Demographic and behavioral risk data were obtained. Anal swabs and oral rinses were tested for HR-HPV DNA. Oral, pharyngeal and video laryngoscopy examinations were performed for detection of lesions. Results: The prevalence of HR-HPV oral infection was 9.3% (subtypes other than HR HPV 16/18 predominated). The prevalence of anal HR-HPV infection was 75.7%. The risk factors for oral infection with HR-HPV were tonsillectomy (OR=13.12) and years from HIV diagnosis (OR=1.17). Conclusions: Tonsillectomy and years from HIV diagnosis were associated with oral HPV infection. No association was found between oral and anal HR-HPV infections. This is the first study reporting the prevalence and risk factors for oral HR-HPV infection in Mexican HIV-infected population.


Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo para infección oral por virus de papiloma humano de alto riesgo (VPH-AR) en individuos con VIH. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes ambulatorios consecutivos con VIH. Se recabó información demográfica y sobre factores de riesgo conductuales. Se detectó DNA de VPH-AR en hisopado rectal y enjuague bucal. Se efectuó exploración de boca, faringe y videolaringoscopía para detectar lesiones. Resultados: La prevalencia de VPH-AR oral fue 9.3% (predominaron subtipos diferentes de VPH-AR 16/18). La prevalencia de VPH-AR anal fue 75.7%. Los factores de riesgo para VPH-AR oral fueron la tonsilectomía (OR=13.12) y los años de diagnóstico del VIH (OR=1.17). Conclusiones: La tonsilectomía y los años de diagnóstico del VIH se asociaron con VPH-AR oral. No hubo asociación entre VPH-AR oral y anal. Este es el primer reporte sobre prevalencia y factores de riesgo para VPH-AR oral en población mexicana con VIH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Pharyngeal Diseases/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mouth Diseases/epidemiology , Anus Diseases/epidemiology , Papilloma/virology , Sexual Behavior , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Mexico/epidemiology
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 596-602, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957462

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of low bone mass is 3 times higher in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) and using antiretrovirals than in the HIV-unaffected population. Changes in vitamin D levels is one of the factors associated with decreased bone mass. The objective of this study is to evaluate the low bone mass and altered vitamin D levels in PLWH who have not been exposed to antiretrovirals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with HIV-infected individuals between the ages of 18 and 55 years immediately prior to the start of antiretroviral therapy in a specialized reference center focusing on infectious and parasitic diseases. Results of clinical examination (patient's weight, height, blood pressure, and clinical history), laboratory tests, and X-ray absorptiometry, were collected. RESULTS: Sixty patients were included, with a mean age of 34 years. Nine (16.7%) patients presented with low bone mass and 4 (7.1%) patients showed low total femur BMD. Analysis revealed that 23.3% and 36.7% of the patients had deficient and insufficient levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study population presented with compromised bone health and with low bone mineral density and 25-(OH)-vitamin D levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Bone Density/physiology , HIV Infections/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Absorptiometry, Photon , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 387-391, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974236

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To determine the factors associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex-positive blood culture. Methods: Case-control study. Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from 2000 to 2015. Results: We reviewed medical records of 533 patients with culture-proven tuberculosis, of whom 27.2% (145/533) had blood culture available. Patients with mycobacteremia presented more frequently with abdominal tuberculosis, body mass index <18 kg/m2, and had lower hemoglobin and albumin levels. No differences were observed regarding HIV status. Conclusions: Few studies have reported on the characteristics associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteremia, especially among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-negative patients. Out of 145 tuberculosis-infected patients with blood culture results available, 21 turned out positive. Anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and a body mass index < 18 kg/m2 were associated with mycobacteremia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis/microbiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Tuberculosis/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Retrospective Studies , Bacteremia/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tertiary Care Centers , Blood Culture , Mexico
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 142-145, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039213

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The HIV-1 initial viral infection may present diverse clinical and laboratory course and lead to rapid, intermediate, or long-term progression. Among the group of non-progressors, the elite controllers are those who control the infection most effectively, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this paper, the TH1, TH2 and TH17 cytokines profiles are described, as well as clinical and laboratory aspects of an HIV-infected patient with undetectable viral load without antiretroviral therapy. Production of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17 was detected; in contrast IL-4 was identified. Host-related factors could help explain such a level of infection control, namely the differentiated modulation of the cellular immune response and a non-polarized cytokine response of the TH1 and TH2 profiles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , HIV-1 , HIV Long-Term Survivors , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/virology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Immunity, Cellular/immunology
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(1): 64-71, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887635

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The present study compares immune and endocrine parameters between HIV-infected patients who underwent the Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS-P) during antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV-patients who did not undergo the syndrome (non-IRIS-P). Materials and methods Blood samples were obtained from 31 HIV-infected patients (15 IRIS-P and 16 non-IRIS-P) before ART (BT) and 48 ± 2 weeks after treatment initiation (AT). Plasma Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-18 (IL-18) were determined by ELISA. Cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and thyroxin concentrations were measured using chemiluminescence immune methods. Results Concentrations of IL-6 (7.9 ± 1.9 pg/mL) and IL-18 (951.5 ± 233.0 pg/mL) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in IRIS-P than in non-IRIS-P (3.9 ± 1.0 pg/mL and 461.0 ± 84.4 pg/mL, respectively) BT. Mean T4 plasma level significantly decreased in both groups of patients after treatment (p < 0.05). In both groups cortisol levels were similar before and after ART (p > 0.05). Levels of DHEA-S in IRIS-P decreased AT (1080.5 ± 124.2 vs. 782.5 ± 123.8 ng/mL, p < 0.05) and they were significantly lower than in non-IRIS-P (782.5 ± 123.8 vs. 1203.7 ± 144.0 ng/mL, p < 0.05). IRIS-P showed higher values of IL-6 and IL-18 BT and lower levels of DHEA-S AT than in non-IRIS-P. Conclusion These parameters could contribute to differentiate IRIS-P from non-IRIS-P. The significant decrease in DHEA-S levels in IRIS-P after ART might suggest a different adrenal response in these patients, which may reflect the severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hydrocortisone/blood , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate/blood , Viral Load , Interleukin-18/blood , Luminescence , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/immunology , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/metabolism
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 21-29, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897054

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The functioning of the immune system during pregnancy is altered in both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected women. Unfavorable socioeconomic conditions have been indicative of higher morbidity and mortality and worsening of the immune system. The aim of this study was to correlate social status with levels of interleukin (IL)-10 (non-inflammatory) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ; inflammatory) cytokines. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with three groups of women: 33 pregnant HIV-infected (G1); 40 non-pregnant, HIV-infected (G2); and 35 pregnant, HIV-uninfected. To measure the social status, a compound indicator called the social status index (SSI), was established using sociodemographic variables (i.e., education level, housing conditions, per capita income, and habitation and sanitary conditions). RESULTS The HIV-infected women had a higher proportion of unfavorable SSI (73% and 75% of G1 and G2, respectively). There were significantly lower IL-10 levels in the G1 group with both unfavorable and favorable SSI than in the other groups. No significant difference in IFN-γ levels was observed among groups. However, the G1 group had higher IFN-γ values among both favorable and unfavorable SSI groups. CONCLUSIONS Higher rates of unfavorable conditions, including lower education levels, IL-10 levels, and a trend for higher IFN-γ levels, were identified among HIV-infected women, pregnant and non-pregnant. These factors may interfere in health care and lead to poor outcomes during pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that health policies could be created to specifically address these factors in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Social Conditions , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , HIV Infections/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 49-61, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899777

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción Las recomendaciones internacionales de tratamiento anti-retroviral incluyen pruebas de resistencia para orientar el régimen de tratamiento en cada paciente, lo que no está disponible de forma estable en Ecuador. Objetivo Describir las mutaciones que confieren resistencia a anti-retrovirales en una población de pacientes ecuatorianos. Metodología A partir de muestras de plasma de 101 pacientes con VIH-1 con fallo a la terapia anti-retroviral, 15 niños y 86 adultos, se realizó pirosecuenciación con el GS Junior (Roche) y se analizaron las secuencias con el programa DeepChek. Resultados Las mutaciones más frecuentes fueron M184V/I, K101E/P/H, K103N/S, D30N, M46L/I, I54L/M, V82T/F/A/S/L y L90M en adultos, y F77L, K103N/S, M46L/I, V82T/F/A/S/L y L90M en niños. Se encontró una elevada resistencia a los inhibidores de la transcriptasa reversa (TR) no análogos de nucleósidos en poblaciones minoritarias virales de adultos y niños (34,9 y 70%, respectivamente), en los niños, tanto las poblaciones virales mayoritarias como minoritarias, fueron resistente a inhibidores de proteasa (> 45%). Los pacientes que tuvieron un mayor número de esquemas terapéuticos presentaron mayores niveles de resistencia a los anti-retrovirales. La mayoría de las muestras fueron del subtipo B en la región de la TR y proteasa, y CRF25_cpx en integrasa. Conclusiones Se muestran las mutaciones y la resistencia a antiretrovirales en una población de pacientes ecuatorianos con infección por VIH-1, que permitirán realizar un llamado de alerta a las autoridades de salud sobre la necesidad de realizar estudios de resistencia.


Background The international recommendations of antiretroviral treatment include resistance tests to guide the treatment regimen in each patient, which is not available on a regular basis in Ecuador. Aim To describe mutations that confer resistance to antiretrovirals in a population of Ecuadorian patients. Methods Plasma samples from 101 HIV-1 patients with failure to antiretroviral therapy, divided into 15 children and 86 adults, were studied with the GS Junior (Roche) and the sequences were analyzed with the DeepChek program. Results The most frequent mutations were M184V/I, K101E/P/H, K103N/S, D30N, M46L/I, I54L/M, V82T/F/A/S/L and L90M in adults and F77L, K103N/S, M46L/I, V82T/F/A/S/L and L90M in children. High resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors in minority viral populations of adults and children (34.9% and 70%) was detected; in children both viral populations (majority and minority viral populations) (> 45%) were protease inhibitor resistant. Patients who had a greater number of therapeutic regimens had higher levels of resistance to antiretrovirals. Most of the samples were subtype B in the TR and protease region, and CRF25_cpx in integrase. Conclusions Mutations and resistance to antiretrovirals are shown in a population of Ecuadorian patients with HIV-1. These results will make it possible to issue a warning to health authorities about the need for resistance studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral/genetics , Anti-Retroviral Agents/pharmacology , Mutation/drug effects , HIV Infections/blood , Logistic Models , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ecuador , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/drug effects
19.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(4): 460-465, oct.-dic. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888490

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. Las metas globales para controlar la epidemia de HIV contemplan que la carga viral sea indetectable en 90 % de las personas en tratamiento. El costo de la medición de la carga viral en lotes de muestras puede reducirse y, así, aumentar la cobertura cuando los recursos son limitados; sin embargo, su eficacia disminuye al aumentar la prevalencia del fracaso del tratamiento antirretroviral. Objetivo. Evaluar estrategias para disminuir la proporción de pacientes con fracaso del tratamiento antirretroviral en los lotes de muestras y, de esta manera, aumentar el ahorro en las pruebas de carga viral. Materiales y métodos. Las estrategias evaluadas fueron: a) la organización de los lotes de muestras según el esquema de tratamiento antirretroviral, y b) la exclusión de aquellos pacientes con antecedente reciente de fracaso del tratamiento antirretroviral, aquellos con menos de 12 meses de tratamiento antirretroviral y aquellos sin tratamiento antirretroviral previo. Los resultados de los lotes se compararon con los resultados individuales. Resultados. El valor diagnóstico negativo fue similar para los pacientes con esquema de primera línea (100,0 %; IC95% 99,5-100,0) o de segunda línea de tratamiento (99,4 %; IC95% 96,9-99,9). La incidencia del fracaso del tratamiento antirretroviral fue menor en los pacientes con tratamiento de primera línea (p<0,01), lo cual permitió un mayor ahorro en las pruebas de laboratorio en este grupo (74,0 %; IC95% 71,0-76,7) que en los pacientes con tratamiento de segunda línea (50,9 %; IC95% 44,4-57,3) (p<0,01). Conclusión. La selección de las muestras que se incluyeron en los lotes para determinar la carga viral del HIV según el tipo de esquema de tratamiento, permitió maximizar el porcentaje de ahorro en pruebas de laboratorio.


Abstract Introduction: HIV viral load testing is a key factor to evaluate the accomplishment of the UNAIDS target of 90% of viral suppression among people receiving antiretroviral therapy. Pooled samples are a potentially accurate and economic approach in resource-constrained settings, but efficiency can be negatively affected by high prevalence rates of virological failure. Objective: Strategies were assessed to increase the relative efficiency of pooled HIV viral load testing in resource-constrained settings. Materials and methods: We evaluated two strategies: a) plasma samples were not included in pools if patients had <12 months on antiretroviral therapy, patients had previous viral load >1,000 copies/ml, or were antiretroviral therapy naïve patients, and b) plasma pools were organized separately for first and second-line antiretroviral therapy regimens. Individual viral load tests were used to compare pooled results. Results: Negative predictive values were similar for patients on first (100.0%; 95% CI 99.5 to 100.0) and second-line antiretroviral therapy regimens (99.4%; 95% CI 96.9 to 99.9). However, the incidence of virological failure among individuals on first-line antiretroviral therapy was lower than second-line antiretroviral therapypatients (p <0.01), resulting in greater savings in laboratory tests in patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy (74.0%; 95% CI 71.0 to 76.7) compared with the group of patients on second-line antiretroviral therapy (50.9%; 95% CI 44.4 to 57.3) (p<0.01). Conclusion: Selecting the samples to be included in the pools and selecting the pools according to ART regimens are criteria that could lead to decreased spending on laboratory tests for HIV viral load determination in resource-constrained settings.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Specimen Handling/methods , Viremia/blood , HIV Infections/blood , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Viral Load/economics , Cost Control/methods , Health Resources/economics , Specimen Handling/economics , Viremia/economics , Viremia/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/blood , HIV Infections/economics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Treatment Failure , Patient Selection , Viral Load/methods , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Drug Resistance, Viral , Anti-Retroviral Agents/classification , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Developing Countries , Guatemala
20.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(4): 382-390, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887578

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of metabolic disorders and alterations on irisin levels. Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to quantify the circulating irisin concentration in HIV-infected subjects under highly active antiretroviral therapy and to determine possible correlations between irisin levels with fat mass, fat-free mass, body mass index (BMI), and muscle strength. Subjects and methods Cross-sectional study of 10 men (36.7 ± 11.3 years) and 10 women (42.5 ± 10.3 years) infected with HIV, recruited from the Specialized Service Center in the State Center of Reference for High and Medium Complexity. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma irisin levels, glucose, HDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. Body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass) and anthropometrics (body mass index; BMI) were measured by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was assessed using a mechanic hand dynamometer and one maximum repetition tests. Results Irisin levels correlated positively with fat mass (r = 0.67; p = 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.48; p = 0.036). In contrast, there was an inverse correlation between irisin levels and fat-free mass (r = -0.41; p = 0.008) and five strength parameters: right hand grip (r = -0.46; p = 0.044); left hand grip (r = -0.50; p = 0.027), relative hand grip (r = -0.79; p = 0.001), bench press (r = -0.58; p = 0.009), leg press (r = -0.40; p = 0.085), and biceps curl (r = -0.059; p = 0.009). Conclusion Irisin levels correlated positively with body fat and negatively with fat-free mass and strength parameters in HIV-infected patients. Female patients infected with HIV receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy have higher levels of irisin compared with men in a similar circumstance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/blood , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Fibronectins/blood , Body Composition/drug effects , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fibronectins/metabolism , Fibronectins/pharmacology , Hand Strength , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Muscle Strength/drug effects
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