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1.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 278-283, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366041

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) are an important public health problem in all countries. Knowledge of their relationship with the various socioeconomic levels is necessary for an understanding of their epidemiology and behavior in society. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and to correlate education with history of sexually transmitted diseases, especially for syphilis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study carried out in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: The medical records of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) between January 2010 and July 2018 were assessed. These patients were attended at the specialized assistance service for HIV/AIDS) of the Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD/AIDS) of the city of Juiz de Fora. In total, 335 patients were selected. RESULTS: In our sample, 73.13% were male; 57.36% were aged between 25 and 45 years and 24.23% were over 45 years of age. Regarding sexual orientation, 61.78% were homosexual. Regarding education, 52.88% had "unskilled education", while 47.12% had "qualified education". Analysis on the relationship between schooling and syphilis, a positive relationship between qualified schooling and syphilis was observed: odds ratio = 3.588; 95% confidence interval: 1.090-11.808. CONCLUSION: Homosexual male patients are most affected by HIV. Furthermore, this disease is not limited only to individuals with low education. Syphilis should be suspected in all individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Syphilis/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Middle Aged
2.
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(4): 485-486, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285112

ABSTRACT

Abstract A 56-year-old male, HIV-positive, presented with a 3-day history of multiple indurated erythematous nodules with superficial and well-defined erosions on his right gluteus. Skin biopsy showed ballooning-necrotic keratinocytes and cultures were positive for herpes simplex 2. Genital herpes simplex infection recurrences may not be restricted to the anterior part of the genitalia and clinical presentation in the lumbar area or gluteus must be differentiated from varicella-zoster virus infection. Tumor-like presentation is a very rare manifestation of HSV cutaneous infection. It is important to take this morphological variant into consideration not to delay the diagnosis of a viral infection, especially in an immunosuppressed patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Herpes Genitalis/diagnosis , HIV Infections/complications , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Zoster , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 365-375, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339149

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Pacientes com HIV têm maior probabilidade de apresentar doenças cardiovasculares quando comparados à população em geral. Objetivo Este foi um estudo de caso-controle que teve como objetivo avaliar quais fatores estavam associados a uma redução na espessura médio-intimal da carótida (IMT) da carótida e ao aumento na dilatação mediada por fluxo (DMF) da artéria braquial em pacientes com HIV que receberam atorvastatina + aspirina por um período de 6 meses. Métodos Foi realizada uma análise secundária de um ensaio clínico, que incluiu pessoas vivendo com HIV e baixo risco cardiovascular. Um total de 38 pacientes alocados para o braço de intervenção e tratados por 6 meses com uma combinação de atorvastatina + aspirina foram incluídos. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a ultrassonografia da carótida e da artéria braquial, tanto no início quanto no final do estudo. Os casos que responderam com aumento >10% da dilatação braquial (DMF) e redução da espessura médio-intimal da carótida (IMT) foram considerados casos, e aqueles que não responderam foram considerados controles. Avaliamos os fatores associados às respostas positivas obtidas através da IMT e DMF. Resultados A redução do IMT não se associou significativamente a nenhum dos fatores de risco avaliados: idade (p = 0,211), sexo (p = 0,260), tabagismo (p = 0,131) ou tempo de diagnóstico do HIV (p = 0,836). Um aumento na DMF foi significativamente associado com a idade entre aqueles na faixa etária de 40-59 anos, p = 0,015 (OR = 4,37; IC 95%: 1,07-17,79). Conclusões Os indivíduos mais velhos foram mais propensos a apresentar um aumento na DMF após 6 meses de tratamento com atorvastatina + aspirina.


Abstract Background Patients with HIV are more likely to present with cardiovascular disease when compared to the general population. Objective This was a case-control study that aimed to assess which factors were associated with a reduction in the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and an increase in the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in HIV patients who received atorvastatin + aspirin during a period of 6 months. Methods A secondary analysis of a clinical trial was conducted, which included people living with HIV infection and low cardiovascular risk. A total of 38 patients allocated to the intervention arm and treated for 6 months with a combination of atorvastatin + aspirin were included. All participants underwent a carotid and brachial artery ultrasound, both at the beginning and the end of the study. Cases that responded with an increase of >10% of the brachial dilatation (FMD) and reduction of the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were considered cases, and those who did not respond were considered controls. We assessed the factors associated with the positive responses obtained through IMT and FMD. Results A reduction in the IMT was not significantly associated with any of the evaluated risk factors: age (p=0.211), gender (p=0.260), smoking (p=0.131) or time since HIV diagnosis (p=0.836). An increase in the FMD was significantly associated with age amongst those in the 40-59 age group, p = 0.015 (OR = 4.37; 95% CI: 1.07-17.79). Conclusions Older individuals were more likely to present with an increased FMD after 6 months of treatment with atorvastatin + aspirin.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Vasodilation , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Endothelium, Vascular/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 143-148, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287263

ABSTRACT

Resumen Para hacer frente a la pandemia causada por el SARS CoV-2, en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires se establecieron Unidades Febriles de Urgencias anexas a los hospitales de alta compleji dad. Se realizó un estudio observacional y retrospectivo con el objeto de evaluar el perfil de las personas que consultaron durante el período comprendido entre las semanas epidemiológicas 28 y 42, 2020. Se recibieron 12 571 consultas, el promedio de edad fue 38.2 años y 6801 (54.1%) pacientes eran varones. Se realizaron 9501 hisopados (RT-PCR para SARS-CoV-2) y 2499 (26.3%) fueron confirmados positivos. La edad media de los confirmados para COVID-19 fue 37.9 años, 1367 (54.7%) eran varones y 143 (5.7%) requirieron internación en la primera consulta. Tantos como 6097 (48.5%) participantes contaban con obra social o medicina prepaga. Consultaron solo 160 pacientes con HIV, se diagnosticó coinfección HIV/COVID-19 en 39/160 (24.4%) infectados con HIV y requirieron internación 9/39 (23.1%) coinfectados. Consultaron 128 pacientes con tuberculosis (TB), se diagnosticó coinfección TB/COVID-19 en 31/128 (24.2%) y requirieron internación 8/31 (25.8%) coinfectados. La triple asociación HIV/TB/COVID-19 fue constatada en 2 pacientes. Contrariamente a lo esperado, las dos principales enfermedades atendidas en el hospital, TB y HIV, estuvieron poco representadas en la consulta, pero el requerimiento de internación para los coinfectados fue elevado. Esto puede deberse a consulta tardía por restricciones de movilidad y asistencia durante la cuarentena. Nuestros datos también indican que el sector público de la ciudad debió absorber demanda insatisfecha del sector privado.


Abstract Febrile Emergency Units were annexed to tertiary hospitals to face the pandemic caused by SARS CoV-2 in Buenos Aires City. We performed a retrospective observational study in order to evaluate the profile of people consulting the Unit annexed to the Muñiz Hospital, during the period comprising epidemiological weeks 28 to 42, 2020. The total number of consultations was 12 571; 6801 (54.1%) patients were male, and the average age was 38 years. A total of 2499 (26.3 %) of 9501 swabs resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 when analyzed by RT-PCR. The average age of confirmed COVID-19 patients was 37.9 years; 1367 (54.7%) were male and 143 (5.7%) required hospitalization at the first consultation. As many as 6097 (48.5%) participants were beneficiaries of social security or prepaid medicine. Only 160 (1.3%) were HIV positive, with COVID-19 coinfection diagnosed in 39/160 (24.4%), of which 9 (23.1%) required hospitalization. Only 128 (1%) had tuberculosis (TB); TB/CO VID-19 coinfection was diagnosed in 31 of them (24.2%), and 8/31 (25.8%) required hospitalization. The triple association HIV/TB /COVID-19 was reported in only 2 patients. Contrary to expectations, TB and HIV, the two main diseases treated in our hospital, were under-represented in this Emergency Unit, but the requirement of hospitalization for coinfected patients was quite frequent. This may be due to late consultation caused by mobility and assistance restrictions during quarantine. Interestingly, our data also indicate that the city's public sector had to absorb unsatisfied demand from the private sector and suburban population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals
8.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 184-187, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248747

ABSTRACT

Abstract Epstein Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors are an uncommon neoplasm that occurs in immunosuppressed patients of any age. Usually, it presents as multifocal tumors mainly in the spinal cord, epidural region, gastrointestinal tract and liver, upper respiratory tract and skin, the latest with few cases reported in the literature and related with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The authors present the first case of a Colombian adult patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection and multifocal Epstein Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors in the skin and epidural region, confirmed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Smooth Muscle Tumor , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , RNA, Viral , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics
9.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(1): 6-12, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177663

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are the subject of many studies, some of them reporting a prevalence of up to 50 percent. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with HIV neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients in São Paulo city, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Descriptive cross-sectional study including 106 HIV-1-infected patients, employing direct interview and neuropsychological tests, applied by trained neuro-psychologists with expertise in the tests. Other, similar assessment tools we used were Brief Neurocognitive Questionnaire, International HIV Dementia Scale, Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Social Support Scale for People with HIV/Aids, Assessment of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Questionnaire, and a complex neuropsychological assessment. RESULTS: We included 106 patients from May 2015 to April 2018. We found a high prevalence of HAND in our patients (45%), with 27.5% presenting asymptomatic neurological impairment (ANI) and 17.5% mild neurological dysfunction (MND); only one patient presented HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (0.9%). Women were more likely to have MND (52.9%) and the only case of HAD was also female. The high prevalence of neurocognitive disorders was independent of the immunological status, use of efavirenz, or virological control. CONCLUSIONS: This study may mirror the national and international scenarios, showing a high prevalence of HAND (45%) and the prevalence of some risk factors, in special among women


INTRODUÇÃO: As doenças neurocognitivas associadas ao HIV (HAND), são o assunto de muitos estudos, alguns deles relatando uma prevalência de até 50 por cento. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados aos distúrbios neurocognitivos do HIV (HAND) em uma coorte de pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1 na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. METODOLOGIA: Estudo transversal descritivo incluindo 106 pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1, utilizando entrevista direta e testes neuropsicológicos, aplicados por neuropsicólogos treinados com experiência nos testes. Foram utilizados também: Questionário Neurocognitivo Breve, Escala Internacional de Demência do HIV, Atividades Instrumentais de Vida Diária de Lawton, Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão, Escala de Apoio Social para Pessoas com HIV / Aids, Avaliação da Adesão à Terapia Antiretroviral Questionário e uma bateria de avaliação neuropsicológica complexa. RESULTADOS: Foram avalaidos 106 pacientes de maio de 2015 a abril de 2018. Foi observado uma alta prevalência de HAND em nossos pacientes (45%), com 27,5% apresentando comprometimento neurológico assintomático (ANI) e 17,5% comprometimento cognitive leve (MND); apenas um paciente apresentou demência associada ao HIV (DAH) (0,9%). As mulheres eram mais propensas a ter MND (52,9%) e o único caso de HAD também era do sexo feminino. A alta prevalência de distúrbios neurocognitivos foi independente do estado imunológico, uso de efavirenz ou controle virológico. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo pode espelhar o cenário nacional e internacional, mostrando uma alta prevalência de HAND (45%) e a prevalência de alguns fatores de risco, em especial entre as mulheres


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Neurocognitive Disorders/etiology , Neurocognitive Disorders/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Neuropsychological Tests
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(1): 101044, jan., 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249298

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Clinical improvements following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may increase high-risk behaviors resulting in sexually transmitted infections (STI). Optimism related to the success of HAART in slowing disease progression, reducing viral load, and improving health status might be important factors for increasing sexual risk behaviors such as less use of condoms. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis, hepatitis B and C, high-risk HPV, and cervical cytological abnormalities among women living with HIV (WLHIV) who attended a Reference Center for STI/AIDS in Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 151 WLHIV attending an STI Clinic in Vitória city, Brazil. A structured questionnaire, including demographic, behavioral, and clinical information, was used for data collection. Serological tests for HIV, syphilis, hepatitis C and B, CD4 counts, and viral load determination were performed. Cervical samples were collected for cytology and real-time PCR for HPV, Chlamydia, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Results: In this study, 59% of women had at least one diagnosed STI at the time of the first clinic visit; 31% had clinical forms of anogenital HPV, 10% syphilis, 8%Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 5.0% trichomoniasis, 3% Chlamydia trachomatis, 1% hepatitis B, and 1% hepatitis C; 6.7% of the women presented with cervical cytological abnormalities. Furthermore, 46.3% of women had HR-HPV, and 17.6% had HPV 16/18. Only 5% of the women had a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3, 61.6% had undetectable HIV viral load, and 81.3% were currently on HAART. Conclusion: A high prevalence of STI and HR-HPV infections were observed among HIV-infected women in this investigation. Prevention programs need to focus on counseling WLHIV and their regular partners with focused interventions such as couples counseling and education programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Gonorrhea , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Human papillomavirus 16 , Human papillomavirus 18
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0759-2020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155599

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) viruses are associated with a high global burden of disease, and coinfection is a frequently reported event. We aimed to compare the functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients infected with HTLV-1, HIV, and HIV-HTLV-1. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients older than 18 years who had an HTLV-1 infection (Group A), HIV infection (Group B), or HIV-HTLV-1 coinfection (Group C). The functioning profiles were evaluated using handgrip strength, Berg balance scale (BBS), timed "up and go" (TUG) test, and 5-m walk test (m/s). We used the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) questionnaire to measure disability. The HRQoL was evaluated using a 36-item short-form health survey. For data with parametric and non-parametric distribution, we used analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction and the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's pairwise tests with Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: We enrolled 68 patients in Group A, 39 in Group B, and 29 in Group C. The scores for handgrip strength, BBS, TUG test, all the WHODAS domains, and HRQoL were poorer for Groups A and C than for Group B. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to patients with HIV infection, those with HIV-HTLV-1 coinfection and HTLV-1 infection had poor functioning and HRQoL scores. HTLV-1 infection was associated with reduced functioning and HRQoL in patients with a single HTLV-1 infection and HIV-HTLV-1 coinfection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , HTLV-I Infections/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Coinfection , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Strength
13.
Actual. osteol ; 17(3): 71-84, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1395384

ABSTRACT

Con el advenimiento de la terapia antirretroviral, el pronóstico y la sobrevida de los pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) han cambiado de manera radical, por lo cual en la actualidad se evidencia un aumento en el riesgo de padecer enfermedades no relacionadas con el VIH como, por ejemplo, la osteoporosis. La disminución de la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) se observa en el 40-90% de las personas infectadas por el VIH, con una prevalencia de osteopenia y osteoporosis del 52 y 15%, respectivamente. Esta población de pacientes tiene un mayor riesgo de fracturas (60%) en comparación con personas no infectadas y un riesgo de fracturas vertebrales 2,3 veces mayor que en la población general. El tenofovir fumarato se asoció con un aumento de pérdida renal de fósforo e hiperparatiroidismo secundario. El efavirenz y los inhibidores de proteasas (IP) afectan el metabolismo de la vitamina D; actúan a nivel enzimático aumentando la expresión de la enzima CYP24 que lleva a producción de vitamina D inactiva. El FRAX es una herramienta sencilla y accesible, por lo que su uso está recomendado en pacientes con VIH. Además de las medidas higiénico-dietéticas, actividad física, calcio y vitamina D, el uso de bifosfonatos está indicado en el tratamiento de la osteoporosis en estos pacientes. (AU)


With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, the prognosis and survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have radically changed, which is why there is now evidence of an increased risk of suffering from diseases not related to HIV such as osteoporosis. The decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is observed in 40-90% of people infected with HIV, with a prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis of 52 and 15%, respectively. This patient population has a 60% higher risk of fractures compared to uninfected people and a risk of vertebral fractures 2.3 times higher than in the general population. Tenofovir fumarate administration is associated with increased renal phosphorus loss and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Efavirenz and protease inhibitors (IP) affect the metabolism of vitamin D, they act at the enzymatic level by increasing the expression of the CYP24 enzyme that leads to the production of inactive vitamin D. The FRAX is a simple and accessible tool, so its use is recommended in patients with HIV and in addition to dietary hygiene measures, physical activity, calcium, and vitamin D, the use of bisphosphonates is indicated in the treatment of osteoporosis in these patients. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/prevention & control , Bone Density/drug effects , HIV Infections/complications , Osteoporosis/etiology , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Vitamin D/metabolism , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/etiology , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Tenofovir/adverse effects
15.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(6): e00212920, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278613

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This article aims to assess the sociodemographic and epidemiological factors associated with AIDS and tuberculosis-HIV coinfection mortality in the Chilean adult population between 2000 and 2017. This is a retrospective observational study, evaluating the incidence density of TB-HIV coinfection mortality in the population over 14 years of age. We used data from the Chilean AIDS Cohort database, 17,512 people enrolled in highly active antiretroviral therapy in the public health system in Chile. The Kaplan-Meier survival function and Cox regression were applied. Incidence density of 0.05 for 39,283 person-years for mortality with TB-HIV coinfection was recorded, with an increase in new cases in people living with AIDS among Aymara and Mapuche indigenous populations. Risk factors included CD4 < 500 cells/mm3 (HR = 3.2; 95%CI: 2.2-4.9), viral load at the start of treatment > 10,000 copies/uL (HR = 1.3; 95%CI: 1.2-1.6). Having high school or higher education (HR = 0.76; 95%CI: 0.6-0.9) is a protective factor for mortality for coinfection. Mortality was concentrated in TB-HIV coinfected people with increasing mortality among women and indigenous populations. The paper contributes to the growing recognition of the role of social determinants in disease outcomes, and the requirement to improve community-focused and community-based testing, sex education in schools, and structural interventions to reduce the adult mortality in Chilean population.


Resumen: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar los factores sociodemográficos y epidemiológicos asociados con la mortalidad por SIDA y por coinfección tuberculosis-VIH en la población chilena adulta entre los años 2000 y 2017. Se trata de un estudio observacional retrospectivo, evaluando la densidad de incidencia de muertes por la coinfección TB-VIH en una población sobre 14 años de edad. Usamos informaciones de la base de datos de la Cohorte Chilena de SIDA, donde 17.512 personas estaban inscritas en terapia antirretroviral altamente activa dentro del sistema público de salud en Chile. Se aplicaron la función de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meier y la regresión de Cox. Se registró una densidad de incidencia de 0,05 en cada 39,283 persona-años para la mortalidad por coinfección TB-VIH, con un incremento de nuevos casos en personas que viven con SIDA entre las poblaciones indígenas Aymara y Mapuche. Los factores de riesgo incluyeron CD4 < 500 células/mm3 (HR = 3,2; IC95%: 2,2-4,9), la carga viral al comienzo del tratamiento > 10,000 copias/uL (HR = 1,3; IC95%: 1,2-1,6), por otro lado, contar con una escolaridad alta o educación superior (HR = 0,76; IC95%: 0,6-0,9) es un factor protector para la mortalidad por coinfección TB-VIH. La mortalidad estuvo concentrada en personas coinfectadas por TB-VIH con una mortalidad elevada entre mujeres y poblaciones indígenas. El estudio contribuye al reconocimiento creciente del papel de los determinantes sociales en los desenlaces de la enfermedad, y la necesidad de mejorar el sistema de pruebas, centrado y basado en la comunidad, educación sexual en las escuelas, e intervenciones estructurales para reducir la mortalidad de adultos en la población chilena.


Resumo: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os fatores sociodemográficos e epidemiológicos associados à mortalidade por aids e por coinfecção tuberculose-HIV na população adulta chilena entre 2000 e 2017. Este foi um estudo observacional retrospectivo que avaliou a densidade de incidência da mortalidade por coinfecção TB-HIV na população acima de 14 anos de idade. Usamos informações da base de dados da Coorte Chilena de Aids, e 17.512 pessoas estavam inscritas na terapia antirretroviral altivamente ativa através do sistema de saúde pública chileno. Foram aplicadas a função de sobrevida de Kaplan-Meier e a regressão de Cox. Foi observada densidade de incidência de 0,05 para 39.283 pessoas-ano de mortalidade por coinfecção TB-HIV, com um aumento de casos novos em pessoas vivendo com aids entre as populações indígenas Aymara e Mapuche. Os fatores de risco foram CD4 < 500 células/mm3 (HR = 3,2; IC95%: 2,2-4,9), carga viral no início do tratamento > 10.000 cópias/uL (HR = 1,3; IC95%: 1,2-1,6). O Ensino Médio completo ou mais como escolaridade foi fator de proteção para a mortalidade por coinfecção TB-HIV (HR = 0,76; IC95%: 0,6-0,9). A mortalidade esteve concentrada em pessoas com coinfecção TB-HIV em mulheres e populações indígenas. O artigo contribui para o reconhecimento crescente do papel dos determinantes sociais nos desfechos da doença, chamando atenção para a necessidade de melhorar a testagem centrada e baseada na comunidade, a educação sexual nas escolas e intervenções estruturais para reduzir a mortalidade na população adulta chilena.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis , HIV Infections/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Coinfection , Brazil , Chile/epidemiology , Risk Factors
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e01572021, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250835

ABSTRACT

Abstract Approximately one-third of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present with coagulation disorders and hematological changes. However, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 and prognoses of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain controversial. This study reports the case of a 27-year-old HIV-infected man who regularly used antiretroviral medications, had no other comorbidities and was admitted for acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by COVID-19. Complementary examinations during hospitalization revealed a diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism in association with an intracavitary thrombus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Thrombosis , HIV Infections/complications , COVID-19 , HIV , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0649-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155589

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Neck circumference (NC) and anthropometric data of people living with HIV (PLWH) are correlated. METHODS: Socioeconomic, NC, body mass index (BMI), tricipital skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm circumference (MAC), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) data of 72 PLWH were correlated. RESULTS Higher adiposity was observed in NC (40.3% [n=29]) and WC (31.9% [n=23]). Correlations between NC/BMI, NC/WC, NC/HC, NC/MAC, NC/MAMC, and NC/WHtR were significant. Increased NC (40.3%[n=29]) and WC (31.9 [n=23]) were associated with higher cardiometabolic risk. CONCLUSIONS: NC correlations are adequate for estimating cardiometabolic risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/complications , Adiposity , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Waist-Hip Ratio , Waist-Height Ratio
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(supl.1): 127-156, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287836

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY BACKGROUND: Although much has been studied about the SARS-Cov-2 virus, its effects, and the effectiveness of possible treatments, little is known about its interaction with other infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to study its clinical features and morbidity, and mortality outcomes of COVID-19 patients with HIV/AIDS coinfection. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Atudies in any language, published after 2019, were describing COVID-19 patients with HIV/AIDS. STUDY APPRAISAL: JBI Levels of Evidence, Joanna Briggs Institute. SYNTHESIS METHODS: As shown in the PRISMA flow diagram, two authors separately screened the search results from the obtained titles and abstracts. RESULTS: Chest CT was observed in patients with pneumonia by SARS-CoV-2 with findings of multiple ground-glass opacities (GGO) in the lungs, there is a need for supplemental oxygenation. One patient developed encephalopathy and complicated tonic-clonic seizures; four patients were transplanted (two, liver; two, kidneys), one patient developed severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and 30 patients died (mortality rate, 11%). CONCLUSION: HIV did not show any relevance directly with the occurrence of COVID-19. Some studies suggest that HIV-1 infection through induction levels of IFN-I, may to some extent, stop the apparent SARS-CoV-2 infection, thus leading to undetectable RNA. Moreover, some authors suggest retroviral therapy routinely used to control HIV infection could be used to prevent COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/complications , Coinfection , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2
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