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2.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This review will determine whether the incidence of cognitive impairment in HIV patients aged ≥ 50 years is greater than that of their HIV-negative peers. METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Web of Science, and Scopus databases will be searched for studies with a sample of individuals aged ≥ 50 years or a mixed population with ≥ 50% aged ≥ 50 years). It will include studies that evaluate seropositive patients compared to and an unexposed control group. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort studies with follow-up ≥ 24 months will be included. Three reviewers will independently screen for eligibility criteria, extract data, and assess the risk of bias in the included studies, as well as evaluate the overall quality of evidence. A narrative synthesis will be prepared according to synthesis without meta-analysis guidelines. EXPECTED RESULTS: We expect to find correlations between older age, HIV, and cognitive impairment. RELEVANCE: The association of geriatric syndromes and HIV is becoming an important field of study. Increased life expectancy accompanied by an active sex life is contributing to this public health problem. This protocol is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols and is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022321914). This study was financed in part by the CAPES foundation (financial code: 001)


OBJETIVOS: Esta revisão abordará o questionamento: a incidência de comprometimento cognitivo é maior em pacientes com 50 anos ou mais com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana do que em idosos soronegativos? METODOLOGIA: As bases de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), EMBASE, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Web of Science e Scopus serão pesquisadas. A estratégia de busca considerará estudos com amostra de 50 anos ou mais e população mista (pelo menos 50% com 50 anos ou mais). Incluirá estudos que avaliam pacientes soropositivos, e o controle considerará pesquisas que abordem pessoas não expostas. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Serão incluídos estudos de coorte com seguimento de pelo menos 24 meses. Três revisores, de forma independente, farão a triagem dos artigos quanto aos critérios de elegibilidade, extrairão dados, avaliarão o risco de viés dos trabalhos e avaliarão a qualidade geral das evidências. Uma síntese narrativa será preparada de acordo com a diretriz SWiM. RESULTADOS ESPERADOS: Esperamos encontrar maior incidência de comprometimento cognitivo em idosos que vivem com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana. RELEVÂNCIA: As síndromes geriátricas associadas ao HIV tornam-se um importante escopo de estudo, uma vez que, o aumento da expectativa de vida acompanhado de uma vida sexual ativa sustenta o ciclo de contaminação desse problema de saúde pública. Este protocolo é relatado de acordo com os Itens Preferenciais de Relatórios para Protocolos de Revisão Sistemática e Metanálise e está registrado no International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews ­ PROSPERO (CRD42022321914). Este estudo foi parcialmente financiado pela Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior ­ Brasil ­ Código de financiamento: 001


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged, 80 and over , HIV Infections/complications , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Incidence , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Cognition Disorders/virology
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(3): 340-344, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407784

ABSTRACT

Resumen El linfogranuloma venéreo (LGV) es una infección de transmisión sexual (ITS) causada por Chlamydia trachomatis. En los últimos años, ha emergido principalmente en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH). Es frecuente su asociación con otras ITS como el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y la sífilis. Si bien el compromiso genital es la forma de presentación clásica, el síndrome anorrectal constituye el principal cuadro clínico en la actualidad. Presentamos el caso de un HSH con infección por VIH en terapia anti-retroviral, herpes genital recurrente y sífilis latente tratada, sin viajes recientes al extranjero, con adenopatías inguinales fistulizadas a piel, asociada a una úlcera genital dolorosa, sin síntomas anorrectales ni sistémicos, refractario a múltiples tratamientos antibacterianos y antivirales. El estudio con RPC de secreción de la fístula fue positiva a C. trachomatis. Se trató con doxiciclina por seis semanas, con buena respuesta clínica, sin complicaciones.


Abstract Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria. In the past years, it has emerged as a relevant infectious agent, mainly affecting men who have sex with men (MSM), frequently associated with other sexually transmitted infections as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. Even though genital lesions correspond to the classical presentation of LGV, nowadays anorectal syndrome is more frequently reported. We present a MSM patient, HIV infected, being treated with antiretroviral drugs, with a history of recurrent genital herpes, also recently treated for a syphilis in a latent stage. He had no recent trips. He referred inguinal fistulized enlarged lymph nodes, associated with a painful genital ulcer, he denied anorectal or systemic symptoms. He had been treated with multiple antibiotic and antiviral drugs, with no clinical response. Molecular studies from the content of the fistulized lymph node identified C. trachomatis. The patient received doxycycline for 6 weeks, showing good clinical response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/complications , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/diagnosis , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/drug therapy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Syphilis/complications , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/drug therapy , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Chile , Chlamydia trachomatis , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Homosexuality, Male , Genitalia/pathology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408677

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección por VIH es actualmente una pandemia que afecta millones de personas, que provoca complicaciones y la muerte a muchos pacientes. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente a los pacientes con VIH/sida, pertenecientes al municipio de Guanabacoa, La Habana. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo en el municipio de Guanabacoa, La Habana, en el periodo comprendido entre enero 1986 y diciembre 2019. El universo de estudio quedó conformado por 647 pacientes con diagnóstico de VIH/sida. Las principales variables a medir fueron: edad, sexo, orientación sexual, color de la piel, estado civil y nivel escolar. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino sobre el femenino (538 v/s 109), el grupo de edad de 20 -29 años, la homosexualidad (404 pacientes, para un 62,44 por ciento) y el color de piel blanca (51,93 por ciento) y valor p < 0,0001, los solteros (526 pacientes) y los pacientes con nivel escolar de secundaria básica (292 pacientes). Conclusiones: Predominó el sexo masculino, la homosexualidad, el color de piel blanca, los solteros y el nivel escolar de secundaria básica(AU)


Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is currently a pandemic affecting millions of people, causing complications and death to many patients. Objective: To characterize, clinically and epidemiologically, patients with HIV or AIDS in Guanabacoa Municipality, Havana. Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in Guanabacoa Municipality, Havana, between January 1986 and December 2019. The study universe consisted of 647 patients diagnosed with HIV or AIDS. The main variables to be measured were age, sex, sexual orientation, skin color, marital status, and school level. Results: There was a predominance of the male sex over the female (538 versus 109), together with the age group 20-29 years, homosexuality (404 patients, 62.44 percent), and the white skin color (51.93 percent); P-value was under 0.0001. There was also a predominance of single patients (526) and patients with junior high school level (292). Conclusions: The male sex, homosexuality, white skin color, single as marriage status, and junior high school level predominated(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/mortality , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
6.
7.
São Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 278-283, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366041

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) are an important public health problem in all countries. Knowledge of their relationship with the various socioeconomic levels is necessary for an understanding of their epidemiology and behavior in society. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and to correlate education with history of sexually transmitted diseases, especially for syphilis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study carried out in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: The medical records of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) between January 2010 and July 2018 were assessed. These patients were attended at the specialized assistance service for HIV/AIDS) of the Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD/AIDS) of the city of Juiz de Fora. In total, 335 patients were selected. RESULTS: In our sample, 73.13% were male; 57.36% were aged between 25 and 45 years and 24.23% were over 45 years of age. Regarding sexual orientation, 61.78% were homosexual. Regarding education, 52.88% had "unskilled education", while 47.12% had "qualified education". Analysis on the relationship between schooling and syphilis, a positive relationship between qualified schooling and syphilis was observed: odds ratio = 3.588; 95% confidence interval: 1.090-11.808. CONCLUSION: Homosexual male patients are most affected by HIV. Furthermore, this disease is not limited only to individuals with low education. Syphilis should be suspected in all individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Syphilis/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Middle Aged
8.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-12, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377232

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze, systematize, and compile social, individual, and programmatic vulnerability factors associated with tuberculosis and HIV in homeless persons. METHODS This is a systematic literature review assessing quantitative studies, published between 2014 and 2020, on the prevalence of tuberculosis in homeless persons. Our review grouped studies according to vulnerabilities, followed the PRISMA recommendation guide, and used the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tool for bias analysis. RESULTS Of the 372 publications found, 16 were selected according to our eligibility criteria. In total, 10 studies assessed tuberculosis and HIV. The most commonly described factors for individual, social, and programmatic vulnerability were drug use, HIV coinfection, and tuberculosis treatment failure, respectively. The literature also claims that average homelessness length related to a higher frequency of tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection. CONCLUSION All reviewed studies described how homeless persons suffer with stigma and dehumanization, which are important barriers to their access to health services. Homelessness enhances the risks of chronic and infectious diseases and prioritizes issues which are more pragmatic for the maintenance of life, such as safety and food, to the detriment of health. The results can be used to support hypotheses for future research and to reinforce and direct existing public health and social policies to cope with tuberculosis and HIV in homeless persons.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar, sistematizar e compilar os fatores de vulnerabilidade (social, individual e programática) associados à tuberculose e HIV em pessoas em situação de rua. MÉTODOS Revisão sistemática de literatura de publicações quantitativas sobre tuberculose em pessoas em situação de rua entre os anos de 2014 e 2020, seguindo o guia de recomendações PRISMA e, para análise de viés, a ferramenta Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal. Agrupou-se as publicações segundo as vulnerabilidades. RESULTADOS Entre 372 publicações encontradas, selecionaram-se 16 segundo os critérios de elegibilidade. Em 10 estudos, foi descrita ocorrência de tuberculose e HIV. Os fatores de vulnerabilidade individual, social e programática mais descritas foram uso de drogas, coinfecção com HIV e falha no tratamento da tuberculose, respectivamente. A média de tempo em situação de rua também se mostrou relacionada à maior frequência de tuberculose e da infecção latente da tuberculose segundo literatura. CONCLUSÃO O estigma e a desumanização associados às pessoas em situação de rua foram descritos em todos os estudos revisados, sendo importantes barreiras no acesso aos serviços de saúde. A vivência na rua potencializa os riscos para a ocorrência de doenças crônicas e infecciosas, bem como a priorização de questões mais pragmáticas à manutenção da vida, como segurança e alimentação, em detrimento à saúde. Os resultados encontrados podem ser utilizados para embasar hipóteses para futuras pesquisas e para reforçar e direcionar políticas públicas de saúde e sociais já existentes para o enfrentamento da tuberculose e HIV na pessoa em situação de rua.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Brazil , Social Stigma
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(4): 485-486, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285112

ABSTRACT

Abstract A 56-year-old male, HIV-positive, presented with a 3-day history of multiple indurated erythematous nodules with superficial and well-defined erosions on his right gluteus. Skin biopsy showed ballooning-necrotic keratinocytes and cultures were positive for herpes simplex 2. Genital herpes simplex infection recurrences may not be restricted to the anterior part of the genitalia and clinical presentation in the lumbar area or gluteus must be differentiated from varicella-zoster virus infection. Tumor-like presentation is a very rare manifestation of HSV cutaneous infection. It is important to take this morphological variant into consideration not to delay the diagnosis of a viral infection, especially in an immunosuppressed patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Herpes Genitalis/diagnosis , HIV Infections/complications , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Zoster , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
10.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 40(2): 139-147, ago. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388090

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares, particularmente la enfermedad coronaria (EC), resultan de especial interés y preocupación en pacientes portadores del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). La ateromatosis acelerada como causa del aumento de prevalencia de enfermedad coronaria ha sido reconocida desde hace varios años en estos pacientes. No obstante, los mecanismos fisiopatológicos involucrados son múltiples y complejos e incluyen factores virales, la respuesta inflamatoria e inmunológica desencadenada por el virus, factores de riesgo cardiovascular tradicionales y efectos de la terapia antirretroviral combinada. Esta revisión de la literatura aborda dichos mecanismos y hace una actualización de los principales estudios clínicos que los sustentan. Se comenta además la evaluación de riesgo cardiovascular y los lineamientos para la revascularización de pacientes con EC portadores de VIH.


ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary artery disease are relevant in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For several years accelerated atheromatosis, a cause of increased prevalence in coronary disease, has been recognized in these patients. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved are multiple and complex, including viral factors, the inflammatory and immune response triggered by the virus, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and the effects of combined antiretroviral therapy. This review of the literature addresses these mechanisms and updates the main clinical studies that support them. Cardiovascular risk assessment and guidelines for revascularization of HIV patients with CHD are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/therapy , Risk Factors
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 365-375, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339149

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Pacientes com HIV têm maior probabilidade de apresentar doenças cardiovasculares quando comparados à população em geral. Objetivo Este foi um estudo de caso-controle que teve como objetivo avaliar quais fatores estavam associados a uma redução na espessura médio-intimal da carótida (IMT) da carótida e ao aumento na dilatação mediada por fluxo (DMF) da artéria braquial em pacientes com HIV que receberam atorvastatina + aspirina por um período de 6 meses. Métodos Foi realizada uma análise secundária de um ensaio clínico, que incluiu pessoas vivendo com HIV e baixo risco cardiovascular. Um total de 38 pacientes alocados para o braço de intervenção e tratados por 6 meses com uma combinação de atorvastatina + aspirina foram incluídos. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a ultrassonografia da carótida e da artéria braquial, tanto no início quanto no final do estudo. Os casos que responderam com aumento >10% da dilatação braquial (DMF) e redução da espessura médio-intimal da carótida (IMT) foram considerados casos, e aqueles que não responderam foram considerados controles. Avaliamos os fatores associados às respostas positivas obtidas através da IMT e DMF. Resultados A redução do IMT não se associou significativamente a nenhum dos fatores de risco avaliados: idade (p = 0,211), sexo (p = 0,260), tabagismo (p = 0,131) ou tempo de diagnóstico do HIV (p = 0,836). Um aumento na DMF foi significativamente associado com a idade entre aqueles na faixa etária de 40-59 anos, p = 0,015 (OR = 4,37; IC 95%: 1,07-17,79). Conclusões Os indivíduos mais velhos foram mais propensos a apresentar um aumento na DMF após 6 meses de tratamento com atorvastatina + aspirina.


Abstract Background Patients with HIV are more likely to present with cardiovascular disease when compared to the general population. Objective This was a case-control study that aimed to assess which factors were associated with a reduction in the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and an increase in the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in HIV patients who received atorvastatin + aspirin during a period of 6 months. Methods A secondary analysis of a clinical trial was conducted, which included people living with HIV infection and low cardiovascular risk. A total of 38 patients allocated to the intervention arm and treated for 6 months with a combination of atorvastatin + aspirin were included. All participants underwent a carotid and brachial artery ultrasound, both at the beginning and the end of the study. Cases that responded with an increase of >10% of the brachial dilatation (FMD) and reduction of the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were considered cases, and those who did not respond were considered controls. We assessed the factors associated with the positive responses obtained through IMT and FMD. Results A reduction in the IMT was not significantly associated with any of the evaluated risk factors: age (p=0.211), gender (p=0.260), smoking (p=0.131) or time since HIV diagnosis (p=0.836). An increase in the FMD was significantly associated with age amongst those in the 40-59 age group, p = 0.015 (OR = 4.37; 95% CI: 1.07-17.79). Conclusions Older individuals were more likely to present with an increased FMD after 6 months of treatment with atorvastatin + aspirin.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Vasodilation , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Endothelium, Vascular/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 143-148, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287263

ABSTRACT

Resumen Para hacer frente a la pandemia causada por el SARS CoV-2, en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires se establecieron Unidades Febriles de Urgencias anexas a los hospitales de alta compleji dad. Se realizó un estudio observacional y retrospectivo con el objeto de evaluar el perfil de las personas que consultaron durante el período comprendido entre las semanas epidemiológicas 28 y 42, 2020. Se recibieron 12 571 consultas, el promedio de edad fue 38.2 años y 6801 (54.1%) pacientes eran varones. Se realizaron 9501 hisopados (RT-PCR para SARS-CoV-2) y 2499 (26.3%) fueron confirmados positivos. La edad media de los confirmados para COVID-19 fue 37.9 años, 1367 (54.7%) eran varones y 143 (5.7%) requirieron internación en la primera consulta. Tantos como 6097 (48.5%) participantes contaban con obra social o medicina prepaga. Consultaron solo 160 pacientes con HIV, se diagnosticó coinfección HIV/COVID-19 en 39/160 (24.4%) infectados con HIV y requirieron internación 9/39 (23.1%) coinfectados. Consultaron 128 pacientes con tuberculosis (TB), se diagnosticó coinfección TB/COVID-19 en 31/128 (24.2%) y requirieron internación 8/31 (25.8%) coinfectados. La triple asociación HIV/TB/COVID-19 fue constatada en 2 pacientes. Contrariamente a lo esperado, las dos principales enfermedades atendidas en el hospital, TB y HIV, estuvieron poco representadas en la consulta, pero el requerimiento de internación para los coinfectados fue elevado. Esto puede deberse a consulta tardía por restricciones de movilidad y asistencia durante la cuarentena. Nuestros datos también indican que el sector público de la ciudad debió absorber demanda insatisfecha del sector privado.


Abstract Febrile Emergency Units were annexed to tertiary hospitals to face the pandemic caused by SARS CoV-2 in Buenos Aires City. We performed a retrospective observational study in order to evaluate the profile of people consulting the Unit annexed to the Muñiz Hospital, during the period comprising epidemiological weeks 28 to 42, 2020. The total number of consultations was 12 571; 6801 (54.1%) patients were male, and the average age was 38 years. A total of 2499 (26.3 %) of 9501 swabs resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 when analyzed by RT-PCR. The average age of confirmed COVID-19 patients was 37.9 years; 1367 (54.7%) were male and 143 (5.7%) required hospitalization at the first consultation. As many as 6097 (48.5%) participants were beneficiaries of social security or prepaid medicine. Only 160 (1.3%) were HIV positive, with COVID-19 coinfection diagnosed in 39/160 (24.4%), of which 9 (23.1%) required hospitalization. Only 128 (1%) had tuberculosis (TB); TB/CO VID-19 coinfection was diagnosed in 31 of them (24.2%), and 8/31 (25.8%) required hospitalization. The triple association HIV/TB /COVID-19 was reported in only 2 patients. Contrary to expectations, TB and HIV, the two main diseases treated in our hospital, were under-represented in this Emergency Unit, but the requirement of hospitalization for coinfected patients was quite frequent. This may be due to late consultation caused by mobility and assistance restrictions during quarantine. Interestingly, our data also indicate that the city's public sector had to absorb unsatisfied demand from the private sector and suburban population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(3): 410-416, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388241

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La tuberculosis (TBC) continúa siendo un problema de salud pública mundial; su forma meníngea conlleva mayor letalidad y secuelas, en particular si se asocia a la infección por VIH/SIDA. OBJETIVO: Describir las características demográficas, presentación clínica, laboratorio y de las imágenes de los pacientes con TBC meníngea (aislamiento de Mycobacterium tuberculosis en LCR), analizando diferencias entre pacientes con y sin infección por VIH/SIDA. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional y descriptivo, retrospectivo, de una serie de casos atendidos en el Hospital Dr. Alejandro Posadas de Buenos Aires, Argentina, desde enero de 2005 hasta diciembre de 2017. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 36 pacientes, 22 de ellos mujeres, con una mediana de edad de 36,5 años. Veintidós pacientes presentaron co-infección por VIH, todos en estadio SIDA. El tiempo de inicio de síntomas tuvo una mediana 11 días. predominando fiebre, estado de conciencia alterado y cefalea. En el LCR se hallaron linfocitosis, hipoglucorraquia, hiperproteinorraquia y ácido láctico elevado. Se realizó tomografía computada de encéfalo a 34 pacientes, 16 sin alteraciones. En otros 16 se realizó resonancia magnética (RM) cerebral, 9 presentaban trastornos vasculares. La RM fue más sensible para identificar refuerzo meníngeo, trastornos de tipo vasculares, y lesiones de tipo granulomatosas. La mediana de inicio de tratamiento fue de 1 día, con 72,2% recibiendo co-adyuvancia con corticosteroides. La mortalidad observada fue de 27,7% y secuelas hubo en 36,1%. Sólo 5 pacientes requirieron intervención neuro-quirúrgica. CONCLUSIÓN: Siendo la TBC meníngea una afección de alta morbimortalidad, es imperioso asegurar un diagnóstico temprano en su evolución mediante la incorporación de la biología molecular e imagenología (RM) al amplio uso clínico.


BACKGROUND. Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global public health problem; its meningeal form leads to greater lethality and sequelae, particularly if it is associated with HIV / AIDS infection. AIM: To describe the demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory and images of patients with meningeal TB (isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in CSF), analyzing differences between HIV and non-HIV patients. METHODS: We performed an observational and descriptive study, with retrospective analysis of patients attending at the Dr. Alejandro Posadas Hospital, Buenos Aires, since January 2005 to December 2017. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were analyzed, with 22 women with a median age of 36.5 years. Twenty two patients had HIV coinfection, all in the AIDS stage. The symptom onset time was median 11 days. The predominant ones were fever, altered consciousness and headache. In the cerebrospinal fluid were lymphocitosis, hypoglycorrhachia, hyperproteinorrhachia and high lactic acid, according to previously described findings. Of 34 patients who underwent brain scan, 16 patients had no significant pathological findings. MRI was performed in 16 patients, 9 had vascular disorders. Brain MRI was more sensitive to identify meningeal reinforcement than computerized tomography, vascular disorders, and granulomatous lesions. The median onset of treatment was 1 day, with 72.2% of the total receiving coadjuvants with corticosteroids. Mortality of 27.7% and sequelae in 36.1% were observed. Only 5 patients required neurosurgical intervention. CONCLUSION: Since meningeal TB is a disease with high morbidity and mortality, it is imperative to ensure an early diagnosis in its evolution by incorporating molecular biology and imaging (MRI) into broad clinical use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Meningeal/drug therapy , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Retrospective Studies , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 184-187, Mar.-Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248747

ABSTRACT

Abstract Epstein Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors are an uncommon neoplasm that occurs in immunosuppressed patients of any age. Usually, it presents as multifocal tumors mainly in the spinal cord, epidural region, gastrointestinal tract and liver, upper respiratory tract and skin, the latest with few cases reported in the literature and related with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The authors present the first case of a Colombian adult patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection and multifocal Epstein Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors in the skin and epidural region, confirmed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Smooth Muscle Tumor , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , RNA, Viral , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics
18.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(1): 6-12, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177663

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are the subject of many studies, some of them reporting a prevalence of up to 50 percent. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with HIV neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients in São Paulo city, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Descriptive cross-sectional study including 106 HIV-1-infected patients, employing direct interview and neuropsychological tests, applied by trained neuro-psychologists with expertise in the tests. Other, similar assessment tools we used were Brief Neurocognitive Questionnaire, International HIV Dementia Scale, Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Social Support Scale for People with HIV/Aids, Assessment of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Questionnaire, and a complex neuropsychological assessment. RESULTS: We included 106 patients from May 2015 to April 2018. We found a high prevalence of HAND in our patients (45%), with 27.5% presenting asymptomatic neurological impairment (ANI) and 17.5% mild neurological dysfunction (MND); only one patient presented HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (0.9%). Women were more likely to have MND (52.9%) and the only case of HAD was also female. The high prevalence of neurocognitive disorders was independent of the immunological status, use of efavirenz, or virological control. CONCLUSIONS: This study may mirror the national and international scenarios, showing a high prevalence of HAND (45%) and the prevalence of some risk factors, in special among women


INTRODUÇÃO: As doenças neurocognitivas associadas ao HIV (HAND), são o assunto de muitos estudos, alguns deles relatando uma prevalência de até 50 por cento. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados aos distúrbios neurocognitivos do HIV (HAND) em uma coorte de pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1 na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. METODOLOGIA: Estudo transversal descritivo incluindo 106 pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1, utilizando entrevista direta e testes neuropsicológicos, aplicados por neuropsicólogos treinados com experiência nos testes. Foram utilizados também: Questionário Neurocognitivo Breve, Escala Internacional de Demência do HIV, Atividades Instrumentais de Vida Diária de Lawton, Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão, Escala de Apoio Social para Pessoas com HIV / Aids, Avaliação da Adesão à Terapia Antiretroviral Questionário e uma bateria de avaliação neuropsicológica complexa. RESULTADOS: Foram avalaidos 106 pacientes de maio de 2015 a abril de 2018. Foi observado uma alta prevalência de HAND em nossos pacientes (45%), com 27,5% apresentando comprometimento neurológico assintomático (ANI) e 17,5% comprometimento cognitive leve (MND); apenas um paciente apresentou demência associada ao HIV (DAH) (0,9%). As mulheres eram mais propensas a ter MND (52,9%) e o único caso de HAD também era do sexo feminino. A alta prevalência de distúrbios neurocognitivos foi independente do estado imunológico, uso de efavirenz ou controle virológico. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo pode espelhar o cenário nacional e internacional, mostrando uma alta prevalência de HAND (45%) e a prevalência de alguns fatores de risco, em especial entre as mulheres


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Neurocognitive Disorders/etiology , Neurocognitive Disorders/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Neuropsychological Tests
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(1): 108-113, feb. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388197

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las manifestaciones hematológicas de la infección por el VIH son frecuentes y variadas debido a su capacidad de afectar prácticamente todas las líneas celulares. Dentro de éstas, la púrpura trombocitopénica trombótica (PTT) es una de las entidades que constituyen las microangiopatías trombóticas. Se caracteriza por la presencia de trombocitopenia y anemia hemolítica microangiopática con alteración de la función renal. Actualmente, la co-existencia de estas dos entidades es poco frecuente debido a la terapia anti-retroviral de alta efectividad (TARV) Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 28 años, quien consultó por fiebre asociada a episodios de gingivorragia, palidez mucocutánea generalizada y debilidad progresiva. Los estudios evidenciaron una anemia y trombocitopenia grave. Se encontraron esquistocitos y microesferocitos en el frotis de sangre periférica con actividad de la enzima ADAMTS 13 disminuida (6,8%). Se confirmó el diagnóstico de una PTT como manifestación inicial de una infección por VIH. Se indicó manejo con plasmaféresis e inicio de TARV con buena respuesta.


Abstract Hematological manifestations for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are frequent and diverse due to its ability to affect almost all cell lines. Among these, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is one of the thrombotic microangiopathies syndromes, characterized by the presence of thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with impaired renal function. Nowadays, the relationship between these two entities is rare given the current highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We report the case of a 28-year-old patient, who presented with fever associated with gingival bleeding, generalized mucocutaneous pallor and progressive weakness. Routine investigations showed anemia and severe thrombocytopenia, schistocytes and micro spherocytes in peripheral blood smear. Required blood transfusion, with decreased ADAMTS 13 enzyme activity (6.8%). With these findings,TTP was diagnosed as the initial manifestation of the HIV infection. The patient received management with five sessions of plasmapheresis and HAART with subsequent improvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , HIV Infections , Anemia, Hemolytic , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/therapy , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Plasmapheresis
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(1): 27-30, feb. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388203

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los condilomas son la infección de transmisión sexual más frecuente en el mundo y tiene estrecha relación con la infección por VIH. La topografía y la serología son variables, y algunos presentan mayor riesgo de malignización. OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia, características clínicas, topográficas y factores asociados a la presencia de condilomas ano-genitales en pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA en Guanajuato. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo y transversal realizado entre junio y diciembre de 2014. Se incluyeron pacientes adultos con infección por VIH/SIDA, de ambos sexos, del CAPASITS León, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario que incluyó: datos de identificación, y factores de riesgo relacionados a los condilomas ano-genitales, y se les revisó dicha región corporal en busca de condilomas. Se realizó estadística descriptiva de acuerdo al tipo y distribución de las variables y se compararon las medianas de linfocitos T CD4 (LTCD4+) de los pacientes, con y sin condilomas, con la prueba U- Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 213 pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA, 181 (85%) hombres. La prevalencia de condilomas ano-genitales fue de 30% (IC95%:23-36%), con mayor frecuencia en la región anal, con 21% de los casos. Encontramos una diferencia significativa entre las medianas en el recuento de linfocitos LTCD4+ en los pacientes, con y sin condilomas, (425 vs 510 LTCD4+/mL, p = 0,034). CONCLUSIONES: Se obtuvo una prevalencia alta de pacientes con condilomas ano-genitales. La presencia de condilomas fue mayor en pacientes con menor recuento de linfocitos LTCD4+. Considerando la elevada prevalencia, se recomienda la aplicación de la vacuna en este grupo de pacientes.


BACKGROUND: Condylomas are the most frequent sexually transmitted infection worldwide, and thus, have a close relation to HIV infection. The site and serology vary, and some pose higher risk of malignancy. AIM: To describe the prevalence, characteristics and associated factors to the presence of anogenital condylomas in patients with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the period from June to December 2014. Adult HIV/AIDS positive patients from "CAPASITS" in Leon, Mexico, from both sexes were included. A questionnaire was performed that included: identification data, and risk factors related to anogenital condylomas. Anogenital area was examined for condylomas. Descriptive statistics were carried out according to the type and distribution of the variables, and the CD4 lymphocyte medians of patients with and without condylomas were compared using U- Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: A total of 213 HIV/AIDS patients were included; 181 (85%) were male. The prevalence of anogenital condylomas was 30% (IC95%: 23-36%), predominating in the anal region, observed in 21% of the cases. A significant difference was found between median CD4 cell count of patients with and without condylomas (425 vs 510 CD4/mL, p= 0.034). CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of patients with anogenital condylomas was obtained. The presence of condylomas was higher in patients with lower CD4 count. Considering the high prevalence, the application of the vaccine is recommended in this patient group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , HIV Infections , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mexico/epidemiology
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