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1.
Rev. ADM ; 77(2): 100-107, mar.-abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1102211

ABSTRACT

El sarcoma de Kaposi (SK) es una neoplasia vascular maligna poco frecuente, asociada al virus herpes humano tipo 8. Existen cuatro formas clínicas: clásico, endémico, asociado con inmunosupresión iatrogénica y asociado al VIH/SIDA. Este artículo presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la epidemiología, la patogénesis, las manifestaciones clínicas y el tratamiento del sarcoma de Kaposi asociado al VIH/ SIDA (SK-VIH/SIDA) a propósito de un caso clínico manejado en la Clínica Académica de Atención Dental. La baja en la incidencia de esta neoplasia da lugar al desconocimiento de sus manifestaciones clínicas. En adición, los pacientes seropositivos suelen no mencionar su padecimiento en la anamnesis, lo cual representa un riesgo tanto para el paciente en su diagnóstico y manejo odontológico como para el odontólogo y el personal clínico con riesgo de contagio (AU)


Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an uncommon malignant vascular neoplasm, associated with human herpes virus type 8. There are four clinical presentations: classic, endemic, associated with iatrogenic immunosuppression and associated with AIDS. This article presents a review of the literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment and HIV/AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (SK-HIV/AIDS) regarding a clinical case managed at the Academic Center of Dental Care. The decrease in the incidence of this neoplasm, leads to ignorance of its clinical manifestations. In addition, seropositive patients usually don't mention their condition in the anamnesis, which represents a risk for the patients on their diagnosis and the case management as well as for the dentist and the clinical personnel from risk of infection (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oral Manifestations , Sarcoma, Kaposi , HIV Infections/complications , Dental Care for Chronically Ill , Sarcoma, Kaposi/diagnostic imaging , Communicable Disease Control , Infection Control, Dental , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Mexico
2.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 30(2): 57-64, Jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1025559

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones transmisibles sexualmente (ITS) son motivo de consulta frecuente, encontrándose Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) entre las prevalentes. Este germen provoca proctitis de diversa gravedad según el biovar involucrado. Los casos más floridos suelen ser ocasionados por el biovar LGV, responsable de la entidad linfogranuloma venéreo. Se desconocen la prevalencia de CT como causa de proctitis en Argentina y los biovares implicados. Con el objetivo de estudiar estas variables, se diseñó un protocolo para detectar y genotipificar CT en pacientes con proctitis infecciosa. Pacientes y métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 18 años con cuadro de proctitis infecciosa atendidos en un centro público y otro privado. Se excluyeron pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal y radioterapia pelviana. El estudio fue aprobado por un Comité de Ética y los pacientes firmaron un consentimiento informado. En las muestras de hisopado anal se realizó detección y tipificación molecular de CT. Resultados: Entre 31de agosto de 2017 y 31 de mayo de 2018, se incluyeron 56 pacientes (1 mujer, 53 hombres, 2 mujeres trans), 79% HIV+. En 29 casos (52%) se detectó CT. Todos eran hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH) y refirieron practicar sexo anal u oral receptivo no protegido. La mediana de edad de este subgrupo fue de 31 años; 83% HIV+ en tratamiento antirretroviral y mediana de CD4 637 cel/mm3. La coinfección con otras ITS fue del 41% (siendo las más frecuentes HPV, gonococia y sífilis). Los motivos de consulta más frecuentes fueron proctorragia, pujo y tenesmo, proctalgia y secreción. Las manifestaciones clínicas fueron variadas: proctitis, úlcera perianal, tumor endoanal/rectal y absceso/fístula. El 86% de las proctitis correspondió al biovar LGV, siendo 62% moderadas a graves. La mediana de tiempo de evolución hasta el diagnóstico fue 21 días. Los casos más prolongados correspondieron a cuadros clínicos y endoscópicos más graves. La duración del tratamiento se adecuó al biovar involucrado. Todos los pacientes respondieron favorablemente; sin embargo, las dos fístulas perianales requirieron resolución quirúrgica. Conclusiones: Proctitis, úlceras y fístulas son manifestaciones inespecíficas; el hallazgo clínico y endoscópico per se no son suficientes para definir la etiología; sólo una anamnesis minuciosa permite presumir una ITS como agente causal. La tipificación logra definir el biovar, dato fundamental para adecuar el tratamiento, cortar la cadena de transmisión y contar con datos epidemiológicos a nivel local. Como resultado de esta investigación, el Ministerio de Salud de Nación proyectó la emisión de una alerta sobre la presencia de LGV en nuestro medio. Tipo de estudio: Observacional, transversal, analítico, multicéntrico.


Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a frequent reason for consultation, being Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among the most prevalent ones. It causes proctitis of varying severity depending on the biovar involved. The most severe cases are usually caused by the LGV biovar, responsible for the entity called lymphogranuloma venereum. The prevalence of CT as a cause of proctitis in Argentina and the biovars involved are unknown. In order to study these variables, a protocol was designed to detect and genotype CT in patients with infectious proctitis. Patients and methods: Patients over 18 years old with infectious proctitis were attended in a public and private center. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease and pelvic radiation therapy were excluded. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee and the patients signed an informed consent. The detection and molecular typing of CT was performed in anal swab samples. Results: Between 31-08-2017 and 31-05-2018, 56 patients were included (1 woman, 53 men, 2 trans women), 79% HIV +. In 29 cases (52%) CT was detected. All were MSM and reported to practice unprotected receptive oral or anal sex. The median age of this subgroup was 31 years; 83% HIV + on antiretroviral treatment and median CD4 637 cel / mm3. The coinfection with other STIs was present 41% (the most frequent were HPV, gonococcal and syphilis). The most frequent symptoms were bleeding, tenesmus, proctalgia and secretion. The clinical manifestations were varied: proctitis, perianal ulcer, endoanal / rectal tumor and abscess / anal fistula. 86% of the proctitis corresponded to the LGV biovar, being 62% moderate to severe. The median time of evolution until the diagnosis was 21 days. The most prolonged cases corresponded to more severe clinical and endoscopic symptoms. The duration of the treatment was adapted to the biovar involved. All patients responded favorably; however, the two perianal fistulas required surgical resolution. Conclusions: Proctitis, ulcers and fistulas are nonspecific manifestations; the clinical and endoscopic findings per se are not sufficient to define the etiology; only a meticulous anamnesis allows us to presume an STI as a causative agent. The typification allows to define the biovar, a fundamental data to adapt the treatment, stop chain of transmission and provides local epidemiological data. As a result of this investigation, the Ministry of Health of the Argentina issued an alert about the presence of LGV in our country. Type of study: Observational, cross-sectional, analytical, multicenter study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Proctitis/etiology , Proctitis/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections , Chlamydia trachomatis/pathogenicity , Rectal Diseases/etiology , Rectal Diseases/epidemiology , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Prevalence , Homosexuality, Male
3.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 435-444, mar.-abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), CUMED | ID: biblio-1004279

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Rhodococcus equi es un microorganismo emergente asociado a infecciones oportunistas en individuos inmunocomprometidos, especialmente en pacientes con infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana. Se desarrolló una búsqueda en la Biblioteca Virtual de Infomed, fueron revisados 215 trabajos científicos sin limitación de año y país, seleccionándose 55. El rhodococcus es un patógeno intracelular capaz de crecer y persistir dentro de los macrófagos que expresan en su superficie el receptor Mac-1 (CD11b/CC18), y posteriormente destruirlos. La manifestación clínica más frecuente es la neumonía de comienzo insidioso y en su evolución natural tiende a la cavitación. El diagnóstico se realiza mediante su identificación en cultivo de muestras de tejido afectado. Los hemocultivos son positivos en el 50% de los inmunodeprimidos En el diagnóstico radiográfico, los hallazgos más comunes referidos en la literatura científica son el compromiso lobar y la cavitación. La particular evolución que experimentan los pacientes con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y neumonía por R. equi, obliga a implementar esquemas terapéuticos basados en antimicrobianos con actividad bactericida intracelular, administrados inicialmente por vía intravenosa y durante un tiempo prolongado e incluso la cirugía. La infección por R. equi es una complicación infrecuente en pacientes con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida, pero con una elevada tasa de letalidad, por lo que debe ser sospechado en pacientes que presenten una infección respiratoria de curso inhabitual. El diagnóstico precoz, el tratamiento antimicrobiano combinado y prolongado y el inicio de la Terapia Antiretroviral de Gran Actividad en forma temprana pueden mejorar la evolución y el pronóstico de estos pacientes.


ABSTRACT Rhodococcus equi is an emergent microorganism associated to opportunistic infections in immune-compromised individuals, especially in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. A search was carried out in the Virtual Library of Infomed; 215 scientific works were reviewed without limits of publication years and countries. From them, 55 were chosen. Rhodococcus equi is an intracellular pathogen that is able to grow and live inside the macrophages expressing the Mac-1 (CD11b/CC18) receptor in the surface and destroying them later. The most common clinical manifestation is insidious beginning pneumonia, tending to cavitation in its natural evolution. The diagnosis is made through identification in culture of affected tissues samples. Blood cultures are positive in 50 % of the immune-depressed people. At the radiographic diagnosis, the most common findings referred to in the scientific literature are lobar compromise and cavitation. The particular evolution of the patients with acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and pneumonia due to Rhodococcus equi forces the implementation of therapeutic schemes based on antimicrobials with intracellular bactericide activity, administered firstly intravenously and during a long time, and even to perform the surgery. Rhodococcus equi infection is an infrequent complication in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, but having a high lethality rate, therefore it should be suspected in patients presenting a respiratory infection of unusual curse. The precocious diagnosis, combined and prolonged antimicrobial treatment and early beginning of the highly active antiretroviral therapy could improve the evolution and prognosis of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Bacterial/complications , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Actinomycetales Infections/diagnosis , Rhodococcus equi/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Bacterial/etiology
4.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 18(2): 241-253, mar.-abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1014166

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las lesiones en la cavidad oral son con frecuencia las primeras evidencias clínicas de la infección por VIH. Una amigdalitis hemorrágica debe hacer sospechar, entre otras causas, que exista un Sarcoma de Kaposi (SK). El SK, considerada una enfermedad marcadora de sida en la infección por VIH, afecta, fundamentalmente, la piel y con frecuencia la mucosa de la cavidad oral. Objetivo: identificar una amigdalitis hemorrágica como forma de presentación de un Sarcoma de Kaposi asociado al VIH Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino de 22 años, que consulta por odinofagia y disfagia. En la faringoscopìa se observan amígdalas hipertróficas y de aspecto hemorrágicas. Se sospecha causa sistémica, entre ellas la infección por VIH. Se confirma debut clínico de sida por SK con lesiones predominantes de cavidad oral incluyendo las amígdalas. Conclusiones: Las características hemorrágicas de una amigdalitis permitieron sospechar el diagnóstico infección por VIH con Sarcoma de Kaposi predominante en cavidad oral(AU)


Introduction: Lesions in the oral cavity can be the first clinical evidences of HIV infection. Hemorrhagic tonsillitis should be suspicious of a Kaposi's sarcoma, among other causes. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is considered a marker of AIDS in HIV infection, which mainly affects the skin, but often acts upon the mucosa of the oral cavity. Objective: To identify hemorrhagic tonsillitis as a form of presentation of Kaposi's sarcoma associated to HIV. Case presentation: A 22-year-old male patient comes to the doctor´s office complaining of odynophagia and dysphagia. Hypertrophic tonsils of hemorrhagic aspect are observed in the laryngoscopy. Systemic cause is suspected, mainly, an HIV infection. A clinical onset of AIDS as a result of KS with predominant lesions in the oral cavity including the tonsils is confirmed. Conclusions: The hemorrhagic characteristics of tonsillitis leads to a presumptive diagnostic of HIV infection with a Kaposi's sarcoma occurring predominantly in the oral cavity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sarcoma, Kaposi/complications , Tonsillitis/blood , HIV Infections/complications
5.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 48-54, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1002416

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aim: To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory factors associated with CKD in Mexican HIV-infected patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study. We included 274 patients with HIV/AIDS. CKD was defined by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 assessed by CKD-EPI) and albuminuria criteria from KDIGO guidelines. Clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics were compared between patients with and without CKD. The factors associated with CKD were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age was 41±11 years, and 72.3% of the patients were men. The global prevalence of CKD was 11.7% (n = 32); 7.2% (n = 20) were defined by eGFR criterion; 7.6% (n = 21), by the albuminuria criterion; and 3.2% (n = 9), by both CKD criteria. The most frequently observed stages of CKD were KDIGO G3A1 stage with 4.7% (n = 13), KDIGO G1A2 stage with 3.6% (n = 10) and KDIGO G3A2 stage with 1.7% (n = 5). The factors associated with CKD were use of abacavir/lamivudine (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.1-8.9; p = 0.03), a CD4 lymphocyte count < 400 cells/µL (OR 2.6; 95% 1.03-6.4, p = 0.04), age (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.04-1.2, p = 0.001) and albuminuria (OR 19.98; 95% CI: 5.5-72.2; p < 0.001). Conclusions: CKD was a frequent complication in HIV-infected patients. These findings confirm the importance of screening and the early detection of CKD, as well as the importance of identifying and treating traditional and non-traditional risk factors associated with CKD.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência de doença renal crônica (DRC) e os fatores epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais associados à DRC em pacientes mexicanos infectados pelo HIV. Métodos: Estudo transversal. Incluímos 274 pacientes com HIV/AIDS. A DRC foi definida pela taxa de filtração glomerular estimada (TFGe < 60 mL/min/1,73 m2, avaliada pelo CKD-EPI) e pelos critérios de albuminúria das diretrizes do KDIGO. As características clínicas, epidemiológicas e laboratoriais foram comparadas entre pacientes com e sem DRC. Os fatores associados à DRC foram avaliados por análise de regressão logística. Resultados: A média da idade foi de 41 ± 11 anos e 72,3% dos pacientes eram homens. A prevalência global de DRC foi de 11,7% (n = 32); 7,2% (n = 20) foram definidos pelo critério TFGe; 7,6% (n = 21), pelo critério da albuminúria; e 3,2% (n = 9), pelos dois critérios para DRC. Os estágios mais frequentemente observados da DRC foram o estágio KDIGO G3A1 com 4,7% (n = 13); estágio KDIGO G1A2 com 3,6% (n = 10) e estágio KDIGO G3A2 com 1,7% (n = 5). Os fatores associados à DRC foram o uso de abacavir/lamivudina (OR 3,2; IC95% 1,1-8,9; p = 0,03), contagem de linfócitos CD4 < 400 células/µL (OR 2,6; 95% 1,03-6,4, p = 0,04), idade (OR 1,1; IC95% 1,04-1,2, p = 0,001) e albuminúria (OR 19,98; IC95%: 5,5-72,2; p < 0,001). Conclusões: A DRC foi uma complicação frequente em pacientes infectados pelo HIV. Esses achados confirmam a importância do rastreamento e da detecção precoce da DRC, bem como a importância de identificar e tratar os fatores de risco tradicionais e não tradicionais associados à DRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Dideoxynucleosides/adverse effects , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Lamivudine/adverse effects , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Diabetes Complications , Albuminuria , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hypertension/complications , Mexico/epidemiology
6.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 40: e20180379, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1004079

ABSTRACT

Resumo OBJETIVOS Verificar a associação entre os fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais com a síndrome metabólica em pessoas vivendo com HIV. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal, realizado em ambulatórios especializados no município de Ribeirão Preto - SP, entre outubro de 2014 a outubro de 2016. Para avaliação da síndrome metabólica utilizou-se os critérios do National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III e da International Diabetes Federation. Foram realizadas entrevistas individuais e utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS Foram avaliados 340 pacientes, 28,5% (n=97) com SM pelo critério do National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, e 39,4% (n=134) pela International Diabetes Federation. Houve associação entre a síndrome metabólica e as variáveis sexo (ATP: p<0,001; IDF: p=0,002), idade (ATP: p<0,001; IDF: p<0,001), escolaridade (ATP: p=0,003; IDF: p=0,003), estado civil (ATP: p=0,003; IDF: p=0,022), situação de trabalho (ATP: p=0,003; IDF: p=0,024), orientação sexual (ATP: p=0,003; IDF: p=0,015), hábitos de fumar (ATP: p=0,037; IDF: p=0,033) e atividades de lazer (ATP: p=0,010; IDF: p=0,006). CONCLUSÕES Existem associações significativas entre a síndrome metabólica, fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais em pessoas vivendo com HIV.


Resumen OBJETIVO Verificar la asociación entre factores sociodemográficos y comportamentales con el síndrome metabólico en personas que viven con VIH/SIDA. MÉTODOS Estudio transversal, realizado en ambulatorios especializados en la ciudad de Ribeirão Preto-SP, entre octubre de 2014 y octubre de 2016. Para la evaluación de la SM se utilizaron los criterios del National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment III y de la International Diabetes Federation. Se realizaron entrevistas individuales y se utilizó el test Qui-cuadrado y exacto de Fisher. RESULTADOS Se evaluaron 340 pacientes, 28,5% (n = 97) con SM por el criterio del National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment III, y el 39,4% (n = 134) por el IDF. En el presente estudio se evaluó la relación entre el síndrome metabólico y las variables sexo (ATP: p<0,001, IDF: p=0,002), edad (ATP: p<0,001; IDF: p<0,001), escolaridad (ATP: p=0,003; IDF: p=0,003), estado civil (ATP: p=0.003, IDF: p=0.022), situación de trabajo (ATP: p=0,003, IDF: p=0,024), los hábitos de fumar (ATP: p=0,037, IDF: p=0,033) y actividades de ocio (ATP: p=0,010; IDF: p=0,006). CONCLUSIONES Existen asociaciones significativas entre el síndrome metabólico, factores sociodemográficos y comportamentales en personas que viven con VIH/SIDA.


Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between sociodemographic and behavioral factors with the metabolic syndrome in people living with HIV. METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out in specialized outpatient clinics in Ribeirão Preto - SP city, between October 2014 and October 2016. The criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III and the International Diabetes Federation were used for the evaluation of metabolic syndrome. Individual interviews were conducted and the Chi-square and Fisher's exact test was used. RESULTS 340 patients were evaluated, 28.5% (n=97) with metabolic syndrome by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criterion, and 39.4% (n=134) by the International Diabetes Federation. There was an association between MS and the variables gender (ATP: p<0.001, p=0.002), age (ATP: p<0.001, IDF: p<0.001), schooling (ATP: p=0.003, IDF: p=0.003), marital status (ATP: p=0.003, IDF: p=0.022), work status (ATP: p=0.003; IDF: p=0.024), smoking (ATP: p=0.037, IDF: p=0.033) and leisure activities (ATP: p=0.010, IDF: p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS There are significant associations between the metabolic syndrome, sociodemographic and behavioral factors in people living with HIV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Marital Status , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Educational Status , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Leisure Activities , Middle Aged
7.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 30(1): 48-55, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1005580

ABSTRACT

Medical literature shows that the co-infection of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasing dramatically worldwide. HIV infection and syphilis have a synergistic relationship. Syphilis increases the risk of HIV transmission and acquisition, while HIV affects the presentation, diagnosis, progression and response to syphilis treatment. The diagnosis of syphilis is made with a non-treponemal reactive test (VDRL or RPR) confirmed with a treponemal test (FTA-ABS or MHA-TP). The opportune diagnosis of neurosyphilis is essential, particularly in the asymptomatic stages, given the high risk of serious sequels and lethality. All patients co-infected with HIV and syphilis with neurological symptoms must be studied with PL and other complementary tests. There is controversy about when to perform a lumbar puncture in co-infected patients who do not have neurological symptoms. However, there is consensus that a CD4 count lower than 350/µl or RPR title greater than 1/32 has indication for the study of cerebrospinal fluid. Therapy with penicillin G in high doses is the treatment of choice, in addition to clinical and serological follow-up that must be done to these patients. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Neurosyphilis/diagnosis , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/therapy , Neurosyphilis/complications , Neurosyphilis/therapy
8.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(4): 378-381, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-975599

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Numerous studies have evaluated auditory functions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients; however, these studies had a few major limitations in terms of methodology as they used mainly evoked audiometry although this method is expensive, time consuming and not widely available. Therefore, we conducted a study in naïve HIV subjects with routine audiometry. Objective To determine the effect of HIV and of the drugs used to treat it on the auditory functions. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted in a medical college with 25 naive HIV-seropositive patients for over a year. Pure tone audiometry (250-8,000 Hz) and CD4 T-lymphocyte count were performed at the time of enrollment and 6 months after commencement of highly active antiretroviral treatment. Results The subjects had increased hearing thresholds at high frequencies (4 KHz and 8KHz) in both ears at the time of enrollment that persisted at the same level (p > 0.05) on follow-up at 6 months. None of the subjects had any other otological symptom during the 6 months of observation. Seven subjects had sensorineural hearing loss in one or both ears at 0 and 6 months. These observations did not show any significant difference on Wilcoxon-signed-rank test. Spearman correlation did not find a significant correlation (p > 0.05) between CD4 T-lymphocyte counts and pure tone audiometry during the study. Conclusion We found high-frequency hearing loss in all subjects with no relation with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and severity of the disease. This study advocates hearing assessment with pure tone audiometry in HIV subjects so that intervention can be initiated in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects , Hearing Loss/etiology , Hearing Loss/chemically induced , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Auditory Threshold , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , CD4 Lymphocyte Count
9.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 26: e31156, jan.-dez. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-970289

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever o perfil de adesão à terapia antirretroviral (TARV) de pacientes com Síndrome Lipodistrófica do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (SLHIV), em uma unidade especializada do Estado do Pará, Brasil. Método: estudo qualiquantitativo, envolvendo questionário e prontuários de 124 pacientes, no período de fevereiro e março de 2013, após aprovação por Comitê de Ética. Na análise, a variância (p<0,05) articulou testes estatísticos, com dados apresentados em tabelas. Resultados: as dificuldades de entender e conhecer o esquema terapêutico, o Diabetes Mellitus e as alterações da lipodistrofia foram significantes na interferência da adesão à TARV. O grupo de adesão irregular está em risco para a eficácia do tratamento. Os demais têm a possibilidade de migração de um grupo para outro a qualquer momento. Conclusão: o perfil de adesão à TARV não é definida por dados socioeconômicos. A participação em grupos de adesão deve ser estimulada como fator de reversão do padrão de abandono. Descritores: HIV; AIDS; lipodistrofia; adesão à medicação.


Objective: to profile adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) by patients with human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy syndrome (HIVLS) at a specialized unit in Pará, Brazil. Method: this quali-quantitative study, involving a questionnaire and medical records of 124 patients, was conducted from February to March 2013, after research ethics approval. In the analysis, statistical tests were related by variance (p <0.05) and data were presented in table form. Results: the difficulties of understanding and knowing the therapeutic regimen, mellitus diabetes and changes in lipodystrophy were significant in the interference of ART adherence. The irregular adherence group is at risk for treatment efficacy. The others have the possibility of migrating from one group to another at any time. Conclusion: the profile of adherence to ART is not defined by socioeconomic data. Participation in membership groups should be encouraged as a factor in reversing the pattern of abandonment.


Objetivo: describir el perfil de adhesión a la terapia antirretroviral (TARV) de pacientes con síndrome lipodistrófico del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (SLHIV), en una unidad especializada del Estado de Pará, Brasil. Método: estudio cualiquantitativo involucrando cuestionario e historias clínicas de 124 pacientes, en el período de febrero y marzo de 2013, después de la aprobación por el Comité de Ética. En el análisis, la varianza (p <0,05) articuló pruebas estadísticas, con datos presentados en tablas. Resultados: las dificultades en entender y conocer el esquema terapéutico, la Diabetes Mellitus y las alteraciones de la lipodistrofia fueron significantes en la interferencia de la adhesión a la TARV. El grupo de adhesión irregular está en riesgo para la eficacia del tratamiento. Los demás tienen la posibilidad de migración de un grupo a otro en cualquier momento. Conclusión: el perfil de adhesión a la TARV no está definido por datos socioeconómicos. La participación en grupos de adhesión debe ser estimulada como factor de reversión del patrón de abandono.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , HIV Infections/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome , Medication Adherence , Brazil , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
10.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 438-440, May-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-949870

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Erythrodermic psoriasis is a rare but severe type of psoriasis that may be triggered by human immunodeficiency virus infection. We describe the case of a 65-year-old male patient with chronic psoriasis who presents an exacerbation of his condition over a period of two weeks. Because of the severity of his case and subsequent need for systemic therapy, human immunodeficiency virus enzyme immunoassay was performed and tested positive. He thus began antiretroviral therapy combined with acitretin, showing good clinical response after 8 weeks of treatment. There is little evidence regarding the management of erythrodermic psoriasis associated with HIV infection, so antiretroviral therapy and systemic retinoid remain as the first-line treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Psoriasis/virology , HIV Infections/complications , Dermatitis, Exfoliative/virology , Psoriasis/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Acitretin/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Keratolytic Agents/therapeutic use
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 462-464, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1038269

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The number of new cases of emerging fungal infections has increased considerably in recent years, mainly due to the large number of immunocompromised individuals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of emerging fungi to fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B by disk diffusion method. In 2015, 82 emerging fungi were evaluated in IPB-LACEN/RS and 13 (15.8%) were resistant: 10/52 were from superficial mycoses and 3/30 from systemic mycoses. The data from the study point to the need for permanent vigilance regarding the careful evaluation in the prescription and clinical and laboratory follow-up of patients affected by fungal infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 437-441, jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-950022

ABSTRACT

La hipertensión pulmonar asociada a la infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana es una enfermedad sumamente infrecuente en pediatría, por lo que requiere alta sospecha clínica para llegar a su diagnóstico. Su aparición es de pronóstico desfavorable, pero el diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento específico pueden mejorar su evolución. Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente de 15 años con diagnóstico de infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana de transmisión vertical, sin tratamiento antirretroviral, con tos y disnea de esfuerzo progresiva asociadas a signos de falla cardíaca derecha en el cual se diagnosticó hipertensión pulmonar grave. Luego de descartarse otras causas, se asumió la hipertensión pulmonar asociada a la infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana. Se realizó el tratamiento con sildenafil y presentó buena respuesta.


Pulmonary hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection is an extremely rare disease in pediatrics; it requires a high clinical suspicion to reach a diagnosis. Its appearance poses an unfavorable prognostic, but early diagnosis and specific treatment can improve outcomes. We report the clinical case of a fifteen-year-old patient diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus infection of vertical transmission, without antiretroviral treatment, with cough and progressive exertional dyspnea, associated with signs of right heart failure in which severe pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed. After discarding other causes, it was assumed pulmonary hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Treatment was performed with sildenafil with good response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , Sildenafil Citrate/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , HIV Infections/transmission , Treatment Outcome , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/virology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/virology
13.
Rev. med. Rosario ; 84(1): 11-16, ene.-abr. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-973328

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección por VIH puede asociarse a EPOC, sobre todo en estadios avanzados de enfermedad. La inflamación asociada al virus puede facilitar las alteraciones de la función respiratoria. Objetivos: Investigar la presencia de alteraciones de la función respiratoria en pacientes VIH positivos sin inmunocompromisoni hábito tabáquico. Comparar la función respiratoria de pacientes VIH con la población general(grupo control). Establecer la relación entre función pulmonar, sexo, edad del paciente, valor de CD4, uso de TARV,presencia de síntomas, enfermedad respiratoria y antecedentes de las mismas.Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, transversal, de tipo observacional y descriptivo. Luego deun análisis de la historia clínica y una entrevista en búsqueda de síntomas respiratorios, se estudiaron 68 pacientes,no fumadores, a los que se les realizó una espirometría. 46 (67%) eran VIH positivos (casos) y 22 (32,4%) VIH negativos (controles)...


Introduction: HIV infection can be associated with COPD, especially in advanced stages. Objectives: To investigate the presence of respiratory function alterations in HIV-positive patients without immunocompromiseor tobacco habit. Compare the respiratory function of HIV patients with the general population (control group).To establish the relationship between lung function and sex, age of the patient, CD4 value, use of ART, presence of symptoms, respiratory disease and history of symptoms. Material and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study was conducted. After a medical history analysis and an interview in search of respiratory symptoms, 68 patients, non-smokers, were studied and spirometry was performed. 46 (67%) were HIV positive (cases) and 22 (32.4%) were HIV negative (controls)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology
14.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(2): 335-345, mar.-abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), CUMED | ID: biblio-902294

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la tuberculosis es la más antigua de las pandemias y causa alrededor de 1,7 millones de muertes y 9 millones de casos nuevos cada año. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento epidemiológico de la tuberculosis en el municipio Matanzas. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo retrospectivo en el período comprendido entre enero 2010 a diciembre del 2014. Se tomó como universo el total de 42 pacientes con diagnóstico de tuberculosis en todas sus formas. Se trabajó con el total del universo. Resultados: en cuanto a incidencia existió una tendencia a su disminución en el municipio de Matanzas, siendo el área de salud más afectada el área de Contreras con 11 casos para un 53,8 %. El mayor número de sintomáticos respiratorios de más de 14 días se encontró en el año 2011 con 2739 pacientes, el mayor número de ellos del área de salud de Policlínico Docente "José Jacinto Milanés" con 814. Conclusiones: predominó del número de casos de tuberculosis con baciloscopía positiva con un 61 %, de ellos más de la mitad fue diagnosticado en la atención secundaria, traduciendo una falla del programa. El 89,8 % de los pacientes presentó localización pulmonar con amplio predominio de la misma (AU).


Introduction: tuberculosis is the eldest of the pandemic diseases and causes almost 1.7 million deaths and nine millions of new cases every year. Objective: to determine the epidemiologic behavior of tuberculosis in the municipality of Matanzas. Materials and methods: a retrospective, descriptive, observational study was carried out in the period from January 2010 to December 2014. The universe were the total of 42 patients with diagnosis of tuberculosis in all its forms. All of them were included in the study. Results: It was found a tendency to a decrease of tuberculosis in the municipality of Matanzas, being the most affected health area the Contreras one, with 11 cases, for 52.8 %. The highest number of symptomatic patients of more than 14 days was found in 2011, with 2 739, most of them from the health area of the Teaching Policlinic "José Jacinto Milanés", with 814 patients. Conclusions: the number of tuberculosis cases with positive sputum smears predominated for 61 %. More than half of them were diagnosed in the secondary health care, showing a program failure. 89.8 % of the patients had pulmonary location with a wide predominance of it (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/mortality , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Primary Health Care , Sputum/microbiology , World Health Organization , Secondary Care , Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Morbidity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cuba/epidemiology , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Health Care (Public Health) , Observational Studies as Topic , Microscopy/instrumentation , Microscopy/methods
15.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 54(1): 46-49, jan.-mar. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-882455

ABSTRACT

Psychiatric disturbances in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) are rarely adressed and its study can offer insights into the neurobiology of psychosis. The authors report a case of male patient, 42 years old, HIV positive, with PML and psychotic symptoms. The present case shows the need for regular neurological and neuropsychological evaluations of HIV positive patients and the importance of studying diseases that cause lesions in the white matter,such as PML, to elucidate the neurobiology of psychosis.(AU)


Os distúrbios psiquiátricos na Leucoencefalopatia Multifocal Progressiva (LEMP) raramente são abordados e seu estudo pode oferecer insights sobre a neurobiologia da psicose. Os autores relatam caso de paciente do sexo masculino, 42 anos, HIV positivo, com LEMP e sintomas psicóticos. O caso apresentado evidencia a necessidade de realização regular de avaliações neurológicas e neuropsicológicas de pacientes HIV positivos e a importância de se estudar doenças que causam lesões na substância branca, como a LEMP, para elucidar a neurobiologia da psicose.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , AIDS Dementia Complex/diagnosis , AIDS Dementia Complex/etiology , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal/diagnosis , Disease Progression , White Matter/pathology , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Neurologic Examination/methods
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(1): 129-132, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-887149

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Secondary syphilis can have different clinical presentations, with corymbiform rash as its rarest manifestation. The disease is characterized by a central papule surrounded by smaller ones. We report the case of a man who has sex with man with corymbiform syphilis. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with HIV infection, hepatitis B, non-gonococcal urethritis, as well as infection of the central nervous system by treponema. This case not only illustrates a rare presentation of secondary syphilis, but also demonstrates the importance of further investigation of sexually transmitted infections, particularly among at-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Syphilis/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Patient Dropouts , Urethritis/complications , Urethritis/diagnosis , Syphilis/complications , Syphilis/therapy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/complications , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/therapy , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Clinics ; 72(11): 652-660, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-890691

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The impact of Chagas disease (CD) in HIV-infected patients is relevant throughout the world. In fact, the characterization of the adaptive immune response in the context of co-infection is important for predicting the need for interventions in areas in which HIV and Chagas disease co-exist. METHODS: We described and compared the frequency of cytokine-producing T cells stimulated with soluble antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) using a cytometric assay for the following groups: individuals with chronic Chagas disease (CHR, n=10), those with Chagas disease and HIV infection (CO, n=11), those with only HIV (HIV, n=14) and healthy individuals (C, n=15). RESULTS: We found 1) a constitutively lower frequency of IL-2+ and IFN-γ+ T cells in the CHR group compared with the HIV, CO and healthy groups; 2) a suppressive activity of soluble T. cruzi antigen, which down-regulated IL-2+CD4+ and IFN-γ+CD4+ phenotypes, notably in the healthy group; 3) a down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines on CD8+ T cells in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease; and 4) a significant increase in IL-10+CD8+ cells distinguishing the indeterminate form from the cardiac/digestive form of Chagas disease, even in the presence of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data suggest the presence of an immunoregulatory response in chronic Chagas disease, which seems to be driven by T. cruzi antigens. Our findings provide new insights into immunotherapeutic strategies for people living with HIV/AIDS and Chagas disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Chagas Disease/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , HIV Infections/complications , Chronic Disease , Chagas Disease/complications , Coinfection/immunology , Flow Cytometry
19.
Rev. cuba. med ; 56(2): 126-132, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-901272

ABSTRACT

Las complicaciones neurológicas de la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana pueden afectar cualquier porción del neuroeje. Estas se dividen en dos grandes grupos: las que son consecuencia de la infección por el VIH y las que son de naturaleza secundaria y se producen, sobre todo, como resultado de la inmunodepresión asociada. Entre las complicaciones neurológicas más frecuentes que se producen como consecuencia secundaria de dicha infección se encuentra la toxoplasmosis del sistema nervioso central. Se presenta un paciente VIH positivo que tuvo un cuadro clínico repentino dado por pérdida de conciencia seguida de convulsión tónico-clónica generalizada y posteriormente fiebre de 38 °C acompañada de cefalea intensa retroocular opresiva, así como confusión fluctuante y hemiparesia izquierda. Se confirmó el diagnóstico de neurotoxoplasmosis, con respuesta favorable al tratamiento y resolución de la enfermedad(AU)


Neurological complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection can affect any portion of the neuroaxis. These are divided into two large groups: those that are a consequence of HIV infection and those that are secondary in nature and that occur, mainly, as a result of the associated immunosuppression. Toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system is among the most frequent neurological complications that occur as a secondary consequence of this infection. The case of an HIV positive patient who had a sudden clinical picture due to loss of consciousness followed by generalized tonic-clonic seizure and subsequently a 38 °C fever accompanied by severe oppressive retroocular headache, as well as fluctuating confusion and left hemiparesis. Neurotoxoplasmosis diagnosis was confirmed, with a favorable response to the treatment and resolution of the disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/complications , Toxoplasmosis/diagnostic imaging , Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral/complications , Unconsciousness/drug therapy , Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral/drug therapy
20.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(1): 43-47, Jan.-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-846398

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Transsexualism (ICD-10) is a condition characterized by a strong and persistent dissociation with one's assigned gender. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) and hormone therapy provide a means of allowing transsexual individuals to feel more congruent with their gender and have played a major role in treatment over the past 70 years. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to play a key role in recovery from acute surgical trauma and environmentally mediated vulnerability to psychopathology. We hypothesize that BDNF may be a biomarker of alleviation of gender incongruence suffering. Objectives: To measure preoperative and postoperative serum BDNF levels in transsexual individuals as a biomarker of alleviation of stress related to gender incongruence after SRS. Methods: Thirty-two male-to-female transsexual people who underwent both surgery and hormonal treatment were selected from our initial sample. BDNF serum levels were assessed before and after SRS with sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The time elapsed between the pre-SRS and post-SRS blood collections was also measured. Results: No significant difference was found in pre-SRS or post-SRS BDNF levels or with relation to the time elapsed after SRS when BDNF levels were measured. Conclusion: Alleviation of the suffering related to gender incongruence after SRS cannot be assessed by BDNF alone. Surgical solutions may not provide a quick fix for psychological distress associated with transsexualism and SRS may serve as one step toward, rather than as the conclusion of, construction of a person's gender identity.


Resumo Introdução: O transexualismo (CID-10) é uma condição caracterizada por forte e persistente dissociação com o gênero atribuído. A cirurgia de redesignação sexual (CRS) e a terapia hormonal (TH) permitem que indivíduos transexuais se sintam mais congruentes com seu gênero e, por isso, têm desempenhado papel importante nos últimos 70 anos. O fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BDNF) parece desempenhar um papel fundamental na recuperação do trauma cirúrgico agudo e vulnerabilidade ambiental à psicopatologia. Nós hipotetizamos que o BDNF pode ser um biomarcador de alívio do sofrimento de incongruência de gênero pós-CRS. Objetivos: Mensurar os níveis séricos de BDNF no pré e pós-operatório em indivíduos transexuais como biomarcador de alívio de estresse relacionado à incongruência de gênero após a CRS. Métodos: Trinta e duas pessoas transexuais masculino para feminino submetidas a cirurgia e tratamento hormonal foram selecionadas de nossa amostra inicial. O nível sérico de BDNF foi avaliado antes e depois da CRS pela técnica ELISA. O tempo decorrido entre as coletas de sangue pré e pós-CRS foi medido. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa nos níveis de BDNF pré e pós-CRS ou em relação ao tempo decorrido entre a CRS e a coleta. Conclusão: O alívio do sofrimento relacionado à incongruência de gênero pós-CRS não pode ser avaliado apenas pelo BDNF. Soluções cirúrgicas podem não fornecer uma solução rápida para o sofrimento associado ao transexualismo, e a CRS pode servir como um passo em direção à, em vez de conclusão da, construção da identidade de gênero de uma pessoa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Stress, Psychological/blood , Transsexualism/blood , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/blood , Sex Reassignment Surgery , Gender Dysphoria/blood , Postoperative Period , Transsexualism/surgery , Transsexualism/psychology , Transsexualism/drug therapy , Blood Chemical Analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/blood , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/blood , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Preoperative Period , Gender Dysphoria/surgery , Gender Dysphoria/psychology , Gender Dysphoria/drug therapy
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