Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 863
Filter
1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(1): e202302992, feb. 2024. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1525290

ABSTRACT

La resistencia a los antirretrovirales (ARV) es un problema de salud pública. Con el uso de inhibidores de la integrasa (INSTI) en pediatría, también comienzan a aparecer resistencias. El objetivo de esta comunicación es describir 3 casos con resistencia a los INSTI. Se describen 3 pacientes pediátricos con transmisión vertical del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Iniciaron ARV de lactantes y preescolares, con mala adherencia al tratamiento, cursaron con diferentes planes secundarios a comorbilidades asociadas y fallas virológicas por resistencia. Los 3 casos clínicos describen la rápida aparición de resistencia frente a la falla virológica y el compromiso de los INSTI. La adherencia debe ser supervisada para detectar precozmente el aumento de la viremia. La falla virológica en un paciente tratado con raltegravir obliga a un rápido cambio de esquema ARV, ya que continuar utilizándolo podría favorecer nuevas mutaciones y resistencia a los INSTI de segunda generación.


Antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance is a public health issue. Resistance has also been observed in the case of integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) used in pediatrics. The objective of this article is to describe 3 cases of INSTI resistance. These are the cases of 3 children with vertically-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They were started on ARVs as infants and preschoolers, with poor treatment adherence, and had different management plans due to associated comorbidities and virological failure due to resistance. In the 3 cases, resistance developed rapidly as a result of virological failure and INSTI involvement. Treatment adherence should be monitored so that any increase in viremia can be detected early. Virological failure in a patient treated with raltegravir forces to a rapid change in ARV therapy because its continued use may favor new mutations and resistance to second-generation INSTIs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/genetics , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Uruguay , Raltegravir Potassium/therapeutic use , Raltegravir Potassium/pharmacology , Mutation
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1527678

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del estudio fue describir los niveles de resistencia transmitida de VIH-1 en adultos atendidos en Unidades de Atención Integral de Guatemala. El estudio incluyó registros de 185 pacientes adultos VIH-1 positivo, de reciente diagnóstico sin antecedente de uso de TAR, de noviembre del 2019 a noviembre del 2020. El análisis se realizó en el software DeepChek® v2.0, para la clasificación de la resistencia se siguió el algoritmo de Stanford HIVdb (v9.4 - 07/12/2022). Se encontró 18.4% (IC 95% 13.1 - 24.7%) de resistencia general a alguna familia de ARVs. Se evidenció 15.1% (IC 95% 10.3 - 21.1%) de resistencia individual a la familia de INNTR afectando principalmente a NVP y EFV; 2.2% (IC 95% 0.6 - 5.4%) de resistencia a INTR, mayormente a FTC/3TC; y 2.7% (IC 95% 0.9 - 6.2%) de resistencia intermedia y baja los IP NFV y LPV/r. Tres casos presentaron resistencia múltiple a los INTR + INNTR. Las mutaciones más frecuentemente encontradas fueron K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) y M46I (5.9%). La elevada resistencia transmitida del VIH-1 en pacientes atendidos en distintas Unidades de Atención Integral del VIH, demuestra la importancia de analizar periódicamente la tendencia de la resistencia en personas que no han estado expuestas a ARVs, lo cual a su vez es un marcador indirecto de presencia de resistencia adquirida en el país, datos que evidencian la necesidad de acciones e intervenciones prontas y efectivas dado su impacto en la salud pública.


The objective of this study was to describe the levels of transmitted HIV-1 resistance in patients with a recent HIV diagnosis before starting ART, treated in Comprehensive Care Units in Guatemala during the years 2019 and 2020. The study included records of 185 HIV-positive adult patients, recently diagnosed with HIV without a history of ART use. The analysis was carried out in the DeepChek® v2.0 software, the Stanford HIVdb algorithm (v9.4 - 07/12/2022) was followed to classify resistance. 18.4% (95% CI 13.1 - 24.7%) of general resistance to some family of ARVs was found. There was evidence of 15.1% (95% CI 10.3 - 21.1%) of individual resistance to the NNRTI family, mainly affecting NVP and EFV; 2.2% (95% CI 0.6 - 5.4%) resistance to INTR, mostly to FTC/3TC; and 2.7% (95% CI 0.9 - 6.2%) of intermediate and low resistance IP NFV and LPV/r. Three cases presented multiple resistance to NRTIs + NNRTIs. The most frequently found mutations were K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) and M46I (5.9%). The high transmitted resistance of HIV-1 in patients treated in different Comprehensive HIV Care Units demonstrates the importance of periodically analyzing the trend of resistance in people who have not been exposed to ARVs, which in turn is an indirect marker. of the presence of acquired resistance in the country, data that demonstrate the need for prompt and effective actions and interventions given its impact on public health.


O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os níveis de resistência transmitida ao HIV-1 em adultos tratados em Unidades de Cuidados Integrais na Guatemala. O estudo incluiu prontuários de 185 pacientes adultos HIV-1 positivos, recentemente diagnosticados sem histórico de uso de TARV, no período de novembro de 2019 a novembro de 2020. A análise foi realizada no software DeepChek® v2.0, para classificação da resistência, O algoritmo Stanford HIVdb (v9.4 - 07/12/2022) foi seguido. Foi encontrada 18.4% (IC 95% 13.1 - 24.7%) de resistência geral a alguma família de ARVs. Houve evidência de 15.1% (IC 95% 10.3 - 21.1%) de resistência individual à família de NNRTI, afetando principalmente NVP e EFV; 2.2% (IC 95% 0.6 - 5.4%) resistência ao INTR, principalmente ao FTC/3TC; e 2.7% (IC 95% 0.9 - 6.2%) de resistência intermediária e baixa ao IP NFV e LPV/r. Três casos apresentaram resistência múltipla a NRTIs + NNRTIs. As mutações mais frequentemente encontradas foram K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) e M46I (5.9%). A elevada resistência transmitida do HIV-1 em pacientes atendidos em diferentes Unidades de Cuidados Integrados ao HIV demonstra a importância de analisar periodicamente a tendência de resistência em pessoas que não foram expostas aos ARVs, o que por sua vez é um marcador indireto da presença de ARVs adquiridos. resistência no país, dados que demonstram a necessidade de ações e intervenções rápidas e eficazes dado o seu impacto na saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , HIV Infections/genetics , Population Surveillance , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV-1/genetics , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Guatemala/epidemiology , Mutation
4.
Med. infant ; 30(3): 274-280, Septiembre 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1515976

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La resistencia del HIV a los antirretrovirales (ARVs) es una de las principales causas de fallo terapéutico en niños, niñas y adolescentes que conviven con el virus. Desde el año 2006, el Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Retrovirus del Hospital Garrahan realiza el estudio genotípico de resistencia (ER) del HIV-1 a los ARVs a fin de identificar mutaciones que disminuyen la susceptibilidad del virus a los fármacos que componen el tratamiento ARV. Objetivos: El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el tipo y frecuencia de resistencia del HIV a los ARVs, a través de un análisis de 371 ER realizados entre los años 2006 y 2021 en niños, niñas y adolescentes con HIV-1 adquirido por transmisión vertical y con solicitud médica de ER por presentar fallo terapéutico. Resultados: Entre los años 2006 y 2013 la proporción de casos con resistencia a al menos una clase de fármaco ARV fue mayor al 90%, sugiriendo una asociación directa entre el fallo virológico y la disminución en la susceptibilidad del HIV-1 a uno o más componentes del TARV. A partir del año 2012, se observa una disminución progresiva del nivel de resistencia de HIV-1, llegando al 50% en 2021 (p<0.0001). La frecuencia de mutaciones de resistencia fue diferente para cada una de las clases de ARVs. Mientras que la resistencia a INNTR no sufrió cambios significativos a lo largo del período de estudio, oscilando entre 27% y 75%. La proporción de mutaciones a IPs en pacientes con fallo virológico disminuyó de 87% en 2006 a 17% en 2021 y para los INTR, disminuyó de 79% en 2006 a 45% en 2021. Conclusión: El nivel de resistencia a los ARVs ha disminuido de manera sustancial a lo largo de los últimos 16 años, probablemente por el uso de nuevos fármacos ARV con alta potencia que posibilitaron la intensificación de los tratamientos ARV y la implementación de criterios de fallo terapéutico más estrictos tanto a nivel clínico como virológico (AU)


Introduction: HIV resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs is one of the main causes of therapeutic failure in children and adolescents living with the virus. Since 2006, the Cell Biology and Retrovirus Laboratory of the Garrahan Hospital has been performing the genotypic study of HIV-1 resistance to ARV drugs in order to identify mutations that reduce the susceptibility of the virus to the drugs that constitute ARV treatment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the type and frequency of HIV resistance to ARV drugs through an analysis of 371 genotype studies performed between 2006 and 2021 in children and adolescents with HIV-1 acquired through motherto-child transmission and with medical request for genotype study due to therapeutic failure. Results: Between 2006 and 2013, the proportion of cases with resistance to at least one ARV drug class was greater than 90%, suggesting a direct association between virologic failure and decreased susceptibility of HIV-1 to one or more components of ART. From 2012 onwards, a progressive decrease in the level of HIV-1 resistance was observed, reaching 50% in 2021 (p<0.0001). The frequency of resistant mutations was different for each of the ARV classes, while resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) did not change significantly over the study period, ranging from 27% to 75%. The proportion of drug-resistant mutations to protease inhibitors (PI) in patients with virologic failure decreased from 87% in 2006 to 17% in 2021 and for NNRTIs from 79% in 2006 to 45% in 2021. Conclusion: The level of resistance to ARV drugs has decreased substantially over the last 16 years, probably due to the use of new ARV drugs with high potency that allowed the intensification of ARV treatments and the implementation of stricter criteria for therapeutic failure both clinically and virologically (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Mutation , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
5.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 332-353, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982687

ABSTRACT

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide epidemic caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Newer medicines for eliminating the viral reservoir and eradicating the virus are urgently needed. Attempts to locate relatively safe and non-toxic medications from natural resources are ongoing now. Natural-product-based antiviral candidates have been exploited to a limited extent. However, antiviral research is inadequate to counteract for the resistant patterns. Plant-derived bioactive compounds hold promise as powerful pharmacophore scaffolds, which have shown anti-HIV potential. This review focuses on a consideration of the virus, various possible HIV-controlling methods and the recent progress in alternative natural compounds with anti-HIV activity, with a particular emphasis on recent results from natural sources of anti-HIV agents. Please cite this article as: Mandhata CP, Sahoo CR, Padhy RN. A comprehensive overview on the role of phytocompounds in human immunodeficiency virus treatment. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(4):332-353.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 399-404, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981282

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the genetic subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance in the newly reported HIV-infected men in Guangxi. Methods The stratified random sampling method was employed to select the newly reported HIV-infected men aged≥50 years old in 14 cities of Guangxi from January to June in 2020.The pol gene of HIV-1 was amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced.The mutation sites associated with drug resistance and the degree of drug resistance were then analyzed. Results A total of 615 HIV-infected men were included in the study.The genetic subtypes of CRF01_AE,CRF07_BC,and CRF08_BC accounted for 57.4% (353/615),17.1% (105/615),and 22.4% (138/615),respectively.The mutations associated with the resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI),non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI),and protease inhibitors occurred in 8 (1.3%),18 (2.9%),and 0 patients,respectively.M184V (0.7%) and K103N (1.8%) were the mutations with the highest occurrence rates for the resistance to NRTIs and NNRTIs,respectively.Twenty-two (3.6%) patients were resistant to at least one type of inhibitors.Specifically,4 (0.7%),14 (2.3%),4 (0.7%),and 0 patients were resistant to NRTIs,NNRTIs,both NRTIs and NNRTIs,and protease inhibitors,respectively.The pretreatment resistance to NNRTIs had much higher frequency than that to NRTIs (2.9% vs.1.3%;χ2=3.929,P=0.047).The prevalence of pretreatment resistance to lamivudine,zidovudine,tenofovir,abacavir,rilpivirine,efavirenz,nevirapine,and lopinavir/ritonavir was 0.8%, 0.3%, 0.7%, 1.0%, 1.3%, 2.8%, 2.9%, and 0, respectively. Conclusions CRF01_AE,CRF07_BC,and CRF08_BC are the three major strains of HIV-infected men≥50 years old newly reported in Guangxi,2020,and the pretreatment drug resistance demonstrates low prevalence.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , China/epidemiology , Mutation , HIV-1/genetics , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Genotype
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(3): 340-344, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407784

ABSTRACT

Resumen El linfogranuloma venéreo (LGV) es una infección de transmisión sexual (ITS) causada por Chlamydia trachomatis. En los últimos años, ha emergido principalmente en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH). Es frecuente su asociación con otras ITS como el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y la sífilis. Si bien el compromiso genital es la forma de presentación clásica, el síndrome anorrectal constituye el principal cuadro clínico en la actualidad. Presentamos el caso de un HSH con infección por VIH en terapia anti-retroviral, herpes genital recurrente y sífilis latente tratada, sin viajes recientes al extranjero, con adenopatías inguinales fistulizadas a piel, asociada a una úlcera genital dolorosa, sin síntomas anorrectales ni sistémicos, refractario a múltiples tratamientos antibacterianos y antivirales. El estudio con RPC de secreción de la fístula fue positiva a C. trachomatis. Se trató con doxiciclina por seis semanas, con buena respuesta clínica, sin complicaciones.


Abstract Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria. In the past years, it has emerged as a relevant infectious agent, mainly affecting men who have sex with men (MSM), frequently associated with other sexually transmitted infections as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. Even though genital lesions correspond to the classical presentation of LGV, nowadays anorectal syndrome is more frequently reported. We present a MSM patient, HIV infected, being treated with antiretroviral drugs, with a history of recurrent genital herpes, also recently treated for a syphilis in a latent stage. He had no recent trips. He referred inguinal fistulized enlarged lymph nodes, associated with a painful genital ulcer, he denied anorectal or systemic symptoms. He had been treated with multiple antibiotic and antiviral drugs, with no clinical response. Molecular studies from the content of the fistulized lymph node identified C. trachomatis. The patient received doxycycline for 6 weeks, showing good clinical response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/complications , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/diagnosis , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/drug therapy , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Syphilis/complications , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/drug therapy , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Chile , Chlamydia trachomatis , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Homosexuality, Male , Genitalia/pathology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(3): 287-293, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407795

ABSTRACT

Resumen Desde la llegada de la pandemia por COVID-19, se ha descrito un sinnúmero de consecuencias respecto a la infección por VIH en Chile, tanto en su diagnóstico como en su prevención, principalmente manifestadas en el descenso de la realización de exámenes serológicos, la interrupción de la atención, el retraso en el inicio de la terapia antirretroviral y la falta de acceso a métodos preventivos. A ello, se le suma el deterioro en algunas condiciones relacionadas con aspectos sociales y sobre salud mental. Todo esto implica, entre otras consecuencias, un probable empeoramiento en la situación epidemiológica de la infección por VIH en Chile. En el presente artículo, se revisarán algunos de los impactos señalados y se plantean algunos desafíos, para el enfrentamiento de esta problemática.


Abstract Since the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic, countless consequences have been described regarding HIV infection in Chile, both in its diagnosis and prevention, mainly manifested in the decrease in serological tests, the interruption of care, the delay in starting antiretroviral therapy, and the lack of access to preventive methods. Added to this is the deterioration in some conditions related to social aspects and mental health. All this implies, among other consequences, a probable worsening in the epidemiological situation of HIV infection in Chile. Some of the designated impacts are reviewed in this article, and some challenges are raised to confront this problem.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Chile/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(3): 294-303, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407796

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad COVID-19 es una patología de origen infeccioso causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 y fue declarada pandemia por la OMS el 11 de marzo 2020. A la fecha se registran más de 500 millones de personas infectadas y más de 6 millones de fallecidos en todo el mundo. Las personas que pertenecen a grupos de riesgo más vulnerables, particularmente aquellos que se encuentran en los extremos de la vida, con comorbilidades crónicas o inmunocomprometidas, son especialmente susceptibles a presentar un eventual mayor riesgo de infección, de gravedad y de mortalidad por esta enfermedad. Las personas que viven con VIH, especialmente aquellos en precarias condiciones inmunológicas o aquellas que aún no inician terapia antiretroviral, pueden ser un grupo especialmente susceptible de presentar complicaciones relacionadas a esta y otras enfermedades de origen infeccioso. Con esta revisión se pretende determinar la magnitud del impacto del virus SARS-CoV-2 en personas viviendo con VIH en Chile.


Abstract The COVID-19 disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and was declared a pandemic by the WHO on March 11, 2020. To date, more than 500 million people have been infected and it has caused over 6 million deaths worldwide. People that belong to the most vulnerable risk groups, such as those at the extremes of life, patients with chronic comorbidities and those with severe immunosuppression, are especially susceptible to developing a severe form of COVID-19 infection and death. Subjects living with HIV, especially those in precarious immunological conditions or those in whom antiretroviral therapy is yet to be started, may be at risk of developing complications related to COVID-19, as observed with other infectious diseases. This review aims to determine the magnitude of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on people living with HIV in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Chile/epidemiology , Global Health , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control
11.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(2): 187-192, maio-ago. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372977

ABSTRACT

O vírus da imunodeficiência humana é o agente etiológico da AIDS, doença crônica que destrói o sistema imunológico e é caracterizada pela baixa contagem de células TCD4, alta contagem de partículas virais no sangue e manifestações clínicas da doença. O diagnóstico se dá com o aparecimento de infecções oportunistas, que levam a contagem de TCD4 a níveis menores que 200 céls/mm³. Os exames laboratoriais para o diagnóstico do HIV foram os principais avanços para o início do tratamento, reduzindo a transmissão. Detecção de anticorpos, detecção de antígenos e amplificação do genoma do vírus são alguns dos exames laboratoriais utilizados para diagnóstico. Os dois principais biomarcadores são os exames de contagem de células TCD4, que verifica o sistema imune, e a quantificação de carga viral, que informa a quantidade de partículas virais, mostrando a progressão da infecção. Quanto maior a carga viral, maior o dano ao sistema imune. Uma carga viral indetectável é inferior a 50 cópias/mL, mas valores menores ou iguais a 200 cópias/mL também impedem a transmissão. Uma declaração de consenso afirma que Indetectável é igual a Intransmissível. Portanto, quando indetectável, a transmissão inexiste. O presente estudo relata e discute o caso clínico de uma paciente diagnosticada com HIV/AIDS aos 28 anos, que sobreviveu, apesar do diagnóstico tardio, e sob presença de doença oportunista com um grave grau de diminuição de células TCD4 (22 cél/mm³). Por meio do diagnóstico, introdução e adesão correta da terapia antirretroviral e monitorização de exames laboratoriais, conseguiu evitar a morte e ter uma vida semelhante à de um HIV negativo. Ultrapassou a expectativa de vida que na descoberta era de 10 anos, com uma qualidade de vida considerável, não sendo transmissora do vírus, diminuindo assim o estigma e preconceito. O biomédico é peça fundamental nesse contexto, considerando que deve fornecer informações precisas e fidedignas, tão necessárias ao acompanhamento de pessoas vivendo com HIV, para que autoridades e profissionais de saúde adotem medidas adequadas, tanto na prevenção, quanto no diagnóstico e monitoramento da doença.


The human immunodeficiency virus is the etiological agent of AIDS, a chronic disease that destroys the immune system and is characterized by low TCD4 cell count, high viral particle count in blood and clinical manifestations of the disease. The diagnosis is due to the appearance of opportunistic infections, which lead to TCD4 counts below 200 cells / mm³. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of HIV were the main advances in starting treatment, reducing transmission. Antibody detection, antigen detection and virus genome amplification are some of the laboratory tests used for diagnosis. The two main biomarkers are the TCD4 cell count tests, which checks the immune system, and viral load quantification, which reports the number of viral particles, showing the progression of infection. The higher the viral load, the greater the damage to the immune system. An undetectable viral load is less than 50 copies / mL, but values less than or equal to 200 copies / mL also prevent transmission. A consensus statement states that Undetectable equals Non-Transmissible. Therefore, when undetectable, transmission does not exist. The present study reports and discusses the clinical case of a patient diagnosed with HIV / AIDS at age 28, who survived despite late diagnosis and under the presence of opportunistic disease with a severe degree of TCD4 cell reduction (22 cells / mm³). Through the diagnosis, introduction and correct adherence of antiretroviral therapy and monitoring of laboratory tests, she was able to avoid death and have a life similar to that of an HIV negative. Exceeded the life expectancy that in the discovery was 10 years, with a considerable quality of life, not transmitting the virus, thus reducing the stigma and prejudice. The biomedical is a key player in this context, considering that he must provide accurate and reliable information, which is so necessary for the monitoring of people living with HIV, so that authorities and health professionals adopt appropriate measures, both in prevention, diagnosis and monitoring of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV , Toxoplasmosis/virology , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/virology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Viral Load , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Fever/virology , Headache/virology , Anemia/virology , Meningitis/virology
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 149-156, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388352

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por VIH es una epidemia global (prevalencia de 0,8%). En Latinoamérica, Chile, Brasil y Uruguay son los países con mayores índices. Entre las más afectadas están la población transgénero (OR 48,8 respecto a la población general). Múltiples factores bio-psico-sociales explican estas cifras. Bajo uso del preservativo, la idea de reafirmación de género, el temor a ser reemplazadas(os) por personas cisgéneros, presencia de comercio sexual, entre otros, influyen en las mayores tasas de infección. Se han implementado medidas de prevención del VIH, pero pocas dirigidas en específico a personas transgénero. La profilaxis preexposición (PreP) parece ser una nueva alternativa de prevención en este grupo, y la integración de las unidades de apoyo en la reafirmación de género con las unidades que entregan PreP, podrían aumentar su adherencia y cobertura. En las personas transgénero con infección por VIH existe baja adherencia a terapia antirretroviral (TARV), en parte por priorización del tratamiento hormonal y miedo a que la TARV altere su proceso de hormonización. Los pocos datos existentes muestran que la hormonización no se afecta con la mayoría de la TARV, pero algunos tratamientos hormonales podrían disminuir las concentraciones plasmáticas y tisulares de ciertos antirretrovirales. Faltan estudios que evalúen la interacción entre antirretrovirales y tratamiento hormonal de reafirmación de género.


Abstract HIV infection is a global epidemic, with a prevalence of 0.8%. In Latin America, Chile, Brazil and Uruguay are the countries with the highest rates. The transgender population is the most affected (OR of 48.8 compared to the general population). Multiple bio-psycho-social factors explain these issues. The low use of condoms for pressure from the partner, the idea of reaffirmation of gender, the fear to be replaced by a cisgender person, the presence of commercial sex, among others, influence the highest rates of infection. HIV prevention measures have been implemented, but few specifically targeted at transgender people. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreP) seems to be a new prevention alternative in this group, and the integration of support units in gender reaffirmation with units that deliver PreP could increase their adherence and coverage. In HIV (+) transgender people there is low adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), in part due to the prioritization of hormonal treatment and the fear that ART will alter their hormonalization process. The few data that exist show that hormonalization is not affected by ART, but that some hormonal treatments could lower the levels of certain antiretrovirals. More studies must be done to evaluate the interaction between antiretrovirals and gender affirming hormone therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Transgender Persons , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sex Work
13.
J. health inform ; 14(1): 19-25, jan.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370254

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Investigar dados dos sistemas de informação em saúde do HIV e sua relação com o conjunto mínimo de dados da atenção à saúde (CMD) brasileiro. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo descritivo e transversal em janeiro/2019, a partir dos dados coletados nos formulários dos sistemas que registram o tratamento antirretroviral e exames laboratoriais. Resultados: Foram analisados 282 campos dos formulários. Após agregação dos campos comuns, restaram 83 variáveis, 17 (20,5%) consideradas aplicáveis ao CMD. Conclusão: O CMD coleta dados sobre consultas e exames de seguimento dos contatos assistenciais do HIV, porém não registra tratamento antirretroviral. A maioria das variáveis coletadas nos sistemas do HIV poderão compor o modelo de informação clínica do HIV para Registro Eletrônico de Saúde.


Objective: It was to investigate data of the health information systems of HIV and its relationship with Brazilian minimum data set of health care (MDS). Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in January/2019, based on data collected in the forms of the systems that register the antiretroviral treatment and laboratory tests. Results: Were analyze 282 fields of the forms, after aggregation of the common ones, 83 variables remained, 17 (20.5%) considered applicable to MDS. Conclusion: The MDS collects data on consultations and follow-up examinations of HIV care, does not register antiretroviral treatment. Most of the variables collected in HIV systems may be part of the HIV clinical information model for the Electronic Health Record.


Objetivo: Investigar datos de los sistemas de información en salud del VIH y su relación con el conjunto mínimo de datos de la atención a la salud (CMD) brasileño. Métodos: Se realizó estudio descriptivo y transversal en enero/2019, a partir de los formularios de los sistemas del tratamiento antirretroviral y exámenes de laboratorio. Resultados: Se analizaron 282 campos de los formularios, después de la agregación de los comunes, quedaron 83 variables, 17 (20,5%) consideradas aplicables al CMD. Conclusión: El CMD recoge datos sobre consultas y exámenes de seguimiento de la asistencia del VIH, no registra tratamiento antirretroviral. La mayoría de las variables del VIH podrán componer modelo de información clínica del Registro Electrónico de Salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Electronic Health Records , Health Information Systems , Datasets as Topic , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
São Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 278-283, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366041

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) are an important public health problem in all countries. Knowledge of their relationship with the various socioeconomic levels is necessary for an understanding of their epidemiology and behavior in society. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and to correlate education with history of sexually transmitted diseases, especially for syphilis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study carried out in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: The medical records of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) between January 2010 and July 2018 were assessed. These patients were attended at the specialized assistance service for HIV/AIDS) of the Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD/AIDS) of the city of Juiz de Fora. In total, 335 patients were selected. RESULTS: In our sample, 73.13% were male; 57.36% were aged between 25 and 45 years and 24.23% were over 45 years of age. Regarding sexual orientation, 61.78% were homosexual. Regarding education, 52.88% had "unskilled education", while 47.12% had "qualified education". Analysis on the relationship between schooling and syphilis, a positive relationship between qualified schooling and syphilis was observed: odds ratio = 3.588; 95% confidence interval: 1.090-11.808. CONCLUSION: Homosexual male patients are most affected by HIV. Furthermore, this disease is not limited only to individuals with low education. Syphilis should be suspected in all individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Syphilis/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Middle Aged
15.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e53630, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367783

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate adverse reactions to Dolutegravir, a drug recently made available by the Unified Health System (SUS) for treating HIV infections. The frequency, severity and sex distribution of adverse reactions to Dolutegravir were identified over the first 18 months of its availability in users in the state of Paraná. Information was obtained through the pharmacovigilance questionnaire prepared by the Ministry of Health, accessed through the Logistics Control System for Medicines(SICLOM). During the study period, dolutegravirwas dispensed to 9,865 patients in the state. However, 9,207 users (93.3%) answered the pharmacovigilance questionnaire. Among them, 1.75% reported 279 adverse reactions. This population was composed mainly of male people (69.57%), in the ratio of 2.29 men for each woman, white (67.08%), aged between 20 and 29 years (26.71%), single (45.34%) and with education between 8 and 11 years of study (41.61%). Gastrointestinal (36.92%) and nervous system (14.34%) disorders were the most prevalent. 77.78% adverse reactions were considered non-serious by users. It can be concluded that dolutegravirhad a low prevalence of adverse reactions in users in the state of Paraná, demonstrating to be safe for use by the population in therapy against HIV, in accordance with clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Retroviral Agents/pharmacology , Pharmacovigilance , Unified Health System , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
16.
In. Alonso Texeira Nuñez, Felicita; Ferreiro Paltre, Patricia B; González Brandi, Nancy Beatriz. Adolescencias: una mirada integral. Montevideo, Bibliomédica, c2022. p.305-317.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1416984
17.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(2): 186-189, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391649

ABSTRACT

O sarcoma de Kaposi é uma neoplasia maligna associada à infecção pelo herpes vírus humano 8 em doentes imunossupressos. O sarcoma de Kaposi Epidêmico é o tipo epidemiológico mais frequente e afeta indivíduos VIH-positivos. A região anoperineal é raramente envolvida e as lesões suspeitas devem ser biopsiadas para confirmação histológica. A base do tratamento é a restauração imune do doente. Relatamos o caso de um jovem, com diagnóstico recente de infeção pelo VIH, sem tratamento, que foi admitido no serviço de infectologia apresentando sintomas constitucionais, adenomegalias inguinais e extensa lesão verrucosa e ulcerada na região anoperineal. As biópsias confirmaram o diagnóstico de sarcoma de Kaposi e o doente iniciou terapia antirretroviral e quimioterapia. Houve recuperação clínica, regressão das lesões e desaparecimento das adenomegalias. Este relato objetiva alertar as equipes médicas no sentido de se incluir o sarcoma de Kaposi no diagnóstico diferencial das lesões que afetam a região anoperineal.


Kaposi's sarcoma is a malignant neoplasm associated with human herpesvirus 8 infection in immunocompromised patients. Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common epidemiological type and affects HIV-positive patients. Perineal involvement is rare, and suspicious lesions should be biopsied to confirm histological diagnosis. Treatment consists of restoring the patient's immune system. We report the case of a young patient recently diagnosed with HIV, without treatment, who was admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases with nonspecific symptoms, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and an extensive verrucous ulcerated lesion in the perineal region. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma, and the patient was started on antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy. Clinical recovery was achieved, with lesion reduction and inguinal adenopathy resolution. This case report aims to encourage physicians to include Kaposi's sarcoma in the differential diagnosis of perineal lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Sarcoma, Kaposi/diagnosis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Anus Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use
18.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00290620, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355979

ABSTRACT

Resumo: A profilaxia pré-exposição ao HIV (PrEP) tem sido considerada uma estratégia fundamental para o controle da epidemia de HIV/aids, e desde 2018 tem sido objeto de estudo de implementação (Estudo ImPrEP Stakeholders), realizado no Brasil, no México e no Peru. Um componente qualitativo desse estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de identificar os contextos sociais e estruturais que envolvem e organizam a oferta de serviços de PrEP no Brasil, as subjetividades dos atores envolvidos e as diferentes percepções que podem impactar a efetivação dessa estratégia. O presente artigo teve como foco de análise o acesso das populações vulneráveis aos serviços de PrEP, na perspectiva de gestores, profissionais de saúde, lideranças ou ativistas e usuários de PrEP. É um estudo qualitativo com o uso de metodologia compreensiva, realizado em seis capitais brasileiras, em que foram entrevistados 71 atores-chave no período de novembro de 2018 a maio de 2019. A análise foi pautada pelos modelos analíticos sobre acesso propostos por Giovanella & Fleury, McIntyre et al. e Penchansky & Thomas. Os resultados são apresentados com base em três eixos: "percepções sobre prevenção combinada e PrEP"; "disponibilidade e adequação: perfil e estrutura dos serviços no contexto do ImPrEP"; e "aceitabilidade: atitudes e práticas dos profissionais de saúde e usuários".


Abstract: HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been considered a fundamental strategy for controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and since 2018 it has been the object of an implementation study (ImPrEP Stakeholders Study), conducted in Brazil, México, and Peru. A qualitative component of this study was developed with the objective of identifying the social and structural contexts that involve and organize the supply of PrEP services in Brazil, the stakeholders' subjectivities, and the different perceptions that can impact the strategy's implementation. The current article's focus was to analyze access by vulnerable populations to PrEP services from the perspective of managers, health professionals, leaders or activists, and users of PrEP. This was a qualitative study using a comprehensive methodology, conducted in six Brazilian state capitals, interviewing 71 key actors from November 2018 to May 2019. The analysis was based on access analysis models as proposed by Giovanella & Fleury, McIntyre et al. and Penchansky & Thomas. The results are presented along three lines: "perceptions of combined prevention and PrEP", "availability and adequacy: profile and structure of services in the context of ImPrEP", and "acceptability: attitudes and practices of health professionals and users".


Resumen: La profilaxis preexposición al VIH (PrEP) ha sido considerada una estrategia fundamental para el control de la epidemia de VIH/sida y desde 2018 ha sido objeto de estudio de implementación (Estudio ImPrEP Stakeholders), realizado en Brasil, México y Perú. Un componente cualitativo de este estudio se desarrolló con el objetivo de identificar los contextos sociales y estructurales que engloban y organizan la oferta de servicios de PrEP en Brasil, las subjetividades de los actores implicados y las diferentes percepciones que pueden impactar en hacer efectiva esa estrategia. El objetivo de este artículo es el análisis del acceso de las poblaciones vulnerables a los servicios de PrEP, desde la perspectiva de los gestores, profesionales de salud, líderes o activistas y usuarios de la PrEP. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo con uso de metodología comprensiva, realizado en seis capitales brasileñas, en las que fueron entrevistados 71 actores-clave, durante el período de noviembre de 2018 a mayo de 2019. El análisis se pautó mediante modelos analíticos sobre acceso, propuestos por Giovanella & Fleury, McIntyre et al. y Penchansky & Thomas. Los resultados se presentan a partir de tres ejes: "percepciones sobre prevención combinada y PrEP", "disponibilidad y adecuación: perfil y estructura de los servicios en el contexto de la ImPrEP" y "aceptabilidad: actitudes y prácticas de los profesionales de salud y usuarios".


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Brazil , Health Personnel , Vulnerable Populations
19.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE03661, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1364242

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Analisar aspectos relacionados à adesão ao tratamento da tuberculose em pessoas que vivem com coinfecção tuberculose/vírus da imunodeficiência humana. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, do tipo descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa sobre a adesão ao tratamento da tuberculose entre pessoas que apresentam a coinfecção tuberculose/vírus da imunodeficiência humana. O cenário do estudo foi um centro de referência para vírus da imunodeficiência humana/síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida do estado de São Paulo, localizado na capital. O instrumento de coleta de dados continha questões relacionadas ao perfil sóciodemográfico e de saúde. Para a análise do material empírico foi utilizado o método de análise de discurso que permitiu a depreensão de frases temáticas. Resultados Foram entrevistadas 16 pessoas, sendo a maioria do sexo masculino, da cor parda, na faixa etária entre 30 a 39 anos, com 9 a 12 anos de estudo, que moravam sozinhos, solteiros e que se declararam homossexuais. Da análise dos depoimentos emergiram três categorias de análise: Processo saúde doença: o impacto do diagnóstico e os significados de viver a coinfecção; Tratamento medicamentoso: motivos para o seguimento, facilidades e dificuldades envolvidas; e Cuidado no serviço de saúde: acolhimento e redes de apoio que favorecem a adesão ao tratamento. Conclusão A adesão ao tratamento na coinfecção tuberculose/vírus da imunodeficiência humana mostrou-se relacionada à forma como a pessoa está inserida na sociedade, suas condições de vida e trabalho. Ressalta-se também que o cuidado nos serviços de saúde interfere na adesão, dada a importância do vínculo entre o profissional de saúde e o usuário.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar los aspectos relacionados con la adherencia al tratamiento de tuberculosis en personas que viven con la coinfección tuberculosis/virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. Métodos Se trata de un estudio exploratorio, tipo descriptivo, con enfoque cualitativo, sobre la adherencia al tratamiento de tuberculosis en personas que presentan la coinfección tuberculosis/virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. El escenario de estudio fue un centro de referencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana/síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida del estado de São Paulo, ubicado en la capital. El instrumento de recopilación de datos contenía preguntas relacionadas con el perfil sociodemográfico y de salud. Para analizar el material empírico se utilizó el método de análisis de discurso que permitió extraer frases temáticas. Resultados Se entrevistaron 16 personas, de las cuales la mayoría era de sexo masculino, de color pardo, del grupo de edad entre 30 y 39 años, con 9 a 12 años de estudios, que vivían solos, solteros y que se declararon homosexuales. Del análisis de los relatos surgieron tres categorías de análisis: Proceso de salud y enfermedad: el impacto del diagnóstico y los significados de vivir la coinfección; Tratamiento farmacológico: motivos para el acompañamiento, facilidades y dificultades relacionadas, y Cuidado en el servicio sanitario: contención y redes de apoyo que favorecen la adherencia al tratamiento. Conclusión La adherencia al tratamiento de la coinfección tuberculosis/virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana demostró estar relacionada con la forma como la persona está insertada en la sociedad, su condición de vida y trabajo. También se observó que el cuidado en los servicios de salud interfiere en la adherencia, debido a la importancia del vínculo entre los profesionales de la salud y los usuarios.


Abstract Objective To analyze aspects related to adherence to tuberculosis treatment in people living with tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Methods This is an exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study on adherence to tuberculosis treatment among people with tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. The study setting was a reference center for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome located in the capital of the state of São Paulo. The data collection instrument contained socio-demographic and health profile related questions. The discourse analysis method was used for the analysis of the empirical material, which allowed the comprehension of thematic phrases. Results Sixteen people were interviewed. Most were male, mixed race, in the age group of 30-39 years, with 9-12 years of study, living alone, single and declared themselves homosexuals. Three categories of analysis emerged from the analysis of testimonies: Health-disease process: the impact of the diagnosis and the meanings of living with coinfection; Drug treatment: reasons for follow-up, facilities and difficulties involved; and Care in the health service: embracement and support networks that favor treatment adherence. Conclusion Adherence to treatment in the tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection has shown a relation to the way people are inserted in society, their living and working conditions. The fact that care in health services interferes with adherence is also noteworthy, given the importance of the bond between the health professional and the user.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Perception , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coinfection , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Quality of Life , Health-Disease Process , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Interviews as Topic , Evaluation Studies as Topic
20.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 692-695, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935445

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the dynamic changes and influencing factors of HIV-1 DNA load in HIV-1 infected individuals under antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefecture, Yunnan province, and provide information support for the clinical use of HIV-1 DNA quantitative detection. Methods: The HIV infection cases in recent infection cohort from Dehong Center for Disease Control and Prevention during 2009-2018 were selected as study subjects. The dynamic curve of HIV-1 DNA load varrying with time was generated and logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the risk factors for HIV-1 load in the recent follow up after ART and statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 17.0. Results: Among the 113 HIV infection cases detected from the recent infection cohort, the recent HIV infection rate were 49.6%(56/113) males, sexual transmission cases and drug injection transmission cases accounted for 53.1% (60/113), 80.5% (91/113) and 19.5% (22/113), respectively. The dynamic changes curve showed that HIV-1 DNA load was relatively high (>800 copies /106 PBMCs) before ART, and droped rapidly (<400 copies /106 PBMCs) after ART for 1 year. However, HIV-1 DNA load decreased insignificantly from the second year of ART, and remained to be 269 copies/106 PBMCs after ART for 6 years. Univariable logistic regression analysis indicated that OR (95%CI) of CD8, CD4/CD8 and HIV-1 DNA load were 1.00 (1.00-1.00), 0.30 (0.09-1.05) and 1.01 (1.00-1.01), respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that OR value of HIV-1 DNA load base was 1.00 (1.00-1.01). Conclusions: HIV-1 DNA load decreased significantly in the first year of ART, then remained stable for years. HIV-1 DNA load base was the key factor associated with the decrease of HIV-1 DNA load, the lower the HIV-1 DNA load base, the lower HIV-1 DNA load. Therefore, earlier ART can contribute to the decrease of HIV-1 DNA load.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , China/epidemiology , DNA/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1/genetics , Viral Load
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL