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1.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 99-106, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290233

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: High prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and occurrence of drug-resistant strains have been recorded in northern Brazil. Abandonment of treatment and insufficient and inadequate adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have been recorded in the metropolitan area of Belém, the capital of the state of Pará. OBJECTIVES: To identify the sociodemographic profile and level of adherence to ART among women seen at a referral unit in the interior of Pará, northern Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at a referral unit for care for PLWHA. METHODS: We included 86 women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the Rio Caeté integrated region, northeastern Pará. Social, demographic and behavioral information, as well as the ART level, were obtained using forms that have been described in the scientific literature. Logistic regression models were used to assess associations of variables with ART. RESULTS: Most WLWHA were single (52.4%), young (47.7%) and heterosexual (97.7%), had low levels of education (63.0%), were unemployed (69.8%), had one sexual partner (75.7%), used condoms (46.7%) and were not using either licit drugs (68.7%) or illicit drugs (89.6%). Their adherence level was classified as insufficient , and only their viral load showed an association with ART. CONCLUSIONS: The participants' low level of education and poor socioeconomic conditions may have been interfering with their adherence to ART. Such influences can be minimized through multiprofessional interventions that take the individuality of women served by the healthcare service into consideration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Viral Load
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 1-5, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287233

ABSTRACT

Resumen La principal infección viral transmisible por sangre es actualmente la debida al virus de hepatitis C (VHC). Uno de los mayores obstáculos para el logro de su control en la Argentina se relaciona con las dificultades de acceso al diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno de las personas infectadas. Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de caracterizar a los pacientes infectados con VHC que iniciaron tratamiento con antivirales de acción directa (AAD) y describir la experiencia vinculada al tratamiento. Se seleccionaron las historias clínicas de 82 pacientes, 44 (53.7%) de sexo masculino, 37 (45.1%) de sexo femenino, y uno (1.2%) transgénero. La media de edad fue de 49 años. Se halló una frecuencia de cirrosis de 39%, 32 pacientes, coinfección con HIV en 48 (58.5%) y con VHB en 27 (32.9%). En 52 (63.4%) no se observó ningún factor de riesgo claramente asociado a infección. Todos completaron la terapia, de ellos 72 (87.8%) efectuaron el control para confirmar respuesta viral sostenida (RVS), que fue de 98.6%. Concluimos que el testeo universal debe implementarse por sobre el testeo con enfoque de riesgo, y que debe promoverse un criterio de atención simplificado y descentralizado, reservando la atención especializada para pacientes con cirrosis descompensada y cáncer de hígado.


Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is currently the main blood-borne viral infection. One of the main obstacles to achieving its control in Argentina is related to difficulties in accessing the diagnosis and timely treatment of infected people. We carried out this study with the aim of characterizing the HCV-infected patients who started treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and to describe the experience related to treatment. The medical records of 82 patients, 44 (53.7%) male, 37 (45.1%) female, and one (1.2%) transgender, were selected. The mean age was 49 years. We report a frequency of cirrhosis, 39%, in 32 patients, coinfection with HIV in 48 (58.5%) and with HBV in 27 (32.9%). In 52 patients (63.4%), no risk factor clearly associated with infection was observed. All completed the therapy, of them 72 (87.8%) carried out the control to confirm sustained viral response (SVR), that attained 98.6%. We conclude that universal testing should be implemented over testing based on a risk approach, and that a simplified and decentralized care criterion should be promoted, reserving specialized care for patients with decompensated cirrhosis and liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Liver Cirrhosis
3.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(9): e00143520, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345635

ABSTRACT

Immune recovery reflects health conditions. Our goal was to estimate the time it takes to achieve immune recovery and its associated factors, in people living with HIV (PLHIV), after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. A historical cohort study was performed among PLHIV (> 18 years-old) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using data from healthcare databases. Patients initiating ART between 2009-2018, with T-CD4+ lymphocytes and viral load recorded before and after antiretroviral therapy were included. The outcome is achievement of immune recovery, defined as the first T-CD4+ > 500 cells/µL after ART initiation. Explanatory variables were age, gender, place of residence, year of ART initiation, baseline viral load and T-CD4+, viral load status, and adherence to ART at follow-up. Descriptive analysis, cumulative, and person-time incidences of immune recovery were estimated. Median-time to immune recovery was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Factors associated with immune recovery were assessed by Cox regression. Among 26,430 PLHIV, 8,014 (30%) were eligible. Most were male (67%), mean age 38.7 years, resided in non-central region, median-baseline T-CD4+ = 228 cells/µL (< 200 cells/µL = 43%) and viral load median-baseline = 4.7 log10 copies/mL (detectable viral load = 99%). Follow-up time = 15,872 person-years. Cumulative and incidence rate were 58% (95%CI: 57-58) (n = 4,678) and 29.47 cases/100 person-years, respectively. Median-time to immune recovery was of 22.8 months (95%CI: 21.9-24.0). Women living with HIV, younger than 38 years of age, with T-CD4+ baseline > 200 cells/µL, detectable viral load (baseline), antiretroviral therapy-adherence and undetectable viral load (follow-up) were independently associated with immune recovery. Time to immune recovery remains long and depends on early treatment and antiretroviral therapy-adherence.


A recuperação imunológica reflete condições de saúde. Nosso objetivo foi estimar o tempo até a recuperação imunológica e fatores associados em pessoas vivendo com HIV (PVHIV) após de iniciar a terapia antirretroviral (TARV). Foi conduzida uma coorte histórica de PVHIV (> 18 anos) no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, usando bancos de serviços públicos de saúde. Foram incluídos pacientes que iniciaram a TARV entre 2009 e 2018, com linfócitos T-CD4+ e carga viral registrados antes e depois do início da TARV. O desfecho foi a recuperação imunológica, definida como a primeira contagem de T-CD4+ > 500 cel/µL após o início da TARV. As variáveis explanatórias foram idade, sexo, local de residência, ano de início de TARV, carga viral basal, T-CD4+ na linha de base e carga viral e adesão à TARV no seguimento. Foi realizada uma análise descritiva com estimativa de incidência acumulada e taxa de incidência (pessoa-ano). O tempo mediano até a recuperação imunológica foi estimado pelo método Kaplan-Meier. Fatores associados à recuperação imune foram avaliados por meio de regressão de Cox. Entre as 26.430 PVHIV, 8.014 (30%) foram elegíveis. A maioria era do sexo masculino (67%), com média de idade = 38,7 anos, residência em regiões fora da região metropolitana, mediana de T-CD4+ baseline = 228 células/µL (< 200 células/µL = 43%) e mediana de carga viral baseline = 4,7 log10 cópias/mL (carga viral detectável = 99%). Tempo de seguimento = 15.872 pessoas-ano. A incidência acumulativa e a taxa de incidência foram foram 58% (IC95%: 57-58) (n = 4.678) e 29,47 casos/100 pessoas-ano, respectivamente. Tempo mediano até recuperação imune = 22,8 meses (IC95%: 21,9-24,0). Os fatores independentemente associados com recuperação imunológica foram sexo feminino, idade < 38 anos, T-CD4+ basal > 200 células/µL, carga viral detectável (linha de base), adesão à TARV e carga viral indetectável (no seguimento). O tempo até a recuperação imunológica ainda é longo e impactado pelo tratamento precoce e da adesão à TARV.


La recuperación inmunológica refleja condiciones de salud. Nuestra meta fue estimar el tiempo y los factores asociados a la recuperación inmunológica en personas que viven con VIH (PVVIH), tras iniciar una terapia antirretroviral (TAR). Se realizó sobre una cohorte histórica entre PVVIH (> 18 años de edad) en Minas Gerais, Brasil, usando datos de las bases de datos del sistema de salud. Se incluyeron a pacientes que comenzaron una TAR entre 2009-2018, con T-CD4+ linfocitos y carga viral, registrada antes/después de TAR. El resultado fue el logro de recuperación inmunológica, definida como la primera T-CD4+ > 500 células/µL tras la iniciación TAR. Las variables explicatorias fueron: edad, género, lugar de residencia, año de iniciación TAR, base de referencia de carga viral, base de referencia de T-CD4+ y estatus de la carga viral y adherencia al TAR en el seguimiento. Se estimó: análisis descriptivo, acumulativo e incidencias persona-tiempo de recuperación inmunológica. La media de tiempo para la recuperación inmunológica se estimó usando el método Kaplan-Meier. Los factores asociados con la recuperación inmunológica se evaluaron mediante la regresión de Cox. Entre las 26.430 PVVIH, 8.014 (30%) fueron elegibles. La mayoría eran hombres (67%), media de edad = 38,7 años, residentes en una región no central, media de base de referencia T-CD4+ = 228 células/µL (< 200 células/µL = 43%) y carga viral media de base de referencia = 4,7 log10 copias/mL (carga viral detectable = 99%). El tiempo de seguimiento = 15.872 persona-años. La tasa acumulativa y de incidencia fue 58% (95%CI: 57-58) (n = 4.678) y 29,47 casos/100 persona-años, respectivamente. El tiempo de media para la recuperación inmunológica = 22,8 meses (95%CI: 21,9-24,0). Género femenino, PVVIH < 38 años de edad, T-CD4+ base de referencia > 200 células/µL, carga viral detectable (base de referencia), adherencia al TAR e carga viral indetectable (seguimiento) estuvieron independientemente asociadas con la recuperación inmunológica. El tiempo para la recuperación inmunológica sigue siendo largo y depende de un tratamiento temprano y de adherencia a la TAR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
4.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(spe): e20210176, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1284230

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar as mudanças na rotina das pessoas vivendo com HIV decorrentes da pandemia da COVID-19. Método: pesquisa qualitativa, desenvolvida por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, junto à 46 pessoas vivendo com HIV atendidas em um serviço especializado em doenças infectocontagiosas do interior de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os dados foram submetidos à análise lexicográfica, com auxílio do software IRaMuTeQ, pelos métodos de Estatística Textual Clássica, Nuvem de Palavras e Classificação Hierárquica Descendente. Resultados: foram identificadas distintas mudanças na rotina diária de pessoas vivendo com HIV decorrentes da pandemia da COVID-19, dentre elas, o uso de medidas preventivas, como a utilização de máscara e isolamento social, além de mudanças no ambiente de trabalho e de lazer, no convívio familiar, aspectos emocionais individuais e de tratamento. Conclusão e implicações para a prática: muitas mudanças e desafios de ordem física, biológica e psicossocial demonstraram serem vivenciados pelos participantes diante do cenário mundial pandêmico, decorrentes, principalmente, do isolamento social. Para tal, estratégias de enfrentamento tornam-se fundamentais no dia-a-dia das pessoas vivendo com HIV visando garantir a continuidade e tratamento ininterrupto, e a prevenção de uma sindêmia, mitigando, assim, as repercussões da COVID-19 na saúde destes indivíduos que pertencem ao grupo de risco


Objective: to identify the changes in the routine of people living with HIV resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: a qualitative research study, developed through a semi-structured interview, with 46 people living with HIV treated at a service specialized in infectious diseases in the inland of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were submitted to lexicographic analysis, with the aid of the IRaMuTeQ software, using the methods of Classical Textual Statistics, Word Cloud and Descending Hierarchical Classification. Results: distinct changes were identified in the daily routine of people living with HIV due to the COVID-19 pandemic, including the use of preventive measures, such as wearing a mask and social isolation, in addition to changes in the work and leisure environment, in family life, individual emotional aspects and treatment. Conclusion and implications for the practice: many changes, challenges of a physical, biological and psychosocial nature have been shown by the participants in the face of the global pandemic scenario, mainly resulting from social isolation. To this end, coping strategies become essential in the everyday lives of people living with HIV in order to guarantee continuity and uninterrupted treatment, and the prevention of a syndemic, thus mitigating the repercussions of COVID-19 on the health of the individuals who belong to the risk group


Objetivo: identificar los cambios en la rutina de las personas que viven con VIH como resultado de la pandemia de COVID-19. Método: investigación cualitativa, desarrollada a través de una entrevista semiestructurada, con 46 personas que viven con VIH atendidas en un servicio especializado en enfermedades infecciosas en el interior de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Los datos fueron sometidos a análisis lexicográfico, con la ayuda del software IRaMuTeQ, y utilización de los métodos de Estadística Textual Clásica, Nube de Palabras y Clasificación Jerárquica Descendente. Resultados: se identificaron distintos cambios en la rutina diaria de las personas que viven con VIH debido a la pandemia de COVID-19, incluido el uso de medidas preventivas, como la utilización de barbijo y aislamiento social, además de cambios en el entorno laboral y de ocio, en la vida familiar, en aspectos emocionales individuales y en el tratamiento. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica: muchos cambios y desafíos de naturaleza física, biológica y psicosocial han atravesado a los participantes ante el escenario de la pandemia global, principalmente debido al aislamiento social. Para ello, las estrategias de afrontamiento se vuelven imprescindibles en el día a día de las personas que viven con VIH a fin de garantizar la continuidad y el tratamiento ininterrumpido, y la prevención de una sindemia, con el objetivo de mitigar las repercusiones del COVID-19 en la salud de estos sujetos que pertenecen al grupo de riesgo


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , HIV Infections , HIV , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hand Disinfection , Qualitative Research , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Family Relations , Feeding Behavior , Coinfection/prevention & control , Teleworking , Physical Distancing , Masks
5.
Rev. enferm. UFSM ; 11: e54, 2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1255350

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a representação social da terapia antirretroviral para pessoas vivendo com HIV. Método: estudo qualitativo, com a utilização da teoria das representações sociais. A coleta de dados incluiu 50 participantes, sendo realizada de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, utilizando um questionário de caracterização sociodemográfica e um formulário para evocações livres. O cenário do estudo foi uma unidade de tratamento de HIV na região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. A análise dos dados foi realizada pelo software EVOC. Resultados: o núcleo central da representação da terapia antirretroviral reforça o controle do HIV e a imagem do medicamento como algo bom. Conclusão: a estrutura representacional sugere que o grupo tende à normalização da terapia antirretroviral, fazendo referência a um medicamento que controla o HIV. O estudo possibilitou reconhecer os diferentes conteúdos representacionais da terapia antirretroviral para o grupo estudado, além da variada complexidade entre as imagens identificadas.


Objective: analyzing the social representation of antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV. Method: a qualitative study using the Theory of Social Representations. Data collection included 50 participants, being performed from February to September 2020 using a sociodemographic characterization questionnaire and a form for free evocations. The study scenario was an HIV treatment unit in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro. Data analysis was performed by the EVOC software. Results: the central nucleus of the representation of antiretroviral therapy reinforces HIV control and the image of the drug as something good. Conclusion: the representational structure suggests that the group tends to normalize antiretroviral therapy, referring to a drug that controls HIV. The study made it possible to recognize the different representational contents of antiretroviral therapy for the studied group, in addition to the varied complexity among the images identified.


Objetivo: analizar la representación social de la terapia antirretroviral para las personas que viven con el VIH. Método: un estudio cualitativo utilizando la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales. La recolección de datos incluyó a 50 participantes, realizándolos de febrero a septiembre de 2020 utilizando un cuestionario de caracterización sociodemográfica y un formulario para evocaciones libres. El escenario del estudio fue una unidad de tratamiento del VIH en la región metropolitana de Río de Janeiro. El análisis de los datos fue realizado por el software EVOC. Resultados: el núcleo central de la representación de la terapia antirretroviral refuerza el control del VIH y la imagen del fármaco como algo bueno. Conclusión: la estructura representacional sugiere que el grupo tiende a normalizar la terapia antirretroviral, refiriéndose a un fármaco que controla el VIH. El estudio ha permitido reconocer los diferentes contenidos representacionales de la terapia antirretroviral para el grupo estudiado, además de la variada complejidad entre las imágenes identificadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
7.
Clinics ; 76: e2457, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Comprehensive care for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLH) includes the promotion of healthier habits, including physical activity (PA). This study aimed to describe a multicomponent pragmatic trial protocol to assess the effect of PA in preventing body changes and metabolic disturbances, improving the quality of life of PLH starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) and present cohort characteristics. METHODS: PLH undergoing ART for ≤4 months were recruited for a randomized trial. The intervention comprised three cardiorespiratory and/or strength training sessions per week at the clinic or in public spaces for 6 months under on-site or remote supervision, and educational sessions. Participants' PA levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric measures, strength, flexibility, quality of life, and laboratory monitoring (blood glucose and lipids, CD4 counts) at baseline and post-intervention will be compared. The pragmatic design aims to enable the assessment of intervention effectiveness in real-life conditions. RESULTS: At baseline, our cohort of 38 recently diagnosed patients (mean time since HIV diagnosis and duration of ART were 3 and 2.58 months, respectively) were predominantly male, young, with high schooling and good immune status (median CD4 count=498 cells/mm3). Twenty-two (57.9%) patients reported a PA below the World Health Organization recommendations. We found baseline normal anthropometric measures and metabolic parameters: below-average trunk flexion and elbow extension strength, poor handgrip strength and flexibility, and high quality of life scores in all except the physical domain. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding how effective PA is in preventing body changes and metabolic disturbances, and in improving the quality of PLH starting ART may help establish guidelines to better incorporate PA in HIV care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Quality of Life , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Exercise , Hand Strength , CD4 Lymphocyte Count
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 515-522, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144245

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones del torrente sanguíneo son un problema creciente y actualmente son una amenaza para la salud pública. La bacteriemia representa aproximadamente 15% de todas las infecciones nosocomiales y afecta a 1% de los pacientes hospitalizados. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y microbiológicas de episodios de bacteriemia nosocomial ocurridos en un hospital colombiano. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional, de corte transversal, con inclusión de pacientes adultos, hospitalizados por el Servicio de Medicina Interna en el Hospital Universitario de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia, durante los años 2014 a 2016. El protocolo fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la Universidad Industrial de Santander. Resultados: Se revisaron 450 historias clínicas, con 148 pacientes y 182 aislados microbianos. Los antecedentes más frecuentes fueron: hipertensión arterial (46,6%) e infección por VIH (29,7%). El sistema vascular y urinario ocuparon los sitios anatómicos más frecuentes (37,3 y 38,3%, respectivamente). La letalidad fue de 29%. Los patógenos más frecuentemente aislados fueron: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (en suma: 49,8%) y Staphylococcus aureus 12,1%. El análisis multivariado mostró relación de la anemia con mortalidad intrahospitalaria (OR = 17,3; IC95% 2,95-102,0). Conclusiones: La bacteriemia es una infección frecuente durante la atención hospitalaria que presenta gran mortalidad. Es destacable el predominio de aislados de enterobacterias multiresistentes. El antecedente de infección por VIH es uno de los más frecuentes el que amerita ser evaluado como grupo de riesgo.


Abstract Background: Bloodstream infections are an increasing problem and currently represent a threat to public health, overcoming diseases such as HIV. Bacteremia accounts for approximately 15% of all nosocomial infections and affects 1% of all hospitalized patients. Aim: To describe the clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristic of episodes of nosocomial bacteremia occurring in a Colombian hospital. Methods: Retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study including adult patients, hospitalized in the internal medicine unit at the University Hospital of Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia, during years 2014 to 2016, who met the criteria of the CDC for bloodstream infection. The protocol was approved by the Hospital Ethics Committee and by the Research Ethics Committee of the Industrial University of Santander. Results: We reviewed 450 clinical records with 148 patients and 182 microbiological isolates. 53% were male. The most frequent comorbidities were: high blood pressure (46.6%), HIV infection (29.7%). The vascular and urinary systems were the most frequent anatomical sites as the source of the infection (respectively 37.3% and 38.3%). Case fatality rate was 29%. The pathogens most frequently isolated were: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (globally: 49.8%) and Staphylococcus aureus 12.1%. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship between anemia and in-hospital mortality (OR = 17.3, 95%CI 2.95-102.0). Conclusions: Bacteremia is a frequent infection during hospital care that presents high mortality. It is noteworthy the predominance of Enterobacteriaceae isolates with broad profiles of resistance. The history of HIV infection is one of the most frequent which deserves to be evaluated as a risk group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 550-554, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144249

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Cargas virales (CV) entre 20-200 copias/mL se consideran cargas virales de bajo grado (CVBG). Su implicancia clínica y manejo no han sido definidos. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de CVBG en el riesgo de desarrollo posterior de fallo virológico (FV). Pacientes y Métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes ≥ 18 años, desde enero de 2009 a diciembre de 2019, con infección por VIH-1 con CV< 20 copias/mL, por un mínimo de seis meses y/o en dos muestras consecutivas bajo tratamiento anti-retroviral . Se realizó seguimiento de las CV estrati ficándolas: CV < 20 copias/mL, CVBG (20-50 copias/mL y 51-200 copias/mL) y FV. Mediana de seguimiento 25 meses (IQR 15-31). Resultados: Fueron incluidos 1.416 pacientes con CV < 20 copias/ mL bajo TARV. De ellos, 797 permanecieron con CV< 20 copias/mL durante el seguimiento, 144 presentaron CV entre 20-50 copias/mL, 384 entre 51-200 copias/mL y 91 presentaron FV sin CVBG previa. De los 528 pacientes que tuvieron CVBG, 110 (20,1%) fallaron, riesgo 3,45 veces superior respecto a los que no tuvieron CVBG previa. El riesgo de FV fue 3,27 mayor para aquellos que tuvieron CVBG entre 51-200 copias/mL vs 20-50 copias/mL. Discusión: El estudio permite relacionar la CVBG con el FV posterior, siendo el mayor riesgo CVBG entre 51-200 copias/mL.


Abstract Background: Viral loads (VL) between 20-200 copies/mL are considered low-grade viral loads (LGVL). Its clinical implications and management have not been defined. Aim: To evaluate the impact of LGVL on the risk of subsequent development of virological failure (VF). Methods: Patients ≥ 18 years, with HIV-1 infection who had VL < 20 copies/mL for at least six months and/or in two consecutive samples under antiretroviral therapy (ART) were included, between January 1st, 2009 and December 31, 2019. Follow-up of the VLs was carried out stratifying them in VL < 20 copies/mL, LGVL (20-50 copies/mL and 51-200 copies/mL) and VF. Median follow-up 25 months (IQR 15-31). Results: 1,416 patients were included who reached VL < 20 copies/ml under ART, 797 patients remained with CV < 20 copies/mL during follow-up, 144 patients had VL between 21-50 copies/mL, 384 between 51-200 copies/mL and 91 had VF without previous LGVL. Out of 528 patients who had LGVL, 110 failed, risk 3.45 times higher than those who had no previous LGVL. Risk 3.27 times higher of VF for those who had LGVL between 51-200 copies/mL compared to 20-50 copies/mL. Discussion: The study allows to relate the LGVL with VF. This association was observed more frequently with LGVL between 51-200 copies/mL


Subject(s)
Humans , Viremia/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Treatment Failure , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
10.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 555-562, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144250

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Aproximadamente 50% de las personas con infección por VIH padecen de alguna patología neuro-psiquiátrica. Características intrínsecas del virus, sus complicaciones, tratamiento y el contexto socio-cultural de los infectados facilitan el desarrollo de estas co-morbilidades, que determinan, en parte, el curso y pronóstico de las personas con infección por VIH. Objetivo: Introducir en la fisiopatología, características clínicas y manejo de la patología neuro-psiquiática en la infección por VIH, centrándose en dos de sus cuadros de mayor prevalencia: el trastorno neuro-cognitivo asociado al VIH (HAND) y el trastorno depresivo mayor (TDM). Desarrollo: En general, la detección y el tratamiento precoz de la patología neuropsiquiátrica en personas con infección por VIH mejora la calidad de vida de los pacientes, el curso clínico de la infección y mejora la adherencia al tratamiento anti-retroviral, lo que constituye una herramienta importante en el control de la propagación del VIH.


Abstract Background: The prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders in HIV infected individuals is around 50%. Despite this, these diseases are often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Direct effects of the virus, opportunistic infections, adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy and the sociocultural context of the infected persons, contribute to the development of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) and major depressive disorder (MDD), both of which have an impact in quality of life and disease progression. Aim: To introduce physicians in the pathophysiology, clinical features and management of psychiatric disease in seropositive patients. Content: Early detection and treatment of neuropsychiatric comorbidity in HIV infected individuals improve clinical outcomes, quality of life and is an important milestone in the control of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/etiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Comorbidity , Prevalence
11.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(5): e2962, sept.-oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144688

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: En el Tratamiento Antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA), la prevalencia de la adherencia terapéutica es un proceso complejo influido por múltiples factores relacionados con el paciente, la enfermedad, el fármaco, el entorno y el médico. Objetivo: Identificar el nivel de adherencia a la TARGA en personas con VIH/sida de un área de salud y algunas variables relacionadas. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo realizado en 153 pacientes de 18 y más años, con diagnóstico de VIH/sida, del Policlínico "Marcos Manduley", municipio Centro Habana, de enero a diciembre de 2018. La fuente de datos fueron las historias clínicas individuales y se aplicó el cuestionario SMAQ para complementar la información. Se utilizó la prueba de Chi cuadrado ((2) con significación estadística, ɒ = 0,05, se identificaron variables cuyos coeficientes fueron significativamente diferentes de 0 (p < 0,05) y el grado de correlación entre variables utilizando el coeficiente tau-b de Kendall. Resultados: El 70,5 por ciento tuvo buena adherencia a la TARGA. Se encontró asociación estadística y moderada relación directa entre la adherencia terapéutica y la menor edad de los pacientes, débil relación directa con el mayor tiempo bajo tratamiento y ligera relación directa con la presencia de reacciones adversa. Conclusiones: El estudio permitió identificar que el nivel de adherencia terapéutica a la TARGA fue adecuado, usando el cuestionario SMAQ y se relaciona con algunas variables, resultados que concuerdan con otros estudios consultados(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: The prevalence of therapeutic adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is a complex process influenced by multiple factors related to the patient, the disease, the drug, the environment and the doctor. Objective: To identify the level of adherence to HAART and some related variables in people with HIV / AIDS in a health area. Material and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in 153 patients aged 18 and over with HIV / AIDS diagnosis that received medical assistance at "Marcios Manduley" Polyclinic in Centro Habana municipality from January to December 2018. Data were obtained from individual medical records; the simplified medication adherence questionnaire (SMAQ) was applied to complement the information. The Chi-square test ((2) was used with statistical significance, p = 0.05; variables whose coefficients were significantly different from 0 (p <0.05) were identified and the degree of correlation between variables was obtained using Kendall's correlation coefficient. Results: The results show that 70.5 percent of people had good adherence to HAART. There was statistical association and moderate direct relationship between therapeutic adherence and younger age patients, weak direct relationship with the longest duration of treatment and a slight direct relationship with the presence of adverse reactions. Conclusions: The study allowed us to identify that the level of therapeutic adherence to HAART was adequate using the SMAQ questionnaire. It is related to some variables, showing results that are consistent with other studies consulted(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Study
12.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (35): 194-217, maio-ago. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139640

ABSTRACT

Resumo Neste artigo pretendo apresentar alguns dos resultados de uma pesquisa de pós- -doutoramento, na qual acompanhei grupos virtuais e encontros presenciais de interlocutores adeptos de práticas sexuais tidas como "de risco", tais como o sexo bareback, em eventos exclusivos para homens cisgêneros. O objetivo aqui é analisar um certo regime de regulação ético-moral percebido em campo relativo à preocupação de se afirmar que essas práticas sexuais partem de valores como a "responsabilidade", o "consentimento" e o "cuidado". Nas dinâmicas observadas, esses valores se (re)constroem e fissuram a partir do atravessamento de elementos diversos como drogas e medicamentos, além de diversos tensores libidinais. É sobre a produção contextual desses conceitos e a sua relação frente às atuais políticas pública de prevenção que pretendo me debruçar no artigo.


Abstract This article presents some results of a postdoctoral research, in which I followed virtual groups and face-to-face meetings of interlocutors engaging at sexual practices considered "risky", such as bareback sex, in events exclusive for cisgender men. The objective here is to analyze a certain regime of ethical-moral regulation perceived in the fieldwork regarding a concern to assign to these sexual practices values such as "responsibility", "consent" and "care". In the observed dynamics, these values are (re)constructed and fissured at the intersection of diverse elements such as drugs and medications, in addition to several libidinal tensors. This article addresses these concepts contextual production and their relation to current public prevention policies.


Resumen En este artículo tengo la intención de presentar algunos de los resultados de una investigación posdoctoral, en la que seguí grupos virtuales y reuniones cara a cara de interlocutores que eran expertos en prácticas sexuales consideradas "en riesgo", como el sexo a pelo, en eventos exclusivos para hombres cisgénero. El objetivo aquí es analizar un cierto régimen de regulación ético-moral percibido en el campo con respecto a la preocupación de afirmar que estas prácticas sexuales parten de valores tales como "responsabilidad", "consentimiento" y "cuidado". En la dinámica observada, estos valores se (re) construyen y descifran a través del cruce de diferentes elementos, como drogas y medicamentos, además de varios tensores libidinales. Se trata de la producción contextual de estos conceptos y su relación con las políticas actuales de prevención pública que pretendo abordar en el artículo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Risk-Taking , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexuality/ethics , Unsafe Sex , Pleasure , Cisgender Persons , Self Care , Social Values/ethnology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Health Policy , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 453-461, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287198

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad cardiovascular y sus factores de riesgos como hipertensión arterial (HTA) y síndrome metabólico (SM), son una creciente causa de mortalidad entre los infectados con HIV. Nuestros objetivos fueron determinar la prevalencia HTA y SM en pacientes HIV positivos de la ciudad de Córdoba su asociación con el estado inmunológico, inflamación y terapia antirretroviral (TARAA). Fue un estudio aleatorizado de corte transversal. Se incluyeron 65 pacientes HIV positivos del programa provincial HIV-Córdoba, 57 (87%) recibían TARAA, 39 (60%) eran masculinos, con edad promedio de 44.7 ± 10 años. La concentración de linfocitos T CD4+ (LTCD4+) fue 404.4 ± 289.6 cel./ml. La carga viral (CV) fue indetectable en 56 (86.2%). La prevalencia de HTA fue de 40% (26/65) y se asoció a la duración de TARAA (p < 0.05). No hubo asociación entre años de infección por HIV, LTCD4+ y CV con HTA. La prevalencia de SM fue de 38.5% (25/65). El uso de TARAA fue más frecuente en aquellos con SM (OR: 1.80; IC95%: 1.43-2.28; p = 0.02). Pacientes bajo TARAA presentaron alta tasa de hipertrigliceridemia, intolerancia a la glucosa y niveles bajos de HDL (todos p < 0.01). SM se asoció a la duración de TARAA (p < 0.01). La TARAA se asoció a HTA y SM, no encontrándose relación con estado inmunológico, CV o marcadores de inflamación.


Abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a growing cause of mortality between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. Hypertension (HTN) and metabolic syndrome (MS) are important causes of CVD. The prevalence of HTN and MS in HIV infected patients in Córdoba, Argentina is unknown. Our aim is to determine the prevalence of HTN and MS in HIV patients in Córdoba and their association with immunological state, inflammation and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in an observational study. Sixty-five HIV infected patients from the provincial HIV program were randomly selected. Fifty-seven (87%) were on HAART, 39 (60%) were males. The mean age was 44.7 ± 10 years. Mean CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD4+T) count was 404.4 ± 289.6 cells/ml. Viral load (VL) was undetectable in 56 (86.2%). The prevalence of HTN was 40%, and it was associated with the duration of HAART (p < 0.05). There was no association between years of HIV infection, CD4+T, VL and blood pressure. The prevalence of MS was 38.5% (25/65). MS was more frequent between those with HAART (OR: 1.80; CI 95%; 1.43-2.28; p = 0.02). Patients on HAART had higher rates of hypertriglyceridemia, impaired glucose tolerance and lower levels of HDLc (p < 0.01). MS was associated with the HAART duration (p < 0.01). HIV infected patients had a high prevalence of HTN and MS. HAART was associated with both HTN and MS, but there was no association between immunological status, VL or inflammatory markers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology
14.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 430-442, jun. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126141

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenia and wasting syndrome, as well as the associated factors in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. We utilized a cross-sectional study evaluating HIV-infected individuals at a university hospital in the Northeast area of Brazil. In 99 patients, sarcopenia was assessed by analysis of muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Wasting syndrome was assessed by unintentional weight loss criteria. Demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, as well as clinical and lifestyle variables were also evaluated. The prevalence of sarcopenia in this sample was 18.2% and 33.3% presented severe sarcopenia. Wasting syndrome was identified in 13.1% and 4% presented both conditions. Sarcopenia had higher prevalence in older patients (80.0 vs 4.9%, p= 0.004), among those with diabetes mellitus (50.0 vs 16.1%, p= 0.037), as well as among malnourished individuals (p= 0.003). Wasting syndrome was more prevalent in individuals with a lower level of education (26.3%vs5.4%, p= 0.005), in the lower income tertile (p= 0.041), and a lower CD4+ T cell count (429±450 vs 654±321 cells/mm3, p= 0.045). Sarcopenia and wasting syndrome are still clinical problems present in those using antiretroviral therapy associated with specific conditions in HIV patients.


Se evaluó la prevalencia de la sarcopenia, síndrome de emanciación y factores asociados en pacientes infectados por HIV que recibieron terapia antirretroviral. En la evaluación de las personas infectadas por el HIV se aplicó un diseño de tipo transversal y fue realizado en un hospital universitario en la zona noreste del Brasil. La sarcopenia se evaluó mediante la medición de la masa muscular, la fuerza muscular y el rendimiento físico. El síndrome de emanciación se evaluó mediante criterios de pérdida de peso involuntarios. También se evaluaron las características demográficas, socioeconómicas, antropométricas, así como las variables clínicas y de estilo de vida. La prevalencia de sarcopenia en esta muestra de pacientes fue del 18,2%, y de esta población un tercio presentó sarcopenia grave. El síndrome de emanciación se identificó en el 13,1% de los pacientes y en el 4% de los sujetos que presentaron ambas condiciones. La sarcopenia tenía mayor prevalencia en pacientes de mayor edad (80,0 vs 4,9%, p= 0,004), en las personas con diabetes mellitus (50,0 vs 16,1%, p= 0,037), así como en sujetos desnutridos (p= 0,003). El síndrome de emanciación fue más prevalente en sujetos con un nivel más bajo de educación (26,3% vs 5,4%, p= 0,005), menor tercil de ingresos (p= 0,041), y menor recuento de células TCD4+ (429±450 vs 654±321 células/mm3, p= 0,045). Sarcopenia y síndrome de emanciación son todavía problemas clínicos presentes en aquellos que utilizan la terapia antirretroviral asociada con condiciones específicas en pacientes con HIV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Wasting Syndrome/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Malnutrition , Hospitals, Public
15.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 10(2): 135-139, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223597

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a disease caused by HIV. 3% of the people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil are 60 years old or over. Although older adults correspond to a small percentage, there has been a significant increase in the incidence in this group in recent years. Thus, HIV infection in older adults is a reality, however, literature hardly addresses this topic. The objective is to study the epidemiological clinical profile of older adults living with HIV monitored at a referral center. Methods:This is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study with data collection obtained from the medical records of the STI/AIDS outpatient clinic at a reference center. The data were sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory, collected from September 2018 to February 2019. Results:In the reference center, 309 older adults were registered, representing 6.7% of all patients registered in the service. Of these, 75.6% are men, 38% are married, 70% heterosexual and approximately 50% with low education. Comorbidities are associated, with dyslipidemia (54%) being the main one. At the time of diagnosis, 65.8% had detectable viral load and 62% had CD4 + cells <500 cls/mm³ and after therapeutic follow-up, only 20% had detectable viral load. Several therapeutic regimens are used, the main one being Tenofovir, Lamivudine and Efavirenz (35.3%). Conclusion: The epidemiological profile of the population served in the region follows national and global characteristics, with a predominance of men, heterosexuals, married and with low education.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: A Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (SIDA) é uma doença causada pelo HIV. Das pessoas vivendo com HIV(PVHIV)no Brasil, 3% apresentam 60 anos ou mais. Apesar dos idosos corresponderem a um pequeno percentual, há aumento significativo da incidência nesse grupo nos últimos anos. Dessa forma, a infecção pelo HIV em idosos é uma realidade, contudo, a literatura pouco aborda esse tema. O objetivo do trabalho é estudar o perfil clínico epidemiológico dos idosos vivendo com HIV acompanhados em um centro de referência. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo observacional, descritivo, de corte transversal, com coleta de dados obtida através dos prontuários do ambulatório de IST/SIDA de um centro de referência. Os dados sociodemográficos, clínicos e laboratoriais, foram coletados no período setembro de 2018 a fevereiro de 2019. Resultados: No centro de referência, estão cadastrados 309 idosos, representando 6,7% de todos os pacientes matriculados no serviço. Destes, 75,6% são homens, 38% casados, 70% de orientação heterossexual e aproximadamente 50% com baixa escolaridade. Comorbidades estão associadas, sendo a dislipidemia (54%) a principal. No momento do diagnóstico, 65,8% apresentavam carga viral (CV) detectável,62% tinham células CD4+ < 500céls/mm³ e após seguimento terapêutico apenas 20% apresentavam CV detectável. Vários esquemas terapêuticos foram utilizados, sendo o principal Tenofovir, Lamivudina e Efavirenz (35,3%). Conclusão: O perfil epidemiológico da população atendida na região segue as características nacionais e mundiais, com predomínio de homens, heterossexuais, casados e de baixa escolaridade.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: El Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirido(SIDA) es una enfermedad causada por el VIH. De las personas que viven con el VIH (PVVIH) en Brasil, el 3% tiene 60 años o más. Aunque los adultos mayor es corresponden a un pequeño porcentaje, en los últimos años se ha producido un aumento significativo de la incidencia en este grupo. La infección por VIH en los adultos mayores es una realidad; sin embargo, la literatura aborda poco este tema. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el perfil clínico epidemiológico de adultos mayores que conviven con el VIH y se atienden en un centro de referencia. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal, con datos obtenidos de los registros de ETS/SIDA de un centro de referencia. Se recogieron datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y de laboratorio desde septiembre de 2018 hasta febrero de 2019. Resultados: En el centro de referencia están registrados309 adultos mayores, que representan el 6,7% de todos los pacientes inscriptos en el servicio. De ellos, el 75,6% es del sexo masculino, el 38%, casado, el 70% con orientación heterosexual y aproximadamente el 50% con baja escolaridad. De las comorbilidades asociadas, la dislipidemia esla principal (54%). En el momento del diagnóstico, el 65,8% tenía una carga viral detectable (CV), el 62%tenía células CD4+<500 células/mm³ y después del seguimiento terapéutico sólo el 20% tenía CV detectable. Se utilizaron varios esquemas terapéuticos, siendo los principales el Tenofovir, la Lamivudina y el Efavirenz (35,3%). Conclusión: El perfil epidemiológico de la población atendida en la región sigue las características nacionales e internacionales, con predominio de hombres heterosexuales, casados y de baja escolaridad.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , HIV Infections/epidemiology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV/immunology , Marital Status , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Sexuality , Educational Status , Health Services for the Aged
16.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(3): 290-295, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136208

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The objective of this study was to verify the level of adherence to antiretroviral treatment and its associated factors. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study based on data retrieved from medical records. To achieve this, we used a questionnaire composed of sociodemographic and clinical information recorded from patients aged between thirteen and fifty-nine years who attended a specialized service from 2007 to 2014. The chi-square test was performed to verify the association of the outcome with the categorical variables. Continuous variables were compared through the Student t-test. Thirteen variables were analyzed in the bivariate model, resulting in the selection of the following variables to the multivariate model (p<0.20) age of discovery (p=0.12), age (p=0.14), skin color (p=0.12), level of education (p=0.03), time since HIV diagnosis (p<0.001) and AIDS case (p<0.001). Among the six variables selected for the multivariate model, cases of aids (p<0.001) remained significant. We concluded that having aids decreases the probability of non-adherence to antiretroviral treatment by 92%. These results indicate that symptomatic patients have better adherence to therapy.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os níveis de adesão ao tratamento antirretroviral e os fatores associados a ela. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de delineamento transversal baseado em levantamento de prontuários. Para tanto, foi utilizado um questionário composto de informações sociodemográficas e clínicas de pacientes com idade entre 13 e 59 anos atendidos em um serviço de atendimento especializado nos anos de 2007 a 2014. Foi realizado o teste do Qui-quadrado para verificar a associação do desfecho com as variáveis categóricas. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de "Student" (dois grupos). Treze variáveis foram analisadas no modelo bivariado, sendo selecionadas para o modelo multivariado (p<0,20): idade de descoberta (p=0,12), idade (p=0,14), cor da pele (p=0,12), escolaridade (p=0,03), tempo de diagnóstico do HIV (p<0,001) e caso de aids (p<0,001). Das seis variáveis selecionadas para o modelo multivariado, permaneceu significante o fato de o paciente ter aids (p<0,001). Concluiu-se que ter aids reduz a probabilidade de não adesão ao tratamento antirretroviral em cerca de 92%. Os resultados indicam que o indivíduo que é sintomático adere melhor à terapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Patient Compliance , Medication Adherence/ethnology , Middle Aged
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(3): 989-998, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089480

ABSTRACT

Resumo O uso de antirretroviral aumentou a sobrevida dos portadores do HIV, porém pode acarretar efeitos colaterais, como a síndrome lipodistrófica. O objetivo deste artigo é identificar a frequência da síndrome lipodistrófica e seus fatores associados em pacientes portadores do HIV em uso de terapia antiretroviral. Estudo transversal com pacientes acompanhados ambulatorialmente. A síndrome foi avaliada pela associação de dois parâmetros: emagrecimento periférico através da escala de gravidade de lipodistrofia e acúmulo de gordura central, mensurado pela relação cintura quadril. Para identificar as variáveis associadas foi realizada a análise de Regressão de Poisson. Dos 104 pacientes avaliados, 27,9% apresentaram a síndrome. Após ajuste, ser do sexo feminino (RPajustada = 2,16 IC95%1,43-3,39), ter excesso de peso (RPajustada = 2,23 IC95%1,35-2,65) e um maior tempo de uso dos antirretrovirais (RPajustada = 1,64 IC95%1,16-2,78) permaneceram positivamente associados à síndrome. Por outro lado, foi observada uma associação negativa com a contagem de CD4 £ 350 (RPajustada = 0,39 IC95%0,10-0,97). A alta prevalência da síndrome e sua associação com grupos específicos reforçam a necessidade do adequado acompanhamento e identificação precoce como forma de intervir nos fatores modificáveis.


Abstract The use of antiretroviral drugs has increased the survival of HIV patients, but may have side effects, such as lipodystrophic syndrome. This article aims to identify the frequency of the lipodystrophic syndrome and its associated factors in patients with HIV using antiretroviral therapy. It involved a cross-sectional study with HIV patients, monitored on an outpatient basis. The syndrome was evaluated by the association of two parameters: peripheral weight loss through the lipodystrophy severity scale and central fat accumulation, measured by the hip waist ratio. Poisson regression analysis was performed to identify the associated variables. Of the 104 patients evaluated, 27.9% presented the syndrome. After adjustment, the female sex (PRadjusted = 2.16 CI95% 1.43-3.39), being overweight (PRadjusted = 2.23 CI95% 1.35-2.65) and a longer period of use of antiretrovirals (PRadjusted = 1.64 CI95% 1.16-2.78), remained positively associated with the syndrome. On the other hand, a negative association with CD4 count £ 350 (PRadjusted = 0.39 CI95% 0.10-0.97) was observed The high prevalence of the syndrome and its association with specific groups reinforce the need for adequate follow-up and early identification to intervene in modifiable factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/chemically induced , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/epidemiology , Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hospitals, University , Middle Aged
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(1): 67-73, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091901

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES Individuals living with HIV seem to be more prone to changes in the redistribution of body fat, characterized as lipodystrophy, which may occur in conjunction with metabolic diseases. In the present study, such impacts were assessed in adults with and without HIV and associated with the time of virus diagnosis and treatment with antiretroviral. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 123 adults, in which 87 had HIV and 36 without HIV, of both sexes, in outpatient follow-up at the Specialized Care Service (SAE) in Macaé-RJ. The following were made: 1) Alteration in body fat distribution, measured by anthropometric parameters and self-reported lipodystrophy; 2) Biochemical profile; 3) Association between HIV diagnosis time and antiretroviral treatment. RESULTS 54.47% (n = 67) males, 45.52% (n = 56) females, mean age 37 years. Of these 87 were people living with HIV, 29% (n = 25) had self-reported lipodystrophy, mean time of virus infection, and antiretroviral treatment (5.80 ± 4.56 and 5.14 ± 3.82 years), respectively. Patients with self-reported lipodystrophy had a greater change in body fat distribution between 3-6 years of HIV diagnosis and a negative cholesterol profile. The antiretroviral treatment time influenced total cholesterol and triglycerides, even for patients without self-reported lipodystrophy, with a further nine years under treatment. CONCLUSION In this study, the negative cholesterol profile was mainly related to antiretroviral treatment time, even for patients without self-reported lipodystrophy, and changes in body fat distribution, measured by anthropometry, was especially associated with time for HIV infection in those with lipodystrophy self-reported.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS Indivíduos vivendo com HIV parecem mais propensos às alterações na redistribuição da gordura corporal, caracterizada como lipodistrofia, podendo acontecer em conjunto com as metabólicas. No presente estudo avaliaram-se tais impactos em adultos com e sem HIV e se associou ao tempo de diagnóstico do vírus e tratamento com antirretroviral. MÉTODOS Estudo tipo transversal, com 123 adultos, no qual 87 tinham HIV e 36 sem HIV, de ambos os sexos, em seguimento ambulatorial no Serviço de Atendimento Especializado (SAE) em Macaé - RJ. Foram feitos: 1) Alteração na distribuição da gordura corporal, mensurados por parâmetros antropométricos e lipodistrofia autorreferida; 2) Perfil bioquímico; 3) Associação entre tempo diagnóstico do HIV e tratamento com antirretroviral. RESULTADOS Incluíram-se 54,47% (n=67) do sexo masculino, 45,52% (n=56) do feminino, com média de idade de 37 anos. Destes, 87 eram pessoas vivendo com HIV, 29% (n=25) possuíam lipodistrofia autorreferida; tempo médio de infecção pelo vírus e tratamento antirretroviral (5,80±4,56 e 5,14±3,82 anos), respectivamente. Os pacientes com lipodistrofia autorreferida tiveram maior alteração na distribuição da gordura corporal entre 3-6 anos de diagnóstico do HIV e um perfil colesterolêmico negativo. O tempo de tratamento com antirretroviral influenciou o colesterol total e os triglicerídeos, mesmo para os pacientes sem lipodistrofia autorreferida, com mais de nove anos sob tratamento. CONCLUSÃO Neste estudo, o perfil colesterolêmico negativo se relacionou principalmente ao tempo de tratamento com antirretroviral, mesmo para os pacientes sem lipodistrofia autorreferida e as alterações na distribuição da gordura corporal, mensuradas por antropometria, se associaram especialmente ao tempo de infecção pelo HIV naqueles com lipodistrofia autorreferida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/physiopathology , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/epidemiology , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Body Fat Distribution , Time Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , HIV Infections/blood , Sex Factors , Adipose Tissue/physiopathology , Cholesterol/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/blood , Self Report , Middle Aged
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(1): 90-97, Jan. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055103

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: People living with HIV are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and carotid thickness, due to the inflammation caused by the virus, the antiretroviral therapy, and other risk factors. However, few studies have observed the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and carotid thickness in HIV-positive population at low cardiovascular risk and with undetectable viral load. Objectives: To evaluate the association between levels of inflammatory markers and carotid thickness in people living with HIV, under antiretroviral therapy and at low cardiovascular risk. Methods: To determine low cardiovascular risk in both groups (HIV infected and non-infected individuals), the Framingham Risk Score was used. Inflammatory markers (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, sVCAM-1, and sICAM-1) were assessed using flow cytometry. Carotid thickness (mm) was measured using Doppler ultrasound. Level of significance was p < 0.05. Results: In People living with HIV, age and smoking status were associated with carotid thickness alterations. In the non-HIV group, age, higher total cholesterol, and LDL levels were associated with increased carotid thickness. Using the multivariate analysis, a significant association between TNF-α and IL- 1( levels, and a higher chance of atherosclerosis development in HIV group were observed. Conclusions: Both groups have a similar risk for developing cardiovascular disease, therefore our study demonstrates that HIV-positive individuals with undetectable viral load in antiretroviral therapy without protease inhibitors and with low cardiovascular risk do not present differences in carotid thickness in relation to uninfected individuals.


Resumo Fundamento: As pessoas que vivem com HIV têm um risco aumentado de doença cardiovascular e espessamento da carótida, devido à inflamação causada pelo vírus, à terapia antirretroviral e a outros fatores de risco. No entanto, poucos estudos observaram a ocorrência de doenças cardiovasculares e espessamento carotídeo na população soropositiva com baixo risco cardiovascular e carga viral indetectável. Objetivos: Avaliar a associação entre níveis de marcadores inflamatórios e espessura da carótida em pessoas vivendo com HIV, sob terapia antirretroviral e com baixo risco cardiovascular. Métodos: Para determinar o baixo risco cardiovascular em ambos os grupos (indivíduos infectados e não-infectados pelo HIV), foi utilizado o Escore de Risco de Framingham. Os marcadores inflamatórios (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, sVCAM-1 e sICAM-1) foram avaliados por citometria de fluxo. A espessura da carótida (mm) foi mensurada por meio de ultrassom com Doppler. O nível de significância foi de p < 0,05. Resultados: Em pessoas vivendo com HIV, a idade e o tabagismo foram associados a alterações da espessura da carótida. No grupo não-HIV, idade e níveis mais altos de colesterol total e LDL foram associados ao aumento da espessura da carótida. Utilizando a análise multivariada, observou-se associação significativa entre os níveis de TNF-α e IL-1β e maior chance de desenvolvimento de aterosclerose no grupo com HIV. Conclusão: Ambos os grupos têm risco semelhante de desenvolver doença cardiovascular, portanto, nosso estudo demonstra que indivíduos HIV-positivos com carga viral indetectável em terapia antirretroviral sem inibidores de protease e com baixo risco cardiovascular não apresentam diferenças na espessura da carótida em relação aos indivíduos não-infectados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Inflammation/blood , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200082, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135226

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure (RF) is the main cause of hospital admission in HIV/AIDS patients. This study assessed comorbidities and laboratory parameters in HIV/AIDS inpatients with RF (N = 58) in relation to those without RF (N = 36). Tuberculosis showed a huge relative risk and platelet counts were slightly higher in HIV/AIDS inpatients with RF. A flow cytometry assay for reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed lower levels in platelets of these patients in relation to the healthy subjects. However, when stimulated with adrenaline, ROS levels increased in platelets and platelet-derived microparticles of HIV/AIDS inpatients, which may increase the risk of RF during HIV and tuberculosis (HIV-TB) coinfection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , HIV Infections/blood , HIV/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Cell-Derived Microparticles/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Blood Platelets , Biomarkers/blood , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Flow Cytometry
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