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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(5): 469-473, May 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956476


SUMMARY BACKGROUND Some researchers have suggested that HIV infections can increase the cytokines, which might interfere with the bone metabolism and increase the risk of bone mass loss. However, this issue has yet to be consolidated in postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE To analyze studies that evaluated the loss of bone mass through DEXA in women living with HIV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA guideline. The MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were consulted from January 1987 to March 2017. Studies assessing bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women living with HIV were included. The secondary outcome was to evaluate the impact of antiretroviral on BMD. RESULTS Sixty percent of the manuscripts suggested that women living with HIV had more bone loss than women in the control group, mainly in the lumbar spine. Forty percent did not observe any difference between groups. One study reported the influence of antiretroviral drugs on bone mass but did not find any difference between groups. CONCLUSION Our data suggest that HIV infections may have a negative influence on bone mass loss in women. Further studies on the mechanism of this HIV consequence are necessary to clarify the connection as well as the impact of the antiretroviral action on BMD in postmenopausal women.

Humans , Female , Bone Density , HIV Infections/complications , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/complications , Postmenopause , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(1): 64-71, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887635


ABSTRACT Objective The present study compares immune and endocrine parameters between HIV-infected patients who underwent the Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS-P) during antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV-patients who did not undergo the syndrome (non-IRIS-P). Materials and methods Blood samples were obtained from 31 HIV-infected patients (15 IRIS-P and 16 non-IRIS-P) before ART (BT) and 48 ± 2 weeks after treatment initiation (AT). Plasma Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-18 (IL-18) were determined by ELISA. Cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and thyroxin concentrations were measured using chemiluminescence immune methods. Results Concentrations of IL-6 (7.9 ± 1.9 pg/mL) and IL-18 (951.5 ± 233.0 pg/mL) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in IRIS-P than in non-IRIS-P (3.9 ± 1.0 pg/mL and 461.0 ± 84.4 pg/mL, respectively) BT. Mean T4 plasma level significantly decreased in both groups of patients after treatment (p < 0.05). In both groups cortisol levels were similar before and after ART (p > 0.05). Levels of DHEA-S in IRIS-P decreased AT (1080.5 ± 124.2 vs. 782.5 ± 123.8 ng/mL, p < 0.05) and they were significantly lower than in non-IRIS-P (782.5 ± 123.8 vs. 1203.7 ± 144.0 ng/mL, p < 0.05). IRIS-P showed higher values of IL-6 and IL-18 BT and lower levels of DHEA-S AT than in non-IRIS-P. Conclusion These parameters could contribute to differentiate IRIS-P from non-IRIS-P. The significant decrease in DHEA-S levels in IRIS-P after ART might suggest a different adrenal response in these patients, which may reflect the severity of the disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/blood , Thyroxine/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hydrocortisone/blood , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate/blood , Viral Load , Interleukin-18/blood , Luminescence , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/immunology , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/metabolism
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 20(3): 526-536, Jul.-Set. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-898606


RESUMO: Introdução: A síndrome da lipodistrofia do HIV é caracterizada por alterações no metabolismo e na composição corporal, que aumentam o risco cardiovascular de pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS (PVHA) em uso da terapia antirretroviral de alta potência (TARV). Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de lipodistrofia e de alterações do metabolismo de lipídios e glicose em PVHA em uso da TARV. Métodos: Para avaliação antropométrica foram aferidos peso, estatura e circunferência abdominal (CA). Para avaliação da lipodistrofia foi realizado o exame físico (subjetivo) e o exame (objetivo) de absortometria com raios X de dupla energia (DEXA) por meio da razão de massa gorda (RMG). Foram também realizados exames de lipidograma e glicemia de jejum e utilizados os critérios sugeridos pelo The National Cholesterol Education Program III para classificação de alterações metabólicas. Resultados: A amostra final consistiu em 262 pacientes com idade média de 44,3 ± 10,2 anos. A lipodistrofia, de acordo com o exame físico, esteve presente em 47,7% (IC95% 41,7 - 53,8) dos pacientes, enquanto pela RMG (DEXA) sua prevalência foi de 40,8% (IC95% 33,1 - 48,5). A maioria (53,0%; IC95% 47,0 - 59,1) dos pacientes apresentou aumento de adiposidade abdominal segundo a CA. As alterações metabólicas mais presentes foram o HDL reduzido (67,6%; IC95% 61,9 - 73,2) e a hipertrigliceridemia (55,7%; IC95% 49,7 - 61,7). Conclusões: A alta prevalência de lipodistrofia e alterações do metabolismo de lipídios e glicose evidenciam a importância da intervenção precoce nesse grupo de pacientes para prevenir complicações cardiovasculares.

ABSTRACT: Introduction: The HIV lipodystrophy syndrome is characterized by changes in metabolism, and body composition that increase cardiovascular risk of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Objective: To assess the prevalence of lipodystrophy and changes in lipid and glucose metabolism in PLWHA in use of HAART. Methods: For the anthropometric evaluation we measured weight, height and abdominal circumference (AC). For the lipodystrophy evaluation we conducted physical examination (subjective) and the (objective) examination of absorptiometry with X-ray dual energy (DEXA) by fat mass ratio (FMR). We also conducted lipid profile tests and fasting glucose and used the criteria suggested by The National Cholesterol Education Program III for metabolic disorders classification. Results: The final sample consisted of 262 patients with a mean age of 44.3 ± 10.2 years. Lipodystrophy, according to the physical examination, was present in 47.7% (95%CI 41.7 - 53.8) of patients, while the prevalence using FMR (DEXA) was 40.8% (95%CI 33.1 - 48.5). Most (53.0%; 95%CI 47.0 - 59.1) of the patients showed increased abdominal adiposity according to AC. The most prevalent metabolic alterations were reduced HDL (67.6%; 95%CI 61.9 - 73.2) and hypertriglyceridemia (55.7%; 95%CI 49.7 - 61.7). Conclusion: The high prevalence of lipodystrophy and changes in lipid and glucose metabolism show the importance of early intervention in this group of patients to prevent cardiovascular complications.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Adipose Tissue , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Lipid Metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Lipodystrophy/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/metabolism , Lipodystrophy/etiology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(4): 382-390, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887578


ABSTRACT Objective Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of metabolic disorders and alterations on irisin levels. Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to quantify the circulating irisin concentration in HIV-infected subjects under highly active antiretroviral therapy and to determine possible correlations between irisin levels with fat mass, fat-free mass, body mass index (BMI), and muscle strength. Subjects and methods Cross-sectional study of 10 men (36.7 ± 11.3 years) and 10 women (42.5 ± 10.3 years) infected with HIV, recruited from the Specialized Service Center in the State Center of Reference for High and Medium Complexity. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma irisin levels, glucose, HDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. Body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass) and anthropometrics (body mass index; BMI) were measured by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was assessed using a mechanic hand dynamometer and one maximum repetition tests. Results Irisin levels correlated positively with fat mass (r = 0.67; p = 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.48; p = 0.036). In contrast, there was an inverse correlation between irisin levels and fat-free mass (r = -0.41; p = 0.008) and five strength parameters: right hand grip (r = -0.46; p = 0.044); left hand grip (r = -0.50; p = 0.027), relative hand grip (r = -0.79; p = 0.001), bench press (r = -0.58; p = 0.009), leg press (r = -0.40; p = 0.085), and biceps curl (r = -0.059; p = 0.009). Conclusion Irisin levels correlated positively with body fat and negatively with fat-free mass and strength parameters in HIV-infected patients. Female patients infected with HIV receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy have higher levels of irisin compared with men in a similar circumstance.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/blood , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Fibronectins/blood , Body Composition/drug effects , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fibronectins/metabolism , Fibronectins/pharmacology , Hand Strength , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Muscle Strength/drug effects
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(5): 478-483, 07/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719193


With the advent of high active antiretroviral therapy there was a significant improvement on HIV subjects survival. Thus, bone changes related to HIV became an important aspect of these individuals. HIV affects bone remodeling causing bone fragility. In addition, antiretroviral therapy may also negatively affect bone metabolism. Several studies describe an increased incidence of fractures in these patients when compared with controls without the disease. The European Society of AIDS (EACS), and other societies, have included guidance on management of osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients emphasizing the identification of patients with low bone mass. Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D and the use of alendronate in these individuals should be recommended on a case base.

Com o advento da terapia antirretroviral, houve uma melhora considerável na sobrevida dos indivíduos portadores do vírus HIV. Dessa forma, as alterações ósseas referentes ao HIV se tornaram um fator importante no cuidado desses indivíduos. O HIV altera o remodelamento ósseo causando fragilidade óssea. As alterações causadas por esse vírus nos linfócitos T afetam a produção de RANKL e de citocinas pró-inflamatórias levando à osteoclastogênese. Ademais, a terapia antirretroviral também pode afetar negativamente o metabolismo ósseo. Vários estudos descrevem aumento da incidência de fraturas nesses indivíduos quando comparados a controles sem a doença. Diretrizes da Sociedade Europeia de SIDA (EACS) têm orientado o manejo da osteoporose nesses sujeitos, enfatizando a identificação de pacientes com baixa massa óssea. A suplementação de cálcio e vitamina D e o uso de alendronato nesses indivíduos devem ser recomendados caso a caso.

Female , Humans , Male , Aging/metabolism , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Bone and Bones/virology , Fractures, Bone , HIV Infections , Osteoporosis/complications , Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects , Bone Density , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/virology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/metabolism , Osteoporotic Fractures/prevention & control , Risk Factors
Arq. gastroenterol ; 50(1): 56-63, Jan-Mar/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671331


Context Glutamine is the main source of energy of the enterocyte and diarrhea and weight loss are frequent in HIV infected patients. Objective To determine the effect of alanyl-glutamine supplementation on intestinal permeability and absorption in these patients. Methods Randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled study using isonitrogenous doses of alanyl-glutamine (24 g/day) and placebo (glycine, 25 g/day) during 10 days. Before and after this nutritional supplementation lactulose and mannitol urinary excretion were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results Forty six patients with HIV/AIDS, 36 of whom were male, with 37.28 ± 3 (mean ± standard error) years were enrolled. Twenty two and 24 subjects were treated with alanyl-glutamine and with glycine respectively. In nine patients among all in the study protocol that reported diarrhea in the 14 days preceding the beginning of the study, mannitol urinary excretion was significantly lower than patients who did not report this symptom [median (range): 10.51 (3.01–19.75) vs. 15.37 (3.93–46.73); P = 0.0281] and lactulose/mannitol ratio was significantly higher [median (range): 0.04 (0.00–2.89) vs. 0.02 (0.00–0.19); P = 0.0317]. There was also a significant increase in mannitol urinary excretion in the group treated with alanyl-glutamine [median (range): 14.38 (8.25–23.98) before vs 21.24 (6.27–32.99) after treatment; n = 14, P = 0.0382]. Conclusion Our results suggest that the integrity and intestinal absorption are more intensely affected in patients with HIV/AIDS who recently have had diarrhea. Additionally, nutritional supplementation with alanyl-glutamine was associated with an improvement in intestinal absorption. .

Contexto A glutamina é a principal fonte de energia do enterócito e diarreia e perda de peso são frequentes em pacientes infectados pelo HIV. Objetivo Determinar o efeito da alanil-glutamina sobre a permeabilidade e a absorção intestinais nesses pacientes. Métodos Estudo duplo-cego, randomizado, controlado por placebo, utilizando doses isonitrogênicas de alanil-glutamina (24 g/dia) e de placebo (glicina, 25 g/dia) durante 10 dias. Antes e depois dessa suplementação nutricional a excreção urinária de lactulose e manitol foi determinada por cromatografia líquida de alta performance. Resultados Quarenta e seis pacientes com HIV/AIDS, sendo 36 do sexo masculino, com 37,28 ± 3 anos (média ± erro padrão) foram incluídos. Vinte e dois e 24 indivíduos foram tratados com alanil-glutamina e com glicina, respectivamente. Nos nove pacientes que relataram ter apresentado diarreia nos 14 dias anteriores ao início do estudo, a excreção urinária de manitol foi significativamente menor do que nos pacientes que não referiram essa queixa [mediana (intervalo): 10,51 (3,01-19,75) vs 15,37 (3,93-46,73), P = 0,0281] e a razão lactulose/manitol foi significativamente mais elevada [mediana (intervalo): 0,04 (0,00-2,89) vs 0,02 (0,00-0,19), P = 0,0317]. Constatou-se também aumento significativo na excreção urinária de manitol no grupo tratado com alanil-glutamina [mediana (intervalo): 14,38 (8,25-23,98), antes vs 21,24 (6,27-32,99) após o tratamento, n = 14, P = 0,0382]. Conclusão Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que a integridade e a absorção intestinais são mais intensamente afetadas em pacientes com HIV/AIDS que tiveram diarreia recentemente. Adicionalmente, a suplementação ...

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Dietary Supplements , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Dipeptides/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/metabolism , Intestinal Absorption/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Diarrhea/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Permeability , Prospective Studies
Rev. GASTROHNUP ; 12(2): 84-87, mayo-ago.2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-645125


La infección por VIH está asociada con un elevado riesgo de malnutrición. Los mecanismos por los cuales un paciente con SIDA pierde peso, pueden llegar a ser disminución de ingreso alimentario por falta de apetito; pérdida de las capacidades cognoscitiva, visual, auditiva, olfatoria ó por pérdida del estado de consciencia; aversión a los alimentos por cambio de sabores; dificultad ó dolor al deglutir, por enfermedades del esófago; náuseas ó vómito por gastritis medicamentosa ó por efectos adversos de los medicamentos; pérdidas alimentarías anormales ó mayor consumo de energía y nutrimentos causado por la enfermedad ó sus complicaciones, sin olvidar factores económicos y el social. Diversos factores aquejan una ingesta anormal en el paciente con VIH/SIDA. El síndrome de malabsorción intestinal, aparece en el 31% de los niños infectados. Las infecciones oportunistas pueden ocasionar fiebre, provocando un estado hipermetabólico, con incremento de las necesidades energéticas del organismo así como las pérdidas de nitrógeno por orina. Los factores psicosociales también contribuyen de manera importante al crecimiento subóptimo de niños infectados con VIH.

The mechanisms by which an AIDS patient loses weight, may become reduced food intake due to lack of appetite, loss of cognitive skills, visual, auditory, olfactory or loss of the state of consciousness, aversion to food for change flavors, difficulty or pain on swallowing, esophageal diseases, gastritis, nausea or vomiting from medications or adverse drugs effects, los sor abnormal eating more energy and nutrients caused by the disease or its complications, not to mention economic factors and social. Several factors facing an abnormal intake in patients with HIV/AIDS. Intestinal malabsorption síndrome, occurs in 31% of infected children. Opporunistic infecions can cause fever, causing a hypermetabolic state with increased energy needs and body nitrogen losses in urine. Psychosocial factors also contribute significantly to suboptimal growth of children infected with HIV.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Child Nutrition , HIV Infections/classification , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/diet therapy , HIV Infections/metabolism , Malnutrition/classification , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/diagnosis
Rev. GASTROHNUP ; 12(2): 88-91, mayo-ago.2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-645126


En niños con infección por VIH/SIDA, existen diferentes métodos para estimar las necesidades de proteína y energía. Estos requerimientos pueden ser estimados, sustituyendo la ingesta diaria recomendada (IDR) por proteína, o incrementando la IDR de proteína entre 50%-100%. Los lípidos ayudan a aumentar el aporte energético. La restricción de carbohidratos simples, se hará en el caso de presentar resistencia periférica a la insulina, al igual que cuando se presente hipertrigliceridemia. Es necesario mantener una buena hidratación para asegurar el equilibrio hidroelectrolítico. El objetivo del soporte nutricional especial, tiene que estar encaminado a preservar la masa grasa y mantener los niveles adecuados de nutrimentos y minimizar los síntomas de malabsorción. De preferencia se deberá utilizar la vía oral ó enteral. Aunque muchos estudios reportan la transmisión del VIH a través de la leche materna, la proporción y la epidemiología no está completamente establecida.

In children with HIV/AIDS infection, there are different methods for estimating protein and energy needs. These requirements can be estimated by replacing the recommended daily intake (RDI) for protein, or increasing the RDA of protein between 50%-100%. Lipids help to increase energy intake. The restriction of simple carbohydrates, will be presented in the case of peripheral insulin resistance, like when presented hypertriglyceridemia. Must be maintained to ensure good hydration and electrolyte balance. The purpose of the special nutritional support, must be designed to preserve body fat and maintain proper levels of nutrients and minimize symptoms of malabsorption. Preferably it should use the oral or enteral. Although many studies report HIV transmission through breast milk, the proportion and epidemiology is not fully established.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , HIV Infections/classification , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/metabolism , Child Nutrition , Carbohydrates/classification , Lipids/analysis , Lipids/classification , Minerals , Nutritional Requirements , Vitamins/classification , Vitamins
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 32(6): 286-292, jun. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-560720


OBJETIVOS: avaliar a expressão da E-caderina em lesões do colo uterino em pacientes portadoras da infecção pelo vírus HIV. MÉTODOS: foi realizado um estudo com 77 pacientes apresentando o HPV cervical, sendo 40 soropositivas e 37 soronegativas para o HIV, todas submetidas à colposcopia e biópsia de colo uterino. O material obtido foi encaminhado para histopatologia e imunoistoquímica. Foram realizados cortes e montagem em lâminas silanizadas, e o observador foi blindado para a sorologia da paciente. Foram utilizados os anticorpos E-caderina, marca DAKO, clone NHC-38, com diluição de 1:400, e o sistema de polímeros Novolink (Novocastra). A expressão de E-caderina foi avaliada na membrana da célula epitelial, através da extensão da área corada. Utilizou-se o teste do χ2 com correção de Yates ou o teste de Fisher, para comparação de proporções na análise univariada. Foram incluídas no modelo de regressão logística todas as variáveis com valor p<0,25, chamado de modelo inicial. Foi utilizado o pacote estatístico SPSS e adotado o nível de significância estatística de 5 por cento. RESULTADOS: a expressão da E-caderina foi identificada em até 1/3 interno do epitélio em 59,3 por cento dos casos e em até 2/3 do epitélio em 11,1 por cento dos casos, mas em 29,6 por cento dos casos a expressão foi identificada em toda a espessura do epitélio entre as pacientes soronegativas para o HIV. Por outro lado, nas pacientes soropositivas para o HIV, verificou-se 45,9 por cento com expressão em até 1/3 do epitélio, 13,5 por cento com expressão até 2/3 do epitélio e 40,5 por cento em toda a espessura do epitélio. A expressão da E-caderina não foi diferente entre os dois grupos (p=0,5). A análise multivariada, contudo, identificou associação significativa entre as lesões cervicais de alto grau e a expressão da E-caderina em 2/3 e 3/3 do epitélio (p<0,001; χ2=36,9). CONCLUSÕES: a expressão da E-caderina na membrana das células epiteliais não está associada à infeção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, e sim ao grau da lesão intraepitelial cervical.

PURPOSE: to evaluate the expression of E-cadherin in cervical lesions of patients suffering from HIV infection. METHODS: we conducted a study with 77 patients with cervical HPV infection, 40 of them were HIV seropositive and 37 HIV seronegative who underwent colposcopy and a biopsy of the cervix. The material obtained by biopsy of the cervix was sent for histopathologic and immunohistochemical study. Sections were obtained and mounted on silanized slides and examined by an observer who was blind to patient serology. E-cadherin antibody, clone NHC-38 diluted 1:400 (DAKO) and the Novolink polymer system (Novocastra) were used. The expression of E-cadherin was determined on the epithelial cell membrane based on the extent of the stained area. The χ2 test with Yates correction or the Fisher's Exact test was used for comparison of the proportion in univariate analysis. All the variables with p<0.25 were included in the logistic regression model, called initial model. The analyses were carried out using the SPSS software, with the level of significance set at 5 percent. RESULTS: the expression of E-cadherin was observed in up to the internal 1/3 of the epithelium in 59.3 percent of cases and in up to 2/3 of the epithelium in 11.1 percent of cases, but in 29.6 percent of cases the expression was identified throughout the thickness of the epithelium in HIV-seronegative patients. In contrast, in HIV-seropositive patients, 45.9 percent showed expression up to 1/3 of the epithelium, 13.5 percent showed expression in up to 2/3 of the epithelium, and 40.5 percent showed expression throughout the thickness of the epithelium. E-cadherin expression did not differ between groups (p=0.5). However, the multivariate analysis identified a significant association between high-grade cervical injury and E-cadherin expression in 2/3 and 3/3 of the epithelium (p=0.001; χ2=36.9). CONCLUSIONS: the expression of E-cadherin in the epithelial cell membrane is not associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus, but with the degree of intraepithelial cervical injury.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cadherins/physiology , HIV Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Adhesion , Cadherins/biosynthesis , HIV Infections/metabolism , Papillomavirus Infections/metabolism , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/metabolism , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Young Adult
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 93(5): 519-568, nov. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-536211


Um dos fenômenos mais atuais da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS) é o surgimento de uma nova população vulnerável: os idosos. Um dos fatores responsáveis por este aumento é o desenvolvimento da terapia antirretroviral combinada (TARV), que tem proporcionado uma melhor qualidade e expectativa de vida do portador de HIV. Entretanto, a TARV está associada a efeitos adversos como dislipidemia, diabete melito e resistência à insulina, os quais se constituem como fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular. Com o impacto da TARV no metabolismo glicídico e lipídico, surgiram muitos estudos associando a infecção pelo HIV e a doença cardiovascular, assim como, os seus fatores de risco e a utilização da TARV, porém, poucos deles relatam sobre a cardiotoxicidade desta Terapia em idosos. Este artigo tem o objetivo de revisar as principais alterações metabólicas causadas pelo uso da terapia antirretroviral e o seu impacto no aumento do risco de doenças cardiovasculares nos idosos portadores de HIV.

One of the most recent phenomena related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the emergence of a new vulnerable population: the elderly. One of the factors that account for this increase is the development of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), which has provided better quality of life and life expectancy for HIV-positive patients. However, ART is associated with adverse effects such as dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Due to the impact of ART on lipid and glucose metabolism, many studies were published involving HIV infection and cardiovascular disease, as well as their risk factors and the use of ART, but few of them reported on the cardiotoxicity of this therapy in the elderly. The objective of this study is to review the main metabolic changes caused by the use of antiretroviral therapy and its impact on an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in elderly people with HIV.

Uno de los fenómenos más actuales del síndrome de la inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA) es el surgimiento de una nueva población vulnerable: los adultos mayores. Uno de los factores responsables de este incremento es el desarrollo de la terapia antirretroviral combinada (TARV), que ha proporcionado una mejor calidad y expectativa de vida del portador de VIH. Sin embargo, la TARV está asociada a efectos adversos como dislipidemia, diabetes melito y resistencia a la insulina, los que se constituyen como factores de enfermedad para riesgo cardiovascular. Con el impacto de la TARV en el metabolismo glucídico y lipídico, surgieron muchos estudios asociando la infección por el riesgo y la enfermedad cardiovascular, así como, sus factores de VIH y la utilización de la TARV, sin embargo, pocos de ellos relatan sobre la cardiotoxicidad de esta terapia en adultos mayores. Este artículo tiene por objeto revisar las principales alteraciones metabólicas causadas por el uso de la terapia antirretroviral y su impacto en el aumento del riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en los adultos mayores portadores de VIH.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/metabolism , Metabolic Diseases/chemically induced , Risk Factors
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 13(2): 130-136, Apr. 2009. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-538219


The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic abnormalities (dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance) associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in AIDS patients, treated in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The patients were distributed in five different groups: Group 1, HIV-infected without antiretroviral therapy; Group 2, with Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Efavirenz or Nevirapine; Group 3, with Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Protease Inhibitor; Group 4, with Stavudine, Lamivudine and Efavirenz or Nevirapine; and Group 5, with Stavudine, Lamivudine and Protease Inhibitor. The lipid and glucose profile were determined and statistics comparison was made. The findings of this study showed significant statistics elevations of total cholesterol and triglycerides levels in patients of Groups 3, 4 and 5, when comparing to patients of Groups 1 and 2. Significant differences were not observed between the groups in the others parameters evaluated: Glucose, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Comparing two drugs of same class (NNRTI) through the subgroups II-efavirenz and II-nevirapine, significant differences in the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose favorable to the subgroup II-NVP were observed. These findings suggest that combinations including Protease Inhibitors and/or Stavudine could cause more adverse metabolic effects, and if possible, should be avoided in patients with others cardiovascular risk factors to prevent the precocious atherosclerosis in AIDS patients receiving HAART.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Dyslipidemias/chemically induced , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Insulin Resistance , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/metabolism , Lipids/blood , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-25183


BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Individuals infected with HIV-1 have higher levels of chemokine producing cells compared to uninfected individuals. It is important to know the changes in chemokine levels associated with rate of progression of disease. There is a paucity of information on the plasma chemokines in HIV-1 infected individuals from India. We therefore carried out this study to estimate the levels of three chemokines namely macrophage inflammatory protein alpha (MIP1alpha), MIP1beta and RANTES, in relation to disease status in HIV-1 infected individuals and compared with uninfected individuals. METHODS: RANTES and MIP1alpha were estimated using ELISA in 114 HIV-1 infected and 30 controls, whereas MIP1beta was estimated in 101 HIV infected individuals only and 30 controls. The values were compared to the T cell subsets, HIV-1 viral loads and plasma cytokines (interferon gamma and interleukin-10). RESULTS: Compared to controls the mean MIP1alpha and RANTES level among the HIV-1 infected individuals was higher while MIP1beta level was lower in HIV infected individuals except CDC C groups. There was a significant positive correlation for MIP1á with HIV-1 viral load and IFNgamma, for MIP1alpha with viral load and IL10. There was a significant negative correlation between MIP1alpha with CD4 count and CD4: CD8 ratio and MIP1beta with CD4 count and CD8 count. There was a negativecorrelation between RANTES values and CD8 per cent. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study showed a significantly higher level of beta chemokines in south Indian HIV-1 infected individuals compared to controls. These beta chemokines may have the inhibitory effect on HIV-1 only during the initial period and with the progression of disease this inhibitory effect wanes as shown by the positive correlation of beta chemokines with HIV-1 viral load.

Adult , Aged , Chemokine CCL3/biosynthesis , Chemokine CCL4/biosynthesis , Chemokine CCL5/biosynthesis , Chemokines/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV-1/metabolism , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Promoter Regions, Genetic
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 51(1): 42-51, fev. 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-448362


Os objetivos foram avaliar dados antropométricos e perfis lipídico e glicêmico de pacientes infectados pelo HIV usuários e não usuários de anti-retrovirais (ARV), e verificar a associação entre ARV e alterações da gordura corporal, distúrbios lipídicos e da homeostase da glicose. Foram incluídos 176 pacientes (133 usuários e 43 não usuários de ARV). Os pacientes foram submetidos a avaliação clínica, exames laboratoriais, ultrassonografia, biompedanciometria e medida de pregas cutâneas. Pacientes usuários de ARV apresentaram maior relação cintura/quadril (p= 0,0002), maior espessura da gordura intra-abdominal medida pela ultrassonografia (p= 0,003) e menores pregas de gordura bicipital (p= 0,01) e tricipital (p= 0,0002). Estes pacientes tiveram níveis mais elevados de triglicérides (p= 0,0002), colesterol total (p= 0,00007) e colesterol HDL (p= 0,009). Eles também apresentaram maiores níveis de glicose aos 60 (p= 0,01) e 120 minutos (p= 0,001) após dextrosol, maiores níveis de insulina de jejum (p= 0,03) e maiores valores do índice HOMA (p= 0,02). As drogas anti-retrovirais estão associadas a acúmulo central e perda periférica de gordura. Além disso, estas drogas estão associadas a alterações lipídicas e a aumento da resistência insulínica, conhecidos fatores de risco cardiovascular.

The aims of this study were to describe anthropometric data and glycemic and lipidic profiles of HIV-infected patients treated or not with antiretrovirals (ARV) drugs, and to assess association between these drugs and body composition changes, lipid and glucose homeostasis disturbances. There were 176 patients included (133 ARV-treated patients and 43 ARV-naïve). The patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, laboratorial analysis, ultrasonographic measurements, bioelectrical impedance analysis and skin folds thickness measurements. The ARV-treated group showed higher waist-to-hip ratio (p= 0.0002), higher intra-abdominal fat thickness measured by ultrasonography (p= 0.003) and lower bicipital (p= 0.01) and tricipital (p= 0.0002) skin folds. This group also showed higher triglyceride (p= 0.0002), total cholesterol (p= 0.00007), HDL cholesterol (p= 0.009), glucose measurements one hour (p= 0.01) and two hours (p= 0.001) after dextrose load, higher levels of fasting insulin (p= 0.03) and higher HOMAR index (p= 0.02). The antiretroviral drugs are associated with increased visceral fat and decreased peripheral fat pads. Beside that, these drugs are associated with atherogenic lipid profile and insulin resistance, two independent risk predictors of cardiovascular disease.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Body Fat Distribution , Blood Glucose/drug effects , HIV Infections/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/chemically induced , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/metabolism , Intra-Abdominal Fat/drug effects , Metabolic Syndrome/chemically induced , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Statistics, Nonparametric , Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal/drug effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21101


HIV-1 Tat is considered to be one of key players to facilitate monocyte entry into the CNS, which is characteristic feature of AIDS-related encephalitis and dementia. This study was performed to determine the regulatory function of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on the HIV-1 Tat-induced signaling pathways leading to NF-kappaB activation, expression of adhesion molecules, and monocyte adhesion in CRT-MG human astroglioma cells by using cell-permeable SOD. When cell-permeable SOD was added to the culture medium of CRT-MG cells, it rapidly entered the cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Treatment of astrocytes with cell-permeable SOD led to decrease in Tat-induced ROS generation as well as NF-kappaB activation. Cell-permeable SOD inhibited the activation of MAP kinases including ERK, JNK and p38 by HIV-1 Tat. Treatment of CRT-MG cells with cell-permeable SOD significantly inhibited protein and mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 up-regulated by HIV-1 Tat, as measured by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Furthermore, enhanced adhesiveness of monocyte to astrocyte by HIV-1 Tat was significantly abrogated by pretreatment with cell-permeable SOD fusion proteins. These data indicate that SOD has a regulatory function for HIV-1 Tat-induced NF-kappaB activation in astrocytes and suggest that cell-permeable SOD can be used as a feasible therapeutic agent for regulation of ROS-related neurological diseases.

Astrocytes/enzymology , Cell Adhesion/physiology , Cell Membrane Permeability , Gene Products, tat/pharmacology , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV-1/chemistry , Humans , Monocytes/cytology , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics
Arq. gastroenterol ; 43(4): 310-315, out.-dez. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-445636


RACIONAL: O trato gastrointestinal é freqüentemente acometido nas crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, com importantes repercussões no seu estado nutricional e sobrevida. A maioria dos estudos relacionados a esse tema foi desenvolvida com adultos, sendo menos investigado o problema nas crianças OBJETIVOS: Estudar aspectos digestivo-absortivos, microbiológicos e morfológicos intestinais em crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Onze crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, menores de 13 anos, pertencentes às categorias clínicas A, B ou C, divididas em dois grupos: cinco pacientes com relato atual ou recente de diarréia e seis pacientes sem diarréia nos 30 dias que antecederam à inclusão no estudo. Investigação proposta: biopsia de intestino delgado e reto para análise morfológica e microbiológica, coprocultura, protoparasitológico de fezes, pesquisa de rotavírus, micobactérias e Cryptosporidium; teste da D-xilose RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes testados (9/11) apresentavam má absorção da D-xilose (8,4-24,4 mg/dL). Os achados histopatológicos de intestino delgado foram inespecíficos, representados em sua maioria, por enteropatia grau I a II (6/10). Em todos os casos foi constatado aumento do infiltrado celular do córion. As alterações histopatológicas do reto também foram inespecíficas, com presença de aumento do infiltrado celular do córion. A pesquisa de microorganismos enteropatogênicos só foi positiva em dois casos, sendo identificado Mycobacterium avium intracellulare e Cryptosporidium nas fezes CONCLUSÕES: Demonstrou-se alta prevalência (100 por cento) de má absorção intestinal em crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, com ou sem diarréia. Não foi possível estabelecer correlações quanto à presença de agentes enteropatogênicos, má absorção intestinal, alterações morfológicas intestinais e ocorrência ou não de diarréia. Não houve correlação...

BACKGROUD: Gastrointestinal tract disorders are frequent among human immunodeficiency virus infected children, with important repercussions on nutrition and survival. Most studies related to this subject were restricted to adults, being less investigated the problem in the children. AIMS: To study intestinal digestion, absorption, microbiological and morphological findings among human immunodeficiency virus infected children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven human immunodeficiency virus infected children under 13 years old, belonging to clinical categories A, B or C, separated in two groups: five patients with current or recent episode of diarrhea and six patients without diarrhea in the last 30 days preceding entering in study. Investigation proposed: microbiological and morphological analysis of small intestine and rectum biopsy; stool exams for bacterium, parasite, rotavirus, Mycobacterium species and Cryptosporidium; D-xylose test RESULTS: All tested subjects (9/11) had low D-xylose absorption (8,4 _ 24,4 mg d/L). Small intestinal mucosa histology findings were nonspecific, represented, in majority, of grade I/II enteropathy (6/10). Increased cellular infiltration of the chorion was observed in all specimens. Rectum histology alterations were also nonspecific, with chorion increased cellular infiltration. Mycobacterim avium intracellulare and Cryptosporidium were the solely microorganisms founded, both in stool CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated high prevalence (100 percent) of intestinal malabsorption among human immunodeficiency virus infected children, despite the occurrence or not of diarrhea. It was not possible to establish relationships between the presence of microorganisms, intestinal malabsorption, intestinal morphologic findings and the occurrence or not of diarrhea. There was no correlation between D-xylose and intensity of villous atrophy.

Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , HIV Infections/metabolism , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Malabsorption Syndromes/metabolism , Rectum/metabolism , Biopsy , Chorionic Villi Sampling , Diarrhea/complications , Diarrhea/metabolism , Feces/microbiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/pathology , Intestinal Absorption/physiology , Intestine, Small/pathology , Malabsorption Syndromes/pathology , Malabsorption Syndromes/virology , Mycobacterium avium Complex/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium avium Complex/metabolism , Nutritional Status/physiology , Prospective Studies , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/metabolism , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/virology , Rectum/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Xylose/pharmacokinetics
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 9(4): 315-323, Aug. 2005. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-415686


HIV patients are predisposed to the development of hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia as a result of both viral infection and HIV infection therapy, especially the protease inhibitors. Chemokines and cytokines are present at sites of inflammation and can influence the nature of the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis. We investigated the correlation between biochemical variables and beta-chemokines (MIP-1alpha and RANTES) and the apolipoprotein E genotype in HIV-infected individuals. The apolipoproteins were measured by nephelometry. Triglycerides and total cholesterol were determined by standard enzymatic procedures. The beta-chemokines were detected by ELISA. The genetic category of CCR5 and apolipoprotein E were determined by PCR amplification and restriction enzymes. Immunological and virological profiles were assessed by TCD4+ and TCD8+ lymphocyte counts and viral load quantification. Positive correlations were found between apo E and CD8+ (p = 0.035), apo E and viral load (p = 0.018), MIP-1alpha and triglycerides (p = 0.039) and MIP-1a and VLDL (p = 0.040). Negative correlations were found between viral load and CD4+ (p = 0.05) and RANTES and CD4+ (p = 0.029). The beta-chemokine levels may influence lipid metabolism in HIV-infected individuals.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Apolipoproteins E/blood , Chemokine CCL5 , HIV Infections/blood , Lipoproteins/blood , Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Chemokine CCL5 , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Genotype , HIV Infections/metabolism , Lipoproteins/metabolism , Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins , Nephelometry and Turbidimetry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , /blood , Viral Load
J Postgrad Med ; 2004 Apr-Jun; 50(2): 98-101
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-116924


BACKGROUND: Caspase 8 is involved in apoptosis mediated by Fas and p55 tumor necrosis factor receptor ligation in HIV infection. Apoptosis is partially mediated by interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (caspase-1). AIMS: We determined apoptosis, using caspase-1 and caspase-8, among patients with HIV infection, with and without tuberculosis (TB), those with TB alone and healthy individuals. SETTING AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of caspase-1 and caspase-8 among patients with HIV infection, with and without TB, those with TB alone and healthy individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen HIV infected patients with TB (HIV+/TB+) and 20 with HIV infection without TB (HIV+/TB-) were studied. Fifteen individuals with TB alone were disease controls (HIV-/TB+) and 20 were healthy controls (HIV-/TB-). Caspases were measured by single-step ELISA using commercially available monoclonal antibodies. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Two-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Mean CD4 counts of HIV+/TB+ were lower than HIV+/TB- (p<0.05). OD value of caspase 1 in HIV+/TB+ was 0.295+0.05, while that in HIV+/TB- it was 0.302+0.18. It was 0.293+0.07 in HIV-/TB+ and in HIV-/TB- the values were 0.287+0.06. OD value of caspase 8 in HIV+/TB+ was 0.307+ 0.07, lower than HIV+/TB- (0.927+0.25). It was 0.008+0.03 in HIV-/TB+ and in HIV-/TB-, 0.074+0.004. Values of caspase 8 in patients with HIV infection (with/without TB) were higher than those with TB alone or healthy individuals (p<0.01). Levels of caspase 8 in HIV+/TB- were higher than patients with HIV+/TB+ (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Levels of caspase-1 are not different irrespective of presence or otherwise of TB and HIV infection. Fas-related apoptosis is higher in HIV infection. With concomitant TB, levels of caspase 8 were lower as compared with those without TB.

Adult , Apoptosis , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Case-Control Studies , Caspase 1/metabolism , Caspase 8 , Caspases/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/metabolism