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1.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 527-531, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054860

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Malassezia, a skin saprophyte, is frequently isolated from patients with seborrheic dermatitis, which is one of the most common dermatoses in HIV-infected patients. Its role in pathophysiology has not been defined. Objective To determine whether patients living with HIV and seborrheic dermatitis have more Malassezia than those without seborrheic dermatitis. Method This is an descriptive, observational, prospective cross-sectional study to which all adult patients living with HIV that attend the infectious disease outpatient clinic at the Dr. Manuel Gea González General Hospital were invited. Patients presenting with scale and erythema were included in Group 1, while patients without erythema were included in Group 2. Samples were taken from all patients for smear and culture. Results Thirty patients were included in each group. All patients with seborrheic dermatitis had a positive smear, with varying amounts of yeasts. In the control group, 36.7% of patients had a negative smear. The results are statistically significant, as well as the number of colonies in the cultures.Study limitations The study used a small sample size and the subspecies were not identified. Conclusions Patients with clinical manifestations of seborrheic dermatitis have larger amounts of Malassezia. Further studies need to be performed to analyze if the greater amount is related to imbalances in the microbiota of the skin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , HIV Infections/microbiology , Dermatitis, Seborrheic/microbiology , Malassezia/isolation & purification , Skin/microbiology , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sex Distribution , CD4 Lymphocyte Count
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(6): 495-498, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039219

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT There are limited data on the molecular epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Brazil. Here, we report on the identification of the molecular pattern of the Cryptococcus species that caused meningitis in patients admitted in a Brazilian reference tertiary care hospital, and review the published studies addressing the molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus in Brazil. Our study has shown the predominance of molecular type VNII in HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. Molecular types VNII and VGII were occasionally detected in HIV-infected and non-infected patients with meningoencephalitis. In contrast, previous studies have shown that several regions exhibited a high prevalence of the VNI molecular type and sporadic cases of the VNII and VGII molecular types in patients with cryptococcosis in Brazil. Additional studies including VNII isolates will contribute to understanding the epidemiology and phylogenetic relationship of these genotype compared to the other ones. So far, no clear correlation has been established between genotypes, antifungal susceptibility for Cryptococcus and clinical outcome in cryptococcosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/microbiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Mycological Typing Techniques , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/epidemiology , Molecular Epidemiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/classification , Tertiary Care Centers , Genotype
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 387-391, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974236

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To determine the factors associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex-positive blood culture. Methods: Case-control study. Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from 2000 to 2015. Results: We reviewed medical records of 533 patients with culture-proven tuberculosis, of whom 27.2% (145/533) had blood culture available. Patients with mycobacteremia presented more frequently with abdominal tuberculosis, body mass index <18 kg/m2, and had lower hemoglobin and albumin levels. No differences were observed regarding HIV status. Conclusions: Few studies have reported on the characteristics associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteremia, especially among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-negative patients. Out of 145 tuberculosis-infected patients with blood culture results available, 21 turned out positive. Anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and a body mass index < 18 kg/m2 were associated with mycobacteremia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis/microbiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Tuberculosis/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Retrospective Studies , Bacteremia/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tertiary Care Centers , Blood Culture , Mexico
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 305-310, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974220

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To determine the main predictors of death in multidrug-resistant (MDRTB) patients from Brazil. Design Retrospective cohort study, a survival analysis of patients treated between 2005 and 2012. Results Of 3802 individuals included in study, 64.7% were men, mean age was 39 (1-93) years, and 70.3% had bilateral pulmonary disease. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was 8.3%. There were 479 (12.6%) deaths. Median survival time was 1452 days (4 years). Factors associated with increased risk of death were age greater than or equal to 60 years (hazard rate [HR] = 1.6, confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-2.2), HIV co-infection (HR = 1.46; CI = 1.05-1.96), XDR resistance pattern (HR = 1.74, CI = 1.05-2.9), beginning of treatment after failure (HR = 1.72, CI = 1.27-2.32), drug abuse (HR = 1.64, CI = 1.22-2.2), resistance to ethambutol (HR = 1.30, CI = 1.06-1.6) or streptomycin (HR = 1.24, CI = 1.01-1.51). Mainly protective factors were presence of only pulmonary disease (HR = 0.57, CI = 0.35-0.92), moxifloxacin use (HR = 0.44, CI = 0.25-0.80), and levofloxacin use (HR = 0.75; CI = 0.60-0.94). Conclusion A more comprehensive approach is needed to manage MDRTB, addressing early diagnostic, improving adhesion, and comorbidities, mainly HIV infection and drug abuse. The latest generation quinolones have an important effect in improving survival in MDRTB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , HIV Infections/microbiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Ofloxacin/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate/trends , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Cause of Death , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Quinolones/therapeutic use , Educational Status , Coinfection/etiology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
5.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(2): 106-111, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893906

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The incidence of lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide. In Brazil, there are few studies about nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD), and its prevalence is yet to be known. Our objective was to determine the specific etiology of the disease in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, as well as the frequency and diversity of NTM species in our sample of patients. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients diagnosed with NTMLD treated in a referral center located in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, between 2003 and 2013. Results: Our sample comprised 100 patients. The most prevalent NTM species were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), in 35% of the cases; M. kansasii, in 17%; and M. abscessus, in 12%. A total of 85 patients had received previous treatment for tuberculosis. Associated conditions included structural abnormalities in the lungs, such as bronchiectasis, in 23% of the cases; COPD, in 17%; and immunosuppressive conditions, such as AIDS, in 24%. Conclusions: MAC and M. kansasii were the most prevalent species involved in NTMLD in the state, similarly to what occurs in other regions of Brazil. Data on regional epidemiology of NTMLD, its specific etiology, and associated conditions are essential to establish appropriate treatment, since each species requires specific regimens. Most patients with NTMLD had received previous tuberculosis treatment, which might lead to development of resistance and late diagnosis.


RESUMO Objetivo: A incidência de doença pulmonar causada por micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT) tem aumentado em todo o mundo. No Brasil, há poucos estudos sobre doença pulmonar por MNT, e sua prevalência ainda não é conhecida. Nosso objetivo foi determinar a etiologia específica da doença no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, bem como a frequência e a diversidade das espécies de MNT em nossa amostra de pacientes. Métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de pacientes diagnosticados com doença pulmonar por MNT atendidos em um centro de referência localizado na cidade de Porto Alegre, RS, entre 2003 e 2013. Resultados: Nossa amostra foi composta por 100 pacientes. As espécies de MNT mais prevalentes foram Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC, complexo M. avium), em 35% dos casos; M. kansasii, em 17%; e M. abscessus, em 12%. Um total de 85 pacientes havia feito tratamento anterior para tuberculose. Condições associadas incluíram anormalidades estruturais nos pulmões, como bronquiectasias, em 23% dos casos; DPOC, em 17%; e condições imunossupressoras, como AIDS, em 24%. Conclusões: MAC e M. kansasii foram as espécies mais prevalentes envolvidas na doença pulmonar por MNT no estado, à semelhança do que ocorre em outras regiões do Brasil. Dados sobre a epidemiologia regional da doença pulmonar por MNT, sua etiologia específica e condições associadas são fundamentais para se estabelecer um tratamento adequado, já que cada espécie requer um esquema específico. A maioria dos pacientes com doença pulmonar por MNT havia feito tratamento anterior para tuberculose, o que pode levar a desenvolvimento de resistência e diagnóstico tardio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Lung Diseases/microbiology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/epidemiology , Time Factors , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/microbiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
6.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 53-60, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841164

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4); biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5) and medium without Candida (Group 6). Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05) from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/microbiology , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Time Factors , Tooth, Deciduous/microbiology , Tooth, Deciduous/virology , Virulence , In Vitro Techniques , Candida/growth & development , Candida/virology , HIV Infections/complications , Calcium/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Caries/virology , Dental Enamel/virology , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Dental Plaque/virology , Hardness Tests , Microscopy, Polarization
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(1): 51-56, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776534

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial pathogen in community settings. MRSA colonized individuals may contribute to its dissemination; the risk of MRSA infection is increased in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, although the prevalence of colonization in this group is not well established. The present study addressed this issue by characterizing MRSA isolates from HIV/AIDS patients and their healthcare providers (HCPs) to determine whether transmission occurred between these two populations. METHODS: A total of 24 MRSA isolates from HIV-infected patients and five from HCPs were collected between August 2011 and May 2013. Susceptibility to currently available antimicrobials was determined. Epidemiological typing was carried out by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and Staphylococcus cassette chromosome (SCCmec) typing. The presence of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) and heterogeneous daptomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (hDRSA) was confirmed by population analysis profile. Isolates characterized in this study were also compared to isolates from 2009 obtained from patients at the same hospital. RESULTS: A variety of lineages were found among patients, including ST5-SCCmecII and ST30-SCCmecIV. Two isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive, and hVISA and hDRSA were detected. MRSA isolates from two HCPs were not related to those from HIV/AIDS patients, but clustered with archived MRSA from 2009 with no known relationship to the current study population. CONCLUSIONS: ST105-SCCmecII clones that colonized professionals in 2011 and 2012 were already circulating among patients in 2009, but there is no evidence that these clones spread to or between HIV/AIDS patients up to the 7th day of their hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcal Infections , HIV Infections/microbiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/statistics & numerical data , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross Infection/microbiology , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Molecular Epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Tertiary Care Centers
8.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(supl.19): 51-56, Sept. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762054

ABSTRACT

SUMMARYTherapy of coccidioidomycosis continues to evolve. For primary pulmonary disease, antifungal therapy is frequently not required while prolonged courses of antifungals are generally needed for those in whom extrathoracic disseminated has occurred. Intravenous amphotericin B should be reserved for those with severe disease. Oral triazole antifungals have had a great impact on the management of coccidioidomycosis. Both fluconazole and itraconazole at 400 mg daily have been effective for various forms of coccidioidomycosis, including meningitis, although relapse after therapy is discontinued is a problem. Individuals with suppressed cellular immunity are at increased risk for symptomatic coccidioidomycosis and they include those with HIV infection, those on immunosuppressive medications, and those who have received a solid organ transplant. Pregnant women and African-American men have been identified as two other groups who are at an increased risk for symptomatic and severe infection.


RESUMOA terapia da coccidioidomicose continua a evoluir. Para a doença pulmonar primária, o tratamento antifúngico frequentemente não é necessário, enquanto períodos prolongados de tratamento antifúngico são geralmente necessários para aqueles nos quais houve disseminação extratorácica. A anfotericina B intravenosa deve ser reservada para pacientes com doença grave. Antifúngicos triazólicos orais têm tido um grande impacto no manejo da coccidioidomicose. Tanto fluconazol quanto itraconazol em doses diárias de 400 mg foram eficazes contra várias formas de coccidioidomicose, incluindo a meníngea, embora recaídas após a interrupção da terapia ainda constituam um problema. Indivíduos com supressão da imunidade celular apresentam risco aumentado para a coccidioidomicose sintomática, incluindo pacientes infectados pelo HIV, em uso de medicações imunossupressoras, e os que receberam transplantes de órgãos sólidos. Mulheres grávidas e homens afro-americanos foram identificados como dois outros grupos que apresentam risco aumentado de infecção sintomática e grave.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Coccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(5): 440-446, 05/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744379

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effect of silibinin, the principal potential anti-inflammatory flavonoid contained in silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from Silybum marianum seeds, on palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes and its potential molecular mechanisms. Silibinin prevented the decrease of insulin-stimulated 2-NBDG (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose) uptake and the downregulation of glutamate transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation in C2C12 myotubes induced by palmitate. Meanwhile, silibinin suppressed the palmitate-induced decrease of insulin-stimulated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation, which was reversed by wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). We also found that palmitate downregulated insulin-stimulated Tyr632 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and up-regulated IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation. These effects were rebalanced by silibinin. Considering several serine/threonine kinases reported to phosphorylate IRS-1 at Ser307, treatment with silibinin downregulated the phosphorylation of both c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-κB kinase β (IKKβ), which was increased by palmitate in C2C12 myotubes mediating inflammatory status, whereas the phosphorylation of PKC-θ was not significantly modulated by silibinin. Collectively, the results indicated that silibinin prevented inhibition of the IRS-1/PI3K/Akt pathway, thus ameliorating palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Age Distribution , Anal Canal/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , HIV Infections/microbiology , Multivariate Analysis , Nasal Mucosa/microbiology , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Singapore/epidemiology , Skin/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/prevention & control
10.
Clinics ; 69(11): 770-776, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731101

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of infections and HIV-infected individuals are frequently susceptible to this pathogen. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review to identify both the risk factors associated with colonization/infection by methicillin-resistant S. aureus in HIV patients and the methods used for characterization of isolates. An electronic search of articles published between January 2001 and December 2013 was first conducted. Among 116 studies categorized as being at a quality level of A, B or C, only 9 studies were considered to have high methodological quality (level A). The majority of these studies were retrospective (4/9 studies). The risk factors associated with colonization/infection by S. aureus were use of antimicrobials (4/9 studies), previous hospitalization (4/9 studies) and low CD4+ T lymphocyte counts (<200 cells/μl) (3/9 studies). Culture in mannitol salt agar (3/9 studies) and the latex agglutination test (5/9 studies) were the main methods used for bacterial phenotypic identification. Genotypic profiles were accessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (6/9 studies) and USA300 was the most prevalent lineage (5/9 studies). Most isolates were resistant to erythromycin (3/9 studies) and susceptible to vancomycin (4/9 studies). Ultimately, use of antimicrobials and previous hospitalization were the main risk factors for colonization/infection by methicillin-resistant S. aureus in HIV-infected individuals. However, the numbers of evaluated patients, the exclusion and inclusion criteria and the characterization of the S. aureus isolates were not uniform, which made it difficult to establish the characteristics associated with HIV patients who are colonized/infected by S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Methicillin Resistance , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development , Risk Factors
11.
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 21(6): 1235-1239, Nov-Dec/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697357

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the prevalence of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in individuals with HIV/AIDS under inpatient treatment in a teaching hospital in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). METHOD: a cross-sectional study undertaken in two units specialized in attending people living with HIV/AIDS, in the period August 2011 - July 2012. Socio-demographic and clinical data was collected through individual interviews and from the medical records; samples of nasal secretion were collected with Stuart swabs on the first day of inpatient treatment. Ethical aspects were respected. RESULT: of the 229 individuals with HIV/AIDS hospitalized in this period, 169 participated in the study, with Staphylococcus aureus being identified in the culture tests of 46 (27.2%) of the individuals, resistance to oxacillin being evidenced in 10 (21.8%) participants. CONCLUSION: the results of the research indicate that the prevalence of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in individuals with HIV/AIDS in the specialized units was considered relevant, possibly contributing to future investigations and, moreover, to the implementation of measures to prevent and control this pathogen in this population. .


OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência da colonização nasal por Staphylococcus aureus em indivíduos com HIV/Aids internados em um hospital-escola do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil). MÉTODO: estudo de corte transversal, realizado em duas unidades especializadas no atendimento a pessoas que vivem com HIV/ Aids, no período de agosto 2011 a julho 2012. Foram coletados dados sociodemográficos e clínicos, por entrevista individual e prontuário; as amostras de secreção nasal foram coletadas por meio de swab Stuart no primeiro dia de internação. Os aspectos éticos foram contemplados. RESULTADOS: dos 229 indivíduos com HIV/Aids internados no período, 169 participaram do estudo, sendo identificado Staphylococcus aureus nos exames de cultura de 46 (27,2%) dos indivíduos, evidenciando-se resistência à oxacilina em 10 (21,8%) participantes. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados da pesquisa apontam que a prevalência da colonização por Staphylococcus aureus em indivíduos com HIV/Aids internados nas unidades especializadas foi considerada relevante, podendo contribuir para novas investigações e, ainda, para implementar medidas de prevenção e de controle desse patógeno nessa população. .


OBJETIVO: evaluar la prevalencia de la colonización nasal por Staphylococcus aureus en individuos con VIH/sida internados en un hospital escuela del Estado de São Paulo (Brasil). MÉTODO: estudio trasversal, desarrollado en dos unidades especializadas en la atención a personas que viven con VIH/ sida, en el período de agosto del 2011 a julio del 2012. Fueron recolectados datos sociodemográficos y clínicos, mediante entrevista individual y archivo; las muestras de secreción nasal fueron recolectadas mediante Swab Stuart en el primer día de internación. Los aspectos éticos fueron contemplados. RESULTADOS: de los 229 individuos con VIH/sida internados en el período, 169 participaron del estudio, siendo identificado Staphylococcus aureus en las pruebas de cultura de 46 (27,2%) de los individuos, evidenciándose resistencia a la oxacilina en 10 (21,8%) participantes. CONCLUSIÓN: los resultados de la investigación indican que la prevalencia de la colonización por Staphylococcus aureus en individuos con VIH/sida internados en las unidades especializadas fue considerada relevante y puede contribuir a otras investigaciones y, además, para implementar medidas de prevención y de control de ese patógeno en esa población. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , HIV Infections/microbiology , Nose/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/microbiology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Teaching , Staphylococcal Infections
12.
Braz. oral res ; 27(6): 484-489, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-695992

ABSTRACT

The ability to produce enzymes, such as hemolysins, is an important virulence factor for the genus Candida.The objective of this study was to compare the hemolytic activity between C. albicansand non-albicans Candida species. Fifty strains of Candida species, isolated from the oral cavity of patients infected with HIV were studied. The isolates included the following species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. dubliniensis, C. norvegensis, C. lusitaniae, and C. guilliermondii. Hemolysin production was evaluated on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol, blood, and glucose. A loop-full of pure Candidaculture was spot-inoculated onto plates and incubated at 37ºC for 24 h in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. Hemolytic activity was defined as the formation of a translucent halo around the colonies. All C. albicansstrains that were studied produced hemolysins. Among the non-albicans Candidaspecies, 86% exhibited hemolytic activity. Only C. guilliermondiiand some C. parapsilosis isolates were negative for this enzyme. In conclusion, most non-albicans Candidaspecies had a similar ability to produce hemolysins when compared to C. albicans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/metabolism , HIV Infections/microbiology , Hemolysin Proteins/biosynthesis , Culture Media , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/metabolism , Candida/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Species Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Virulence Factors
13.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(2): 142-145, May-Apr. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622734

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes much higher rates of treatment toxicity, failure or relapse, and mortality. We determined the drug resistant profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from a population of HIV-infected patients in southern Brazil and studied the potential factors associated with resistance. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine the resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from HIV-infected patients and factors that could be associated with resistance from 2000 to 2005. RESULTS: 236 patients were included in the study. Resistance to at least one drug was observed in 32 (14.6%) isolates, and multi-drug resistance was observed in 4 (1.82%) isolates. On multivariate analysis, previous use of tuberculostatics and quinolones were related to any first-line drug resistance. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, previous quinolone use was significantly associated to first-line anti-TB drugs resistance. Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major problem worldwide, and we believe quinolones should be used with caution in settings where TB is endemic.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Quinolones/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Cohort Studies , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multivariate Analysis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies
14.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 63(3): 253-256, sep.-dic. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-615569

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Rhodococcus equi es reconocido como un patógeno emergente que causa importante morbilidad y mortalidad entre los pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Objetivo: confirmar la presencia de R. equi en líquido pleural mediante la técnica del polimorfismo en la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción. Métodos: se empleó muestra de líquido pleural de un paciente sida con síntomas respiratorios. Se realizaron cultivos microbiológicos, pruebas de tinción, fenotípicas, bioquímicas y la técnica del polimorfismo en la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción para el diagnóstico del microorganismo. Resultados: las técnicas de tinción, fenotípicas y bioquímicas brindaron un diagnóstico sugestivo de infección por R. equi, el cual fue confirmado por las técnicas moleculares utilizadas. Conclusiones: este trabajo reporta la detección molecular, por primera vez en Cuba, de R. equi en paciente VIH/sida. Los resultados obtenidos permiten sugerir que técnicas de biología molecular pueden ser aplicadas en el diagnóstico y la identificación de R. equi.


Introduction: Rhodococcus equi is recognized as an emerging pathogen that causes important morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Objective: to confirm the presence of R. equi in pleural fluid through the restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Methods: the pleural fluid sample from one AIDS patient with respiratory symptoms was used. Microbiologic culture, staining tests, phenotypic and biochemical tests and restriction fragment length polymorphism technique for the diagnosis of microorganism were performed. Results: the staining technique along with the phenotypic and biochemical tests provided the presumptive diagnosis of R. equi infection, which was further confirmed by the molecular techniques. Conclusions: this paper reported the molecular detection of R. equi from one HIV/aids patient for the first time in Cuba. The results suggested that the molecular biology techniques could be used in the diagnosis and identification of R. equi.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , HIV Infections/microbiology , Rhodococcus equi/isolation & purification , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/microbiology , Bacteriological Techniques/methods , Cuba
15.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 27(3): 214-222, set. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-608770

ABSTRACT

Objective: To know the frequency of environmental mycobacterium isolations in Chile in the year 2008. Methods: 600 AFB (acid fast bacilli) positive cultures from 22 laboratories of Tuberculosis Bacteriology of the different Network Health Services that constitute the Tuberculosis Control Program of the country were studied, during four months at 2008. 545 (90.8 percent) were pulmonary and 55 (9.2 percent) extra pulmonary. Acid fast bacilli smears were confirmed by Ziehl Neelsen and identification of mycobacteria species or complex were identified by traditional tests according to Runyon classification and biochemical tests, genetic probes and pattern analysis restriction (PRA). Results: 585 cultures were appropriated for inclusion in the study. In 91.3 percent (n = 534) of the cases Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated while 0.3 percent was Mycobacterium bovis subspecie BCG (n = 3) and 8.4 percent (n = 48) corresponded to environmental mycobacterium. Of the latter, Mycobacterium kansasii (2.6 percent), Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (1.5 percent) and Mycobacterium chelonae (1.0 percent) were the most commonly isolated. Conclusion: According to the figures of this study and comparing them with studies of previous years (1988 and 1998) it is concluded that the number of environmental mycobacterium isolated has been relatively constant during the last decade, as well as the species, more commonly isolated.


Objetivos: Conocer la frecuencia de aislamientos de micobacterias ambientales en Chile en el año 2008. Material y Métodos: Se recibieron 600 cultivos desde 22 laboratorios de Bacteriología de la Tuberculosis de los distintos Servicios de Salud de la red que comprende el Programa de Control de la Tuberculosis del país, durante un período de cuatro meses del año 2008. Quinientos cuarenta y cinco (90,8 por ciento) correspondieron a localización pulmonar y 55 (9,2 por ciento) a extrapulmonar. Se confirmó la alcohol-ácido resistencia por tinción de Ziehl Neelsen y para la identificación de especies o complejos micobacterianos se utilizaron pruebas tradicionales y bioquímicas de acuerdo al criterio de clasificación de Runyon, sondas genéticas y análisis de patrones de restricción (PRA). Resultados: De los 600 cultivos recibidos, 585fueron aptos para ser incluidos en el estudio. De éstos, en el 91,3 por ciento (n = 534) de los casos se aisló Mycobacterium tuberculosis, en un 0,3 por ciento Mycobacterium bovis subespecie BCG (n = 3) y un 8,4 por ciento (n = 48) correspondió a micobacterias ambientales. De estas últimas, Mycobacterium kansasii (2,6 por ciento), Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (1,5 por ciento) y Mycobacterium chelonae (1,0 por ciento) fueron las más comúnmente aisladas. Conclusiones: De acuerdo a las cifras obtenidas en este estudio y comparadas con estudios de años anteriores (1988 y 1998) se concluye que el número de aislamientos de micobacterias ambientales permaneció relativamente constante esta última década, como también las especies más comúnmente aisladas.


Subject(s)
Environmental Microbiology , Mycobacterium/isolation & purification , Culture Techniques , Chile/epidemiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/isolation & purification
16.
Braz. oral res ; 25(1): 28-33, Jan.-Feb. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595842

ABSTRACT

Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection among HIV-positive patients. This condition can be treated with either systemic or topical antifungal agents; treatments are usually indicated empirically on the basis of clinical data. The knowledge of in vitro antifungal susceptibility is important to determine correct therapeutic guides for the treatment of fungal infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the antifungal susceptibility profile of oral Candida isolates from HIV-positive patients and control individuals. Amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, nystatin and ketoconazole were tested according to the methodology of microdilution proposed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI); results were recorded in values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). A total of 71 Candida isolates from HIV-positive patients were examined with the following species represented: C. albicans (59), C. tropicalis (9), C. glabrata (1), C. guilliermondii (1) and C. krusei (1). A total of 15 Candida isolates were evaluated from control individuals comprised of 11 C. albicans and 4 C. tropicalis samples. Our results demonstrated that the tested antifungal agents showed good activity for most isolates from both groups; however, variability in MIC values among isolates was observed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal , HIV Infections/microbiology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Case-Control Studies , Candida/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Flucytosine/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nystatin/pharmacology , Time Factors
17.
Acta Medica Iranica. 2011; 49 (12): 801-805
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-146512

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study. 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 [6%] subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user [IDU] men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection [3%] and symptomatic brucellosis [0.1%] in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/microbiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Cross-Sectional Studies
18.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 52(3): 139-143, May-June 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-550344

ABSTRACT

Phospholipase and proteinase production and the ability of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BEC) of 112 Candida isolates originated from oral cavity of HIV infected patients and from blood and catheter of intensive care unit patients were investigated. The proteinase production was detected by inoculation into bovine serum albumin (BSA) agar and the phospholipase activity was performed using egg yolk emulsion. A yeast suspension of each test strain was incubated with buccal epithelial cells and the number of adherence yeast to epithelial cells was counted. A percentage of 88.1 percent and 55.9 percent of Candida albicans and 69.8 percent and 37.7 percent of non-albicans Candida isolates produced proteinase and phospholipase, respectively. Non-albicans Candida isolated from catheter were more proteolytic than C. albicans isolates. Blood isolates were more proteolytic than catheter and oral cavity isolates while oral cavity isolates produced more phospholipase than those from blood and catheter. C. albicans isolates from oral cavity and from catheter were more adherent to BEC than non-albicans Candida isolates, but the adhesion was not different among the three sources analyzed. The results indicated differences in the production of phospholipase and proteinase and in the ability of adhesion to BEC among Candida spp. isolates from different sources. This study suggests that the pathogenicity of Candida can be correlated with the infected site.


A produção de proteinase e fosfolipase e habilidade de adesão à célula epitelial bucal de 112 isolados de Candida originadas da cavidade bucal de pacientes infectados pelo HIV e de sangue e cateter de pacientes hospitalizados foram investigados. A produção de proteinase foi detectada por inoculação em ágar soro albumina bovina e a atividade de fosfolipase foi realizada usando emulsão de gema de ovo. A suspensão de levedura de cada isolado foi incubada com célula epitelial e o número de leveduras aderidas a célula epitelial foi contada. Uma porcentagem de 88,1 e 55,9 por cento de C. albicans e 69,8 e 37,7 por cento de isolados de Candida não albicans produziram proteinase e fosfolipase, respectivamente. Candida não albicans obtidas do cateter foram mais proteolíticos que isolados de Candida albicans (p < 0,001). Isolados do sangue foram mais proteolíticos do que isolados do cateter e cavidade bucal, enquanto isolados da cavidade bucal produziram mais fosfolipase do que aqueles isolados do sangue e cateter. C. albicans isoladas da cavidade bucal e do cateter foram mais aderentes à célula epitelial bucal do que isolados de Candida não albicans, mas não houve diferença na adesão entre os três locais analisados. Os resultados indicaram diferenças na produção de fosfolipase e proteinase e na habilidade de adesão à célula epitelial bucal entre os isolados de Candida das diferentes fontes. Este estudo sugere que a patogenicidade de Candida spp pode estar correlacionada ao local infectado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspartic Acid Proteases/biosynthesis , Bacterial Adhesion/physiology , Candida/enzymology , Candida/physiology , Phospholipases/biosynthesis , Candida/isolation & purification , Catheters, Indwelling/microbiology , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Mouth/microbiology
19.
J. bras. pneumol ; 36(2): 224-231, mar.-abr. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-546378

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar o perfil de resistência a drogas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul no período entre 2000 e 2006. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo de casos notificados de tuberculose no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, com cultura positiva para M. tuberculosis e testes de sensibilidade a rifampicina, isoniazida, estreptomicina e etambutol. Para as culturas, utilizaram-se os meios sólidos Lõwenstein-Jensen e Ogawa-Kudoh, assim como um sistema automatizado com meio líquido; para os testes de sensibilidade, o método das proporções. RESULTADOS: De 783 casos, 69,7 por cento eram de pacientes masculinos, na faixa etária de 20-49 anos (70 por cento), com forma pulmonar (94,4 por cento) e sorologia positiva para HIV (8,6 por cento); 645 (82,4 por cento) eram casos novos, e 138 (17,6 por cento) eram casos tratados. Identificou-se qualquer resistência em 143 casos (18,3 por cento). A taxa de resistência primária (RP) foi, respectivamente, 8,1 por cento, 1,6 por cento, 2,8 por cento e 12,4 por cento, para monorresistência, multirresistência (MR), outros padrões de associação de drogas e qualquer resistência, ao passo que a taxa de resistência adquirida (RA) foi, respectivamente, 14,5 por cento, 20,3 por cento, 10,9 por cento e 45,7 por cento, e a taxa de resistência combinada (RC) foi, respectivamente, 9,2 por cento, 4,9 por cento, 4,2 por cento e 18,3 por cento. A estreptomicina foi a droga mais comum na RP (3,4 por cento), e a isoniazida foi a mais comum na RA e RC (7,2 por cento e 3,7 por cento, respectivamente). CONCLUSÕES: Os níveis de resistência são elevados, prejudicando o controle da tuberculose em Mato Grosso do Sul. A MR adquirida, 12,7 vezes superior à MR primária, evidencia o uso prévio de medicamentos como indicativo de resistência. Os níveis refletem a fragilidade da atenção ao doente, mostrando a importância do tratamento diretamente observado, assim como das culturas e testes de sensibilidade ...


OBJECTIVE: To determine the drug resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, between 2000 and 2006. METHODS: Descriptive study of reported tuberculosis cases in the Brazilian Case Registry Database. We included only those cases in which M. tuberculosis culture was positive and sensitivity to drugs (rifampicin, isoniazid, streptomycin and ethambutol) was tested. Lõwenstein-Jensen and Ogawa-Kudoh solid media were used for cultures, as was an automated liquid medium system. Sensitivity tests were based on the proportion method. RESULTS: Among the 783 cases evaluated, males predominated (69.7 percent), as did patients in the 20-49 year age bracket (70 percent), a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (94.4 percent) and positive HIV serology (8.6 percent); 645 (82.4 percent) were new cases, and 138 (17.6 percent) had previously been treated. Resistance to at least one drug was found in 143 cases (18.3 percent). The primary resistance (PR) rate was, respectively, 8.1 percent, 1.6 percent, 2.8 percent and 12.4 percent, for monoresistance, multidrug resistance (MDR), other patterns of resistance and resistance to at least one drug, whereas the acquired resistance (AR) rate was 14.5 percent, 20.3 percent, 10.9 percent and 45.7 percent, respectively, and the combined resistance (CR) rate was 9.2 percent, 4.9 percent, 4.2 percent and 18.3 percent, respectively. In PR, streptomycin was the most common drug, whereas isoniazid was the most common in AR and CR (7.2 percent and 3.7 percent, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These high levels of resistance undermine the efforts for tuberculosis control in Mato Grosso do Sul. Acquired MDR was 12.7 times more common than was primary MDR, demonstrating that the previous use of drug therapy is an indicator of resistance. These levels reflect the poor quality of the health care provided to these patients, showing the importance of using the directly observed treatment, ...


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/physiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Streptomycin/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Young Adult
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