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1.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(5): 1416-1420, Sep.-Oct. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1042130

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Reporting the feedback on the results of a multicenter research for healthcare professionals that attend people living with HIV and AIDS in a Specialized Healthcare Center at Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. Method: Case report of the presentation and interpretation of research results, in 2015, totaling 25 participating professionals. The visual resource used was a data projector. Results: Participants reported the importance of the initiative, since, even though it is their right, feedback on research results is uncommon. Among the discussed issues, emerged the need for a culturally appropriate device for adequately strengthening educational practices carried out by healthcare professionals. Conclusion: Feedback on the research results enabled exchange of knowledge about the findings and production of new knowledge. In addition to achieving the social and ethical commitment of research, by promoting dissemination of results, enabling reflections on the reality in which they work.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Relatar la devolutiva de los resultados de un estudio multicéntrico para profesionales de salud que atienden a personas que viven con VIH y sida en una Unidad de Referencia Especializada de Belém, Pará, Brasil. Método: Relato de experiencia de la presentación e interpretación de los resultados de la investigación, en el año 2015, totalizando 25 profesionales participantes. Se utilizó como recurso visual el Data Show. Resultados: Los participantes relataron la importancia de la iniciativa, pues, aun siendo derecho de ellos, no son comunes las acciones de devolución de los resultados de investigaciones. Entre las cuestiones discutidas, surgió la necesidad de un dispositivo culturalmente adecuado para el fortalecimiento de las prácticas educativas realizadas por los profesionales. Conclusión: La devolución de los resultados de la investigación posibilitó el intercambio de saberes sobre los hallazgos y la producción de nuevos conocimientos. También permitió alcanzar el compromiso social y ético de la investigación, al promover la difusión de los resultados, propiciando reflexiones sobre la realidad en que actúan.


RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar a devolutiva dos resultados de uma pesquisa multicêntrica para profissionais de saúde que atendem pessoas que vivem com HIV e aids em uma Unidade de Referência Especializada de Belém, Pará, Brasil. Método: Relato de experiência da apresentação e interpretação dos resultados da pesquisa, no ano de 2015, totalizando 25 profissionais participantes. Utilizou-se como recurso visual o Datashow. Resultados: Os participantes relataram a importância da iniciativa, pois, mesmo sendo direito deles, não são comuns as ações de devolução dos resultados de pesquisas. Dentre as questões discutidas, emergiu a necessidade de um dispositivo culturalmente adequado para o fortalecimento das práticas educativas realizadas pelos profissionais. Conclusão: A devolutiva dos resultados da pesquisa possibilitou troca de saberes sobre os achados e produção de novos conhecimentos. Também possibilitou alcançar o compromisso social e ético da pesquisa, ao promover difusão dos resultados, propiciando reflexões sobre a realidade em que atuam.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Research/trends , HIV Infections/therapy , Health Personnel/standards , Feedback , Brazil , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/diagnostic imaging , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(4): 737-745, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038572

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Most cardiovascular abnormalities in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been associated with myocardial damage directly caused by the virus. Some cases, however, may be associated with adverse effects from antiretroviral therapy (ART). New ventricular function assessment techniques are capable of detecting early changes in the cardiac function of HIV-infected patients using or not using ART. The usefulness of these techniques has been little employed in these patients. Objectives: To investigate the potential influence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the occurrence of subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction evaluated by myocardial strain rate analysis using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2-D Echo) in treated HIV patients compared to untreated patients and healthy individuals. Methods: Sixty-eight HIV-infected patients with no cardiovascular symptoms, normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (> 0.55 on 2-D Echo) were divided into three groups: 11 patients not using antiretroviral therapy (NT), 24 using protease inhibitor (PI) and 33 using non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). We also studied 30 normal non-HIV infected individuals (Ctrl). Demographic, clinical, biochemical and anthropometric data were collected. Preliminary transthoracic echocardiography included study of myocardial strain using two-dimensional speckle tracking. We studied strain and strain rate in the seventeen left ventricular (LV) myocardial segments in the longitudinal, circumferential and radial axes. Statistical analysis of the data was done with IBM SPSS - version 20 for Windows. Upon analysis of the data, namely the normality of independent variables in the different groups and the homogeneity of the variances between the groups, Kruskal-Wallis' non-parametric test was done, followed by Dunn's multiple comparison tests to test the significance of the differences between the values measured in the study groups. A significance level of 5% was adopted for decision-making on statistical tests. Results: The mean age of HIV patients was 40 ± 8.65 years and the mean age of controls was 50 ± 11.6 years (p < 0.001). Median LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) of NT patients (-17.70%), PI patients (-18.27%) and NNRTIs (-18.47%) were significantly lower than that of the Ctrl group (-20.77%; p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in mean SLG between treated patients (PI, NNRTI) and untreated (NT) patients. No significant differences were observed in mean circumferential and radial strain, nor on circumferential and radial strain rates between the NT, PI, NNRTI and Ctrl groups. Conclusion: The data suggest that HIV patients present, on myocardial strain measured by speckle tracking, signs of early LV systolic dysfunction that seem to be unrelated to the presence of ART. The prognostic significance of this condition in these patients deserves further studies.


Resumo Fundamento: A maior parte das alterações cardiovasculares dos pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) tem sido associada ao dano miocárdico causado diretamente pelo vírus. Alguns casos, porém, podem estar associados a efeitos adversos da terapia antirretroviral (TARV). Novas técnicas de avaliação da função ventricular são capazes de detectar modificações precoces na função cardíaca do paciente infectado pelo HIV em uso ou não de TARV. A utilidade dessas técnicas tem sido pouco empregada nesses pacientes. Objetivos: Investigar possível influência da terapia antirretroviral (TARV) na ocorrência de disfunção sistólica ventricular esquerda subclínica avaliada pela análise da taxa de deformação miocárdica (strain) por meio do speckle tracking ao ecocardiograma bidimensional (E2D) em pacientes portadores do HIV tratados, comparados com pacientes não tratados e indivíduos saudáveis. Métodos: Sessenta e oito pacientes infectados pelo HIV assintomáticos do ponto de vista cardiovascular, com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) normal (>0,55 pelo E2D) foram divididos em três grupos: 11 pacientes sem tratamento antirretroviral (ST), 24 em uso de inibidor de protease (IP) e 33 em uso de inibidor de transcriptase reversa não nucleosídeo (ITRNN). Foram estudados também 30 indivíduos normais não infectados pelo HIV (Ctrl). Foram coletados dados demográficos, clínicos, bioquímicos e antropométricos. A ecocardiografia transtorácica foi realizada incluindo no estudo inicial o estudo da deformação miocárdica pela técnica bidimensional (speckle tracking). Estudamos o strain e a sua taxa de deformação (strain rate) nos dezessete segmentos miocárdicos do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) nos eixos longitudinal, circunferencial e radial. A análise estatística dos dados foi feita com o programa IBM SPSS - versão 20 para Windows. Depois de analisados os dados, nomeadamente a normalidade das variáveis independentes nos diferentes grupos e a homogeneidade das variâncias entre os grupos, decidiu-se utilizar o teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis seguido dos testes de comparações múltiplas pelo procedimento de Dunn, para testar a significância das diferenças entre os valores medidos nos grupos em estudo. Foi considerado o nível de significância de 5% para a tomada de decisão nos testes estatísticos realizados. Resultados: A média das idades dos pacientes com HIV foi de 40 ± 8,65 anos e a idade média dos controles foi de 50 ± 11,6 anos (p < 0,001). Os valores medianos do strain longitudinal global do VE (SLG) dos pacientes ST (-17.70%), dos pacientes IP (-18.27%) e ITRNN (-18.47%) foram significativamente menores do que o grupo Ctrl (-20,77%; p = 0,001). Não houve diferença significante nos valores médios do SLGentre os pacientes tratados (IP, ITRNN) e não tratados (ST). Não foram observadas diferenças significantes nos valores médios do strain circunferencial e radial, nem nas taxas de deformação circunferencial e radial entre os grupos ST, IP, ITRNN e Ctrl. Conclusão: Os dados sugerem que pacientes com HIV apresentam, à análise da deformação miocárdica ao speckle tracking, sinais de disfunção sistólica incipiente do VE que parece não ter relação com a presença de TARV. O significado prognóstico dessa alteração nesses pacientes merece estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Echocardiography/methods , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(4): 211-217, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039228

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Several tools have been developed to evaluate HIV health-related quality of life (HRQoL) during and after antiretroviral therapy (ART). Few longitudinal studies evaluated the effect of ART on the quality of life of HIV patients. Objective: To evaluate changes in HRQoL in HIV-infected individuals one year after initiating ART. Methods: A prospective study was conducted from May 2016 to July 2018. Data on clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of 91 HIV-infected patients were collected prior to initiation of ART and one year thereafter. Demographic and clinical data were collected and the questionnaires 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and HIV/AIDS-targeted quality of life (HAT-QoL) were administered in both periods. Asymptomatic individuals, aged ≥18 years, were included in the study. Patients who discontinued treatment were excluded. The association between predictors of physical and mental HRQoL was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Patients were predominantly male (78.0%), mean age 35.3 ± 10.7 years, with no stable relationship (80.2%), and no comorbidities (73.6%). Most of the SF-36 domains improved after one year, particularly Physical Function (p = 0.0001), General Health (p = 0.0001), Social Functioning (p = 0.0001), Mental Health (p = 0.001), and Mental Component Summary (p = 0.004). HAT-QoL domains improved in the Overall Function (p = 0.0001), Life Satisfaction (p = 0.0001), Provider Trust (p = 0.001), and Sexual Function (p = 0.0001) domains. Sex (p = 0.032), age (p = 0.001), income (p = 0.007), and stable relationship (p = 0.004) were good predictors of the Physical Component Summary. Sex (p = 0.002) and stable relationship (p = 0.038) were good predictors of the Mental Component Summary. SF-36 and HAT-QoL scales presented strong correlations, except for Medication Concerns (0.15-0.37), HIV Mastery (0.18-0.38), Disclosure Worries (−0.15 to 0.07), and Provider Trust (−0.07 to 0.15). Conclusions: ART improved HRQoL after one year of use. The HAT-QoL and SF-36 correlated well and are good tools to evaluate HRQoL in HIV-infected patients on ART.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Socioeconomic Factors , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/psychology , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180263, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977112

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 during pregnancy is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental delay and deleterious effects in children. However, limited information about these conditions exists in poor geographical areas in Brazil. Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV-1 is dealt differently in different regions of the country and in poorer areas it is more difficult to evaluate the impact of the prevention methods. The outcomes of the exposure to HIV-1 and the impact of vertical HIV-1 transmission on neuropsychomotor development was evaluated for the first time in children born to HIV-infected mothers in the North region of Brazil, where the majority of the population has poor access to health services. METHODS: Sixty children born to HIV-1-infected mothers (case group) and 58 born to non-infected mothers (control group) were followed for the first 12 months of life in a prospective case-control study. Neuropsychomotor development was assessed using the Denver II test. RESULTS: Suspected neuropsychomotor developmental delays were more frequent in the case group (33.3%), namely in language (38.9%) and gross motor skills (27.8%). These delays were reversed in most children after 12 months of life due to therapeutic intervention. The delays were not reversed in three children, all of whom belonged to the case group. Only one of these was infected with HIV-1, and this child had the poorest neuropsychomotor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal HIV-1 infection negatively affected the neuropsychomotor development in children, although other factors may have played a role.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Adolescent , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , HIV Infections/complications , Developmental Disabilities/etiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Psychomotor Performance/physiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Case-Control Studies , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/transmission , Child Development/physiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
5.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(supl.1): S95-S101, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002484

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Weight and height growth impairment is one of the most frequent manifestations in HIV-infected children and may be the first sign of disease, being considered a marker of disease progression and an independent risk factor for death. The aim of this review is to evaluate the influence of antiretroviral therapy on the growth pattern of children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS. Source of data: A non-systematic review was carried out in the PubMed database, with the terms "HIV", "Weight and height growth", "ART" and "children". The most relevant publications were selected. Data Synthesis: Antiretroviral therapy has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children and is clearly associated with recovery of weight and height-for-age Z-scores, especially when started early, in the asymptomatic child still without weight-height impairment. Therapeutic strategies involving the GH/IGF-1 axis, especially for children with growth impairment, are still being studied. Conclusions: HIV-infected children show early weight-height impairment; antiretroviral therapy improves the anthropometric profile of these children.


Resumo Objetivo: O acometimento do desenvolvimento pondero-estatural é uma das manifestações mais frequentes nas crianças infectadas pelo HIV e pode ser o primeiro sinal de doença, é considerado um marcador de progressão para doença e um fator de risco independente para morte. O objetivo desta revisão é avaliar a influência da terapia antirretroviral no padrão de crescimento em crianças e adolescentes vivendo com HIV/Aids. Fonte dos dados: Foi feita uma revisão não sistemática na base de dados PubMed, com os termos "HIV", "desenvolvimento pondero estatural", "TARV" e "crianças". Foram selecionadas as publicações mais relevantes. Síntese dos dados: A terapia antirretroviral reduziu substancialmente a morbimortalidade em crianças infectadas pelo HIV e está claramente associada à recuperação do escore-z de peso e de estatura para idade, principalmente quando iniciada precocemente, na criança assintomática e ainda sem comprometimento pondero-estatural. Estratégias terapêuticas que envolvem o eixo GH/IGF-1, principalmente para crianças com comprometimento do crescimento, ainda estão em estudo. Conclusões: As crianças infectadas pelo HIV apresentam comprometimento pondero-estatural precoce e a terapia antirretroviral melhora o perfil antropométrico dessas crianças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Body Height/drug effects , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Child Development/physiology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Growth and Development/drug effects , Growth Disorders/physiopathology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Child Development/drug effects , Disease Progression , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Growth and Development/physiology , Growth Disorders/chemically induced
6.
Prensa méd. argent ; 104(10): 505-509, dic 2018. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046995

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Sweet es una dermatosis neutrofílica aguda y febril que puede ser desencadenada por diferentes noxas. El diagnóstico es clínico a partir de una dermatosis aguda, con fiebre, leucocitosis y lesiones cutáneas localizadas en cara, cuello y extremidades. La histopatología muestra un denso infiltrado inflamatorio de la dermis a predominio neutrofílico, sin signos de vasculitis. Se presenta un paciente con síndrome de Sweet asociado a infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana


Sweet's syndrome associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection Sweet's syndrome is a neutrophilic and acute febrile dermatosis that can be triggered by different noxas. Diagnosis should be suspected in a patient with fever, leukocytosis and cutaneous lesions located on the face, the neck and the extremities. Cutaneous biopsy confirms the diagnosis of Sweet syndrome, with typical features of a neutrophilic dermatosis in the absence of vasculitis. Here we present a case of Sweet syndrome associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV , Sweet Syndrome/diagnosis
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 596-602, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957462

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of low bone mass is 3 times higher in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) and using antiretrovirals than in the HIV-unaffected population. Changes in vitamin D levels is one of the factors associated with decreased bone mass. The objective of this study is to evaluate the low bone mass and altered vitamin D levels in PLWH who have not been exposed to antiretrovirals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with HIV-infected individuals between the ages of 18 and 55 years immediately prior to the start of antiretroviral therapy in a specialized reference center focusing on infectious and parasitic diseases. Results of clinical examination (patient's weight, height, blood pressure, and clinical history), laboratory tests, and X-ray absorptiometry, were collected. RESULTS: Sixty patients were included, with a mean age of 34 years. Nine (16.7%) patients presented with low bone mass and 4 (7.1%) patients showed low total femur BMD. Analysis revealed that 23.3% and 36.7% of the patients had deficient and insufficient levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study population presented with compromised bone health and with low bone mineral density and 25-(OH)-vitamin D levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Bone Density/physiology , HIV Infections/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/physiopathology , Absorptiometry, Photon , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged
8.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(5): 574-582, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974363

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and infections related to it can affect multiple sites in the hearing system. The use of High Activity Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) can cause side effects such as ototoxicity. Thus, no consistent patterns of hearing impairment in adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome have been established, and the problems that affect the hearing system of this population warrant further research. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the audiological and electrophysiological data of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive patients with and without Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, who were receiving High Activity Anti-Retroviral Therapy, to healthy individuals. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted with 71 subjects (30-48 years old), divided into groups: Research Group I: 16 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive individuals without Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (not receiving antiretroviral treatment); Research Group II: 25 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive individuals with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (receiving antiretroviral treatment); Control Group: 30 healthy subjects. All individuals were tested by pure-tone air conduction thresholds at 0.25-8 kHz, extended high frequencies at 9-20 kHz, electrophysiological tests (Auditory Brainstem Response, Middle Latency Responses, Cognitive Potential). Results: Research Group I and Research Group II had higher hearing thresholds in both conventional and high frequency audiometry when compared to the control group, prolonged latency of waves I, III, V and interpeak I-V in Auditory Brainstem Response and prolonged latency of P300 Cognitive Potential. Regarding Middle Latency Responses, there was a decrease in the amplitude of the Pa wave of Research Group II compared to the Research Group I. Conclusions: Both groups with Human Immunodeficiency Virus had higher hearing thresholds when compared to healthy individuals (group exposed to antiretroviral treatment showed the worst hearing threshold) and seemed to have lower neuroelectric transmission speed along the auditory pathway in the brainstem, subcortical and cortical regions.


Resumo Introdução: O HIV e as infecções relacionadas a ele podem afetar vários locais do sistema auditivo. O uso de terapia antirretroviral altamente ativa pode causar efeitos colaterais, como ototoxicidade. Assim, não foram estabelecidos padrões consistentes de deficiência auditiva em adultos com HIV/Aids e os problemas que afetam o sistema auditivo dessa população justificam pesquisas futuras. Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar os dados audiológicos e eletrofisiológicos de pacientes HIV positivos com e sem Aids que recebiam terapia antirretroviral altamente ativa com os de indivíduos saudáveis. Método: Estudo transversal com 71 indivíduos (30-48 anos), divididos em grupos: Grupo de Pesquisa I: 16 indivíduos HIV-positivos sem Aids (não recebiam tratamento antirretroviral); Grupo de Pesquisa II: 25 indivíduos HIV-positivos com Aids (recebiam tratamento antirretroviral); Grupo Controle: 30 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os indivíduos foram testados para limiares de condução aérea de tons puros a 0,25-8 kHz, altas frequências de 9-20 kHz, testes eletrofisiológicos (potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico, potencial evocado auditivo de média latência, potencial cognitivo). Resultados: Os grupos de pesquisa I e II apresentaram limiares auditivos mais elevados em audiometria convencional e nas frequências altas quando comparados com o grupo controle, latência prolongada das ondas I, III, V e interpico I-V em resposta auditiva de tronco encefálico e latência prolongada de P300. Em relação às respostas de latência média, houve uma diminuição na amplitude da onda Pa do Grupo de pesquisa II em comparação com o grupo de pesquisa I. Conclusões: Ambos os grupos com HIV apresentaram limiares auditivos mais elevados quando comparados aos indivíduos saudáveis (o grupo exposto ao tratamento antirretroviral apresentou o pior limiar auditivo) e parecem ter menor velocidade de transmissão neuroelétrica ao longo da via auditiva nas regiões do tronco encefálico, subcortical e cortical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Evoked Potentials, Auditory/drug effects , Hearing Loss/chemically induced , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Auditory Threshold/physiology , Acoustic Impedance Tests , Case-Control Studies , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Evoked Potentials, Auditory/physiology , Hearing Loss/physiopathology
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(6): 634-641, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990846

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los cambios en la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) son comunes en adultos infectados con virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Existen pocos estudios que evalúen el compromiso óseo en niños. Objetivo: Evaluar la DMO en niños infectados verticalmente por VIH. Métodos: Se estudiaron 53 niños infectados (8-18) de cinco hospitales. Se registró severidad de enfermedad, evaluación nutricional, vitamina D (25-OHD) y estado inmunológico. La DMO se midió mediante densitometría. Se utilizó análisis descriptivo, comparación de medias y regresión lineal simple y múltiple. Resultados: El 88,7% estaban en estadio B y C, 57% eran eutróficos y 18,9% tenían talla baja. El 33,3% presentaba niveles de 25-OHD < 20 ng/ml. El 11%, 6% y 4% de los niños tenían DMO < 2DE en cadera, columna y cuerpo entero, respectivamente. La DMO se correlacionó con IMC, talla, severidad de enfermedad y años de tratamiento. Sólo inhibidores de las proteasas (IP) mantuvieron su significancia al ajustar por otras variables. Conclusión: Los niños infectados con VIH tuvieron DMO más baja por edad comparados con datos de NHANES III. La severidad de la enfermedad, talla, zIMC, los años de tratamiento con anti-retrovirales, principalmente IP, están relacionados con la reducción de la masa ósea.


Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) are common in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There are few studies evaluating bone involvement in children infected. Objective: To evaluate BMD in vertically HIV-infected children. Methods: We studied 53 infected children (8-18 years) from five hospitals. Disease status, nutritional assessment, vitamin D (25-OHD) levels and immunological status were recorded. BMD was measured by densitometry. Descriptive analysis, comparison of means and simple and multiple linear regression were used. Results: 88.7% children were in stage B and C, 57% were eutrophic and 18.9% had short stature. 33.3% had 25-OHD levels < 20 ng / ml. 11%, 6% and 4% of the children had BMD <-2DE in hip, spine and whole body respectively. BMD was correlated with BMI, height, disease stage and years of treatment. Only protease inhibitors (PIs) maintained their significance when adjusted for other variables. Conclusion: children infected with HIV had lower BMD by age compared to NHANES III data. The severity of the disease, height, zBMI, years of treatment with antiretrovirals, mainly IP, are related to the reduction of bone mass.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Bone Density/physiology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Bone Density/radiation effects , Diet Records , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Risk Factors , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
10.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 70(6): 1309-1317, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-898308

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze scientific productions about the relationship between HIV and Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Method: Integrative literature review in six databases, held in March 2016. "AIDS" and "hypertension" were the keywords used in Portuguese, English and Spanish languages. We found 248 articles and selected 17. The categories formulated were "prevalence of SAH in PLWHA," "risk factors for SAH in PLWHA" and "adverse events of antiretroviral therapy (ART) that contribute to HAS." Results: There is no consensus whether HIV and ART influence the SAH development, but there are several risk factors for SAH among PLWHA. It was observed that protease inhibitors medicines influence SAH the most. Conclusion: Guidelines for SAH prevention must be performed in all individuals, however, in PLWHA, they must focus on characteristic risk factors of this population.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la producción científica sobre la relación entre el VIH y la Hipertensión Arterial (HTA) en Personas que Viven con el VIH/sida (PVVS). Método: Revisión integradora de la literatura en seis bases de datos, realizada en marzo de 2016. Se utilizaron los descriptores "sida" y "hipertensión" en portugués, inglés y español. Se encontraron 248 artículos, entre los cuales se seleccionaron 17. Las categorías formuladas fueron "prevalencia de la HTA en PVVS", "factores de riesgo de HTA en PVVS" y "eventos adversos de la terapia antirretroviral (TAR) que contribuyen con la HTA". Resultados: No hay consenso si el VIH y la TAR influyen en el desarrollo de la HTA, pero hay varios factores de riesgo de HTA entre PVVS. Se constató que los fármacos inhibidores de la proteasa son los que más influencian en la HTA. Conclusión: Las directrices para la prevención de la HTA deben ser puestas en práctica en todos los individuos. Sin embargo, en PVVS, deberían centrarse en factores de riesgo propios de esta población.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar as produções científicas sobre a relação entre o HIV e Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica (HAS) em Pessoas Vivendo com HIV/aids (PVHA). Método: Revisão integrativa da literatura em seis bases de dados, realizada no mês de março de 2016. Utilizaram-se os descritores "aids" e "hipertensão", nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol. Foram encontrados 248 artigos e selecionados 17. As categorias formuladas foram "prevalência de HAS em PVHA", "fatores de risco para HAS em PVHA" e "eventos adversos da terapia antirretroviral (TARV) que contribuem para HAS". Resultados: Não há consenso se o HIV e TARV influenciam no desenvolvimento da HAS, mas existem diversos fatores de risco para HAS entre PVHA. Constata-se que os fármacos inibidores de protease são os que mais influenciam na HAS. Conclusão: As orientações para prevenção da HAS devem ser realizadas em todos os indivíduos, porém, nas PVHAs, devem focar nos fatores de risco característicos dessa população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Prevalence , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(5): 365-369, oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894501

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular risk is increased in HIV-infected patients and has become a leading cause of morbimortality in this population. The purpose of this study is to compare HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and ART-naïve HIV-infected patients regarding arterial elasticity. From September 2010 to September 2015, 105 HIV-infected subjects were enrolled, 41 ART-naïve and 64 on ART with stable viral suppression. Elasticity of large and small arteries (LAE and SAE) was assessed by analysis of radial pulse waveforms using a calibrated device. A single set of measurements was performed. Multivariate linear regression models were constructed to estimate independent correlates of arterial elasticity. On-ART and ART-naïve patients were similar with respect to gender, age, body mass index, Framingham cardiovascular risk score, smoking habits, and CD4+ counts. Median time on treatment was 60 months and 79% of patients were on regimens based on non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. No significant differences in LAE and SAE assessments were found between groups. However, time on ART and cholesterol levels were independently associated with LAE impairment. No association between arterial elasticity and CD4+ counts was found. We conclude that cumulative exposure to ART may play a role on LAE impairment and deserves further investigation.


El riesgo cardiovascular está incrementado en los pacientes HIV seropositivos y se ha convertido en una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en esta población. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la elasticidad de grandes y pequeñas arterias (LAE y SAE) en pacientes infectados por HIV con y sin terapia antirretroviral. De septiembre de 2010 a septiembre de 2015 se enrolaron 105 pacientes con infección por HIV, 41 vírgenes de antirretrovirales y 64 con tratamiento estable en supresión viral. LAE y SAE fueron evaluados mediante análisis de la onda de pulso radial. Se construyeron modelos de regresión lineal múltiple para evaluar los predictores independientes de la elasticidad arterial. Los grupos en tratamiento y naïve fueron similares con respecto al sexo, edad, índice de masa corporal, índice de Framingham, tabaquismo y recuento de CD4+. La mediana de tiempo en tratamiento antirretroviral fue 60 meses y el 79% de los pacientes recibieron inhibidores no nucleosídicos. No hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos en los valores de LAE y SAE. Sin embargo, el tiempo en tratamiento y el nivel de colesterol plasmático se asociaron independientemente con deterioro de LAE. No observamos asociaciones entre la elasticidad arterial y los recuentos de CD4+. Concluimos que la exposición acumulada al tratamiento antirretroviral podría contribuir al deterioro de la LAE. Este hallazgo merece ulterior investigación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Arteries/physiopathology , Vascular Resistance/physiology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Elasticity/physiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 670-674, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041424

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to draw clinical and epidemiological comparisons between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and VL associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHOD: Retrospective study. RESULTS: Of 473 cases of VL, 5.5% were coinfected with HIV. The highest proportion of cases of both VL and VL/HIV were found among men. A higher proportion of VL cases was seen in children aged 0-10 years, whereas coinfection was more common in those aged 18-50 years. CONCLUSIONS: VL/HIV coinfected patients presented slightly differently to and had a higher mortality rate than those with VL only.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Recurrence , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Coinfection/physiopathology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/physiopathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Middle Aged
13.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(3): 270-275, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839222

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The increase in life expectancy for patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has resulted in health complications related to a chronic disease. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of bone mineral density (BMD) alterations and vitamin D concentrations in HIV-infected children and adolescents and to verify the variations in those parameters during a 12-month interval. Methods: A prospective cohort study with a dual period of evaluation was conducted in 57 patients perinatally HIV-infected and one patient with sexual abuse in early infancy. Demographic, anthropometric, pubertal stage, viral load, T CD4+ cell count and antiretroviral therapy were evaluated. Biochemical tests and total body (TB) and lumbar spine (L1-L4) bone density evaluations by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed. Calcium or vitamin D supplements were prescribed if reduction in BMD or deficiency for vitamin D was detected. Results: 58 patients (ages 5.4-18.3 years; 60.3% girls) were included (T0); 55 patients were reevaluated after 12 (±3) months (T1). Low bone mass for chronological age was found in 6/58 (10.4%) and 6/55(10.9%) patients at T0 and at T1, respectively. There was no statistical relationship between z-scores for BMD (BMD z-score) and the variables sex, fracture history, family history of osteoporosis, physical activity and pubertal stage. There was a relation between BMD z-score alterations for TB and HIV viral load at T1 (p = 0.016). There was no association between duration or classes of antiretroviral therapy and bone density. The mean value of vitamin D in T0 was 23.43 ng/mL ± 2.015 and in T1 22.1 ng/mL ± 0.707 and considered insufficient levels for this population. Conclusion: Patients infected with HIV are at risk for BMD alterations and lower vitamin D serum concentrations; both of these variables should be evaluated at routine examinations in order to improve both prevention and therapeutic planning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Vitamin D/blood , Bone Density/physiology , HIV Infections/complications , Calcium/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Absorptiometry, Photon , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/blood , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load
14.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 35(1): 69-77, jan.-mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-845730

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a atividade física habitual entre adolescentes que vivem com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) e seus pares saudáveis e testar a relação com indicadores antropométricos de gordura corporal. Método: Estudo transversal, com dois grupos de investigação, composto por 57 adolescentes (10-15 anos) com HIV e 54 adolescentes aparentemente saudáveis, pareados por sexo e idade. Medidas antropométricas foram realizadas e a atividade física habitual foi obtida por um questionário aplicado em entrevista. Os grupos foram comparados de acordo com os exercícios físicos e foi testada a correlação linear e correlação parcial (ajustada por sexo e idade) entre atividade física e os indicadores antropométricos. Resultados: Adolescentes que vivem com HIV apresentaram menor escore total de atividade física, comparados aos pares saudáveis (1,73 versus 2,14; p<0,001); porém tiveram maior participação nas práticas de educação física escolar. Ambos os grupos praticaram futebol e caminhadas mais frequentemente, entre as atividades físicas relatadas. Não houve correlação entre o escore total de atividade física e os indicadores antropométricos de gordura corporal, quando ajustado por sexo e idade. As variáveis sexo feminino (β=21,51), meses de exposição à terapia antirretroviral (β=1,26) e as classes econômicas “B” e “C” (β= 22,05 e β=28,15, respectivamente) explicaram 33% do somatório de dobras cutâneas de adolescentes que vivem com HIV (F=6,70; p<0,001). Conclusões: Adolescentes com o HIV têm menor escore de atividade física comparados aos pares saudáveis, porém a educação física escolar se mostrou um espaço favorável para o aumento dessa prática.


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare regular physical activity among adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with their healthy peers, and to evaluate the relationship with anthropometric indicators of body fat. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which investigated two groups: 57 adolescents (10-15 years of age) living with HIV, and 54 apparently healthy adolescents matched for sex and age. Physical activity was evaluated using a questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were performed. The groups were compared in terms of physical activity, and the linear and partial correlations (adjusted for age and sex) between physical activity and the anthropometric indicators were tested. Results: Adolescents living with HIV had a lower total activity score than their healthy peers (1.73 versus 2.14; p<0.001), but participated more frequently in physical education activities. Soccer and walking were the physical activities most frequently reported by adolescents of the two groups. No correlation was observed between total physical activity score and anthropometric indicators of body fat when adjusted for sex and age. Female gender (β=21.51), months of exposure to antiretroviral therapy (β=1.26), and socioeconomic classes B and C (β=22.05 and 28.15, respectively) explained 33% of the sum of skinfolds in adolescents living with HIV (F=6.70; p<0.001). Conclusions: Adolescents living with HIV have lower physical activity scores compared with their healthy peers, but physical education was found to be an opportunity to increase physical activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Exercise , Adipose Tissue , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 273-286, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-840966

ABSTRACT

La corteza insular es uno de los componentes de la zona paralímbica que presenta conexiones con áreas corticales y subcorticales. El estudio en personas viviendo con VIH (PVVIH), donde la apatía es frecuente, la implicó como modulador de respuesta emocional y ejecutiva. El objetivo es describir morfométricamente y funcionalmente la ínsula en relación con estructuras cerebrales corticales y subcorticales en PVVIH con apatía en comparación con controles y con PVVIH sin apatía, a fin de determinar su implicancia. Estudiamos 23 encéfalos de PVVIH de sexo masculino con apatía según evaluaciones neuropsiquiátricas. Se utilizó resonancia magnética (RM) con protocolo cognitivo para cuantificación y tomografía por emisión de fotón único (SPECT) para evaluar la perfusión cortical, aplicados a: cortezas frontales, insulares, núcleos caudados y cuerpos amigdalinos. Registramos reducción significativa morfométrica de la corteza del cíngulo anterior izquierdo, núcleo caudado ipsilateral y cortezas dorso-laterales en VIH+ con apatía; la ínsula anterior registró una reducción no significativa (p=0,4). En el análisis funcional se determinó hipoperfusión en las cortezas del cíngulo anterior izquierdo, insular anterior izquierda y en el caudado de forma asimétrica; con hipoperfusiones relativas en regiones del hemisferio derecho. La perfusión de la ínsula anterior izquierda fue correlativa con la del caudado ipsilateral y proporcional a la severidad en el test de apatía. Concluimos que en la cohorte evaluada de pacientes viviendo con VIH y apatía hallamos un significativo compromiso funcional de la corteza insular anterior, correlativo con la afectación funcional y morfométrica de los núcleos caudados. La implicancia de la corteza insular sugiere su participación en la psicopatología de la apatía, parámetro vinculado con el déficit de interés por las actividades e iniciativas.


The insular cortex is one of the components of the paralimbic zone that has connections with cortical and subcortical areas. The study in people living with HIV (PLHIV), in which apathy is frequent, implicated the structure as a modulator of emotional and executive responses. The objective is to make a description based on morphometry and functionality of the insula in relation to cortical and subcortical structures in PLHIV with apathy compared to controls and compared to PLHIV without apathy, in order to determine its implication. We studied 23 brains of male PLHIV with apathy according to neuropsychiatric evaluations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with cognitive quantification protocol and Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) to evaluate cortical perfusion were used applied to: frontal cortices, insular cortex, caudate nuclei and amygdaloid bodies. We recorded a significant morphometric reduction of the left anterior cingulate cortex, left caudate nucleus and dorso-lateral cortex in PLHIV with apathy; anterior insula cortex recorded a non-significant reduction (p = 0.4). Functional analysis showed hypoperfusion in the left anterior cingulum cortex, left anterior insular region and caudate nucleus´s perfusion were assymetrically; relative hypoperfusion were found in right hemisphere regions. The perfusion of the left anterior insula was correlated with ipsilateral caudate and proportional to the severity in the apathy test. We concluded in the cohort evaluated patients living with HIV and apathy found a significant functional compromise of the anterior insular cortex, correlated with morphometric and functional impairment of the caudate nuclei. The implication of the insular cortex suggests their participation in the psychopathology of apathy, parameter linked with the deficit of interest in the activities and initiatives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/physiopathology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Mood Disorders/pathology , Apathy , HIV Infections/psychology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mood Disorders/physiopathology , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
16.
CoDAS ; 29(6): e20170022, 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890805

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Comparar parâmetros vocais e acústicos de crianças infectadas e não infectadas pelo HIV (Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana). Método Amostras vocais foram submetidas às análises perceptivo-auditiva e acústica. Foram analisadas amostras da vogal sustentada /ε/ e da fala encadeada de 74 crianças entre seis e 12 anos incompletos, divididas em dois grupos: 37 crianças infectadas pelo HIV (GHIV) e 37 crianças não infectadas pelo HIV (Grupo Controle=GC), pareadas por idade e gênero, e sem avaliação vocal prévia; todas as crianças eram pré-púberes, pelos Critérios de Tanner (MS, 2014). As crianças tiveram suas vozes gravadas e analisadas pelo programa VoxMetria 5.1, no período de 2014 a 2015. A análise perceptivo-auditiva avaliou o grau geral da qualidade vocal e foi realizada utilizando-se a escala analógico-visual (EAV) de 100 pontos, transformada em escala numérica de 4 pontos (0- ausência de desvio e 4- desvio intenso). A avaliação acústica constou da análise da distribuição da amostra vocal no Diagrama de Desvio Fonatório (DDF). A pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa em Seres Humanos, sob o número 122.746. Resultados Na análise perceptivo-auditiva, a maioria das crianças de ambos os grupos foi avaliada como apresentando vozes sem desvio, grau 0 na escala numérica. Na análise acústica, não houve diferença entre os grupos na distribuição das amostras no DDF, com a maioria das amostras na área de normalidade, no primeiro quadrante, com distribuição de densidade ampliada e forma vertical. Conclusão Crianças infectadas pelo HIV apresentaram vozes semelhantes às de crianças sem a doença, tanto do ponto de vista auditivo quanto acústico.


ABSTRACT Purpose To compare vocal and acoustic parameters of HIV-infected children and non-HIV-infected children. Methods Vocal samples were submitted to auditory-perceptual and acoustic analysis. Samples of the sustained vowel /ε/ and continuous speech of 74 children between 6 and incomplete 12 years old were analyzed, divided into two groups: 37 HIV-infected children (GHIV) and 37 non-HIV-infected children, the control group (CG), age and gender-matched and without previous vocal evaluation; they were all prepubescent by the Tanner Stages (MS, 2014). The children had their voices recorded and analyzed by VoxMetria 5.1, in the period between 2014 and 2015. The auditory-perceptual analysis assessed the overall degree of the vocal quality and was performed using a 100-point visual analogue scale, transformed into a 4 point numerical scale (0 = no vocal deviation and 4 = severe vocal deviation). The acoustic evaluation was based on the analysis of the vocal sample distribution in the Phonatory Deviation Diagram (PDD). The research was approved by the Ethics Committee under the number 122.746. Results In the auditory-perceptual analysis, most children of both groups were evaluated as with no vocal deviation. No difference between the groups was found in the acoustic analysis using the PDD; most voice samples were within the normality area, in the quadrant 1, with a spread density distribution and a vertical shape. Conclusion HIV-infected children presented similar vocal quality to children without the illness, both for the perceptual-auditory and acoustic evaluation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Auditory Perception/physiology , Speech Acoustics , Voice Quality/physiology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Speech Production Measurement , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies
17.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 24(2): 286-291, maio-ago. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-792931

ABSTRACT

As informações fornecidas sobre prevalência e os motivos da recusa de voluntários a participar em pesquisa científica são escassas. Este artigo objetiva descrever esses dados em coorte voltada a avaliar morbimortalidade de pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids (PVHA) a partir de estudo transversal realizado no Centro de Treinamento e Referência em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias. Foram obtidas as informações: origem, data de nascimento, idade, sexo e motivo do não consentimento, quando aplicável. Falta de tempo para se dedicar a pesquisa foi o principal motivo alegado para o não consentimento (63%), seguido por medo de falta de sigilo (17%). Não houve diferença estatística entre os que aceitaram ou não participar por sexo, idade ou origem do serviço. Consideraram-se elevados os percentuais de recusa de PVHA (40,7%), bem como de falta de tempo disponível para participação (63%).


The information provided regarding the prevalence and reasons why volunteers refuse to participate in scientific research is sparse. This article aims to describe the prevalence and reasons for refusing to voluntarily participate in the cohort study whose objective is to evaluate morbidity and mortality amongst people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), through a cross-sectional study conducted at the Centro de Treinamento e Referência em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias (Training and Referral Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases). The following information was obtained: origin, date of birth, age, gender, and reason for not consenting, when applicable. The lack of time to devote to the research was the main reason given (63%), followed by fear of lack of confidentiality (17%). There was no statistical difference among those who accepted or not to participate in terms of gender, age or origin of the service. The percentage of PLWHA who refused to participate in the study (40.7%) and lack of time available for their participation (63%) were considered high.


Las informaciones disponibles respecto a la prevalencia y a los motivos de la negación de voluntarios para participar de investigaciones científicas son escasas. Este artículo tiene como objetivo describir la prevalencia y los motivos de la negación a participar voluntariamente en una cohorte dedicada a evaluar la morbilidad y la mortalidad de personas que viven con VIH/SIDA, a partir de un estudio transversal realizado en el Centro de Capacitación y Referencia en Enfermedades Infecciosas y Parasitarias. Se obtuvieron las siguientes informaciones: origen, fecha de nacimiento, edad, sexo y motivo del no consentimiento, cuando correspondiera. La falta de tiempo para dedicarse a la investigación fue el principal motivo alegado para el no consentimiento (63%), seguido por el temor a la no confidencialidad (17%). No hubo diferencias estadísticas entre los que aceptaron participar o no de acuerdo a sexo, edad u origen del servicio. Se consideraron elevados los porcentajes en la negación de las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA a participar de la investigación (40,7%), así como la falta de tiempo disponible para esta participación (63%).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bioethics , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/transmission , Prevalence , Biomedical Research , Therapeutics , Unified Health System , Health-Disease Process , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(3): 333-340, mar. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784902

ABSTRACT

Background: Thyroid dysfunction is common among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It presents in different forms and has a multifactorial etiology. Aim: To determine the prevalence and features of thyroid dysfunction among patients infected with HIV. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 127 patients infected with HIV aged 19 to 75 years (85% males). Patients with previous diagnoses of endocrine diseases and pregnant women were excluded. Participants responded a questionnaire about symptoms and the evolution of HIV infection. A blood sample was obtained to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, viral load and CD4 count. Results: Hypothyroidism was found 13 cases, hyperthyroidism in one case and hypothyroxinemia in eight cases. No difference in symptoms was found between patients with or without thyroid dysfunction. No significant differences were observed in CD4 count or the prevalence of co-infection with Hepatitis B virus among patients with thyroid dysfunction. No association between antiretroviral agents and thyroid dysfunction was observed. Conclusions: The thyroid abnormalities found in this group of HIV infected patients were usually asymptomatic. It may be advisable to systematically assess thyroid function in HIV infected patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Thyroxine/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Viral Load
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(1): 76-80, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776454

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction HIV infection and its therapy which can affect their aerobic capacity and health-related quality of life of patients. Objective We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine if aerobic capacity and health related quality of life was decreased in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy and comparing patients with and without lipodystrophy. Research design and methods HIV-infected patients older than 18 years, and in current use of highly active antiretroviral therapy drugs, were evaluated for blood count, fasting total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, glucose, HIV viral load and CD4/CD8 counts, body composition, peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) and metabolic equivalent. Health related quality of life was assessed by using Short Form-36 (SF-36). Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 20.0. Results A total of 63 patients with mean age of 43.1 ± 6.4 years were evaluated, of these 34 (54%) had lipodystrophy. The average peak VO2 (31.4 ± 7.6 mL kg−1 min−1) was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than expected values (37.9 ± 5.6 mL kg−1 min−1) according to the characteristics of the patients. The lipodystrophy group presented with a significant difference in muscle mass, body fat, peak VO2 and metabolic equivalent and in functional capacity domains of SF-36. Conclusion Aerobic capacity values were reduced in HIV-infected patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy when compared to predicted values. Lipodystrophy was associated with reduced aerobic capacity and higher frequency of metabolic syndrome. Lifestyle modification should be a priority in the management of chronic HIV disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Lipodystrophy/physiopathology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Quality of Life , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Body Composition , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise Test , Health Status , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Lipodystrophy/chemically induced , Lipodystrophy/psychology , Viral Load
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(6): 623-630, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769623

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bone mass accrual and determine the influence of clinical, anthropometric, dietary and biochemical parameters on bone mass. METHODS: A cohort study including 35 prepubertal HIV-infected children, between 7 and 12 years, attended at a referral center. At time 1 (T1) and time 2 (T2), patients were assessed according to clinical, anthropometric, dietary, biochemical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD). At T2, patients were divided into prepubertal and pubertal. RESULTS: Despite the increase in bone mass absolute values, there was no improvement in lumbar spine BMD (LSBMD) Z-score (p = 0.512) and worsening in total body BMD (TBMD) Z-score (p = 0.040). Pubertal patients (n = 19) showed higher bone mineral content (BMC) (p = 0.001), TBMD (p = 0.006) and LSBMD (p = 0.002) compared to prepubertal patients. After multivariate linear regression analysis, the predictors of bone mass in T1 were age, BMI and HAZ-scores for BMC; BMI Z-score, adequate serum magnesium concentration and dietary calcium intake for TBMD; adequate serum concentration of magnesium, BMI and HAZ-scores for LSBMD. In T2, age, total body fat and lean body mass (kg) for BMC; BMI Z-score and puberty for TBMD; dietary fat intake, BMI Z-score for BMD and puberty for LSBMD. CONCLUSION: HIV-infected children have compromised bone mass and the presence of puberty seems to provide suitability of these parameters. Adequate intake of calcium and fat appears to be protective for proper bone mass accumulation factor, as well as monitoring nutritional status and serum magnesium concentration.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Body Composition/physiology , Bone Density/physiology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Absorptiometry, Photon , Prospective Studies , Puberty/physiology
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