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Medwave ; 20(9): e8049, 30-10-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141141


En diciembre de 2019 una nueva especie de ß-coronavirus causante de neumonía fue identificada en la ciudad China de Wuhan, el cual posteriormente fue denominado SARS-CoV-2. Este virus de ácido ribonucleico presenta ciertas similitudes con otros virus del mismo material genético, dentro de ellos se ha visto que la infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana se asemeja en diversos aspectos a la infección por SARS-CoV-2. En este comentario presentamos algunas de las similitudes virológicas, inmunológicas, clínicas y farmacológicas entre estos dos virus, las cuales podrían permitirnos entender de mejor manera la inmunopatogenia de COVID-19, así como también tomar algunas decisiones en cuanto al manejo antiviral.

In December 2019, a new species of pneumonia-causing betacoronavirus was identified in Wuhan, China, which was later identified as SARS-CoV-2. This RNA virus presents certain similarities with other viruses of the same genetic material. It has been seen that infection by human immunodeficiency virus resembles the infection by SARS-CoV-2 in various aspects. In this comment, we present some of the virological, immunological, clinical, and pharmacological similarities between HIV and SARS-CoV-2, which could allow us to understand the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 better, as well as make some decisions in regarding antiviral management.

Humans , HIV Infections/virology , HIV/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 283-289, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249912


Abstract Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most prevalent respiratory problem in the world. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have a higher prevalence of smoking and recurrent lung infections and are at higher risk of COPD. Objective: To determine the prevalence of COPD in HIV-diagnosed patients referred to an infectious diseases hospital. Method: Individuals with HIV infection without previous or ongoing antiretroviral treatment, with chronic respiratory symptoms, with or without a history of exposure for the development of COPD were included. Pre- and post-bronchodilation spirometry, high-resolution computed tomography, viral load determination and CD4 count were carried out. Spirometry measurements were compared with Wilcoxon’s test. Results: Sixty-six HIV-diagnosed patients, with a mean age of 31.5 years were included; 64 were males and two females. The prevalence of COPD was 7.6 %. The group with obstruction had a lower CD4 count (27.3 versus 225.9) and higher viral load (165,000 versus 57,722), in comparison with the group without obstruction. A positive correlation was observed between lower viral load and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio. Conclusion: HIV-positive patients with a lower CD4 count and a higher viral load show a decrease in spirometry values.

Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) es el problema respiratorio de mayor prevalencia en el mundo. Los pacientes con infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) tienen mayor prevalencia de tabaquismo e infecciones pulmonares recurrentes y mayor riesgo de EPOC. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la EPOC en pacientes con diagnóstico de VIH referidos a un hospital de infectología. Método: Se incluyeron individuos con infección por VIH sin tratamiento antirretroviral previo o actual, con sintomatología respiratoria crónica, con o sin antecedentes de exposición para desarrollar EPOC. Se realizó espirometría pre y posbroncodilatación, tomografía computarizada de alta resolución, determinación de carga viral y conteo de CD4. Las mediciones espirométricas se compararon con prueba de Wilcoxon. Resultados: Se incluyeron 66 pacientes con diagnóstico de VIH, con edad de 31.5 años; 64 hombres y dos mujeres. La prevalencia de EPOC fue de 7.6 %. El grupo con obstrucción presentó menor conteo de CD4 (27.3 versus 225.9) y mayor carga viral (165 000 versus 57 722), en comparación con el grupo sin obstrucción. Se observó correlación positiva entre menor carga viral y mayor relación de volumen espiratorio forzado al primer segundo/capacidad vital forzada. Conclusión: Los pacientes VIH-positivos con menor conteo de CD4 y mayor carga viral presentan disminución de los valores espirométricos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Smoking/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Spirometry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , HIV Infections/virology , Vital Capacity , Forced Expiratory Volume , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(2): 150-159, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132431


ABSTRACT Background: Latent HIV-1 is a major hurdle in obtaining HIV-1 sustained virological remission (SVR). Here we explored histone deacetylation inhibition property of nicotinamide (NAM; n = 17) for the first time in comparison to a combination of methyltransferase inhibitors (MTIs; Chaetocin and BIX01294; n = 25) to reactivate latent HIV ex vivo in CD8-depleted PBMCs from antiretroviral treated aviremic individuals. Results: NAM reactivated HIV-1 from 13/17 (76.4%) samples compared to 20/25 (80.0%) using MTIs with mean viral load (VLs) of 4.32 and 3.22 log10 RNA copies/mL, respectively (p = 0.004). Mean purging time after NAM and MTIs stimulation was 5.1 and 6.75 days, respectively (p = 0.73). Viral purging in autologous cultures exhibited blunted HIV recovery with fluctuating VLs followed by a complete viral extinction when expanded in allogenic system. Electron microscopy from five supernatants revealed anomalous viral particles, with lack of complete viral genomes when characterized by ultradeep sequencing through metagenomics approach (n = 4). Conclusion: NAM alone was more potent HIV-1 activator than combination of MTIs, with potential of clinical use.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Azepines/pharmacology , Virus Activation/drug effects , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Methyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Piperazines/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Virus Latency , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Tropism/drug effects
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 30-33, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089321


ABSTRACT A new point-of-care HIV viral load, mPIMA HIV-1/2 VL, Abbott, USA, has been recently developed. This point-of-care viral load requires no skilled person to run and uses a small plasma volume (50 µL). However, obtaining 50 µL of plasma can be a challenge in limited resource settings. We validated a simple and easy method to obtain enough amount of plasma to run a point-of-care viral load. The study utilized 149 specimens from patients failing antiretroviral therapy. At least 250 µL of whole blood was collected in a microtube/EDTA from fingerstick (fs-plasma) and immediately centrifuged. Parallel collection of venous blood to obtain plasma (vp-plasma) was used to compare performance in a point-of-care viral load assay and in methodology used in centralized laboratories Abbott M2000, Abbott, USA. The procedure for plasma collection takes less than 10 min and in 94% of the cases only one fingerstick was sufficient to collect at least 250 µL of blood. The Pearson correlation coefficient value for vp-plasma versus fs-plasma ran on mPIMA was 0.990. The Bland-Altman mean difference (md) for this comparison were virtually zero (md = −0.001) with limits of agreement between −0.225 and 0.223. In addition, the Pearson correlation coefficient value for fs-plasma in mPIMA versus vp-plasma in Abbott M2000 was 0.948 for values above the mPIMA limit of quantification (LoQ; from 800 to 1,000,000 copies/mL). These results validate this simple plasma isolation method capable to be implemented in low resource countries where point-of-care decentralization is deeply needed.

Humans , Plasma/virology , HIV/isolation & purification , Point-of-Care Systems , Viral Load/methods , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/virology , Linear Models , Feasibility Studies , Reproducibility of Results
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878292


Objective@#To calculate the number of pregnant women who receive standardized prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services for HIV annually.@*Methods@#HIV-positive pregnant women in six counties of Liangshan Prefecture in 2017 were selected as study subjects. The entire process, from when the subjects first received the PMTCT of HIV services to the end, was divided into four stages, which were further divided into 25 phases. The equivalent coefficient was used to indicate the weight of workload in each phase. Seven experts were invited to score the equivalent coefficient; the number of pregnant women who received standardized services to prevent the transmission of HIV was calculated.@*Results@#A total of 663 HIV-positive pregnant women were registered in six Liangshan Prefecture counties in 2017. This figure was converted into 7,780 person-months devoted to HIV-positive pregnant women, with 260 person-months (3.34%) spent on the first antenatal care, 1,510 person-months (19.41%) during pregnancy, 378 person-months (4.86%) on delivery, and 5,632 person-months (72.39%) on post-partum period. The equivalent coefficient calculation showed that 314 HIV-positive pregnant women received standardized PMTCT services.@*Conclusion@#The number of pregnant women receiving standardized services for the PMTCT of HIV can be calculated accurately using the equivalent method to identify the gap between the level of PMTCT of HIV intervention services needed and the actual workload.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnant Women
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190461, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091243


Phylogenetic analyses were crucial to elucidate the origin and spread of the pandemic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M virus, both during the pre-epidemic period of cryptic dissemination in human populations as well as during the epidemic phase of spread. The use of phylogenetics and phylodynamics approaches has provided important insights to track the founder events that resulted in the spread of HIV-1 strains across vast geographic areas, specific countries and within geographically restricted communities. In the recent years, the use of phylogenetic analysis combined with the huge availability of HIV sequences has become an increasingly important approach to reconstruct HIV transmission networks and understand transmission dynamics in concentrated and generalised epidemics. Significant efforts to obtain viral sequences from newly HIV-infected individuals could certainly contribute to detect rapidly expanding HIV-1 lineages, identify key populations at high-risk and understand what public health interventions should be prioritised in different scenarios.

Humans , Animals , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/genetics , Phylogeography , Phylogeny , Cluster Analysis , HIV Infections/virology , Gorilla gorilla
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 441-450, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089314


ABSTRACT Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased AIDS incidence and mortality, rendering comorbidities, such as hepatitis B more relevant for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since antiretroviral drugs may also inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, analyzing the impact of ART on management of hepatitis B in this population is important. Objective: To assess HBV viremia among HIV/HBV coinfected individuals on ART and its associated factors. Method: For this cross-sectional study, HIV/HBV-coinfected individuals, aged over 18 years, who were on ART for over six months and receiving care at an outpatient clinic in São Paulo were recruited. Sociodemographic characteristics, information about viral exposure, clinical and laboratory data, including evaluation of liver fibrosis were obtained. Plasma HBV DNA was measured by polymerase chain reaction. Viral genome sequencing was conducted for genotyping and identification of drug resistance-conferring mutations if viral load exceeded 900 IU/mL. Results: Out of 2,946 patients who attended the clinic in 2015, 83 were eligible and 56 evaluated. Plasma HBV DNA was detected in 16 (28.6%) (95% CI: 18.0-41.3%), all on lamivudine and tenofovir treatment. HBV DNA detection was associated with lower education (p = 0.015), higher international normalized ratios (p = 0.045), history of an AIDS-defining illness [OR: 3.43 (95% CI: 1.10-11.50)], and HBeAg detection [OR: 6.60 (95% CI: 1.84-23.6)]. In contrast, a last CD4+ count above 500 cells/mm3 in the year prior to inclusion [OR: 0.18 (95% CI: 0.04-0.71)] and detection of anti-HBe [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.04-0.99)] were negatively associated. Patients with HBV DNA above 900 IU/mL were infected with subgenotypes A1 (n = 3) and D2 (n = 1), and exhibited viral mutations associated with total resistance to lamivudine and partial resistance to entecavir. Conclusions: Despite being on ART, a significant proportion of HIV/HBV-coinfected individuals present HBV viremia. Characterization of factors that are associated with this finding may help professionals provide better management to these patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/virology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coinfection/virology , Hepatitis B/virology , Viremia , DNA, Viral/blood , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Educational Status , Hepatitis B/complications
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 469-474, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042664


Resumen Introducción: Pacientes con infección por VIH presentan mayor riesgo de infecciones orales con genotipos de virus papiloma humano (VPH) de alto riesgo oncogénico (VPH-AR). Objetivo: Determinar los genotipos de VPH en lesiones papilomatosas orales de pacientes con infección por VIH y describir los factores clínicos, histopatológicos y recuento de linfocitos T CD4+ y carga viral asociados. Métodos: Se estudiaron ocho sujetos adultos con infección por VIH y lesiones papilomatosas por VPH. Se extrajo el ADN de la lesión y se detectó el genoma y los genotipos de VPH mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena e hibridación con el kit comercial HPV 3.5 LCD-Array (Chipron®) y se describieron factores asociados. Resultados: El 63% de los pacientes exhibió más de un genotipo de VPH y 75% de ellos exhibió al menos un genotipo VPH-AR. El genotipo más frecuente fue el VPH 52 (27%), seguido del VPH16 y 56 (18%). El recuento medio de linfocitos T CD4+ en pacientes con al menos un genotipo VPH-AR fue de 330,6 céls/mm3. Conclusiones: Se detectó una mayor frecuencia de infecciones múltiples por VPH, incluido al menos un genotipo de alto riesgo. El genotipo VPH-AR 52 fue el más frecuente. El recuento medio de LT CD4+ en pacientes que presentan al menos un genotipo VPH-AR indica una inmunosupresión moderada. Se requiere aumentar el número de pacientes.

Background: HIV (+) patients have a higher risk of oral infections with high oncogenic risk HPV (HPV-HR). Aim: To determine the HPV genotypes in oral papillomatous lesions in HIV (+) patients and describe the associated factors. Methods: Eight adults HIV (+) subjects with papillomatous HPV lesions were studied. The lesions DNA was extracted and HPV genome and genotypes were detected by PCR and the commercial kit HPV 3.5 LCD-Array Kit (Chipron®) and associated factors were described. Results: 63% of patients exhibited more than one HPV genotype and 75% of them exhibited at least 1 HPV-HR genotype. The most frequent genotype was HPV 52 (27%), followed by HPV 16 and 56 (18%). The mean CD4 T lymphocyte count in patients with at least one HPV-HR genotype was 330.6 cells/mm3. Conclusions: A higher frequency of multiple HPV infections was detected, including at least one high-risk genotype. The genotype HPV-AR 52 was the most frequent. The mean CD4 T lymphocyte count in patients with at least one HPV-HR genotype indicates moderate immunosuppression. It is required to increase the number of patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Papilloma/virology , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Mouth Neoplasms/virology , HIV Infections/virology , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Genotype
Med. infant ; 26(1): 31-35, Marzo 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-995130


Los avances en el manejo de los niños con infección HIV lograron mejoras importantes en la sobrevida por lo cual se plantea la necesidad de organizar un programa de transición de los adolescentes hacia un centro de adultos. La población de adolescentes atendidos en el Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan presenta estadios de enfermedad avanzada y una larga historia de tratamientos. Se diseñó un programa de transición, con pasos definidos, que se implementó a partir del año 2007. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: describir las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y virológicas de los adolescentes con infección VIH/ SIDA incluidos en el Programa de Transición, analizar la experiencia de los primeros 10 años de funcionamiento del programa de transición, y comparar las características de los jóvenes que han realizado la transición con los que se encuentran todavía en el programa. Entre junio de 2007 y diciembre de 2017, se incluyeron 420 pacientes, en 96% la transmisión vertical fue el modo de infección, la mayoría presentaba estadio clínico e inmunológico avanzado, la mediana de esquemas de tratamientos fue de 3 (RIC: 2-4) y 68,3% presentaron respuesta terapéutica adecuada. El análisis de las diferentes variables mostró que los pacientes que realizaron la transición en años previos se encontraban en estadios más avanzados de enfermedad, mientras que los jóvenes que todavía permanecían en el mismo, experimentaron menor número de rotaciones de esquemas de tratamiento antirretroviral y presentaban recuentos de linfocitos CD4+ >500/mm3 con mayor frecuencia (72,1% vs 61,6%, p=0,03). La transición se realizó en 276 pacientes (65,7%), 36 (8,5%) planeaban realizarla en los siguientes 4 meses y 80 (19,1%) se encontraban en el programa de transición para su preparación. Entre los pacientes no derivados, 4 fallecieron (1%) y en 24 se documentó la pérdida de seguimiento (AU)

Advances in the management of the infection in children with HIV infection have resulted in increased survival leading to a need to organize a transition program for adolescents to adult centers. The population of adolescents followed at Pediatric Hospital Juan P. Garrahan is in advanced stages of the disease and has a long treatment history. A transition program with well-defined steps was designed, which was implemented in 2007. The aims of this study were: To describe the clinical, epidemiological, and virological features of adolescents with HIV/AIDS infection included in the transition program, to analyze the experience of the program in the first 10 years, and to compare the characteristics of the youth who already transitioned with those who are still in the program. Between June 2007 and December 2017, 420 patients were included; in 96% mother-to-child transmission was the mode of infection, the majority was in advanced clinical and immunological stages, median treatment schemes used were 3 (IQR: 2-4), and 68,3% had a good response to therapy. Analysis of different variables showed that the patients who transitioned in previous years were in more advanced stages of the disease, while those who are currently in the program had received a lower number of rotations of antiretroviral treatment schemes and more often had normal CD4+ lymphocyte counts >500/mm3 (72,1% vs 61,6%, p=0,03). Overall, 276 patients transitioned (65,7%), 36 (8,5%) planned to transition in the next 4 months, and 80 (19,1%) were in the transition program to prepare for transitioning. Among the patients who were not referred, 4 died (1%) and 24 were lost to follow-up (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/virology , Continuity of Patient Care , Transition to Adult Care , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190350, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101270


BACKGROUND Iron homeostasis contribute for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES We assessed the iron intake pattern in antiretroviral naïve Brazilian men living with HIV correlating with clinical and nutritional parameters. METHODS The iron consumption mean was estimated according to a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and a 3-day food record (3dFR) submitted to the patients. HIV viral load, CD4+ T cell counts, serum iron, haematological and anthropometrics parameters were recorded. FINDINGS Fifty-one HIV-infected adult men naïve for antiretroviral therapy (ART) were enrolled. The mean age of participants was 35 (SEM ± 1.28) years old, with mean time of HIV-1 infection of 1.78 (0-16.36, min-max) years. Majority (41.18%) had complete secondary, and 21.57% had tertiary educational level. The income was around 1x (54.90%) to 2x (41.18%) minimum wage. Fifty-four percent showed normal weight, while 40% were overweight. The patients showed normal mean values of haematological parameters, and mean serum iron was 14.40 µM (SEM ± 0.83). The FFQ showed moderate correlation with the 3dFR (ρ = 0.5436, p = 0.0009), and the mean values of iron intake were 10.55(± 0.92) mg/day, recorded by FFQ, and 15.75(± 1.51) mg/day, recorded by 3dFR. The iron intake, recorded by FFQ, negatively correlated with serum iron (ρ = -0.3448, p = 0.0132), and did not have influence in the CD4+ T cell counts [e.B 0.99 (0.97-1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI), p = 0.2]. However, the iron intake showed a positive effect in HIV viral load [e.B 1.12 (1.02-1.25, 95%CI), p < 0.01]. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study draws attention for the importance of iron intake nutritional counseling in people living with HIV. However, more studies are required to clarify the association between high iron intake and HIV infection and outcome.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/virology , Iron, Dietary/adverse effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Socioeconomic Factors , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/blood , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Homeostasis
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 123-128, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951637


ABSTRACT Co-infections of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and either human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) or type 2 (HTLV-2) have been described as having an impact on HCV viremia and subsequent disease progression. HCV load in serum samples from 622 patients (343 males, 279 females; median age 50.8 years) from São Paulo/southeast Brazil was analyzed using the Abbott Real Time HCV assay (Abbott Molecular Inc., IL, USA). Samples were obtained from HCV-monoinfected (n = 548), HCV/HIV-1- (n = 41), HCV/HTLV-1- (n = 16), HCV/HTLV-2- (n = 8), HCV/HIV/HTLV-1- (n = 4), and HCV/HIV/HTLV-2-co-infected (n = 5) patients, and results were compared among the groups and according to sex. The median HCV load in HCV-monoinfected patients was 5.23 log10 IU/mL and 0.31 log10 higher in men than in women. Increases in viral load of 0.51 log10, 0.54 log10, and 1.43 log10 IU/mL were detected in HCV/HIV-1-, HCV/HTLV-1- and HCV/HIV/HTLV-1-co-infected individuals, respectively, compared with HCV-monoinfected counterparts. In contrast, compared to HCV/HIV co-infected patients, HCV/HTLV-2-co-infected patients had an HCV load of 5.0 log10 IU/mL, whereas HCV/HIV/HTLV-2-co-infected patients had a median load 0.37 log10 IU/mL lower. Significant differences in HCV loads were detected, with males and HCV/HIV-1- and HCV/HIV/HTLV-1-co-infected patients presenting the highest values. Conversely, females and HCV/HTLV-2-co-infected patients exhibited lower HCV loads. Overall, HCV viremia is increased in HIV and/or HTLV-1-co-infection and decreased in HTLV-2 co-infection.

Humans , Male , Female , HTLV-I Infections/virology , HTLV-II Infections/virology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepatitis C/virology , Viral Load , Coinfection/virology , Viremia , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 142-145, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039213


ABSTRACT The HIV-1 initial viral infection may present diverse clinical and laboratory course and lead to rapid, intermediate, or long-term progression. Among the group of non-progressors, the elite controllers are those who control the infection most effectively, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this paper, the TH1, TH2 and TH17 cytokines profiles are described, as well as clinical and laboratory aspects of an HIV-infected patient with undetectable viral load without antiretroviral therapy. Production of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17 was detected; in contrast IL-4 was identified. Host-related factors could help explain such a level of infection control, namely the differentiated modulation of the cellular immune response and a non-polarized cytokine response of the TH1 and TH2 profiles.

Humans , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , HIV-1 , HIV Long-Term Survivors , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/virology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Immunity, Cellular/immunology
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(1): 93-98, Mar. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893307


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue reportar un caso clínico donde se realizó el manejo quirúrgico de múltiples condilomas de la mucosa oral en un paciente infectado por Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH) bajo Terapia Antirretroviral de Gran Actividad (TARGA). Hombre de 58 años en tratamiento por infección con VIH en TARGA hace 17 años, que acude al Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau con múltiples lesiones verruciformes ubicadas en margen y cara dorsal de lengua, cara interna de ambas mejillas y labio inferior. Se realizó escisión quirúrgica de las lesiones de labio, cara dorsal de lengua y cara interna de mejilla del lado derecho, obteniéndose el diagnóstico histopatológico de condiloma. Tras 2 meses de realizar la cirugía se obtuvo recurrencia. La recurrencia de las lesiones puede originarse por la recrudescencia del virus latente adyacente al lecho quirúrgico y, por ello, deben considerarse otras alternativas de tratamiento. Por el impacto en la función, estética, potencial de contagio y malignización, es necesario su tratamiento.

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to report a clinical case in which surgical management of multiple condylomas in the oral mucosa was performed in a patient infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) who is under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A 58-yearold man, under HAART for 17 years for HIV infection, was admitted at the Maxillofacial Surgery Service at the Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau as he was experiencing multiple verrucous lesions located on the lateral margin and dorsum of the tongue, as well as on the inner face of both cheeks and the lower lip. A surgical excision of the lesions on the lip, dorsum of the tongue and inner face of the right cheek was performed, where the histopathological diagnosis of condyloma was obtained. There was a recurrence two months after surgery. Recurrence of the lesions may be due to the recrudescence of the latent virus adjacent to the surgical bed and, therefore, other treatment alternatives should be considered. Treatment is necessary due to the impact on the function, aesthetics, and the potential to become contagious and malignant.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tongue Diseases/virology , Condylomata Acuminata/virology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Photomicrography , Condylomata Acuminata/surgery , Condylomata Acuminata/diagnosis , HIV Infections/virology , Mouth Mucosa/virology
São Paulo med. j ; 136(2): 129-135, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904150


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Increasing genetic diversity of HIV-1 and emergence of drug-resistant mutations may reduce the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy and prophylaxis that are used to prevent mother-to-child transmission. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and prevalence of drug-resistant mutations among HIV-infected pregnant women. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at an outpatient clinic for infectious diseases within gynecology and obstetrics. METHODS: This study evaluated the dynamics of HIV-1 subtypes and the prevalence of transmitted and acquired drug-resistant mutations among 38 HIV-infected pregnant women (20 previously exposed to antiretroviral therapy and 18 naive), in Ribeirão Preto (SP), Brazil, between 2010 and 2011. Genotyping was performed by means of molecular sequencing of the protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the HIV-1 pol gene. RESULTS: Subtype B was identified in 84.2% of the samples, recombinant forms between B and F in 7.9%, subtype F1 in 5.3% and the recombinant form K/F in 2.6%. No mutation associated with transmitted drug resistance was detected in the samples from the naive pregnant women, whereas mutations associated with acquired drug resistance were found in 35.0% of the pregnant women previously exposed to antiretroviral therapy. CONCLUSION: The results showed that subtype B predominated, while there was low prevalence of sequences with transmitted drug resistance.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Genetic Variation , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Phylogeny , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , RNA, Viral/genetics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV-1/drug effects , Genotype
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(5): 509-517, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978065


Resumen Introducción: A nivel mundial, la tasa global de resistencia primaria y secundaria a los anti-retrovirales (ARV) es de 15 y 40%, respectivamente. Se desconoce su prevalencia en Uruguay. Objetivo: Conocer la prevalencia de resistencia a los ARV en niños y adolescentes uruguayos bajo 15 años de edad infectados con VIH que se controlan en el Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell entre 2008 y 2016. Objetivos específicos: Cuantificar mutaciones de resistencia primarias y secundarias e identificar variables asociadas a resistencias; describir si el resultado del test de resistencia contribuyó a lograr una carga viral (CV) indetectable. Metodología: Descriptivo observacional, seguimiento longitudinal. Se incluyeron menores de 15 años con test de resistencia entre 1 de enero de 2008 y 15 de diciembre de 2016. Variables maternas y del niño. Resultados: Se incluyeron 56 niños. Tenían test de resistencia previo al inicio TARV 36 niños (64%) y por fallo terapéutico 20 (36%). La resistencia total fue 28,6% (16 niños): cuatro (11,1%) con mutaciones primarias y 12 (60%) secundarias. El test modificó el plan ARV en 15 (26,7%) de los 56 niños. El cambio logró CV indetectable a los seis meses en ocho casos. El cambio de TARV no se asoció con sida o muerte. Discusión: Los estudios de prevalencia son útiles para la toma de decisiones sobre la selección inicial de ARV. La prevalencia de mutaciones primarias fue similar a la publicada, mientras que la secundaria fue mayor.

Background: Primary and secondary antiretroviral (ARV) resistance rates of 15 and 40% respectively have been reported in worldwide. Its prevalence in Uruguay is unknown. Aim: To know the prevalence of ARV resistance in Uruguayan children under 15 years old infected with HIV that are controlled in the Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell between 2008 and 2016. Specific objectives: Quantify primary and secondary mutations, to identify variables associated with resistance; to describe if the result of the resistance test contributed to achieve undetectable viral load (VL). Methodos: Observational descriptive, longitudinal follow-up. Only children under 15 years with resistance test done between January first 2008 and December 31th 2016 were included in the study. Maternal and child variables. Results: Fifty six children were included. 36 children (64%) had resistance tests prior to the initiation of ART and the other 20 children (36%) due to therapeutic failure. Total resistance: 28.6% (16 children); 4 (11.1%) children with primary mutations and 12 (60%) secondary mutations. The test result changed the ARV plan in 15 (26.7%) of the 56 children. The change achieved undetectable CV in 8 children at month 6. The ART change was not associated with AIDS or death. Discussion: Prevalence studies are useful in making decisions about initial ARV treatment. The prevalence of primary mutations was similar to that published, while secondary prevalence was higher.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/virology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Uruguay , Prevalence , Longitudinal Studies , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(3): 326-328, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042646


Resumen Introducción: La terapia anti-retroviral (TARV) en pacientes con infección por VIH ha causado una disminución de la morbimortalidad y del riesgo de transmisión. Las recomendaciones internacionales actuales sugieren un inicio precoz de TARV, independiente del recuento de linfocitos T CD4. Objetivo: Describir el impacto del inicio de TARV en el recuento de CD4 y carga viral (CV) al año de tratamiento en pacientes que ingresaron al Programa de VIH del HCVB en los años 2013 y 2015. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo que incluyó a todos los pacientes que iniciaron TARV durante los años mencionados. Resultados: 78 y 100 pacientes iniciaron TARV el año 2013 y 2015; respectivamente. El año 2013, 48 (61,5%) pacientes, y el año 2015, 55 (55%) pacientes iniciaron terapia con un recuento de CD4 > 200 céls/mm3. En el primer grupo, al año de seguimiento, 43 (55%) pacientes tuvieron una CV indetectable; mientras que en el segundo grupo, esta meta se logró en 72% de los casos (p = 0,001). Conclusiones: El inicio temprano de TARV aumentó la proporción de pacientes con CV indetectable. Sin embargo, debemos mejorar las estrategias para optimizar los resultados.

Introduction: Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in HIV patients has shown reduction in morbidity and mortality, and decrease in contagious risk. International recommendations include early initiation of ART, irrespectively of CD4 cell count. Objective: To describe the impact of ART initiation in CD4 cell count and viral load at the end of the first year of HIV treatment, for patients who entered the program at 2013 and 2015. Methodology: Descriptive study. The sample comprehends all patients who started their ART treatment in the indicated years, at HCVB. Results: 78 and 100 patients initiated ART treatment in 2013 and 2015, respectively. In 2013, 48 out of 78 patients (61.5%), and in 2015, 55 (55%) patients started therapy with CD4 > 200 cell/mm3. The follow-up in the first group resulted on 43 (55%) patients with an undetectable CV at the end of first year of treatment, meanwhile in the second group 72% achieved this target (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Early ART initiation increased the proportion of patients with undetectable CV. However, we must improve strategies to optimize results.

Humans , Male , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , Follow-Up Studies
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(8): e170483, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040601


In Brazil, detection of the HIV-1 sub-subtype F1 has decreased with a simultaneous increase in detection of the recombinant FB and FC forms. In previous HIV-1 env molecular epidemiology studies in Rio de Janeiro, 11.4% of the detected sequences were of the F1 sub-subtype. With the goal of re-estimating the prevalence of the HIV-1 F1 sub-subtype, we performed extended analyses of these samples by examining five genomic regions, resulting in 3.3% being confirmed as F1. Moreover, genomic analysis of 11 of the 21 samples identified as F1 confirmed that nine were F1 and two were BF1. Considering the number of samples assayed, the prevalence of F1 was quite low, which supports the use of different genomic regions for the assessment of HIV-1 classification in countries where several subtypes and recombinant forms co-circulate.

Humans , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Phylogeny , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Base Sequence , Molecular Epidemiology , Genotype
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(12): e180328, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040588


BACKGROUND Human herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2) have DNA genome with a limited genetic variability and have been classified into two clades. OBJECTIVES To identify and characterise six HHV-2 isolates derived from Brazilian women. METHODS HHV-2 isolates were performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 2250 pb of the glycoprotein B (gB) coding regions. FINDINGS Four HHV-2 isolates were classified into clade B, while the remaining two, derived from HIV-1 co-infected women, showed a notable genetic divergence (> 1%). MAIN CONCLUSION The results reveal novel HHV-2 variants. The impact of these novel variants on HHV-2 pathogenesis and HIV/HHV-2 coinfection need to be investigated.

Humans , Female , Herpes Genitalis/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1 , Herpesvirus 2, Human/genetics , Genes, Viral/genetics , Phylogeny , Herpes Genitalis/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Bertholletia , Coinfection/virology
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 52: 87, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979022


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy and the associated factors according to the type of regimen used: Single Tablet Regimen or Multiple Tablet Regimen. METHODS Prospective cohort of 440 patients (male, 74.3%, median age, 36 years old) who initiated antiretroviral therapy between Jan/14 and Dec/15 at a referral service in Belo Horizonte. Efficacy was defined as viral suppression (viral load, VL < 50 copies/ml) and evaluated after six and twelve months of treatment. Sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral data were collected from clinical charts and from Information Systems. Multivariate analysis of overall effectiveness was performed by logistic regression. RESULTS Most patients initiated Multiple Tablet Regimen antiretroviral therapy (n = 255, 58%). At six months, overall viral suppression was 74.6%, being higher among patients who used Single Tablet Regimen (80.6%, p = 0.04). At twelve months, 83.2% of patients reached viral suppression, with no difference between groups (p = 0.93). Factors independently associated with viral suppression at six and twelve months varied, being negatively associated with effectiveness: VL ≥ 100,000 copies/ml, symptoms of AIDS, longer interval time between diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral switching, smoking or current illicit drugs usage (p < 0.05). Factors positively associated with viral suppression included adherence to antiretroviral therapy and category of risk/exposure of men who have sex with men (p < 0.05). Reaching viral suppression at six months was the main predictor of effectiveness at one year (OR = 8.96 and p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Viral suppression was high and better results were achieved for patients who used Single Tablet Regimen regimens at six months. Clinical, behavioral, and antiretroviral therapy -related factors influence viral suppression and highlight the need for interventions to increase early diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy, patient's adherence, and to reduce illicit drugs and cigarette smoking in this population.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a efetividade da terapia antirretroviral e fatores associados segundo o tipo de esquema utilizado: medicamento em dose fixa combinada ou múltiplos medicamentos e doses. MÉTODOS Coorte prospectiva não concorrente de 440 pacientes que iniciaram terapia antirretroviral entre janeiro de 2014 e dezembro de 2015 em Belo Horizonte, MG. A efetividade foi definida como supressão viral (carga viral [CV] < 50 cópias/ml) e avaliada após seis e 12 meses de tratamento. Dados sociodemográficos, clínicos e comportamentais foram coletados de prontuário clínico e de sistemas de informação. A análise múltipla da efetividade global foi realizada por regressão logística. RESULTADOS A maioria dos pacientes iniciou terapia antirretroviral com múltiplos medicamentos e doses (58%). Aos seis meses, a supressão viral global foi 74,6%, maior entre pacientes que utilizaram dose fixa combinada (80,6%; p = 0,04). Aos 12 meses, 83,2% dos pacientes atingiram supressão viral, sem diferença entre os grupos (p = 0,93). Fatores independentemente associados à supressão viral em seis e 12 meses variaram, e foram negativamente associados à efetividade: CV ≥ 100.000 cópias/ml, sintomas definidores de aids, maior intervalo de tempo entre diagnóstico e início da terapia antirretroviral, troca de antirretroviral e consumo de tabaco ou drogas ilícitas (p < 0,05). Fatores positivamente associados à supressão viral incluíram adesão à terapia antirretroviral e categoria de risco/exposição de homens que fazem sexo com homens (p < 0,05). Atingir supressão viral aos seis meses foi o principal preditor de efetividade em um ano (OR = 8,96; p < 0,01). CONCLUSÕES A supressão viral foi elevada e superior para pacientes que utilizaram esquemas de dose fixa combinada aos seis meses. Fatores clínicos, comportamentais e relacionados à terapia antirretroviral influenciaram a supressão viral e evidenciam a necessidade de intervenções para aumentar o diagnóstico, o início precoce e a adesão dos pacientes à terapia antirretroviral, bem como reduzir o uso de drogas ilícitas e tabaco nesta população.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Brazil , HIV Infections/virology , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Viral Load/drug effects , Drug Combinations , Life Style , Middle Aged