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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880167


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the recent HIV-1 infections of the blood donors in Fuzhou zone.@*METHODS@#The positive HIV antibody confirmatory samples in Fuzhou zone from 2012 to 2016 were collected and tested by LAg-Avidity EIA, and HIV long-term infections or recent infections were determined.@*RESULTS@#405 371 cases of blood donors were tested in the period from 2012 to 2016, and 94 HIV confirmatory positive samples were collected. 35 cases were recent infections determined by LAg-Avidity EIA, the annual HIV-1 incidences were 1.326‰, 0.845‰, 0.694‰, 1.148‰ and 0.364‰, the average incidences were 0.863‰. Among 94 cases of HIV confirmatory positive donors,58 cases were first donors and 36 cases were repeated donors, 17(29.3%) and 18 (50.0%) cases were recent infections respectively, which showed statistical significance(χ@*CONCLUSION@#The HIV-1 incidences were stable among blood donors in Fuzhou zone. The percentage of HIV-1 recent infections in repeated donors were more higher than that in first donors.

Blood Donors , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1 , Humans , Incidence
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2776-2787, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921154


Many seminal advances have been made in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS research over the past four decades. Treatment strategies, such as gene therapy and immunotherapy, are yielding promising results to effectively control HIV infection. Despite this, a cure for HIV/AIDS is not envisioned in the near future. A recently published academic study has raised awareness regarding a promising alternative therapeutic option for HIV/AIDS, referred to as "selective elimination of host cells capable of producing HIV" (SECH). Similar to the "shock and kill strategy," the SECH approach requires the simultaneous administration of drugs targeting key mechanisms in specific cells to efficiently eliminate HIV replication-competent cellular reservoirs. Herein, we comprehensively review the specific mechanisms targeted by the SECH strategy. Briefly, the suggested cocktail of drugs should contain (i) latency reversal agents to promote the latency reversal process in replication-competent reservoir cells, (ii) pro-apoptotic and anti-autophagy drugs to induce death of infected cells through various pathways, and finally (iii) drugs that eliminate new cycles of infection by prevention of HIV attachment to host cells, and by HIV integrase inhibitor drugs. Finally, we discuss three major challenges that are likely to restrict the application of the SECH strategy in HIV/AIDS patients.

CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Humans , Virus Latency
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878357


Objective@#The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one dried blood spot (DBS) as an alternative sample to plasma.@*Method@#A total of 571 paired DBS/plasma samples were collected from men who have sex with men (MSM) and injection drug users (IDUs), and serological and molecular assays were performed. Using plasma results as the reference standard, the performance of DBS tests for HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA was evaluated. Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to assess the correlation and concordance between DBS and plasma.@*Results@#Among paired plasma/DBS samples with detectable HIV-1 RNA and HCV RNA, five samples (5/32) were not detectable in DBS, while measurable HIV-1 RNA levels were present in plasma (1.44 to 3.99 log @*Conclusion@#The performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one DBS was acceptable. DBS, as an alternative sample to plasma, may be a viable option for the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA in resource-limited settings or for individuals living in areas that are difficult to access.

DNA, Viral/analysis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Syphilis/diagnosis , Treponema pallidum/isolation & purification
Rev. cienc. salud ; 19(3): 1-18, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367517


Introduction:hiv infection induces an exacerbated chronic inflammatory response, which triggers met-abolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases; however, there are individuals, known as hiv controllers, who do not have typical progression markers. As cardiovascular risk tests are not accurate on hiv-1 infected patients, the study of metabolic and inflammatory parameters in individuals with different patterns of progression could contribute to the definition of predictors of cardiovascular disease in this population. The aim of this study was to compare hiv controllers and hiv progressors (with and without antiretroviral therapy) as well as with healthy controls in order to explore differences and correlations in metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risk. Materials and methods:This was a cross-sectional analytical study which included 63 individuals infected with hiv-1 classified as hiv controllers or progressors (with or without antiretroviral therapy), and a healthy control group. The following parameters were determined: carotid intima-media thickness (cimt); cardiovascular risk scores; lipid profile, fasting glucose, high-sensitivity crp, D-dimer, sCD14, sCD163, il-6, and il-18. Data were compared with Anova or Kruskal­Wallis, and correlations were evaluated by the Spearman coef-ficient. Results: While there were no significant differences in Framingham, dad or cimt values, hiv con-trollers exhibited lower triglycerides levels when compared with hiv progressors. No differences were observed in markers, such as high-sensitivity crp, il-6, il-18, and sCD163, among the groups. The median hdl value was higher in hiv progressors on antiretroviral therapy, and cimt in hiv controllers was nega-tively correlated with sCD14. Conclusion:hiv controllers have a different cardiovascular profile than hivprogressors according to their values in metabolic and immunological biomarkers

Introducción: la infección por vih-1 induce una respuesta inflamatoria crónica exacerbada que desencadena alteraciones metabólicas y cardiovasculares; sin embargo, algunos individuos "controladores" no presentan los marcadores de progresión típicos. Dado que las pruebas que evaluan el riesgo cardiovascular carecen de precisión en pacientes con vih-1, el estudio de parámetros inflamatorios en individuos con diferente progresión podría aportar a la definición de predictores de enfermedad cardiovascular en esta población. El objetivo es explorar diferencias y correlaciones en biomarcadores metabólicos e inflamatorios asociados con riesgo cardiovascular, comparando individuos controladores y progresores con y sin terapia antiviral. Materiales y métodos: estudio analítico transversal con 63 individuos infectados por vih-1, clasificados en controladores y progresores (con terapia antiviral y sin esta), y controles sanos. Se midió el grosor de la íntima media carotidea (cimt), puntajes de riesgo cardiovascular y cuantificación de perfil lipídico, glucemia en ayunas, pcr ultrasensible, dímero D, sCD14, sCD163, il-6 e il-18. Se realizó comparación por Anova o Kruskal-Wallis y correlación por coeficiente de Spearman. Resultados: no hubo diferencias significativas en índices de Framingham, dad o cimt, pero los individuos controladores presen-taron menores valores de triglicéridos, comparados con los progresores. No se observaron diferencias en pcr ultrasensible, il-6, il-18, y sCD163, entre los grupos estudiados. La mediana del hdl fue mayor en los progresores con terapia antiviral y el cimt en los controladores se correlacionó negativamente con sCD14. Conclusión: los individuos controladores presentan un perfil cardiovascular diferente a los individuos progresores, de acuerdo con los biomarcadores metabólicos e inmunológicos evaluados

Introdução: a infecção pelo hiv-1 induz resposta inflamatória crônica exacerbada, que desencadeia alte-rações metabólicas e doenças cardiovasculares; no entanto, existem indivíduos, chamados controlado-res, que não possuem os marcadores de progressão típicos. Tendo em vista que os testes que avaliam o risco cardiovascular carecem de precisão em pacientes com hiv-1, o estudo de parâmetros metabólicos e inflamatórios em indivíduos com diferentes padrões de progressão pode contribuir para a definição de preditores de doença cardiovascular nessa população. O objetivo é explorar diferenças e correlações em biomarcadores metabólicos e inflamatórios associados ao risco cardiovascular, comparando indiví-duos controladores e progressores submetidos ou não à terapia antiviral. Materiais e métodos: Estudo analítico transversal que incluiu 63 indivíduos infectados pelo hiv-1, classificados como controladores e progressores (com e sem terapia antiviral), além de grupos controle saudáveis. Realizou-se a medição da espessura da íntima média da carótida (cimt), pontuações de risco cardiovascular; e quantificação do perfil lipídico, glicemia em jejum, pcr ultrassensível, dímero d, sCD14, sCD163, il-6 e il-18. A comparação foi feita por Anova ou teste de Kruskal-Wallis e a correlação pelo coeficiente de Spearman. Resultados.Embora não tenha havido diferenças significativas nos índices de Framingham, dad ou cimt, os indivíduos controladores apresentaram valores de triglicerídeos mais baixos, em comparação com os progressores. Não foram observadas diferenças em marcadores como pcr ultrassensível, il-6, il-18 e sCD163, entre os grupos estudados. O hdl médio foi maior em indivíduos progressores em terapia antiviral, e o cimtem indivíduos controladores foi negativamente correlacionado com o sCD14. Conclusão: os indivíduos controladores apresentam um perfil cardiovascular diferente dos indivíduos progressores, de acordo com os biomarcadores metabólicos e imunológicos avaliados

Humans , HIV-1 , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases , Risk Factors , Disease Progression , Inflammation
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 550-554, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144249


Resumen Introducción: Cargas virales (CV) entre 20-200 copias/mL se consideran cargas virales de bajo grado (CVBG). Su implicancia clínica y manejo no han sido definidos. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de CVBG en el riesgo de desarrollo posterior de fallo virológico (FV). Pacientes y Métodos: Se incluyeron pacientes ≥ 18 años, desde enero de 2009 a diciembre de 2019, con infección por VIH-1 con CV< 20 copias/mL, por un mínimo de seis meses y/o en dos muestras consecutivas bajo tratamiento anti-retroviral . Se realizó seguimiento de las CV estrati ficándolas: CV < 20 copias/mL, CVBG (20-50 copias/mL y 51-200 copias/mL) y FV. Mediana de seguimiento 25 meses (IQR 15-31). Resultados: Fueron incluidos 1.416 pacientes con CV < 20 copias/ mL bajo TARV. De ellos, 797 permanecieron con CV< 20 copias/mL durante el seguimiento, 144 presentaron CV entre 20-50 copias/mL, 384 entre 51-200 copias/mL y 91 presentaron FV sin CVBG previa. De los 528 pacientes que tuvieron CVBG, 110 (20,1%) fallaron, riesgo 3,45 veces superior respecto a los que no tuvieron CVBG previa. El riesgo de FV fue 3,27 mayor para aquellos que tuvieron CVBG entre 51-200 copias/mL vs 20-50 copias/mL. Discusión: El estudio permite relacionar la CVBG con el FV posterior, siendo el mayor riesgo CVBG entre 51-200 copias/mL.

Abstract Background: Viral loads (VL) between 20-200 copies/mL are considered low-grade viral loads (LGVL). Its clinical implications and management have not been defined. Aim: To evaluate the impact of LGVL on the risk of subsequent development of virological failure (VF). Methods: Patients ≥ 18 years, with HIV-1 infection who had VL < 20 copies/mL for at least six months and/or in two consecutive samples under antiretroviral therapy (ART) were included, between January 1st, 2009 and December 31, 2019. Follow-up of the VLs was carried out stratifying them in VL < 20 copies/mL, LGVL (20-50 copies/mL and 51-200 copies/mL) and VF. Median follow-up 25 months (IQR 15-31). Results: 1,416 patients were included who reached VL < 20 copies/ml under ART, 797 patients remained with CV < 20 copies/mL during follow-up, 144 patients had VL between 21-50 copies/mL, 384 between 51-200 copies/mL and 91 had VF without previous LGVL. Out of 528 patients who had LGVL, 110 failed, risk 3.45 times higher than those who had no previous LGVL. Risk 3.27 times higher of VF for those who had LGVL between 51-200 copies/mL compared to 20-50 copies/mL. Discussion: The study allows to relate the LGVL with VF. This association was observed more frequently with LGVL between 51-200 copies/mL

Humans , Viremia/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Treatment Failure , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2867-2873, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877943


Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can effectively inhibit human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication, but is not curative due to the existence of a stable viral latent reservoir harboring replication-competent proviruses. In order to reduce or eliminate the HIV-1 latent reservoir, characteristics of the latently infected cells need to be intensively studied, and a comprehensive understanding of the heterogenous nature of the latent reservoir will be critical to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Here, we discuss the different cell types and mechanisms contributing to the complexity and heterogeneity of HIV-1 latent reservoirs, and summarize the key challenges to the development of cure strategies for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Humans , Viral Load , Virus Latency , Virus Replication
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2803-2807, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877935


BACKGROUND@#Allogeneic natural killer (NK) cell immunotherapy is recognized as a promising anti-tumor strategy, but whether it plays a role in poor CD4 recovery among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected patients is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of allogeneic NK cells immunotherapy on HIV-1 immunological non-responders (INRs) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART).@*METHODS@#From February to April 2018, a prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial, which enrolled 20 HIV-1 INRs following specific inclusion criteria, was conducted at Nankai University Second People's Hospital. Participants were randomly allocated (simple randomization 1:1) to either the combined treatment (NK + ART) group (n = 10) or the control (ART) group (n = 10). The allogenic highly activated NK cells from killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)/human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-Cw mismatched healthy donor were prepared (10 cells in each injection) and intravenously infused to each recruited patient of NK+ART group in three courses. Key immune parameters (CD4 count, CD8 count, CD4/CD8 ratio), laboratory tests (count of blood cells, biochemistry panel) and symptoms at baseline and at month 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 were measured/collected to analyze the safety and efficacy of the therapy. Comparisons were between the seven time-points of both groups using repeated measurement analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) model was performed to evaluate the overall effect of the NK+ART group vs. the ART group.@*RESULTS@#From baseline to 24 months, we noted a mean CD4 count augmentation (139 to 243 cells/μL) in the NK + ART group and (144 to 176 cells/μL) in the ART group (difference, 67; 95% CI, 10 to 124; P = 0.024). Our estimations revealed that NK+ART group could improve CD4 level (β = 54.59, P = 0.006) and CD8 level (β = 322.47, P = 0.010) on average among the six measurements compared with the ART group. Only two (2/10, 20%) participants in the NK+ART group developed a transient mild fever after the first course.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This preliminary study informs that HIV-1 INRs, allogenic NK cells immunotherapy is safe and could significantly improve CD4 recovery but not CD4/CD8 ratio. The practical effects, however, need long-term follow-up observations. Further study on the potential underlying mechanism is warranted. REGISTRATION INFO:: (No. ChiCTR1900020634).

CD4 Lymphocyte Count , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV-1 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Immunotherapy , Killer Cells, Natural , Prospective Studies , Viral Load
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2919-2927, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877929


BACKGROUND@#Albuvirtide is a once-weekly injectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 fusion inhibitor. We present interim data for a phase 3 trial assessing the safety and efficacy of albuvirtide plus lopinavir-ritonavir in HIV-1-infected adults already treated with antiretroviral drugs.@*METHODS@#We carried out a 48-week, randomized, controlled, open-label non-inferiority trial at 12 sites in China. Adults on the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended first-line treatment for >6 months with a plasma viral load >1000 copies/mL were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive albuvirtide (once weekly) plus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (ABT group) or the WHO-recommended second-line treatment (NRTI group). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a plasma viral load below 50 copies/mL at 48 weeks. Non-inferiority was prespecified with a margin of 12%.@*RESULTS@#At the time of analysis, week 24 data were available for 83 and 92 patients, and week 48 data were available for 46 and 50 patients in the albuvirtide and NRTI groups, respectively. At 48 weeks, 80.4% of patients in the ABT group and 66.0% of those in the NRTI group had HIV-1 RNA levels below 50 copies/mL, meeting the criteria for non-inferiority. For the per-protocol population, the superiority of albuvirtide over NRTI was demonstrated. The frequency of grade 3 to 4 adverse events was similar in the two groups; the most common adverse events were diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infections, and grade 3 to 4 increases in triglyceride concentration. Renal function was significantly more impaired at 12 weeks in the patients of the NRTI group who received tenofovir disoproxil fumarate than in those of the ABT group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The TALENT study is the first phase 3 trial of an injectable long-acting HIV drug. This interim analysis indicates that once-weekly albuvirtide in combination with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir is well tolerated and non-inferior to the WHO-recommended second-line regimen in patients with first-line treatment failure.@*TRIAL Identifier: NCT02369965; Clinical Trial Registry No. ChiCTR-TRC-14004276;

Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , China , Drug Therapy, Combination , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Humans , Maleimides , Peptides , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2928-2939, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877928


BACKGROUND@#Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in suppressing human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection, but knowledge on whether and how NK cells affect immune reconstitution in HIV-1-infected individuals who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited.@*METHODS@#We performed a case-control study with 35 healthy individuals and 66 HIV-1-infected patients including 32 immunological non-responders (INRs) with poor CD4+ T-cell recovery (500 cells/μL after 4 years of ART). NK cell phenotype, receptor repertoire, and early activation in INRs and IRs were investigated by flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#A significantly higher proportion of CD56dimCD16dim/- NK cells was observed in INRs than IRs before ART and after 4 years of ART. The number of CD56dimCD16dim/- NK cells was inversely correlated with CD4+ T-cell counts in INRs before ART (r = -0.344, P = 0.050). The more CD69-expressing NK cells there were, the lower the CD4+ T-cell counts and ΔCD4, and these correlations were observed in INRs after ART (r = -0.416, P = 0.019; r = -0.509, P = 0.003, respectively). Additionally, CD69-expressing CD56dimCD16dim/- NK cells were more abundant in INRs than those in IRs (P  = 0.018) after ART, both of which had an inverse association trend towards significance with CD4+ T-cell counts. The expression of the activating receptors NKG2C, NKG2D, and NKp46 on CD56dimCD16dim/- NK cell subsets were higher in IRs than that in INRs after 4 years of ART (all P < 0.01). Strong inverse correlations were observed between CD69 expression and NKG2C, NKG2A-NKG2C+, NKG2D, and NKp46 expression on CD56dimCD16dim/- NK cells in INRs after ART (NKG2C: r = -0.491, P = 0.004; NKG2A-NKG2C+: r = -0.434, P = 0.013; NKG2D: r = -0.405, P = 0.021; NKp46: r = -0.457, P = 0.008, respectively).@*CONCLUSIONS@#INRs had a larger number of CD56dimCD16dim/- NK cells characterized by higher activation levels than did IRs after ART. The increase in the CD56dimCD16dim/- NK cell subset may play an adverse role in immune reconstitution. Further functional studies of CD56dimCD16dim/- NK cells in INRs are urgently needed to inform targeted interventions to optimize immune recovery.

CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Case-Control Studies , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828105


OBJECTIVE@#To construct a HIV-1 gp120 transgenic mice (gp120 Tg) with vimentin (VIM) gene knockout.@*METHODS@#Female HIV-1 gp120 Tg mice were mated to VIM heterozygote mice (F0). All the offspring mice were derived from these original founders so that both genotypes had the same mixed genetic background. The F1 mice were bred to generate of VIM, VIM, VIM/gp120 Tg and VIM/gp120 Tg mice. PCR was performed for genotyping of the mice, and the expressions of VIM and gp120 in the brain tissues were examined using immunoblotting.@*RESULTS@#The results of PCR showed the presence of the target bands in VIM, VIM, VIM/gp120 Tg and VIM/gp120 Tg mice. In VIM/gp120 Tg mice, gp120 expression was detected throughout the brain regions while no VIM expression was detected.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We generated gp120 transgenic mouse models with VIM gene knockout, which facilitate the exploration of the role of VIM in gp120-induced neurotoxicity.

Animals , Brain , Disease Models, Animal , Female , HIV Envelope Protein gp120 , HIV-1 , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Vimentin
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 114 p. graf.


O tratamento antirretroviral eficaz tornou a aids uma doença crônica manejável, porém, passados quase quarenta anos, a epidemia se sustenta. Entender quem são os indivíduos responsáveis pelos novos casos (infecção incidente), que apresentam maior transmissibilidade, vinculá-los rapidamente no tratamento e mantê-los com adesão é importante estratégia para quebra da cadeia de transmissão (indetectável=intransmissível). Nosso estudo procurou identificar casos recentes e avaliar a factibilidade de se reconhecer estes casos, não somente na admissão no serviço, para priorizar esta vinculação, mas também, para fins de vigilância epidemiológica, propondo uma pontuação de identificação, sem custo adicional ao SUS, combinando parâmetros laboratoriais e clínicos (e.g. sintomas suspeitos de SRA no último ano, CD4 e carga viral no diagnóstico). Amostras de uma coorte de 204 pacientes (2011-2017) foram avaliadas em testes de estimativa de tempo de infecção [índice de avidez (Bio-rad, protocolo CEPHIA), CMIA (architect) e índice de ambiguidade da sequência pol. Nestes a proporção de casos recentes foi de 26,3% (CMIA<250 RLU), 56% (índice de avidez<80%) e 68,5% (ambiguidade<0,5%) sugerindo que novas infecções são responsáveis por cerca de metade dos casos. Os valores do índice de avidez e da CMIA, índice de avidez e do índice de ambiguidade, mostraram-se correlacionados (Spearman, p<0,005), sugerindo terem boa comparabilidade. A pontuação foi testada quanto ao seu poder preditivo (curva ROC) para diferentes definições de identificação da infecção recente. A pontuação de melhor poder discriminativo foi quatorze, com sensibilidade de 66-80% e especificidade de 75-84%, com área sobre a curva de 0,77-0,87. Entre os 204, destacamos 7 casos de infecção na fase aguda entre 47 suspeitos, diagnosticados por biologia molecular, e adicionais 3/546 casos com sintomas compatíveis com SRA, testados e negativos para dengue na epidemia de 2015. A resistência primária mostrou-se baixa (6%) e houve elevada supressão viral (95%). Nesta coorte, o uso de teste molecular e da sorologia de 4ª geração, foram importantes na identificação de casos agudos, porém necessitam de estudos de custo efetividade para sua incorporação de forma mais ampla.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV-1 , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Molecular Biology
Clinics ; 75: e1498, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055886


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of intraocular fluid analysis as a diagnostic aid for uveitis. METHODS: Twenty-eight samples (27 patients including 3 HIV-infected patients) with active (n=24) or non-active (n=4) uveitis were submitted to aqueous (AH; n=12) or vitreous humor (VH) analysis (n=16). All samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Toxoplasma gondii. RESULTS: The positivity of the PCR in AH was 41.7% (5/12), with 50% (2/4) in immunocompetent and 67% (2/3) in HIV+ patients. The positivity of the PCR in VH was 31.2% (5/16), with 13% (1/8) in immunocompetent and 50% (4/8) in immunosuppressed HIV negative patients. The analysis was a determinant in the diagnostic definition in 58% of HA and 50% of VH. CONCLUSION: Even in posterior uveitis, initial AH analysis may be helpful. A careful formulation of possible clinical diagnosis seems to increase the chance of intraocular sample analysis being meaningful.

Humans , Aqueous Humor/microbiology , Aqueous Humor/parasitology , Aqueous Humor/virology , Uveitis/diagnosis , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/parasitology , Toxoplasma , Uveitis/microbiology , Uveitis/parasitology , Uveitis/virology , Vitreous Body/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , HIV-1 , Immunocompromised Host , Simplexvirus/genetics , Simplexvirus/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 3, Human/immunology , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Immunocompetence
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190461, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091243


Phylogenetic analyses were crucial to elucidate the origin and spread of the pandemic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M virus, both during the pre-epidemic period of cryptic dissemination in human populations as well as during the epidemic phase of spread. The use of phylogenetics and phylodynamics approaches has provided important insights to track the founder events that resulted in the spread of HIV-1 strains across vast geographic areas, specific countries and within geographically restricted communities. In the recent years, the use of phylogenetic analysis combined with the huge availability of HIV sequences has become an increasingly important approach to reconstruct HIV transmission networks and understand transmission dynamics in concentrated and generalised epidemics. Significant efforts to obtain viral sequences from newly HIV-infected individuals could certainly contribute to detect rapidly expanding HIV-1 lineages, identify key populations at high-risk and understand what public health interventions should be prioritised in different scenarios.

Humans , Animals , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/genetics , Phylogeography , Phylogeny , Cluster Analysis , HIV Infections/virology , Gorilla gorilla
Infectio ; 23(supl.1): 97-106, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-984513


Resumen Objetivo: Estimar las frecuencias de mutaciones y de polimorfismos adicionales asociados con resistencia a los fármacos inhibidores de la integrasa del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 (VIH-1). Metodología: Estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, en individuos VIH-1 positivos de la ciudad de Medellín, quienes no habían recibido tratamiento antirretroviral. En ellos se determinó, a través del método de 2-dideoxinucleótidos y el sistema ABI3730XL, la secuencia del gen de la integrasa del VIH-1 a partir del ARN viral circulante, la cual fue analizada en la base de datos de resistencia a medicamentos antirretrovirales de la Universidad de Stanford y según reportes de literatura científica. Resultados: Se encontraron las siguientes mutaciones (con sus respectivas frecuencias): una mutación mayor, E138K (1/46), tres mutaciones accesorias G163E (3/46), L74I (3/50) y E157Q (2/48), una mutación no polimórfica A128T (1/49) y otras dos mutaciones potencialmente asociadas con resistencia a inhibidores de integrasa S230N (9/39) y S119P/R/T (4/47, 2/47 y 14/47, respectivamente). Conclusiones: En las secuencias analizadas, llama la atención la presencia de al menos una mutación asociada a resistencia a inhibidores de integrasa en el 14% de los individuos estudiados, sugiriendo una pobre presión selectiva de este tipo de fármacos en la población viral circulante en la zona.

Abstract Aim: To estimate the frequencies of major and accessory mutations, as well as additional polymorphisms associated with resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (VIH-1) integrase strand transfer inhibitors. Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study, focused on HIV-1 positive individuals from Medellín, recruited between 2013 and 2015, and that had not received antiretroviral therapy. In these patients, the sequence from HIV-1 integrase was determined from circulating viral RNA through Sanger chain termination method with the ABI3730XL system, and the sequences were analyzed using the HIV Drug Resistance Database from the University of Stanford, together with previous literature reports. Results: The following mutations associated with resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors, along with its respective frequencies, were found: one major mutation, E138K (1/46), three accessory mutations, G163E (3/46), L74I (3/50) and E157Q (2/48); one non-polymorphic mutation, A128T (1/49); and two mutations potentially associated with resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors, S230N (9/39) and S119P/R/T (4/47, 2/47 and 14/47, respectively). Conclusions: In the sequences analyzed, it is noteworthy the presence of at least one mutation related with resistance to integrase inhibitors in 14% of the studied patients, suggesting a poor selective pressure of this kind of drugs in the circulating viral population in our region.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Drug Resistance , HIV-1 , Integrase Inhibitors , Mutation , RNA, Viral , Pharmaceutical Preparations , HIV , Colombia , Anti-Retroviral Agents , Dideoxynucleotides , Herpes Zoster
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 17(2): 245-258, may.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1013872


Resumen Introducción : los inflamasomas dirigen la maduración de las citoquinas IL-1b e IL-18, las cuales contribuyen en la patogénesis de la infección por VIH-1. Dada la complejidad de la infección, se hace necesaria la búsqueda de marcadores que permitan identificar nuevos blancos terapéuticos o hacer seguimiento del estado inmunológico de los pacientes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue explorar el efecto independiente de los principales componentes inflamatorios sobre la infección por VIH-1. Materiales y métodos : estudio analítico con 36 pacientes VIH+ y 36 controles sanos, pareados por edad y sexo. Se cuantificó la carga viral, los linfocitos T CD4+/CD8+, el perfil lipídico, la proteína C reactiva y las concentraciones séricas de IL-1-ß, IL-6 e IL-18. El HIRNA de los genes relacionados con los inflamasomas fue cuantificado por RT-PCR en tiempo real. El análisis estadístico se basó en medidas de resumen, pruebas de hipótesis y regresión logística binaria multivariante. Resultados : se encontraron menores valores de HDL y HIRNA IL-18 y mayores de HIRNA NLRPI y HIRNA ASC en los pacientes con VIH-1, comparados con los controles. Los valores de HDL y HIRNA IL-18 se correlacionaron con los recuentos de linfocitos. En el análisis multivariado se encontró que la relación CD4/CD8, el mRNA IL-18 y el HIRNA ASC pueden constituir las principales variables que tienen un potencial explicativo sobre la infección por VIH-1 en la población de estudio. Conclusión : se evidenció la importancia de estudiar los inflamasomas, dado que en la población de estudio constituyen potenciales blancos terapéuticos para disminuir la respuesta inflamatoria.

Abstract Introduction : Inflammasomes direct the maturation of the cytokines IL-1ß and IL-18, which contribute to the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Given its complexity, it is necessary to search for markers that can identify new therapeutic targets or monitor the immunological status of patients. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to explore the independent effect of the main inflammatory components on HIV-1 infection. Materials and Methods : Researchers conducted an analytical study with 36 HIV+ patients and 36 healthy controls, matched by age and sex. Viral load, CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes, lipid profile, C-reactive protein and serum concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-18 were quantified. RT-PCR in real time quantified the ITIRNA of the genes related to the inflammasomes. The statistical analysis based on summary measures, hypothesis tests, and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results : Lower values of HDL and ITIRNA IL-18 and higher ITIRNA NLRPI and ITVRNA ASC presented in patients with HIV-1 compared with controls. The values of HDL and ITIRNA IL-18 correlated with lymphocyte counts. The multivariate analysis shows that the CD4 / CD8 ratio, the IL-18 ITIRNA and the ASC ITIRNA can be the main variables that have an explanatory potential on HIV-1 infection in the study population. Conclusion : The importance of studying inflammasomes was evidenced, given that in the study population they are potential therapeutic targets to reduce the inflammatory response.

Resumo Introdução : os inflamassomas dirigem a maduração das citocinas IL-1ß e IL-18; as quais contribuem nas patogêneses da infeção por HIV-1. Dada a complexidade da infeção se faz necessária a busca de marcadores que permitam identificar novos alvos terapêuticos ou fazer seguimento do estado imunológico dos pacientes. Portanto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi explorar o efeito independente os principais componentes inflamatórios sobre a infeção por HIV-1. Materiais e métodos : estudo analítico com 36 pacientes HIV+ e 36 controles saudáveis, pareados por idade e sexo. Se quantificou a carga viral, os linfócitos T CD4+/CD8+, o perfil lipídico, a proteína C reativa e as concentrações séricas de IL-1ß, IL-6 e IL-18. O ITIRNA dos genes relacionados com os inflamassomas foi quantificado por RT-PCR em tempo real. A análise estatística se baseou em medidas de resumo, provas de hipótese e regressão logística binaria multivariado. Resultados : se encontraram menores valores de HDL e TÍTRNA IL-18 e maiores de TÍIRNA NLRPI e TÍTRNA ASC nos pacientes com HIV-1, comparados com os controles. Os valores de HDL e TÍTRNA IL-18 se correlacionaram com os recontos de linfócitos. Na análise multivariada encontrou-se que a relação CD4/CD8, o TÍIRNA IL-18 e o TÍTRNA ASC podem constituir as principais variáveis que têm um potencial explicativo sobre a infeção por HIV-1 na população de estudo. Conclusão : se evidenciou a importância de estudar os inflamassomas, dado que na população de estudo constituem potenciais brancos terapêuticos para diminuir a resposta inflamatória.

Humans , HIV-1 , Multivariate Analysis , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Colombia , Inflammasomes , Observational Study
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(4): 218-223, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039238


Abstract HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (HIV-1 MTCT), is an important cause of children mortality worldwide. Brazil has been traditionally praised by its HIV/Aids program, which provides free-of-charge care for people living with HIV-1. Using public epidemiology and demographic databases, we aimed at modeling HIV-1 MTCT prevalence in Brazil through the years (1994-2016) and elaborate a statistical model for forecasting, contributing to HIV-1 epidemiologic surveillance and healthcare decision-making. We downloaded sets of live births and mothers' data alongside HIV-1 cases notification in children one year old or less. Through time series modeling, we estimated prevalence along the years in Brazil, and observed a remarkable decrease of HIV-1 MTCT between 1994 (10 cases per 100,000 live births) and 2016 (five cases per 100,000 live births), a reduction of 50%. Using our model, we elaborated a prognosis for each Brazilian state to help HIV-1 surveillance decision making, indicating which states are in theory in risk of experiencing a rise in HIV-1 MTCT prevalence. Ten states had good (37%), nine had mild (33%), and eight had poor prognostics (30%). Stratifying the prognostics by Brazilian region, we observed that the Northeast region had more states with poor prognosis, followed by North and Midwest, Southeast and South with one state of poor prognosis each. Brazil undoubtedly advanced in the fight against HIV-1 MTCT in the past two decades. We hope our model will help indicating where HIV-1 MTCT prevalence may rise in the future and support government decision makers regarding HIV-1 surveillance and prevention.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Linear Models , Prevalence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180432, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003137


Abstract By decreasing the pre-seroconversion window period, nucleic acid testing (NAT) has improved the safety of blood products and reduced the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. Between 2011 and 2017, NAT determinations for approximately 898,202 donations were performed at Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo (FPS-HSP). Three seronegative HIV-viremic donations were detected. The NAT yield rate per million donations was 3.34 for HIV, and the acute HIV-1 infections detected are described, followed by a brief review of the situation in Brazil.

Humans , Male , Adult , Blood Donors , DNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques