Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 127
Filter
1.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e56764, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367790

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate possible factors related to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that contribute to the understanding of the highest rate of Aids detection on the coast of the state of Paraná, a port region identified administratively as the 1stRegional Health Division (1stHD) in the state of Paraná. Data on the sociodemographic profile of the population undergoing antiretroviral treatment (ART), medication changes, dropout of therapy, proportion of the population undergoing treatment and viral load were obtained through computerized systems. Between July 1, 2018 and June 31, 2019, 1,393 people were on ART in the 1stRS. Of these, 57.6% were male. During this period, 110 people started ART with a predominance of the age group between 30 and 39 years old. ART was switched for169 people and 211 patient dropouts were detected. The proportion of people diagnosed with HIV without treatment (gap) is still high, however 92.7% people on ART have suppressed viral load. It can be concluded that the lower educational level of the population undergoing treatment, the late diagnosis of those infected and the treatment gapprobably contribute to the highest rate of Aids detection in the 1stRS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Pharmacoepidemiology/methods , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Sociodemographic Factors , Population , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , HIV/pathogenicity , Viral Load , Delivery of Health Care
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18800, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364431

ABSTRACT

Abstract Efavirenz is one of the most commonly used drugs in HIV therapy. However the low water solubility tends to result in low bioavailability. Drug nanocrystals, should enhance the dissolution and consequently bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to obtain EFV nanocrystals prepared by an antisolvent technique and to further observe possible effect, on the resulting material, due to altering crystallization parameters. A solution containing EFV and a suitable solvent was added to an aqueous solution of particle stabilizers, under high shear agitation. Experimental conditions such as solvent/antisolvent ratio; drug load; solvent supersaturation; change of stabilizer; addition of milling step and solvents of different polarities were evaluated. Suspensions were characterized by particle size and zeta potential. After freeze- dried and the resulting powder was characterized by PXRD, infrared spectroscopy and SEM. Also dissolution profiles were obtained. Many alterations were not effective for enhancing EFV dissolution; some changes did not even produced nanosuspensions while other generated a different solid phase from the polymorph of raw material. Nevertheless reducing EFV load produced enhancement on dissolution profile. The most important modification was adding a milling step after precipitation. The resulting suspension was more uniform and the powder presented grater enhancement of dissolution efficacy.


Subject(s)
Efficacy/classification , HIV/pathogenicity , Crystallization/instrumentation , Dissolution/methods , Particle Size , Solubility , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Excipients/pharmacology , Dissolution/classification , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Methods
3.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3167-3178, mar.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251934

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Este trabajo describe las principales intervenciones de prevención de la infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, dirigidas a los hombres que tienen relaciones sexuales con hombres, los que constituyen un grupo de riesgo para adquirir la enfermedad. Para su elaboración, se seleccionó la literatura científica publicada en fuentes y documentos nacionales e internacionales considerada relevante para el tema. El análisis y las recomendaciones se centraron en el sector de la salud y en el grupo de hombres que tienen relaciones sexuales con otros hombres. Las estrategias de abordaje del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana en Cuba están consideradas entre los programas de prevención de alto impacto, elaboradas tanto por la sociedad civil, a través de las subvenciones del Fondo Mundial de Lucha contra el SIDA, la Tuberculosis y la Malaria, como por los técnicos del Programa Nacional de Prevención y Control de las ITS-VIH/sida. Incluyen paquetes de servicios personalizados, que contienen elementos estructurales, biomédicos y de comportamiento para grupos de población clave en los contextos sociales donde son más necesarias. Como es sabido, el riesgo para cada individuo depende de sus prácticas y no del grupo al que pertenezca. Estas ofrecen un fundamento común para el desarrollo y la promoción de programas de eficacia comprobada para la prevención, que permiten reorganizar los esfuerzos, tener mayor impacto y lograr reducir el número de nuevas infecciones en este grupo de población (AU).


ABSTRACT This paper describes the main interventions for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection, aimed at men who have sex with men, who constitute a risk group for acquiring the disease. For its preparation, the scientific literature published in national and international sources and documents considered relevant to the subject was selected. The analysis and recommendations focused on the health sector and the group of men who have sex with other men. The strategies to address the human immunodeficiency virus in Cuba are considered among the high-impact prevention programs, developed both by civil society, through grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and by the technicians of the National Program for the Prevention and Control of STI-HIV/AIDS. They include personalized service packages, containing structural, biomedical and behavioral elements for key population groups in the social contexts where they are most needed. As is known, the risk for each individual depends on their practices and not on the group to which they belong. These provide a common foundation for the development and promotion of proven prevention programs that allow reorganization of efforts, have greater impact, and reduce the number of new infections in this population group (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , HIV/pathogenicity , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Preventive Health Services , Communicable Disease Control , Public Health , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Cuba
4.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e505, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280325

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El sarcoma de Kaposi es una neoplasia oportunista asociada a la inmunodepresión causada por VIH, que se relaciona con la infección por VHH tipo 8. Objetivo: Describir la presentación del sarcoma de Kaposi en personas que viven con VIH en Guinea Ecuatorial. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de carácter retrospectivo para identificar la prevalencia y las características epidemiológicas y clínicas del sarcoma de Kaposi en las personas que viven con VIH que acuden a las unidades de referencia para el manejo de casos en Guinea Ecuatorial. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de una muestra aleatoria y representativa de 338 pacientes del grupo que ha recibido tratamiento en las unidades de referencia para enfermedades infecciosas de Bata, desde enero de 2007 a febrero de 2012. Resultados: Se identificaron 40 pacientes diagnosticados de sarcoma de Kaposi (prevalencia del 11, 83 por ciento). La mediana de la edad al diagnóstico de sarcoma de Kaposi fue de 43 años, siendo la ratio del sexo de 1/1. La media de linfocitos CD4 al diagnóstico fue de 166 (rango 21-375) y la frecuencia de afectación oral fue de 45 por ciento. En la mayoría de los pacientes (94,6 por ciento) la observación del sarcoma de Kaposi fue anterior al inicio del tratamiento antirretroviral. Las cifras de linfocitos T CD4/mm3 inferiores a 100 aparecían sobre todo en pacientes menores de 30 años, y esto era especialmente frecuente en el grupo de mujeres (OR 11, p <0,04, Ic 95 por ciento 0,8-148). Conclusiones: El sarcoma de Kaposi es una neoplasia prevalente en personas que viven con VIH seguidas en las unidades de referencia en Guinea Ecuatorial. En mujeres menores de 30 años podría existir un diagnóstico tardío(AU)


Introduction: Kaposi sarcoma is an opportunistic neoplasm associated to the immunosuppression caused by HIV and related to infection by HHV-8. Objective: Describe the presentation of Kaposi sarcoma in people living with HIV in Equatorial Guinea. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted to identify the prevalence and the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Kaposi sarcoma in people living with HIV attending reference units for the management of cases in Equatorial Guinea. A review was carried out of the medical records of a random sample representative of 338 patients from the group receiving treatment at Bata reference unit for infectious diseases from January 2007 to February 2012. Results: A total 40 patients diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma were identified (prevalence of 11,83 percent). Mean age at Kaposi sarcoma diagnosis was 43 years, with a 1/1 sex ratio. The mean CD4 lymphocyte count at diagnosis was 166 (range 21-375), whereas the frequency of oral damage was 45 percent. In most patients (94.6 percent) detection of Kaposi sarcoma was prior to the start of antiretroviral therapy. CD4 T lymphocyte levels / mm3 below 100 were mainly found in patients aged under 30 years, a fact particularly frequent among women (OR 11, p< 0.04, CI 95% 0.8-148). Conclusions: Kaposi sarcoma is a neoplasm prevailing in people living with HIV who attend reference units in Equatorial Guinea. Late diagnosis could exist among women aged under 30 years(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoma, Kaposi/complications , Sarcoma, Kaposi/epidemiology , HIV/pathogenicity , Herpesvirus 8, Human/growth & development , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Equatorial Guinea , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications
5.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(5): 2378-2387, sept.-oct. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144741

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El linfoma de Burkitt, se trata de un subtipo poco frecuente del linfoma no Hodgkin, con elevada frecuencia en aquellos pacientes con sida. La hepatoesplenomegalia es un signo clínico de gran importancia para el diagnóstico oportuno de algunas patologías; entre los mecanismos de formación de la hepatoesplenomegalia se encuentra la infiltración celular, ocasionada por la migración de células tumorales. Se presenta por inflamaciones debido a la presencia de infecciones por virus o bacterias las cuales son muy comunes en pacientes con sida. Se presentó un caso de un paciente masculino de 4 años, diagnosticado con VIH positivo, con la configuración correspondiente de criterios clínicos en clasificación C para sida. El cual desarrolló a nivel de cavidad oral un Burkitt primario, que se acompañó de hepatoesplenomegalia. Se pretendió describir la relación y el comportamiento de este tipo de linfoma con la hepatoesplenomegalia, así como la repercusión a nivel del sistema estomatognático, a nivel sistémico y el plan de tratamiento. Por el cuadro clínico e inmunológico del paciente estudiado, se planteó un pronóstico reservado por presentar un cuadro clínico infrecuente, en el que se observó Burkitt; tanto a nivel del sistema estomatognático como a nivel abdominal. Se hizo necesario realizar un diagnóstico oportuno y certero para iniciar el tratamiento a tiempo, se comenzó inmediatamente con tratamiento (AU).


ABSTRACT Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with high frequency in those patients with AIDS. Hepatosplenomegaly is a clinical sign of great importance for the timely diagnosis of some pathologies; cellular infiltration is found among the mechanisms of hepatosplenomegaly formation; it is caused by the migration of tumor cells. It emerges by inflammations due to the presence of infections by virus or bacteria which are very common in patients with AIDS. The authors present the case of a male patient, aged 4 years, with a positive HIV diagnosis, and the correspondent configuration of clinical criteria in C classification for AIDS, who developed a primary Burkitt lymphoma at the level of oral cavity We present the case of a 4-year-old male patient diagnosed with HIV positive, with the corresponding configuration of clinical criteria in classification C for AIDS; who developed a primary LB at the oral cavity level that was accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly. The authors pretended to describe the relation and behavior of this kind of lymphoma with hepatosplenomegaly, and also the repercussion at the stomatognathic level, at the systemic level and the treatment plan. Due to the clinical and immunological characteristics of the studied patient a reserved prognosis was given because of presenting infrequent clinical characteristics in which a Burkitt was observed both, at the stomatognathic and at the abdominal level. It was necessary to make an opportune and accurate diagnosis to begin the treatment on time (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Signs and Symptoms , Child , Burkitt Lymphoma/complications , Splenomegaly/complications , Splenomegaly/diagnosis , Mouth Neoplasms/complications , Mouth Neoplasms/diagnosis , HIV Antigens/therapeutic use , Clinical Diagnosis/diagnosis , HIV/pathogenicity , Hepatomegaly/diagnosis
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(2): 200-202, Mar.-Apr. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130859

ABSTRACT

Abstract Erythema elevatum diutinum is a small vessel vasculitis which is benign, rare, and chronic. It is clinically characterized by violaceous, brown, or yellowish plaques, nodules, and papules. It has been associated with autoimmune, infectious, and neoplastic processes. The following case describes a patient with hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus with CD4 count < 200 mm3, HIV-seropositive for 16 years, and diagnosed with hepatitis B virus at the hospital. The patient was treated with oral dapsone 100 mg/day, showing regression after seven months of treatment. The authors found three cases in the literature of association of erythema elevatum diutinum, human immunodeficiency virus, and hepatitis B virus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous/pathology , Hepatitis B/complications , Biopsy , Hepatitis B virus/pathogenicity , HIV/pathogenicity , Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous/virology
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18567, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249167

ABSTRACT

Microbial translocation is associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals. There is scarce information regarding the possible associations between the biomarkers of microbial translocation, inflammation and cardiovascular risk that can be evaluated in clinical laboratories using plasma or serum samples. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA protocol in order to verify the most used soluble biomarkers of microbial translocation, inflammation and cardiovascular risk, as well as possible associations between them, in HIV-infected individuals. A search was performed using the Medline, Scopus and Web of Science databases to identify existing studies regarding the relationship between microbial translocation biomarkers, inflammation and cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. Eleven articles that presented soluble biomarkers of microbial translocation (LPS, rDNA, sCD14, LBP and EndoCAb) were selected. The most frequently evaluated soluble biomarker was sCD14, followed by LPS; the latter were associated with some lipid profile parameters. This systematic review considered soluble blood biomarkers that can be utilized in laboratory diagnosis. The aim was to identify the interconnection between microbial translocation, inflammation and cardiovascular risk. Despite the fact that a large number of inflammation and cardiovascular risk biomarkers have been previously reported, it was noted that important markers involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases need to be included in future research.


Subject(s)
Patients/classification , Biomarkers/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , HIV/pathogenicity , Systematic Review , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Inflammation/physiopathology , Blood , Risk , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18850, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249154

ABSTRACT

With the widespread use of high-efficiency antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the life expectancy of HIV-infected patients has been significantly extended. However, the metabolic complications among HIV-infected patients treated with HAART have become the most common problem in the world. It is very important to explore the incidence of dyslipidaemia and studies on the role of potential risk factors in HIV-infected Chinese patients treated with HAART are sparse. Therefore, we designed current study, to investigate the effects of therapeutic intervention and continuous information support on the lifestyle of HIV/AIDS patients with dyslipidaemia. Three hundred and six HIV/AIDS patients admitted to the AIDS clinic in Beijing from January 2016 to January 2017 were recruited and assigned into two groups: the treatment group (n=64) and the control group (n=64). The median age of the participants was 38.8±11.0 years (range 20-75 years). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in control and treatment group was (59/64) 92.2% and (53/64) 82.8%, respectively. In this study, low HDL-cholesterol (HDLC) led to abnormalities 47/64 (73.3%) in the control group and 35/64 (54.7%) in HAART-treatment group. Additionally, HAART group showed higher triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (246.1±171.8, 1.73±1.61 mmol/L, 4.46±1.1 mmol/L, 2.54±0.74 mmol/L). In multivariate analysis, gender, marital status, high BMI, dietary habits and physical activity were potential risk factors for dyslipidemia in HIV-infected Chinese patients. In this study, we reported high prevalence dyslipidemiain two HIV infected groups. We suggest that the appropriate diagnosis should be performed for analyzing the metabolic complications in HIV-infected Chinese patients. Further studies are very important to understand the role of potential risk factors in metabolic complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV/pathogenicity , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Cholesterol/adverse effects , Control Groups , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Asians , Diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/complications , Life Style
9.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(3): e2019355, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101137

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: caracterizar os óbitos por aids elegíveis para investigação pelo Comitê Municipal de Mortalidade por Aids (CMAids) de Porto Alegre, Brasil, em 2015, e seus itinerários terapêuticos. Métodos: estudo descritivo, com dados secundários de sistemas de informações de vigilância e das fichas de investigação do CMAids. Resultados: entre 336 óbitos por causas relacionadas à aids, 113 (33,6%) foram considerados evitáveis, dos quais 52 foram investigados pelo CMAids; verificou-se predomínio do sexo masculino (30/52), baixa escolaridade (29/52 casos até a 8ª série incompleta) e tempo de até 2 anos entre o diagnóstico da infecção pelo HIV e a morte (28/52); a tuberculose foi a causa de morte mais frequente (17/52); em 50/52 casos, identificou-se pelo menos uma falha no itinerário terapêutico. Conclusão: os óbitos evitáveis de pessoas com aids ocorreram, majoritariamente, em pessoas do sexo masculino, de baixa escolaridade, com diagnóstico recente de HIV e em decorrência da tuberculose.


Objetivo: caracterizar los óbitos por sida elegibles para investigación por el Comité de Mortalidad por Sida (CMSida) de Porto Alegre, Brasil, en 2015, y sus itinerarios terapéuticos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo con datos secundarios de los sistemas de información de vigilancia y formulario de investigación de CMSida. Resultados entre 336 muertes por sida, 113 (33,6%) se consideraron evitables, de las cuales 52 fueron investigadas por el CMSida; predominó el sexo masculino (30/52), el bajo nivel de educación (29/52 hasta 8º grado incompleto de primaria) y hasta 2 años entre el diagnóstico de la infección por VIH y la muerte (28/52); la tuberculosis fue la causa más frecuente de muerte (17/52); y en 50/52 casos, se identificó al menos una falla en los itinerarios terapéuticos. Conclusión: las muertes evitables de personas con sida ocurrieron principalmente en hombres, con baja escolaridad, diagnóstico reciente de VIH y debido a la tuberculosis.


Objective: to characterize AIDS deaths eligible for Porto Alegre AIDS Mortality Committee (AIDSMC) investigation, Brazil, in 2015, and their therapeutic itineraries. Methods: this was a descriptive study using secondary data from surveillance information systems and AIDSMC investigation forms. Results: out of 336 deaths from AIDS-related causes, 113 (33.6%) were considered avoidable, of which 52 were analyzed by AIDSMC; there was predominance of males (30/52), low schooling level (29/52 incomplete elementary education), and less than 2 years between HIV infection diagnosis and death (28/52); tuberculosis was the most frequent cause of death (17/52); and in 50/52 cases at least one therapeutic itinerary inadequacy was identified. Conclusion: avoidable deaths of people with AIDS occurred mostly in men, those with low education level, those with recent HIV diagnosis and most deaths were due to tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/mortality , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV/pathogenicity , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Epidemiological Monitoring
10.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(3): 707-712, abr.-maio 2019. il, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-988183

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study's goal has been to analyze, through the Ishikawa Diagram, the causes and solutions of HIV infection in nursing professionals due to sharps handling. Methods: It is a literature review based on the Construction of the Ishikawa Diagram, which was carried out in May 2017 in the PubMed and Virtual Health Library databases. Results: The following are the main causes of HIV infection through sharps: work overload, perception of frail risk, careless use of needles, lack of training. Regarding the solutions: adequate post-exposure management, implementing and monitoring compliance with biosafety standards, improving the notification of accidents with sharps. Conclusion: There is a need to alerting managers towards intervening in the factors that might trigger accidents with sharp materials by the nursing team


Objetivo: Analisar por meio do Diagrama de Ishikawa as causas e soluções da infecção ao HIV adquirida por profissionais de enfermagem no manuseio de materiais perfurocortantes. Métodos: Revisão da literatura baseada na Construção do Diagrama de Ishikawa, realizado em maio de 2017 nas bases de dados Pubmed e Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde. Resultados: Dentre as causas da infecção ao HIV através de perfurocortantes: sobrecarga de trabalho, percepção de risco fragilizada, utilização descuidada de agulhas, ausência de treinamento. Quanto às soluções: gestão pós exposição adequada, implementar e fiscalizar o cumprimento das normas de biossegurança, aprimorar a notificação de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes. Conclusão: Destaca-se a necessidade de sensibilizar gestores para intervir nos fatores que podem desencadear acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes pela equipe de enfermagem


Objetivo: Analizar por medio del Diagrama de Ishikawa las causas y soluciones de la infección al VIH adquirida por profesionales de enfermería en el manejo de materiales punzocortantes. Métodos: Revisión de la literatura basada en la construcción del diagrama de Ishikawa, realizado en mayo de 2017 en las bases de datos Pubmed y Biblioteca Virtual de Salud.Resultados: Entre las causas de la infección por el VIH a través de punzocortantes: sobrecarga de trabajo, percepción de riesgo fragilizada, utilización descuidada de agujas, ausencia de entrenamiento. En cuanto a las soluciones: gestión post exposición adecuada, implementar y fiscalizar el cumplimiento de las normas de bioseguridad, mejorar la notificación de accidentes con materiales punzocortantes. Conclusión: Se destaca la necesidad de sensibilizar a los gestores para intervenir en los factores que pueden desencadenar accidentes con materiales punzocortantes por el equipo de enfermería


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Wounds, Stab/etiology , Accidents, Occupational/statistics & numerical data , HIV/pathogenicity , Nursing, Team , Precipitating Factors , Risk Factors , Occupational Health , Containment of Biohazards
11.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 35(1): e1683, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149857

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El VIH/sida afecta a personas de todo el mundo, de diferentes edades, sexos y clases sociales. Por lo tanto, conocer el perfil de las personas que viven con VIH/sida es de suma importancia para el desarrollo de estrategias de prevención y tratamiento. Objetivo: Identificar el perfil epidemiológico de las personas que viven con el VIH/sida y las diferencias en función del sexo. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en dos clínicas especializadas en la atención de personas con VIH/sida ubicados en la ciudad de Ribeirao Preto, en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Los participantes del estudio fueron 331 (50,9 por ciento) personas que buscaron atención de 2007 a 2010. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas con un cuestionario específico para el estudio. Fue realizado la prueba de chi-cuadrado para analizar la asociación entre las variables. Resultados: Las variables estado civil (p < 0,001), educación (p = 0,001), ingreso (p < 0,001), presencia de comorbilidades (p = 0,004) y tiempo del diagnóstico (p < 0,001) mostraron una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la comparación entre los sexos. Conclusiones: La mayoría de las personas que viven con el VIH/sida que participaron en este estudio eran jóvenes, con bajo nivel educativo e informaron que habían sido infectados por vía sexual. Además, al evaluar las diferencias entre los sexos, se identificó que las variables la educación, el ingreso, comorbilidades y el tiempo de diagnóstico mostraron diferencias significativas(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: HIV/AIDS affects people all over the world, of different ages, sexes and social classes. Therefore, knowing the profile of people living with HIV/AIDS is of paramount importance for the development of prevention and treatment strategies. Objective: To identify the epidemiological profile of people living with HIV/AIDS and their differences regarding sex. Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted in two clinics specialized in the care of people with HIV/AIDS and located in the city of Ribeirao Preto, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study participants were 331 (50.9 percent) people who sought care from 2007 to 2010. The data was collected through interviews with a specific questionnaire for the study. The chi-square test was performed in order to analyze the association between the variables. Results: The variables marital status (p< 0.001), education (p=0.001), incomes (p < 0.001), presence of comorbidities (p=0.004), and time of diagnosis (p < 0.001) showed a statistically significant difference in the comparison regarding sex. Conclusions: Most people living with HIV/AIDS who participated in this study were young, had low educational level and reported that they had been infected through sexual contact. In addition, when evaluating the differences regarding sex, it was identified that the variables education, income, comorbidities and time of diagnosis showed significant differences(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV/pathogenicity , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection/methods
12.
Rev. costarric. salud pública ; 27(2): 118-126, jul.-dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978356

ABSTRACT

Resumen El virus de la imnumodeficiencia humana realizo el salto interespecie hace ya más de 100 años de los monos hacia los humanos, produciendo dos tipos de virus capaces de infectar al ser humano, el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 y el tipo 2. Estos se han diseminado desde África al resto del mundo por diversas vías, llegando a Costa Rica en los años 80. Y desde entonces se han producido con cada año que pasa más casos nuevos, siendo el número de personas infectadas cada vez mayor que en el año anterior estudiado, sin hasta el momento poder frenar la diseminación del virus a pesar de los métodos de prevención existentes.


Abstract The Human Immunodeficiency Virus take an interspecie jump more than 100 years ago from the monkeys to the humans, by transforming into two types of viruses capable to infect the human being, the human immunodeficiency virus Type1 and type 2. This type of virus have spread from Africa to the rest of the world by different ways, arriving to Costa Rica in the 80´s. Since the arrival of the virus, every year, there have been reported more new cases, than the last year studied, and the efforts in prevention to stop the spread of the disease show no results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV/pathogenicity , Costa Rica/epidemiology
13.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(5): 1601-1616, set.-oct. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-978690

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se presenta a un paciente que ingresó en el antiguo Hospital Provincial Clínico Quirúrgico Docente "José Ramón López Tabrane", de Matanzas. El motivo del ingreso fue una proptosis ocular derecha de instauración súbita en el curso de la infección-enfermedad por VIH-sida. Se le realizaron múltiples estudios para poder definir la causa, y, pese a imponer tratamiento oportuno, falleció a los 15 días del mismo. La epidemia de sida continúa creciendo mundialmente. El conocimiento de las manifestaciones oculares; tanto las alteraciones del segmento anterior como las del posterior, y las infecciones asociadas, permiten mayor posibilidad de preservar la función visual en estos pacientes (AU).


ABSTRACT We present the case of a patient who entered the former Provincial Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital "José Ramón López Tabrane", of Matanzas. The cause of admission was a sudden right ocular proptosis in the course of an HIV-AIDS infection-disease. Many different studies were carried out to define the cause, and although he was timely treated, he died 15 days after the treatment. The AIDS epidemic is still growing around the world. The knowledge of ocular manifestations, the alterations of the anterior segment as much as the alterations of the posterior one, and the associated infections allow a higher possibility of preserving the visual function in these patients (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , HIV/pathogenicity , Eye Manifestations , Eye Infections/complications , Eye Infections/mortality , Disease , Risk Factors , Posterior Eye Segment/pathology , Anterior Eye Segment/pathology
14.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-751800

ABSTRACT

El citomegalovirus (CMV) se considera un microorganismo oportunista común entre individuos con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), agente causal del síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (Sida). La principal consecuencia de la replicación persistente del VIH es la reducción gradual del número de linfocitos T CD4+, lo que eventualmente conduce a la pérdida de la competencia inmunológica. El CMV humano pertenece a la familia de los herpes virus y con frecuencia produce enfermedades en diferentes órganos, principalmente cuando el conteo de linfocitos T CD4+ es muy bajo(AU)


The cytomegalovirus (CMV) is considered a common opportunist microorganism among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causal agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (Aids). The main consequence of the persistent transduction of HIV is the gradual reduction of the number of T cells CD4+, which eventually causes loss of immunologic competition. This human virus belongs to the family of herpes virus and frequently produces diseases mainly in different organs when the T CD4+ count is very low(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , HIV/pathogenicity
17.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 30(3): 0-0, jul.-set. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: lil-797658

ABSTRACT

Introducción: o HIV/aids persiste como um importante problema de saúde pública. Durante o carnaval, evento marcado por forte apelo à sensualidade, atrativos para realização de práticas sexuais são comuns. Objetivos: caracterizar o público participante do carnaval, identificando seus conhecimentos frente ao HIV/Aids e a utilização do preservativo. Métodos: trata-se de uma pesquisa transversal, realizada em março de 2011, no sambódromo do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Fizeram parte do estudo expectadores, foliões e trabalhadores dos desfiles carnavalescos, com idade de 18 anos ou mais, num total de 630 participantes selecionados aleatoriamente, que responderam a uma entrevista estruturada, nas arquibancadas e áreas de concentração das escolas de samba. Os dados foram posteriormente tabulados e organizados com auxílio do software Sphynx. Resultados: a maioria são mulheres (55,7 porcento), vivem com companheiro (52,3 porcento) e possuem nível médio de escolaridade (54,8 porcento). Quanto ao conhecimento sobre os modos de transmissão do vírus, os participantes informaram: relações sexuais (anal e vaginal sem preservativo) (96,7 porcento), sangue (91,3 porcento), relação sexual oral sem preservativo (74,1 porcento), de mãe para filho durante o parto (64,9 porcento), pelo leite materno (50,6 porcento), assentos de vaso sanitário (21,6 porcento), beijo na boca (20 porcento) e insetos (17,6 porcento). Quanto ao uso do preservativo com parceiros estáveis, 35,4 porcento usam sempre e 35,7 porcento nunca utilizam, com parceiros casuais 66,8 porcento usam sempre. Conclusões: ainda persiste no conhecimento popular a desinformação acerca do HIV/aids, o que pode acarretar vulnerabilidade à infecção e o preconceito. Medidas de educação em saúde tornam-se necessárias para o esclarecimento das pessoas e prevenção de agravos(AU)


Introducción: el HIV/sida persiste como un importante problema de salud pública. Durante el carnaval, evento marcado por una fuerte sensualidad, los atractivos para realización de práticas sexuales son comunes. Objetivo: caracterizar al público participante del carnaval, identificando sus conocimientos sobre el VIH/Sida y el uso del condón. Métodos: estudio transversal, realizado en marzo de 2011, en el Sambódromo de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. Los participantes fueron espectadores, juerguistas y trabajadores de los desfiles de carnaval, de 18 años o más, en un total de 630 participantes que fueron seleccionados al azar en las gradas y zonas de concentración de las escuelas de samba, que respondieron a una entrevista estructurada. Los datos se tabularon y se organizaron con la ayuda de lo software Sphynx. Resultados: la mayoría de los sujetos fueron mujeres (55,7 por ciento), que vivían en pareja (52,3 por ciento) y tenían un diploma de secundaria (54,8 por ciento). En cuanto a los conocimientos sobre las formas y medios de transmisión del virus, se obtuvieron los siguientes resultados: el coito (sexo anal y vaginal sin preservativo) (96,7 por ciento), sangre (91,3 por ciento), sexo oral sin condón (74,1 por ciento), de madre a hijo durante el parto (64,9 por ciento), la leche materna (50,6 por ciento), asientos de baños (21,6 por ciento), besos en la boca (20 por ciento), e insectos (17,6 por ciento). En cuanto al uso del condón con parejas estables, 35,4 por ciento siempre usan y 35,7 por ciento nunca usan; con parejas ocasionales, el 66,8 por ciento utiliza siempre. Conclusiones: aún persiste la desinformación sobre el VIH/sida en el conocimiento popular, lo que puede resultar en la vulnerabilidad a la infección y el prejuicio. Se hacen necesarias medidas de educación para la salud para aclarar las personas y prevención de daños(AU)


Objective: of the study is to characterize the carnival public, identifying their knowledge in front to HIV/Aids and condom use. Methods: It is a cross-sectional survey, conducted in March 2011, in the Sambodromo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Participants were spectators, partygoers and carnival parade workers aged 18 years or more, in a total of 630 randomly selected participants in the stands and areas of concentration of the samba schools that responded to a structured interview. Data were tabulated and organized with the help of software Sphynx. Results: most subjects are women (55.7 percent), living with a partner (52.3 percent) and who have a high school degree (54.8 percent). Regarding knowledge about the ways and means of transmission of the virus, we obtained the following results: Sexual intercourse (anal and vaginal sex without a condom) (96.7 percent), blood (91.3 percent), oral sex without a condom (74, 1 percent), from mother to child during childbirth (64.9 percent), the breast milk (50.6 percent), toilet seats (21.6 percent), kissing on the mouth (20 percent) and insects (17.6 percent). Regarding condom use with steady partners, 35.4 percent and 35.7 percent always use never use, and casual partners, 66.8 percent always use. Conclusions: the study indicates that the adoption of actions for health education and enlightenment the public about HIV/AIDS, are important tools that assist in health care and disease prevention(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Sexual Behavior , HIV/pathogenicity , Condoms/statistics & numerical data , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Knowledge , Preventive Health Services/methods , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
18.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 36(3): 143-149, sep. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-728925

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Estimar la magnitud de la asociación entre la movilidad poblacional, medida con la tasa neta de migración (TNM) y la prevalencia de VIH en Centroamérica y México. MÉTODOS: Con modelos de series temporales se analizó dicha asociación en personas de 15 a 49 años de edad, ajustada por factores socioeconómicos (educación, educación, desempleo, esperanza de vida e ingreso) y utilizando información pública de ONUSIDA, el PNUD, la CEPAL y el Banco Mundial para el período 1990-2009. RESULTADOS: La TNM fue negativa en todos los países, excepto en Costa Rica y Panamá. Los resultados no ajustados del modelo muestran una asociación positiva y que la TNM puede explicar el 6% de la prevalencia de VIH registrada. Cuando se incluyen cofactores socioeconómicos por país (educación, salud e ingreso), la magnitud asciende a 9% (P<0,05). La TNM, incluso ajustada por factores socioeconómicos, explica modestamente la prevalencia de VIH registrada. Los factores socioeconómicos indican mejoras en todos los indicadores en Centroamérica y México, aunque persisten importantes brechas entre países. CONCLUSIONES: La modesta asociación observada entre movilidad poblacional y prevalencia de VIH está condicionada por la situación socioeconómica de los países estudiados. La información disponible limitó el alcance del análisis para establecer con mayor certeza la existencia de esta asociación. En consecuencia, con la información disponible no es posible atribuir a la migración un papel determinante en la diseminación del VIH.


OBJECTIVE: Estimate the magnitude of the association between population mobility, measured by net migration rate (NMR), and HIV prevalence in Central America and Mexico. METHODS: Using time series models, based on public information from UNAIDS, UNDP, ECLAC, and the World Bank for the period 1990-2009, this association was studied in individuals aged 15-49 years, and adjusted for socioeconomic factors (education, unemployment, life expectancy, and income). RESULTS: NMR was negative in all countries except Costa Rica and Panama. Unadjusted results of the model show a positive association and that NMR can explain 6% of recorded HIV prevalence. When socioeconomic cofactors are included by country (education, health, and income), the magnitude increases to 9% (P<0.05). NMR, even when adjusted for socioeconomic factors, explains some of recorded HIV prevalence. All socioeconomic indicators show improvements in Central America and Mexico, although large gaps persist among countries. CONCLUSIONS: The modest association observed between population mobility and HIV prevalence is conditioned by the socioeconomic status of the countries studied. Information availability limited the study’s ability to establish the existence of this association with greater certainty. Accordingly, based on available information, it is not possible to affirm that migration plays a key role in the spread of HIV.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/transmission , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV/pathogenicity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL